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Sample records for africa middle east

  1. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  2. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  3. Night Pass over Central Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 1, 2011, from 21:20:24 to ...

  4. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  5. Emerging diseases of Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Rweyemamu, M; Paskin, R; Benkirane, A; Martin, V; Roeder, P; Wojciechowski, K

    2000-01-01

    The term "emerging diseases" has been used recently to refer to different scenarios, all of which indicate changes in the dynamics of disease in the population. Of the OIE List A diseases, major changes have been experienced with rinderpest, peste des petit ruminants (PPR), contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, lumpy skin disease, and Rift Valley fever. Rinderpest represents a success story of the 1990s, thanks to the programs of the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC). The situation has changed from that of the 1980s when rinderpest was widespread throughout most of Tropical Africa and the Middle East. PPR is a disease that has become of increasing importance throughout Tropical Africa and the Middle East. CBPP, which had previously been reduced to sporadic incidence within endemic areas, invaded new areas, causing heavy mortality. African swine fever has extended to West Africa and to Madagascar, in both regions resulting in heavy losses. Climatic changes in both East and West Africa were associated with an upsurge of Rift Valley fever. Deficiencies in national veterinary services have contributed to failures in early detection and response; in many regions investigation and diagnosis services have deteriorated. The continuing structural adjustment program for national veterinary services will need to take into account their transformation from providers of services (e.g., vaccinations, medicines) to inspection and quality assurance services. Surveillance, early warning, and disease emergency preparedness will need to be pursued more vigorously in Africa and the Middle East as vital components of national veterinary services.

  6. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  7. Mineral facilities of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eros, J.M.; Candelario-Quintana, Luissette

    2006-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. The data used in this poster were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbook (Africa and Middle East volume), Minerals Statistics and Information from the USGS Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists. See Table 1 for general information about each mineral facility site including country, location and facility name, facility type, latitude, longitude, mineral commodity, mining method, main operating company, status, capacity, and units.

  8. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  9. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  10. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  11. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  12. Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Darina; Rahme, Maya; Hoteit, Maha; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region registers some of the highest rates of hypovitaminosis D worldwide.   Aim: We systematically reviewed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, rickets and osteomalacia, their predictors and impact on major outcomes, in the region. Methods: Medline, Pubmed and Embase search engines, entering keywords and concepts, combined with individual countries of interest, were used. Search was limited years 2000–2012; and review articles were used for the period preceding year 2000. Results: Rickets and osteomalacia still occur in this sunny region. Hypovitaminosis D prevails, with rates varying 30–90%, considering a desirable serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] of 20 ng/ml. Advancing age, female gender, multi-parity, clothing style, season, socio-economic status and urban living are recognized predictors of hypovitaminosis D in adults. Prolonged breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation and low dietary calcium intake are the recognized risk factors for rickets and hypovitaminosis D in children.. Associations with pain score and disease activity in rheumatologic disorders, viral load and interleukins in hepatitis C, BMI, lipids and insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, heart failure and mortality are described. Sun exposure in adults decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in one study. Few randomized vitamin D trials revealed that the majority of mothers or children failed to achieve a desirable 25(OH)D level, even with doses by far exceeding current recommendations. A trial in adolescent girls reveals substantial bone and lean mass increments. Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in MENA. The lack of populations based studies, gaps in studies in infants, pre-pubertal children and pregnant women, hinder the development of region specific guidelines and constitute a major obstacle to impact this chronic and most often subclinical disease. PMID:24194968

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Burden in Africa and the Middle East: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Omar, Mohamed I.; Raal, Frederick J.; Rashed, Wafa; Hamoui, Omar; Kane, Abdoul; Alami, Mohamed; Abreu, Paula; Mashhoud, Walid M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased urbanization in the developing world parallels a rising burden of chronic diseases. Developing countries account for ∼80% of global cardiovascular (CV) deaths, but contribute a paucity of systematic epidemiological data on CV risk factors. Objective To estimate the prevalence of CV risk factors in rural and urban cohorts attending general practice clinics in the Africa and Middle East (AfME) region. Methods In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the presence of CV risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus (diabetes), dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and abdominal obesity) were evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending general practice primary care clinics. A rural population was defined as isolated (>50 km or lack of easy access to commuter transportation) from urban centers. Results 4,378 outpatients were systematically recruited from 94 clinics across 14 AfME countries. Mean age was 46±14 years and 52% of outpatients were female. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia (70%) and abdominal obesity (68%) were observed, followed by hypertension (43%) and diabetes (25%). The vast majority of outpatients (92%) had at least one modifiable CV risk factor, many (74%) had more than one, and half (53%) had 3 or more. These findings were observed in both genders and across urban and rural centers. Among outpatients with pre-existing hypertension or dyslipidemia, many were not at their target blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol goals. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among relatively young, stable outpatients attending general practice clinics across AfME. The findings support opportunistic screening for CV risk factors whenever outpatients visit a general practitioner and provide an opportunity for early identification and management of CV risk factors, including lifestyle interventions. PMID:25090638

  14. Water management in Africa and the Middle East, challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.B.; Rached, E.; Rathgeber, E.

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents proceedings and contributed papers from a workshop held to determine the present water supply situation in Africa and the Middle East and to gain a better understanding of the opinions and priorities that should be taken into consideration when setting strategies for sustainable water management. The first three papers are overviews of key water issues: Demand-side management, conservation, and efficiency; allocation of water resources; the roles of women and men in water resource management in Africa. These are followed by eleven contributions on water management in various sub-regions of Africa and the Middle East.

  15. LLNL Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A

    2001-07-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB

  16. Multiple co-circulating HIV-1 subtypes in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Morgane; Modjarrad, Kayvon

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 incidence has been increasing more rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa than in any other global region. Despite this trend, HIV epidemiology in the region remains poorly defined. We conducted an analysis of 3284 publicly available HIV-1 sequences from 15 countries in the Middle East and North Africa to better characterize the regional epidemic. A phylogenetic tree based on the reverse transcriptase gene revealed a complex mosaic of diverse HIV subtypes and circulating recombinant forms across the region. PMID:26091303

  17. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  18. Climate change as a draw bridge between Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issar, Arie S.

    2010-07-01

    Since the very beginning of the human race, the Middle East served as a bridge between Africa-where our species first evolved-and the rest of the world. The passage over this bridge opened and closed with the global fluctuations of climate. The first glacial periods at the beginning of the Quaternary caused the greenhouse of equatorial Africa to become less hospitable, while making the desert belt of the Middle East more humid, green, and thus passable. Flint tools found along the shores of dried up lakes and swamps in the Negev Desert provide evidence that members of the first wave, Homo erectus, as well as the last wave, Homo sapiens, camped there en route to all the other continents.

  19. HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their

  20. World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  1. Recent Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in East Africa and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Himeidan, Yousif E.; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Mahgoub, Mostafa M.; El Rayah, El Amin; Ouma, Johnson O.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVF outbreaks in Somalia (2006–2007), Kenya (2006–2007), Tanzania (2007), and Sudan (2007–2008) showed extension to districts, which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high-fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment, i.e., type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997–98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites, and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset. PMID:25340047

  2. Recent outbreaks of rift valley Fever in East Africa and the middle East.

    PubMed

    Himeidan, Yousif E; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mahgoub, Mostafa M; El Rayah, El Amin; Ouma, Johnson O

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVF outbreaks in Somalia (2006-2007), Kenya (2006-2007), Tanzania (2007), and Sudan (2007-2008) showed extension to districts, which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high-fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment, i.e., type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997-98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites, and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset. PMID:25340047

  3. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  4. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  5. Prevalence and Severity of Oral Diseases in the Africa and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Abid, A; Maatouk, F; Berrezouga, L; Azodo, C; Uti, O; El-Shamy, H; Oginni, A

    2015-07-01

    This review aims to determine the prevalence and severity of oral health diseases in the Africa and Middle East region (AMER). The profile of oral diseases is not homogeneous across the AMER. There are large disparities between groups. Reliable data are scarce. The prevalence and severity of oral diseases appear to be increasing in the African region, as does associated morbidity. There are substantial differences in inequalities in oral health. Dental caries prevalence is less severe in most African countries than in developed countries, but the high rate of untreated caries reflects the limited resources available and difficulties of access and affordability to essential oral health care services. The prevalence of gingival inflammation is very high in all age groups in several African countries. The prevalence of maxillofacial trauma has increased in many countries, with a wide variation of the incidence and high prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary and permanent teeth. Orofacial clefts are among the most common birth defects. Annual incidence of oral cancer is estimated as 25 cases per 100,000 people in Africa. Noma is a major public health problem for the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Data about human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS are limited, particularly in the MENA region. According to the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Africa report, some fundamental key basic knowledge gaps need to be underlined. They include inequalities in oral health, low priority for oral health, lack of adequate funding, inadequate dental student training, obstacles to medical and dental research, and poor databases. There are very few effective public prevention and oral health promotion programs in the AMER. Universal health coverage is not achievable without scientific research on the effectiveness of health promotion interventions.

  6. Family patterns, women's status and fertility in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Allman, J

    1978-01-01

    Currently, countries in the Middle East and North Africa are in the process of changing from high to low mortality and fertility, and the present paper reviews and assesses the current state of the social science research on family patterns and women's status in these regions. In particular, it reviews literature on: 1) marriage patterns; 2) the extended family and relations internal to the family; 3) larger kinship structures; 4) the role and status of women in the larger society; and 5) divorce, widowhood, and remarriage. The author, however, believes that much of the research on family patterns lacks concern with the impact of basic structural changes in the economic and social organization of countries in the region. He concludes by offering a few suggestions about areas where research linking population dynamics with family patterns and the status of women could be usefully undertaken.

  7. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. PMID:23648267

  8. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  9. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships. PMID:22536488

  10. Mycotoxin occurrence in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients sourced in the Middle East and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, I.; Handl, J.; Binder, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Between February and October 2009, 324 grain, feed and feed commodity samples were sourced directly at animal farms or feed production sites in Middle East and Africa and tested for the presence of A- and B-trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, or for selected groups of mycotoxins only. Samples were analyzed after clean-up by immunoaffinity or solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC with derivatization where appropriate and fluorescence, UV or mass spectrometric detection. The percentage of positive samples of B-trichothecenes ranged from 0 to 87% of tested samples. The prevalence of fumonisins in the different countries was >50% in most cases. Zearalenone was present in tested commodities from all countries except three. The presence of aflatoxin in analyzed samples varied from 0 to 94%. Ochratoxin A was present in 67% of samples in Sudan and in 100% of Nigerian samples. No A-trichothecenes were found in this survey. PMID:24786003

  11. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region.

  12. Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Cherif, Moktar Hamdi; Mahnane, Abbes; Hsairi, Mohamed; El Shalakamy, Amr; Osgul, Nejat; Tuncer, Murat; Jumaan, Aisha O; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    National Organized Cervical Cancer Screening (NOCCS) programs are lacking in most of the "Extended Middle East and North Africa" (EMENA) countries. Consequently, most cervical cancers are diagnosed late and are associated with high mortality. In fact, in most of these countries, national mortality data are unknown due to the absence of population-based mortality registries. Most countries of the EMENA practice more or less limited opportunistic, cytology-based, screening tests, which often lack quality assurance and follow-up care. A few countries, within the initiation of a National Cancer Control Plan, have just started to implement organized screening programs using, for cervical cancer detection, visual inspection with acetic acid (Morocco) or cytology (Turkey). Moreover, most countries of the EMENA lack national guideline, as well as resources for the management of abnormal cytologic screening (or any other screening test). The main obstacle for the implementation of NOCCS is a lack of political understanding to support such public health programs and provide the necessary resources. Other obstacles that hinder the participation of women in cervical screening include a lack of knowledge of the disease, socio-religious and cultural barriers, and geographic and economic difficulties in accessing medical services. These countries are already convinced that prevention of cervical cancers in women who have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is possible through various screening and treatment algorithms, but most countries still need to invest in well organized programs that can reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in women. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and

  13. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  14. Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Cherif, Moktar Hamdi; Mahnane, Abbes; Hsairi, Mohamed; El Shalakamy, Amr; Osgul, Nejat; Tuncer, Murat; Jumaan, Aisha O; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    National Organized Cervical Cancer Screening (NOCCS) programs are lacking in most of the "Extended Middle East and North Africa" (EMENA) countries. Consequently, most cervical cancers are diagnosed late and are associated with high mortality. In fact, in most of these countries, national mortality data are unknown due to the absence of population-based mortality registries. Most countries of the EMENA practice more or less limited opportunistic, cytology-based, screening tests, which often lack quality assurance and follow-up care. A few countries, within the initiation of a National Cancer Control Plan, have just started to implement organized screening programs using, for cervical cancer detection, visual inspection with acetic acid (Morocco) or cytology (Turkey). Moreover, most countries of the EMENA lack national guideline, as well as resources for the management of abnormal cytologic screening (or any other screening test). The main obstacle for the implementation of NOCCS is a lack of political understanding to support such public health programs and provide the necessary resources. Other obstacles that hinder the participation of women in cervical screening include a lack of knowledge of the disease, socio-religious and cultural barriers, and geographic and economic difficulties in accessing medical services. These countries are already convinced that prevention of cervical cancers in women who have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is possible through various screening and treatment algorithms, but most countries still need to invest in well organized programs that can reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in women. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and

  15. A Human Economy: A "Third Way" for the Future of Young People in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent…

  16. U.S. Students Study Abroad in the Middle East/North Africa: Factors Influencing Growing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane-Toomey, Cara K.; Lane, Shannon R.

    2013-01-01

    The political events of the last decade and the Arab Spring have made it more important than ever for Americans to understand the language, culture, and history of the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. Study abroad is one important method that can significantly increase American students' understanding of the Arabic language and the…

  17. A Comprehensive Review of the Status of Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Mohammad Salih

    This report reviews the status of early childhood education (ECE) programs in UNICEF's Middle East and North Africa region. The report compiles information about ECE programs in 18 countries based on a questionnaire sent to UNICEF country offices and other sources. The introduction sets out the economic and social rationales for investing in early…

  18. The Quality of Secondary Education in the Middle East and North Africa: What Can We Learn from TIMSS' Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhlila, Donia Smaali

    2011-01-01

    Research on educational quality has been scarce in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, whereas the debates over educational quality date from 1966 in the USA with the Coleman Report. Fortunately TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) starts to fill this gap by providing data on students' achievement and for many…

  19. Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion across Northern Africa, Southern Europe and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, D.E.; Walter, W.R.

    1997-07-15

    THis report presents preliminary results from a large scale study of surface wave group velocity dispersion throughout Northern Africa, the Mediterranean, Southern Europe and the Middle East. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by improving the resolution of global surface wave tomographic studies. We hope to accomplish this goal by incorporating regional data at relatively short periods (less than 40 sec), into the regionalization of lateral velocity variation. Due to the sparse distributions of stations and earthquakes throughout the region (Figure 1) we have relied on data recorded at both teleseismic and regions; distances. Also, to date we have concentrated on Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements since valuable measurements can be made without knowledge of the source. In order to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity throughout the region, vertical component teleseismic and regional seismograms were gathered from broadband, 3-component, digital MEDNET, GEOSCOPE and IRIS stations plus the portable PASSCAL deployment in Saudi Arabia. Figure 1 shows the distribution of earthquakes (black circles) and broadband digital seismic stations (white triangles) throughout southern Europe, the middle east and northern Africa used in this study. The most seismicly active regions of northern Africa are the Atlas mountains of Morocco and Algeria as well as the Red Sea region to the east. Significant seismicity also occurs in the Mediterranean, southern Europe and throughout the high mountains and plateaus of the middle-east. To date, over 1300 seismograms have been analyzed to determine the individual group velocities of 10-150 second Rayleigh waves. Travel times, for each period, are then inverted in a back projection tomographic method in order to determine the lateral group velocity variation throughout the region. These results are preliminary, however, Rayleigh wave group velocity maps for a range of

  20. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  1. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  2. Concentrating solar power in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: achieving its potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz-Paal, R.; Amin, A.; Bettzüge, M.; Eames, P.; Fabrizi, F.; Flamant, G.; Garcia Novo, F.; Holmes, J.; Kribus, A.; van der Laan, H.; Lopez, C.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.; Pihl, E.; Smith, P.; Wagner, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a commercially available renewable energy technology capable of harnessing the immense solar resource in Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region), and elsewhere. This paper summarises the findings of a study by the European Academies Science Advisory Council which has examined the current status and development challenges of CSP, and consequently has evaluated the potential contribution of CSP in Europe and the MENA region to 2050. It identifies the actions that will be required by scientists, engineers, policy makers, politicians, business and investors alike, to enable this vast solar resource to make a major contribution to establishing a sustainable energy system. The study concludes that cost reductions of 50-60% in CSP electricity may reasonably be expected in the next 10-15 years, enabling the technology to be cost competitive with fossil-fired power generation at some point between 2020 and 2030. Incorporation of storage delivers added value in enabling CSP to deliver dispatchable power. Incentive schemes will be needed in Europe and MENA countries to enable this point to be achieved. Such schemes should reflect the true value of electricity to the grid, effectively drive R&D, and ensure transparency of performance and cost data.

  3. Metallogenic evolution of uranium deposits in the Middle East and North Africa deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, Fares; Goodell, Philip; Salman, Abdulaty

    2016-02-01

    This paper is briefly involved in classification and distributions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uranium deposits. The study of these mineral systems can significantly contribute to our further understanding of the metallogeny of known and poorly explored deposits. This provides contribution to, and further enhancement of, current classifications and metallogenic models of uranium systems, allowing researchers to emphasize on unknown or poorly studied mineral systems found in MENA. The present study identified eight metallogenic types of uranium associated with: 1) the Archean rocks and intra-cratonic basins, 2) the Pan-African granites and rhyolites which are characterized by igneous activity, 3) Phanerozoic (Paleozoic) clastics, these deposits are the sedimentological response to Pan African magmatism, 4) Mesozoic (basal) clastics type e.g. Nubia sandstones which are characterized by uranium minerals, 5) regional sedimentary phosphate deposits which are categorized as geosynclinal, or continental margin deposits, on the shelf of the Tethys Ocean, 6) Cenozoic Intracratonic Felsic Magmatism of the Tibesti and Hoggar, and the sandstone U deposits of adjoining Niger. These are similar to the Pan-African magmatism metallogenic, 7) Calcretes, and 8) Resistate minerals which are often enriched in rare earth elements, sometimes including uranium. They are thus sometimes considered as U resources but poorly explored in the MENA region. These metallogenic types are described and discussed in the current paper.

  4. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fatāwa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals. PMID:17512379

  5. Diabetes in the Middle-East and North Africa: an update.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Azeem; El-Sayed, Adel A; Khoja, Tawfik; Alshamsan, Riyadh; Millett, Christopher; Rawaf, Salman

    2014-02-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of diabetes has risen dramatically in many countries of the International Diabetes Federation's (IDF) Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) Region. This increase has been driven by a range of factors that include rapid economic development and urbanisation; changes in lifestyle that have led to reduced levels of physical activity, increased intake of refined carbohydrates, and a rise in obesity. These changes have resulted in the countries of MENA Region now having among the highest rates of diabetes prevalence in the world. The current prevalence of diabetes in adults in the Region is estimated to be around 9.2%. Of the 34 million people affected by diabetes, nearly 17 million were undiagnosed and therefore at considerable risk of diabetes complications and poor health outcomes. Enhanced research on the epidemiology of diabetes in the MENA Region needs to be combined with more effective primary prevention of diabetes; and early detection and improved management of patients with established diabetes, including an increased focus on self-management and management in primary care and community settings. PMID:24300017

  6. Treated Wastewater's Potential for Improving Water and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) contains just 1% of the world's freshwater; however, even in the very arid countries of the Gulf region, high quality treated wastewater rarely sees a productive use. As countries deal with growing populations and strive for increased food security, freshwater alone cannot be relied upon to meet these demands. This research identifies best practices from the MENA for reusing treated wastewater in agricultural production, and calculates the potential of treated wastewater for increasing food production in select countries. Drawing upon both published and original treated wastewater quality data for locations in the MENA, the annual volume of treated wastewater produced, and crop water demands, estimates for potential crop production from treated wastewater are calculated. The volume of wastewater treated annually is equivalent to 10-40% of agricultural withdrawals in most MENA countries. Irrigation by treated wastewater has significant potential to impact water and food security by reducing agricultural water withdrawals and increasing domestic food production. Such initiatives require application of best management practices, such as transparent monitoring and evaluation of reuse projects for public and environmental health risks, and support from both farmers and policy makers.

  7. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  8. Bilharziasis control in relation to water resources development in Africa and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Donald B.; Buzo, Z. J.; Rainey, Marshall B.; Francotte, Jean

    1962-01-01

    As part of its world-wide programme for the control of bilharziasis, the World Health Organization has set up a Bilharziasis Advisory Team, composed of an epidemiologist and an engineer, to investigate in different countries the prevalence of the disease and its relationship to irrigation, agriculture and a variety of factors associated with the development of water resources. This paper is an appraisal of the situation in 15 countries in Africa and the Middle East, based largely on surveys conducted by the Bilharziasis Advisory Team in the period 1958-60. Analyses of data from these 15 countries indicate that about 26 million people, out of a total population of 107 million, have bilharziasis. In spite of considerable expenditure on control measures, the prevalence of the disease is increasing. This trend is closely related to water resources development. On the basis of observations in the field, it is believed that improved water management and agricultural methods, stream and water impoundment control, the proper use of molluscicides and mechanical barriers, and certain aspects of environmental sanitation offer practical solutions to this problem. The complexity of these measures requires the closest co-operation between the various agencies, national and international, concerned with agriculture, water resources and public health. PMID:20604119

  9. Improving water use in agriculture. Experiences in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Tuijl, W.V.

    1993-08-01

    As water becomes more scarce, many countries are under pressure to conserve water, especially in the agricultural sector. This paper examines strategies that save water in river basins, irrigation projects, and on farms throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Countries elsewhere can use these suggestions in their own water conservation strategies. Improved surface irrigation techniques and micro-irrigation systems are evaluated. These systems use sprinkler, drip/trickle, or micro-spray methods. The author reviews the preliminary work that is needed to install modern irrigation technologies. He describes the role that governments must play to improve the infrastructure and institutions that affect water use. He also provides detailed case studies of efficient irrigation practices in Cyprus, Israel, and Jordan. These case studies describe the conditions that made better irrigation technology a necessity. They look at ways to plan for development, management, and utilization of water in the face of growing demand. Key topics include how to oversee water rights, adopt essential land reforms, and install a graduated system of water pricing and allocation. The study also recommends projects in water conservation and research.

  10. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  11. Sustainable wastewater management for small communities in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Bakir, H A

    2001-04-01

    Accelerated expansion of wastewater services to small communities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is essential in order to address serious concerns over water scarcity and pollution in addition to meeting the demand for convenience and protecting public health. Centralized and conventional wastewater systems are currently the preferred choice of planners and decision-makers in MENA. Water and funding are not available to provide these centralized conventional services to small communities. This paper presents an integrated approach to sustainable wastewater management for small communities in MENA under the severe water resources crisis. The approach calls for a paradigm shift from centralized conventional wastewater systems to decentralized wastewater systems. Management of wastewater in MENA should start at home. Wastewater generation should be reduced through a combination of domestic water conservation measures. On-site systems must be improved and monitored to control pollution and to recover water for non-potable water uses. Should the circumstances not allow the use of on-site systems, wastewater should be transported and managed through a community system applying the principles of decentralized wastewater management and using the settled sewers for wastewater transportation where appropriate. This approach will facilitate the accelerated and sustainable extension of environmentally responsible wastewater services to MENA's small communities. It offers great potential for cost reduction, accommodates the necessary domestic water conservation efforts, reduces freshwater inputs in wastewater transportation thus eliminating unnecessary demand on freshwater, reduces associated environmental risks and increases wastewater reuse opportunities.

  12. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  13. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Middle to Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in subtropical southern East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Caley, Thibaut; Dupont, Lydie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Malaizé, Bruno; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    In this study we investigate Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in southern East Africa by examining plant leaf waxes in a marine sediment core that receives terrestrial runoff from the Limpopo River. The plant leaf wax records are compared to a multi-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record and pollen assemblage data from the same site. We find that Indian Ocean SST variability, driven by high-latitude obliquity, exerted a strong control on the vegetation of southern East Africa during the past 800,000 yr. Interglacial periods were characterized by relatively wetter and warmer conditions, increased contributions of C3 vegetation, and higher SST, whereas glacial periods were marked by cooler and arid conditions, increased contributions of C4 vegetation, and lower SST. We find that Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e, 11c, 15e and 7a-7c are strongly expressed in the plant leaf wax records but MIS 7e is absent while MIS 9 is rather weak. Our plant leaf wax records also record the climate transition associated with the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) suggesting that the pre-MBE interval (430-800 ka) was characterized by higher inputs from grasses in comparison to relatively higher inputs from trees in the post-MBE interval (430 to 0 ka). Differences in vegetation and SST of southern East Africa between the pre- and post-MBE intervals appear to be related to shifts in the location of the Subtropical Front. Comparison with vegetation records from tropical East Africa indicates that the vegetation of southern East Africa, while exhibiting glacial-interglacial variability and notable differences between the pre- and post-MBE portions of the record, likely did not experience such dramatic extremes as occurred to the north at Lake Malawi.

  15. Characterising the progress in HIV/AIDS research in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Hanan F; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is perceived to have limited HIV data. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterise the progress in HIV research in this region since the discovery of the epidemic. Methods Four indices were defined and implemented to measure the progress of HIV research using the PubMed, Embase, MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project and US Census Bureau HIV/AIDS Surveillance databases. The four indices provide complementary measures to characterise different aspects of the progress of HIV research. Results A total of 2118, 2352, 683 and 4889 records were identified through the PubMed, the Embase, the Synthesis Project and the HIV Prevalence indices, respectively. The proportion of the total global HIV records that relate to MENA is 1.2%. Overall, the indices show steady progress in the number of new records every year, with an accelerated pace in the last few years. The rate of progress in MENA was also higher than the rate of progress in HIV records globally. There is no evidence so far of stabilisation or a peak in the number of new records year by year. About half of the records were produced after the year 2005. The number of records shows large heterogeneity across countries. Conclusions MENA has witnessed a rapid growth in HIV research over the last decade. However, there are still large gaps in HIV scientific evidence in the region, and the progress is far from being uniform across countries. Ongoing and future research needs to be geared towards academic standard and production of scientific publications. PMID:23596206

  16. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment: Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sardashti, Sara; Samaei, Mehrnoosh; Firouzeh, Mona Mohammadi; Mirshahvalad, Seyed Ali; Pahlaviani, Fatemeh Golsoorat; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad

    2015-01-01

    New World Health Organization guidelines recommend the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of ≤ 500 cells/mm3. Substantial reduction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is addressed as a major public health outcome of this new approach. Middle East and North Africa (MENA), known as the area of controversies in terms of availability of comprehensive data, has shown concentrated epidemics among most of it’s at risk population groups. Serious challenges impede the applicability of new guidelines in the MENA Region. Insufficient resources restrict ART coverage to less than 14%, while only one fourth of the countries had reportable data on patients’ CD4 counts at the time of diagnosis. Clinical guidelines need to be significantly modified to reach practical utility, and surveillance systems have not yet been developed in many countries of MENA. Based on available evidence in several countries people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men are increasingly vulnerable to HIV and viral hepatitis, while their sexual partners - either female sex workers or women in monogamous relationships with high-risk men - are potential bridging populations that are not appropriately addressed by regional programs. Research to monitor the response to ART among the mentioned groups are seriously lacking, while drug resistant HIV strains and limited information on adherence patterns to treatment regimens require urgent recognition by health policymakers. Commitment to defined goals in the fight against HIV, development of innovative methods to improve registration and reporting systems, monitoring and evaluation of current programs followed by cost-effective modifications are proposed as effective steps to be acknowledged by National AIDS Programs of the countries of MENA Region. PMID:25964878

  17. Smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Adel; Javaid, Arshad; Iraqi, Ghali; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Ben Kheder, Ali; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Shahrour, Naem; Taright, Samya; Idrees, Magdy; Polatli, Mehmet; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Few recent comparative data exist on smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate smoking patterns in a large general population sample of individuals aged ≥ 40 years in ten countries in the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan, using a standardised methodology. A random sample of 457,258 telephone numbers was generated and called. This identified 65,154 eligible subjects, of whom 62,086 agreed to participate. A screening questionnaire was administered to each participant, which included six questions relating to cigarette consumption and waterpipe use. The age- and gender-adjusted proportion of respondents reporting current or past smoking of cigarettes or waterpipes was 31.2% [95% CI: 30.9-31.6%]. This proportion was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in men (48.0%) than in women (13.8%), but no relevant differences were observed between age groups. Smoking rates were in general lowest in the Maghreb countries and Pakistan and highest in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, ranging from 15.3% in Morocco to 53.9% in Lebanon. Consumption rates were 28.8% [28.4-29.2%] for cigarette smoking and 3.5% [3.4-3.6%] for waterpipe use. Use of waterpipes was most frequent in Saudi Arabia (8.5% of respondents) but remained low in the Maghreb countries (< 1.5%). Cumulative cigarette exposure was high, with a mean number of pack · years smoked of 18.5 ± 20.5 for women and 29.1 ± 26.2 for men. In conclusion, smoking is a major health issue in the MENA region.

  18. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Getirana, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drought impacts water resources required by crops and communities, in turn threatening lives and livelihoods. Early warning systems, which rely on inputs from hydro-climate models, are used to help manage risk and provide humanitarian assistance to the right place at the right time. However, translating advancements in hydro-climate science into action is a persistent and time-consuming challenge: scientists and decision-makers need to work together to enhance the salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the hydrological data products being produced. One organization that tackles this challenge is the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), which has been using evidence-based approaches to address food security since the 1980s.In this presentation, we describe the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), developed by FEWS NET and NASA hydrologic scientists to maximize the use of limited hydro-climatic observations for humanitarian applications. The FLDAS, an instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS), is comprised of land surface models driven by satellite rainfall inputs already familiar to FEWS NET food security analysts. First, we evaluate the quality of model outputs over parts of the Middle East and Africa using remotely sensed soil moisture and vegetation indices. We then describe derived water availability indices that have been identified by analysts as potentially useful sources of information. Specifically, we demonstrate how the Baseline Water Stress and Drought Severity Index detect recent water availability crisis events in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin and the Gaborone Reservoir, Botswana. Finally we discuss ongoing work to deliver this information to FEWS NET analysts in a timely and user-friendly manner, with the ultimate goal of integrating these water availability metrics into regular decision-making activities.

  19. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (< 0.5 Myr) and affected intracratonic basins of Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The organisation of the glacial sedimentary record is considered to be controlled at the basin-scale by the location of fast-flowing ice streams active during glacial maxima, and by the processes of meltwater release during glacial recession. In these latter

  20. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  1. Oil and the economic geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kortepeter, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    This book gives us the opportunity to follow the development of the field of economic geography as applied to the Middle East during the past half century. The materials are arranged under the following three headings: Geography and Petroleum: Boundaries and Boundary Disputes: and Social Geography.

  2. LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J.L.; Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M.

    2000-07-14

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) R and D program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (over 2 million waveforms from 20,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Using the SRKB framework, they are combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA and FSU regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB provide needed contributions to the DOE Knowledge Base (DOE KB) for the ME/NA and FSU regions and will help improve monitoring for underground nuclear testing. The LLNL research products will facilitate calibration of IMS stations (primary and auxiliary), their surrogates (if not yet installed) and selected gamma stations necessary to complete the above tasks in the ME/NA and FSU regions. They present expanded lookup tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and a new integrated and reconciled event catalog dataset including

  3. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  4. HIV/AIDS related knowledge among school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Boneberger, Anja; Rückinger, Simon; Guthold, Regina; Kann, Laura; Riley, Leanne

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this secondary analysis was to present cross-national data about HIV/AIDS related knowledge among 13- to 15-year-old school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa. Data from 23673 school-going adolescents from seven countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates) that undertook the Global School-Based Student Health Survey between 2004 and 2008 were analysed. HIV/AIDS related knowledge varied significantly between countries and gender. Research for this sensitive topic is scarce in this region. In addition, schools could be among the many key players for HIV/AIDS education.

  5. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  6. Prospects and challenges in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jumaan, Aisha O; Ghanem, Soha; Taher, Jalaa; Braikat, Mhammed; Al Awaidy, Salah; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2013-12-30

    The development of effective and safe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides a great opportunity to prevent a devastating disease, cervical cancer, and a host of other related diseases. However, the introduction of these vaccines has been slow in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. Only one country has introduced the vaccine and few countries plan HPV vaccine introduction in the coming 5 years. Several factors influence the slow uptake in the region, including financial constraints, weak infrastructure for adolescent vaccine delivery, competition with high priority vaccines, and lack of reliable data on the burden of HPV disease. Other barriers include cultural and religious sensitivities, as the vaccines are offered to prevent a sexually transmitted disease in young girls. Recommendations to enhance HPV vaccine introduction in EMENA countries include establishing a regional joint vaccine procurement program, enhancing the adolescent vaccination platform, documenting the burden of cervical cancer, strengthening local National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups and designing Information, Education and Communication material that address cultural concerns. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  7. Challenges of diagnosis and management of axial spondyloarthritis in North Africa and the Middle East: An expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Abdulaziz, Sultana; Alosaimi, Hanan; Al-Rayes, Hanan; Aldeen Sarakbi, Hussam; Baamer, Matouqa; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Dahou Makhloufi, Chafia; Janoudi, Nahid; Shirazy, Khalid; Sieper, Joachim; Sukhbir, Uppal

    2016-04-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a spectrum of inflammatory disease with stages characterized by both nonradiographic and radiographic sacroiliitis. Nonradiographic axial SpA is associated with health-related quality-of-life impairment and may progress to ankylosing spondylitis. Axial SpA has a low prevalence in some countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and pooling of data and resources is needed to increase understanding of the regional picture. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are required to reduce disease burden and prevent progression. Anti-TNF therapy is recommended for patients with persistently high disease activity despite conventional treatment, and has been shown to be effective in patients without radiographic damage. Diagnostic delays can be an obstacle to early treatment and appropriate referral strategies are needed. In some countries, restricted access to magnetic resonance imaging and anti-TNF agents presents a challenge. In this article, a group of experts from North Africa and the Middle East evaluated the diagnosis and management of axial SpA with particular reference to this region. PMID:26811411

  8. Mapping crustal heterogeneity using Lg propagation efficiency throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.E.; Walter, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation of Lg characteristics such as Lg blockage, efficient Lg propagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Lg is used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These applications can give significantly biased results if the Lg phase is reduced or blocked by discontinuous structure or thin crust. Mapping these structures using quantitative techniques for determining Lg amplitude attenuation can break down when the phase is below background noise. In such cases Lg blockage and inefficient propagation zones are often mapped out by hand. With our approach, we attempt to visually simplify this information by imaging crustal structure anomalies that significantly diminish the amplitude of Lg. The visualization of such anomalies is achieved by defining a grid of cells that covers the entire region of interest. We trace Lg rays for each event/ station pair, which is simply the great circle path, and attribute to each cell a value equal to the maximum value of the Lg/P-coda amplitude ratio for all paths traversing that particular cell. The resulting map, from this empirical approach, is easily interpreted in terms of crustal structure and can successfully image small blockage features often missed by analysis of raypaths alone. This map can then be used to screen out events with blocked Lg prior to performing Q tomography, and to avoid using Lg-based methods of event identification for the CTBT in regions where they cannot work. For this study we applied our technique to one of the most tectonically complex regions on the earth. Nearly 9000 earthquake/station raypaths, traversing the vast region comprised of the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa, have been

  9. Analysis of the summertime buildup of tropospheric ozone abundances over the Middle East and North Africa as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Worden, John R.; Noone, David; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jay

    2009-03-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument in summer 2005. Observations from TES reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere (500-400 hPa) across North Africa and the Middle East. Observed ozone abundances in the middle troposphere are at a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter, consistent with the previously predicted summertime "Middle East ozone maximum." This summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian and Sahara anticyclones, centered over the Zagros and Atlas Mountains, respectively. These anticyclones isolate the middle troposphere over northeast Africa and the Middle East, with westerlies to the north and easterlies to the south, facilitating the buildup of ozone. Over the Middle East, we find that in situ production and transport from Asia provides comparable contributions of 30-35% to the ozone buildup. Over North Africa, in situ production is dominant (at about 20%), with transport from Asia, North America, and equatorial Africa each contributing about 10-15% to the total ozone. We find that although the eastern Mediterranean is characterized by strong descent in the middle and upper troposphere in summer, transport from the boundary layer accounts for about 25% of the local Middle Eastern contribution to the ozone enhancement in the middle troposphere. This upward transport of boundary layer air is associated with orographic lifting along the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water.

  10. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  11. Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

  12. Burden of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Vaccarella, Salvatore; Bruni, Laia; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    In this chapter, we present the available information on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers (cancers of the cervix, anogenital cancers, and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx), as well as available data on the prevalence and distribution of HPV types in women with and without cervical cancer, for the countries of the Extended Middle East and North Africa region (EMENA). The EMENA region is characterized by societies that share similar cultures and religions and that are considered to have a more conservative sexual behaviour compared to Western societies. The incidence of cervical cancer is estimated to be relatively low, although it is difficult to assess precisely because systematic and national cancer registries are lacking in many countries of the EMENA region. In these countries, nationwide programs of cervical cancer screening do not exist or are based on a limited opportunistic cytology-based screening, which often lacks quality assurance. The incidence of anogenital cancers other than cervix is very low. The incidence of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx is relatively high in some countries, particularly in Pakistan. Relatively low levels of HPV prevalence have been observed in the several surveys conducted in the EMENA region, although only few young women were included in these studies. Possible changes in lifestyle and sexual behaviour in younger generations might, however, change this scenario. Thus, improving the information on the burden of HPV-related cancers and on the HPV prevalence in the general population is essential to develop a comprehensive intervention policy for future management of cervical cancer in this area. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled

  13. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  14. Observed and expected frequencies of structural hemoglobin variants in newborn screening surveys in Africa and the Middle East: Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Frédéric B.; Adamkiewicz, Thomas V.; Amendah, Djesika; Williams, Thomas N.; Gupta, Sunetra; Grosse, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to compare observed and expected genotype proportions from newborn screening surveys of structural hemoglobin variants. Methods We conducted a systematic review of newborn screening surveys of hemoglobins S and C in Africa and the Middle-East. We compared observed frequencies to those expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Significant deviations were identified by an exact test. The fixation index FIS was calculated to assess excess homozygosity. We compared newborn estimates corrected and uncorrected for HWE deviations using demographic data. Results Sixty samples reported genotype counts for hemoglobin variants in Africa and the Middle-East. Observed and expected counts matched in 27%. The observed number of sickle-cell anemia (SCA) individuals was higher than expected in 42 samples, reaching significance (p<0.05) in 24. High FIS were common across the study regions. The estimated total number of newborns with SCA, corrected based on FIS, were 33,261 annual births instead of 24,958 for the 38 samples across sub-Saharan Africa and 1,109 annual births instead of 578 for 12 samples from the Middle East. Conclusion Differences between observed and expected genotype frequencies are common in surveys of hemoglobin variants in the study regions. Further research is required to identify and quantify factors responsible for such deviations. Estimates based on HWE might substantially underestimate the annual number of SCA affected newborns (up to one third in sub-Saharan Africa and one half in the Middle East). PMID:26633548

  15. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  16. Grid search modeling of receiver functions: Implications for crustal structure in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sandvol, E.; Seber, D.; Calvert, A.; Barazangi, M.

    1998-11-01

    A grid search is used to estimate average crustal thickness and shear wave velocity structure beneath 12 three-component broadband seismic stations in the Middle East, North Africa, and nearby regions. The crustal thickness in these regions is found to vary from a minimum of 8.0{plus_minus}1.5&hthinsp;km in East Africa (Afar) region to possibly a maximum of 64{plus_minus}4.8&hthinsp;km in the lesser Caucasus. Stations located within the stable African platform indicate a crustal thickness of about 40 km. Teleseismic three-component waveform data produced by 165 earthquakes are used to create receiver function stacks for each station. Using a grid search, we have solved for the optimal and most simple shear velocity models beneath all 12 stations. Unlike other techniques (linearized least squares or forward modeling), the grid search methodology guarantees that we solve for the global minimum within our defined model parameter space. Using the grid search, we also qualitatively estimate the least number of layers required to model the observed receiver functions{close_quote} major seismic phases (e.g., PS{sub Moho}). A jackknife error estimation method is used to test the stability of our receiver function inversions for all 12 stations in the region that had recorded a sufficient number of high-quality broadband teleseismic waveforms. Five of the 12 estimates of crustal thicknesses are consistent with what is known of crustal structure from prior geophysical work. Furthermore, the remaining seven estimates of crustal structure are in regions for which previously there were few or no data about crustal thickness. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  17. Youth in crisis in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic literature review and focused landscape analysis.

    PubMed

    Fehling, M; Jarrah, Z M; Tiernan, M E; Albezreh, S; VanRooyen, M J; Alhokair, A; Nelson, B D

    2016-12-01

    Recent political and demographic factors have exposed the vulnerability of the youth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This study aimed to elucidate the current needs, activities, stakeholders and solutions related to at-risk youth and young adults in the MENA region. A systematic literature review was conducted of the peer-reviewed and grey literature. This was complemented by an in-region landscape analysis involving key-informant interviews and focus group discussions. After extensive screening of 1160 unique articles, 275 articles were considered relevant to this study. Of these 275, 145 (52.7%) were related to health (64.8% of these related to mental health), 101 (36.7%) to livelihood, 87 (31.6%) to violence prevention and 68 (24.7%) to education. Important themes and challenges identified in the literature and discussions included the MENA region's growing youth bulge; youth unemployment; critical gender gaps; and the impact of conflict on livelihoods, education and health, especially mental health. PMID:26996365

  18. Comorbidities associated with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: association with severity and exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub, Bassam; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Iqbal, Mohammed Nizam; Salhi, Hocine; Lahlou, Aïcha; Tariq, Luqman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of comorbidities in subjects with COPD and their association with respiratory symptom severity and COPD exacerbations. Materials and methods This was an analysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of eleven countries in the Middle East and North Africa, including Pakistan. The study population consisted of a sample of subjects with COPD for whom the presence of comorbidities was documented. Three questionnaires were used. The screening questionnaire identified subjects who fulfilled an epidemiological case definition of COPD and documented any potential comorbidities; the detailed COPD questionnaire collected data on respiratory symptoms, COPD exacerbations, and comorbidities associated with COPD; the COPD Assessment Test collected data on the impact of respiratory symptoms on well-being and daily life. Results A total of 2,187 subjects were positively screened for COPD, of whom 1,392 completed the detailed COPD questionnaire. COPD subjects were more likely to report comorbidities (55.2%) than subjects without COPD (39.1%, P<0.0001), most frequently cardiovascular diseases. In subjects who screened positively for COPD, the presence of comorbidities was significantly (P=0.03) associated with a COPD Assessment Test score ≥10 and with antecedents of COPD exacerbations in the previous 6 months (P=0.03). Conclusion Comorbidities are frequent in COPD and associated with more severe respiratory symptoms. This highlights the importance of identification and appropriate management of comorbidities in all subjects with a diagnosis of COPD. PMID:26917957

  19. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  20. A human economy: A ``third way'' for the future of young people in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-06-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in this region. There is a consequent lack of participation at all levels, and a large number of youth are showing symptoms of low self-esteem, frustration, anger and unrest. After discussing the outcomes of years of an inhuman economic system on a global level, this article points to a more humane and empowering path. The author argues that, instead of continuing with profit-oriented capitalism or relying on the informal sector, the co-operative way represents a third alternative to existing economic sectors within the dominant contemporary economic system. The article analyses the many benefits of this path for the realisation of a humane economy. In so doing, it touches on issues of equity and social protection. Finally, the article outlines what needs to be done if this is to be a viable solution for a human economy. While giving many examples of successful co-operative enterprises worldwide, the author singles out the MENA region as one which could also benefit from the new trends outlined.

  1. Youth in crisis in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic literature review and focused landscape analysis.

    PubMed

    Fehling, M; Jarrah, Z M; Tiernan, M E; Albezreh, S; VanRooyen, M J; Alhokair, A; Nelson, B D

    2016-03-15

    Recent political and demographic factors have exposed the vulnerability of the youth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This study aimed to elucidate the current needs, activities, stakeholders and solutions related to at-risk youth and young adults in the MENA region. A systematic literature review was conducted of the peer-reviewed and grey literature. This was complemented by an in-region landscape analysis involving key-informant interviews and focus group discussions. After extensive screening of 1160 unique articles, 275 articles were considered relevant to this study. Of these 275, 145 (52.7%) were related to health (64.8% of these related to mental health), 101 (36.7%) to livelihood, 87 (31.6%) to violence prevention and 68 (24.7%) to education. Important themes and challenges identified in the literature and discussions included the MENA region's growing youth bulge; youth unemployment; critical gender gaps; and the impact of conflict on livelihoods, education and health, especially mental health.

  2. Eliciting policymakers' and stakeholders' opinions to help shape health system research priorities in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Makhoul, Jihad; Jamal, Diana; Ranson, Michael Kent; Kronfol, Nabil M; Tchaghchagian, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-informed decisions can strengthen health systems. Literature suggests that engaging policymakers and other stakeholders in research priority-setting exercises increases the likelihood of the utilization of research evidence by policymakers. To our knowledge, there has been no previous priority-setting exercise in health policy and systems research in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This paper presents the results of a recent research priority-setting exercise that identified regional policy concerns and research priorities related to health financing, human resources and the non-state sector, based on stakeholders in nine low and middle income countries (LMICs) of the MENA region. The countries included in this study were Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen. This multi-phased study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The overall approach was guided by the listening priority-setting approach, adapted slightly to accommodate the context of the nine countries. The study was conducted in four key phases: preparatory work, country-specific work, data analysis and synthesis, and validation and ranking. The study identified the top five policy-relevant health systems research priorities for each of the three thematic areas for the next 3-5 years. Study findings can help inform and direct future plans to generate, disseminate and use research evidence for LMICs in the MENA region. Our study process and results could help reduce the great chasm between the policy and research worlds in the MENA region. It is hoped that funding agencies and countries will support and align financial and human resources towards addressing the research priorities that have been identified.

  3. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  4. Smoking prevention and cessation in the Africa and Middle East region: a consensus draft guideline for healthcare providers--executive summary.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed Yousif M; Safwat, Tarek; Onyemelukwe, Geoffrey; Otaibi, Moh'd Amin Al; Amir, Ashraf A; Nawas, Yousef N; Aouina, Hichem; Afif, Moulay Hicham; Bolliger, Chris T

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundance of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and other forms of tobacco use, the tobacco epidemic remains an important public health problem and by 2030 it is predicted that more than 80% of tobacco deaths will be in developing countries. In Africa and the Middle East, many local factors contribute to the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Although efforts to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with smoking and tobacco dependence are underway, there is a need for guidance on how to utilize appropriate tobacco control policies and psychology- and pharmacology-based therapies to counter tobacco dependence as recommended by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). A group of tobacco cessation experts from public health services and/or academic institutions in Africa and the Middle East participated in a series of four meetings held in Cairo, Cape Town, and Dubai between May 2008 and February 2011 to develop a draft guideline tailored to their region. This article provides the background to the development of this draft smoking cessation guideline and discusses how the recommendations can be implemented and progress monitored to promote both primary prevention and cessation of tobacco use within our countries. The draft guideline for Africa and the Middle East provides an important resource in combating the devastating effects of tobacco use in these regions which can be further localized through engagement with local stakeholders in the countries of the region. PMID:22487605

  5. Smoking prevention and cessation in the Africa and Middle East region: a consensus draft guideline for healthcare providers--executive summary.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed Yousif M; Safwat, Tarek; Onyemelukwe, Geoffrey; Otaibi, Moh'd Amin Al; Amir, Ashraf A; Nawas, Yousef N; Aouina, Hichem; Afif, Moulay Hicham; Bolliger, Chris T

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundance of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and other forms of tobacco use, the tobacco epidemic remains an important public health problem and by 2030 it is predicted that more than 80% of tobacco deaths will be in developing countries. In Africa and the Middle East, many local factors contribute to the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Although efforts to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with smoking and tobacco dependence are underway, there is a need for guidance on how to utilize appropriate tobacco control policies and psychology- and pharmacology-based therapies to counter tobacco dependence as recommended by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). A group of tobacco cessation experts from public health services and/or academic institutions in Africa and the Middle East participated in a series of four meetings held in Cairo, Cape Town, and Dubai between May 2008 and February 2011 to develop a draft guideline tailored to their region. This article provides the background to the development of this draft smoking cessation guideline and discusses how the recommendations can be implemented and progress monitored to promote both primary prevention and cessation of tobacco use within our countries. The draft guideline for Africa and the Middle East provides an important resource in combating the devastating effects of tobacco use in these regions which can be further localized through engagement with local stakeholders in the countries of the region.

  6. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of

  7. Mushrooms and Truffles: Historical Biofactories for Complementary Medicine in Africa and in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A.; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A.

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710

  8. Mushrooms and truffles: historical biofactories for complementary medicine in Africa and in the middle East.

    PubMed

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710

  9. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria. The first paper addressed the DVS of the Americas and the third will consider those of the Asian Pacific Region. Here, the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East are discussed. The continent of Africa experiences the bulk of the global malaria burden due in part to the presence of the An. gambiae complex. Anopheles gambiae is one of four DVS within the An. gambiae complex, the others being An. arabiensis and the coastal An. merus and An. melas. There are a further three, highly anthropophilic DVS in Africa, An. funestus, An. moucheti and An. nili. Conversely, across Europe and the Middle East, malaria transmission is low and frequently absent, despite the presence of six DVS. To help control malaria in Africa and the Middle East, or to identify the risk of its re-emergence in Europe, the contemporary distribution and bionomics of the relevant DVS are needed. Results A contemporary database of occurrence data, compiled from the formal literature and other relevant resources, resulted in the collation of information for seven DVS from 44 countries in Africa containing 4234 geo-referenced, independent sites. In Europe and the Middle East, six DVS were identified from 2784 geo-referenced sites across 49 countries. These occurrence data were combined with expert opinion ranges and a suite of environmental and climatic variables of relevance to anopheline ecology to produce predictive distribution maps using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) method. Conclusions The predicted geographic extent for the following DVS (or species/suspected species complex*) is provided for Africa: Anopheles (Cellia) arabiensis, An. (Cel.) funestus*, An. (Cel.) gambiae, An. (Cel.) melas, An. (Cel.) merus, An. (Cel.) moucheti and An. (Cel.) nili*, and in the European and Middle Eastern Region: An. (Anopheles) atroparvus, An. (Ano

  10. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  11. Founder mutations in Tunisia: implications for diagnosis in North Africa and Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tunisia is a North African country of 10 million inhabitants. The native background population is Berber. However, throughout its history, Tunisia has been the site of invasions and migratory waves of allogenic populations and ethnic groups such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans and French. Like neighbouring and Middle Eastern countries, the Tunisian population shows a relatively high rate of consanguinity and endogamy that favor expression of recessive genetic disorders at relatively high rates. Many factors could contribute to the recurrence of monogenic morbid trait expression. Among them, founder mutations that arise in one ancestral individual and diffuse through generations in isolated communities. Method We report here on founder mutations in the Tunisian population by a systematic review of all available data from PubMed, other sources of the scientific literature as well as unpublished data from our research laboratory. Results We identified two different classes of founder mutations. The first includes founder mutations so far reported only among Tunisians that are responsible for 30 genetic diseases. The second group represents founder haplotypes described in 51 inherited conditions that occur among Tunisians and are also shared with other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Several heavily disabilitating diseases are caused by recessive founder mutations. They include, among others, neuromuscular diseases such as congenital muscular dystrophy and spastic paraglegia and also severe genodermatoses such as dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and xeroderma pigmentosa. Conclusion This report provides informations on founder mutations for 73 genetic diseases either specific to Tunisians or shared by other populations. Taking into account the relatively high number and frequency of genetic diseases in the region and the limited resources, screening for these founder mutations should provide a rapid and cost effective tool for

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated healthcare resource consumption in the Middle East and North Africa: the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Polatli, Mehmet; Ben Kheder, Ali; Wali, Siraj; Javed, Arshad; Khattab, Adel; Mahboub, Bassam; Iraqi, Ghali; Nejjari, Chakib; Taright, Samya; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Data on COPD-related healthcare resources use are rarely documented in developing countries. This article presents data on COPD-related healthcare resource consumption in the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan and addresses the association of this variable with illness severity. A large survey of COPD was conducted in eleven countries of the region, namely Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates, using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened. This identified 2,187 subjects fulfilling the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. A detailed questionnaire was administered to document data on COPD-related healthcare consumption. Symptom severity was assessed using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). 1,392 subjects were analysable. Physician consultations were the most frequently used healthcare resource, ranging from 43,118 [95% CI: 755-85,548] consultations in UAE to 4,276,800 [95% CI: 2,320,164-6,230,763] in Pakistan, followed by emergency room visits, ranging from 15,917 [95% CI: 0-34,807] visits in UAE to 683,697 [95% CI: 496,993-869,737] in Turkey and hospitalisations, ranging from 15,563 [95% CI: 7,911-23,215] in UAE to 476,674 [95% CI: 301,258-652,090] in Turkey. The use of each resource increased proportionally with the GOLD 2011 severity groups and was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in subjects with more symptoms compared to those with lower symptoms and in subjects with exacerbations to those without exacerbations. The occurrence of exacerbations and the CAT score were independently associated with use of each healthcare resource. In conclusion, the BREATHE study revealed that physician consultation is the most frequently COPD-related healthcare resource used in the region. It showed that the deterioration of COPD symptoms and the frequency of exacerbations raised healthcare resource consumption.

  13. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Majdy; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Taright, Samya; Shahrour, Naeem; Polatli, Mehmet; Ben Kheder, Ali; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Iraqi, Ghali; Khattab, Adel; Javed, Arshad; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a potentially severe chronic progressive respiratory condition requiring long-term treatment and frequently involving episodic hospitalisations to manage exacerbations. The objective of this analysis was to document diagnosis, evaluation, treatment and management of COPD-related respiratory symptoms in 1,392 subjects fulfilling an epidemiological definition of COPD identified in a general population sample of 62,086 individuals aged ≥ 40 years in ten countries in the Middle East and North Africa region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan. 442 subjects (31.8%) claimed to have received a diagnosis of COPD from a physician and 287 (20.6%) had undergone spirometry in the previous year. Use of specific treatments for respiratory symptoms was reported by 218 subjects (15.7%). Use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators together with corticosteroids (53 subjects; 3.8%) and use of oxygen therapy (31 subjects; 2.3%) was very low. 852 subjects (61.2%) had consulted a physician about their respiratory condition at least once in the previous year, with a mean number of consultations of 3.4 ± 3.6. Moreover, 284 subjects (20.4%) had been hospitalised overnight for their COPD, with a mean of 2.3 ± 3.7 hospitalisations per year. Use of all healthcare resources was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in subjects with CAT scores ≥ 10 than in those with scores < 10, and greater in those with exacerbations than in those without. In conclusion, COPD in the region is under-diagnosed, inadequately evaluated and inadequately treated. Nonetheless, COPD symptoms are responsible for considerable healthcare consumption, with high levels of physician consultation and hospitalisation.

  14. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination. PMID:22389729

  15. Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control

    PubMed Central

    Hotez, Peter J.; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination. PMID:22389729

  16. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  17. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...

  18. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  19. GROUND TRUTH, MAGNITUDE CALIBRATION AND REGIONAL PHASE PROPAGATION AND DETECTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND HORN OF AFRICA

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A

    2006-07-10

    In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian

  20. East Africa continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bosellini, A.

    1986-01-01

    New well data from Somalia, together with the history of sea-floor spreading in the Indian Ocean derived from magnetic anomalies, show that the East African margins from latitude 15/sup 0/S into the Gulf of Aden comprise four distinct segments that formed successively by the southward drift of Madagascar from Somalia during the Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, by the northeastward drift of India along the Owen Transform during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, and by the opening of the Gulf of Aden during the Neogene.

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the COPD assessment test: data from the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul W; Shahrour, Naem; Nejjari, Chakib; Lahlou, Aicha; Doble, Adam; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity and performance of the Arabic and Turkish versions of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) for evaluating the severity and impact of COPD symptoms. The data were obtained from the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region, a large general population survey of COPD conducted in ten countries of the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom a random sample of 5,681 subjects were administered the CAT by telephone. 5,639 evaluable questionnaires were recovered, representing a completion rate of 99%. In addition, the CAT was administered to an additional 833 subjects fulfilling the epidemiological diagnostic criteria for COPD. Mean scores in the general population were 6.99 ± 6.91 for the Arabic version and 9.88 ± 9.04 for the Turkish version. In patients with COPD, mean scores were 16.2 ± 9.1 and 20.9 ± 10.2 respectively. Scores were consistently higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In the general population, the proportion of respondents fulfilling criteria for COPD rose with higher CAT scores, and particularly above the 80th percentile, where 63% of COPD cases were to be found. This suggests that the CAT may be useful as a case-finding tool in the general population. In the COPD population, healthcare resource consumption rose linearly with CAT score above a threshold score of twenty, arguing in favour of the good criterion validity of the CAT. The internal consistency of the CAT was high (Cronbach's α 0.85 for the Arabic and 0.86 for the Turkish versions) and the factorial structure was unidimensional. In conclusion, this study performed in Arabic and Turkish speaking populations confirms the utility and validity of the CAT as a simple tool to collect data on the severity and impact of COPD symptoms, and suggests that it may potentially be

  2. Status of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among prisoners in the Middle East and North Africa: review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The status of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among incarcerated populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the links between prisons and the HIV epidemic are poorly understood. This review synthesized available HIV and HCV data in prisons in MENA and highlighted opportunities for action. Methods The review was based on data generated through the systematic searches of the MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2003 to December 15, 2015) and the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2011 to December 15, 2015). Sources of data included peer-reviewed publications and country-level reports and databases. Results and discussion We estimated a population of 496,000 prisoners in MENA, with drug-related offences being a major cause for incarceration. Twenty countries had data on HIV among incarcerated populations with a median prevalence of 0.6% in Afghanistan, 6.1% in Djibouti, 0.01% in Egypt, 2.5% in Iran, 0% in Iraq, 0.1% in Jordan, 0.05% in Kuwait, 0.7% in Lebanon, 18.0% in Libya, 0.7% in Morocco, 0.3% in Oman, 1.1% in Pakistan, 0% in Palestine, 1.2% in Saudi Arabia, 0% in Somalia, 5.3% in Sudan and South Sudan, 0.04% in Syria, 0.05% in Tunisia, and 3.5% in Yemen. Seven countries had data on HCV, with a median prevalence of 1.7% in Afghanistan, 23.6% in Egypt, 28.1% in Lebanon, 15.6% in Pakistan, and 37.8% in Iran. Syria and Libya had only one HCV prevalence measure each at 1.5% and 23.7%, respectively. There was strong evidence for injecting drug use and the use of non-sterile injecting-equipment in prisons. Incarceration and injecting drugs, use of non-sterile injecting-equipment, and tattooing in prisons were found to be independent risk factors for HIV or HCV infections. High levels of sexual risk behaviour, tattooing and use of non-sterile razors among prisoners were documented. Conclusions Prisons play an important role in HIV and HCV dynamics in MENA and have facilitated the emergence of large HIV epidemics in

  3. Crust and upper-mantle structure of North Africa, Europe and the Middle East from inversion of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Walter, William R.

    2002-05-01

    We estimate the crust and upper-mantle seismic velocity structure in North Africa, southern Europe, and the Middle East using our surface-wave dispersion tomography results from a previous study. The surface wave tomography study provided high-resolution coverage across the region from more than 6800 Rayleigh and 3800 Love wave paths over the period range from 10-60 s. We have also included additional tomography results from 65 to 120 s. The tomography model provides average Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves for each 2°× 2° block in the region. We use these results to determine velocity structure by fitting the synthetic curves from simplified crust and upper-mantle models to the tomographic data for each block via a grid search. The grid search technique was chosen in order to map out the complete error space and to easily incorporate other data sets or a priori information. The initial grid search is conducted over sediment thickness, crustal velocity, crustal thickness, and upper-mantle velocity. To keep the grid search computationally reasonable, other parameters are held fixed (sediment velocity, Poisson's ratios, and density). Despite the well-known trade-off between crustal thickness and crustal velocity that occurs when fitting surface wave data, the initial grid search is quite successful in retrieving first order features, such as ocean-continent crustal thickness differences and crustal thickening in all but the oldest orogenic zones. We can resolve major sedimentary basins, active ridges, and see differences based on crustal age (e.g. Archean cratons vs Phanarozoic crust). To better control the trade-off inherent in fitting group velocity curves, we also explore using other information to better constrain the grid searches. In particular, we use a global sediment depth and velocity model to fix those parameters and a regional P n tomography to constrain the upper-mantle velocities. In this constrained grid search, we vary crustal thickness

  4. [Ultrasound in East Africa].

    PubMed

    Gysel, W

    2012-09-01

    Ultrasound is poorly established in East Africa because of missing finances and medical staff. The Foundation for medical know how transfer SmW installed in the last 3 years an ultrasound department in all District Hospitals in the South Province Mombasa in Kenya and was teaching the medical staff 2-3 times an year according the guidelines of SGUM and EFSUMB. The project is based on the idea that knowledge transfer is more efficient than money transfer. The project is supervised by public health studies. The first results show that non physicians are able to perform good quality ultrasound examinations. 75% of the obstetrical and 50% of the abdominal ultrasound examinations show therapy-relevant findings. Ultrasound is going to rise to the position of the most important imagine system in developing countries.

  5. Education Quality in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest…

  6. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential.

  7. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential. PMID:26049252

  8. HIV among People Who Inject Drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina R.; Weiss, Helen A.; Thomas, Sara L.; Riome, Suzanne; Setayesh, Hamidreza; Riedner, Gabriele; Semini, Iris; Tawil, Oussama; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is perceived that little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The primary objective of this study was to assess the status of the HIV epidemic among PWID in MENA by describing HIV prevalence and incidence. Secondary objectives were to describe the risk behavior environment and the HIV epidemic potential among PWID, and to estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and covering 23 MENA countries. PubMed, Embase, regional and international databases, as well as country-level reports were searched up to December 16, 2013. Primary studies reporting (1) the prevalence/incidence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, or hepatitis C virus (HCV) among PWIDs; or (2) the prevalence of injecting or sexual risk behaviors, or HIV knowledge among PWID; or (3) the number/proportion of PWID in MENA countries, were eligible for inclusion. The quality, quantity, and geographic coverage of the data were assessed at country level. Risk of bias in predefined quality domains was described to assess the quality of available HIV prevalence measures. After multiple level screening, 192 eligible reports were included in the review. There were 197 HIV prevalence measures on a total of 58,241 PWID extracted from reports, and an additional 226 HIV prevalence measures extracted from the databases. We estimated that there are 626,000 PWID in MENA (range: 335,000–1,635,000, prevalence of 0.24 per 100 adults). We found evidence of HIV epidemics among PWID in at least one-third of MENA countries, most of which are emerging concentrated epidemics and with HIV prevalence overall in the range of 10%–15%. Some of the epidemics have however already reached considerable levels including some of the highest HIV prevalence among PWID globally (87.1% in Tripoli, Libya). The relatively high

  9. Education Quality in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-07-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest challenges facing education and government leaders across the region. This paper summarises recent evidence regarding student learning in the MENA region and draws on Galal's model of policy formulation in considering ways that governments across the Middle East might address this problem.

  10. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  11. Kicking up Sand in Middle-East Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Professors who attended the Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa (ASMEA) were alarmed about the state of Middle East studies. The group's co-founder, Bernard Lewis, said in his keynote address that the freedom to study and write on the topic of Islam was under assault by a Cerberus of "postmodernism," "political correctness,"…

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the adult population within the Middle East and North Africa region: rationale and design of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader; Rashid, Nauman; Lahlou, Aicha; Salhi, Hocine; Doble, Adam; Nejjari, Chakib

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the BREATHE study was to estimate the regional prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms within the general population in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region and to document risk factors, disease characteristics and management using a standardised methodology. This was an observational population-based survey performed in ten countries in the Middle East and North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan. A general population sample of 10,000 subjects ≥ 40 years of age in each country or zone was generated from random telephone numbers. Structured interviews were proposed by telephone. A screening questionnaire was administered to each subject collecting information on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. Subjects with chronic bronchitis or breathlessness and smoking ≥ 10 pack · years fulfilled the epidemiological definition of COPD ("COPD" population). This population then completed a full disease questionnaire, the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and a cost-of-disease questionnaire. A randomly selected sample was also assessed by spirometry. In all, 457,258 telephone numbers were generated and contact was established with 210,121 subjects, of whom 65,154 were eligible and 62,086 accepted to participate. The overall response rate was 74.2%. 2,187 (3.5%) subjects fulfilled the criteria for the "COPD" population. Evaluable spirometry data were obtained from 1,847 (14.2%) subjects to whom it was proposed. The BREATHE study has collected a large amount of information on COPD variables from a representative sample of the general population of countries in the MENA region, which can be compared with other regional COPD initiatives.

  13. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2014-02-01

    The humanitarian crises caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought forecasts with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model precipitation forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for March-May and October-December rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the consensus forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF), which is the present operational product for precipitation forecast over East Africa. Complementing the original ECMWF precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  14. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. PMID:24415527

  15. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development.

  16. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Emmah; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Dutra, Emanuel; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Pappenberger, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF), which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  17. Are HIV Epidemics among Men Who Have Sex with Men Emerging in the Middle East and North Africa?: A Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina; Hilmi, Nahla; McFarland, Willi; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Semini, Iris; Riedner, Gabriele; Tawil, Oussama; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionately higher burden of HIV infection than the general population. MSM in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are a largely hidden population because of a prevailing stigma towards this type of sexual behavior, thereby limiting the ability to assess infection transmission patterns among them. It is widely perceived that data are virtually nonexistent on MSM and HIV in this region. The objective of this review was to delineate, for the first time, the evidence on the epidemiology of HIV among MSM in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review of all biological, behavioral, and other related data on HIV and MSM in MENA. Sources of data included PubMed (Medline), international organizations' reports and databases, country-level reports and databases including governmental and nongovernmental organization publications, and various other institutional documents. This review showed that onsiderable data are available on MSM and HIV in MENA. While HIV prevalence continues at low levels among different MSM groups, HIV epidemics appear to be emerging in at least few countries, with a prevalence reaching up to 28% among certain MSM groups. By 2008, the contribution of MSM transmission to the total HIV notified cases increased and exceeded 25% in several countries. The high levels of risk behavior (4–14 partners on average in the last six months among different MSM populations) and of biomarkers of risks (such as herpes simplex virus type 2 at 3%–54%), the overall low rate of consistent condom use (generally below 25%), the relative frequency of male sex work (20%–76%), and the substantial overlap with heterosexual risk behavior and injecting drug use suggest potential for further spread. Conclusions This systematic review and data synthesis indicate that HIV epidemics appear to be emerging among MSM in at least a few MENA countries and could already be in a concentrated state among several

  18. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2013-08-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in the East African region have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with adequate lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts and drought indices, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), promises to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The October-December rain season has higher skill that the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF) which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extend and intensity of the drought event.

  19. Security in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.F. Jr.; Bruzonsky, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The full range of U.S. security interests in the Middle East is covered in this volume of original contributions from prominent international scholars. Case studies of key countries emphasize the prospects for peaceful political, economic, and cultural change in the region. The Arab-Israeli conflict is examined with particular attention to the ''Palestine problem,'' U.S. policy and diplomacy, and the peace process. Finally, the involvement of the U.S. and the USSR and the policy options open to them are considered. Includes chapters on oil and its role in Middle-East security issues.

  20. Middle East Studies: A Catalogue of Middle East Studies Resources In or Near Connecticut. Area Studies Resource Guides, Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    This directory of Middle Eastern resource materials in or near Connecticut is designed for use by educators, librarians, media specialists, and the general public. The Middle East is defined as the part of the world known as Southwest Asia/North Africa (SWANA). The information is organized under ten major categories: associations and…

  1. Potential for human immunodeficiency virus parenteral transmission in the Middle East and North Africa: an analysis using hepatitis C virus as a proxy biomarker.

    PubMed

    Mohamoud, Yousra A; Miller, F DeWolfe; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2014-09-28

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has endured several major events of infection parenteral transmission. Recent work has established the utility of using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a proxy biomarker for assessing the epidemic potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parenteral transmission. In this review, we use data on the prevalence of HCV infection antibody (seroprevalence) among general population and high risk population groups to assess the potential for HIV parenteral transmission in MENA. Relatively low prevalence of HCV infection in the general population groups was reported in most MENA countries indicating that parenteral HIV transmission at endemic levels does not appear to be a cause for concern. Nonetheless, there could be opportunities for localized HIV outbreaks and transmission of other blood-borne infections in some settings such as healthcare facilities. Though there have been steady improvements in safety measures related to parenteral modes of transmission in the region, these improvements have not been uniform across all countries. More precautions, including infection control training programs, surveillance systems for nosocomial infections and wider coverage and evaluation of hepatitis B virus immunization programs need to be implemented to avoid the unnecessary spread of HIV, HCV, and other blood-borne pathogens along the parenteral modes of transmission.

  2. Potential for human immunodeficiency virus parenteral transmission in the Middle East and North Africa: An analysis using hepatitis C virus as a proxy biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Mohamoud, Yousra A; Miller, F DeWolfe; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2014-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has endured several major events of infection parenteral transmission. Recent work has established the utility of using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a proxy biomarker for assessing the epidemic potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parenteral transmission. In this review, we use data on the prevalence of HCV infection antibody (seroprevalence) among general population and high risk population groups to assess the potential for HIV parenteral transmission in MENA. Relatively low prevalence of HCV infection in the general population groups was reported in most MENA countries indicating that parenteral HIV transmission at endemic levels does not appear to be a cause for concern. Nonetheless, there could be opportunities for localized HIV outbreaks and transmission of other blood-borne infections in some settings such as healthcare facilities. Though there have been steady improvements in safety measures related to parenteral modes of transmission in the region, these improvements have not been uniform across all countries. More precautions, including infection control training programs, surveillance systems for nosocomial infections and wider coverage and evaluation of hepatitis B virus immunization programs need to be implemented to avoid the unnecessary spread of HIV, HCV, and other blood-borne pathogens along the parenteral modes of transmission. PMID:25278675

  3. Combining livestock trade patterns with phylogenetics to help understand the spread of foot and mouth disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, A; Knowles, N J; Paton, D J

    2011-04-01

    International trade in animals and their products is recognised as a primary determinant of the global epidemiology of transboundary diseases such as foot and mouth disease (FMD). As well as causing serious production losses, FMD is highly contagious, being transmitted through multiple routes and hosts, which makes it one of the most important diseases affecting trade in livestock. Its occurrence has dramatic consequences for the agricultural economy of a normally disease-free country, as well as for the livelihoods and income generation of developing countries where the disease continues to be endemic. In the dynamic of FMD virus (FMDV) dispersal across the globe, phylogenetic inference from molecular sequences of isolated viruses makes a significant contribution to investigating the evolutionary and spatial pathways underlying the source of FMD epidemics. Matching data on livestock movement with molecular epidemiology can enhance our fundamental understanding when reconstructing the spread of the virus between geographical regions, which is essential for the development of FMD control strategies worldwide. This paper reviews the global situation of FMD in the last ten years, combining phylogenetic insights with information on livestock production systems and international trade to analyse the epidemiological dynamics of FMD and the sources of FMDV introductions at a regional level in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia.

  4. 2005 and 2006 seasonal influenza vaccination coverage rates in 10 countries in Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    de Lataillade, Camille; Auvergne, Stéphane; Delannoy, Isabelle

    2009-04-01

    Recommendations for seasonal influenza vaccination are standard in most developed countries. Many rapidly developing countries have recently begun to adopt recommendations for high-risk target groups, such as the elderly. Population-based surveys to determine use, rather than purchases, of seasonal influenza vaccine are rare outside North America and Western Europe. Such surveys can provide important information on the progress of national immunization programs and on the awareness of influenza among the general public. We report the results of a survey conducted in 10 countries in Africa, Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Middle East that aimed to determine influenza vaccination coverage among adults, the elderly, and children and to find out how influenza is perceived in these regions. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage varied markedly across countries, and no single factor guaranteed high coverage. Our results indicate that strong recommendations appear insufficient, and that fully funded immunization programs together with high awareness in the population are key to encouraging high influenza vaccination coverage.

  5. AED in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  6. Determinants of Women's Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Illustrations from Seven Countries. PHREE Background Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sanabary, Nagat

    Despite considerable progress by Middle Eastern and North African countries in improving opportunities for women to access and attain education at all levels, much remains to be done. This report focuses on three sets of highly inter-related determinants of access, achievement, and outcome--macro-level societal determinants, school…

  7. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Middle East and North Africa: Results of Global Burden of Diseases Study from 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Farnaz; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILDs) are major causes of death and disability in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, they have different patterns in countries with various geographical, cultural, and socio-economic status. We aimed to compare the burden of GILDs in Iran with its neighboring countries using the results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study in 2010. METHODS Classic metrics of GBD have been used including: age-standardized rates (ASRs) of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY). All countries neighboring Iran have been selected. In addition, all other countries classified in the MENA region were included. Five major groups of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases were studied including: infections of gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal and pancreatobilliary cancers, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS The overall burden of GILDs is highest in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. Diarrheal diseases have been replaced by gastrointestinal cancers and cirrhosis in most countries in the region. However, in a number of countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, and Yemen, communicable GILDs are still among top causes of mortality and morbidity in addition to non-communicable GILDs and cancers. These countries are experiencing the double burden. In Iran, burden caused by cancers of stomach and esophagus are considerably higher than other countries. Diseases that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings have not been captured by GBD. CONCLUSION Improving the infrastructure of health care system including cancer registries and electronic recording of outpatient care is a necessity for better surveillance of GILDs in MENA. In contrast to expensive treatment, prevention of most GILDs is feasible and inexpensive. The health care systems in the region can be strengthened for

  8. Psychiatrists’ awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, José Manuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Emsley, Robin; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Papageorgiou, George; Roca, Miquel; Thomas, Pierre; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists’ perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively. Methods The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January–March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Results Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication. Conclusion Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in

  9. The case for developing publicly-accessible datasets for health services research in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2009-01-01

    Background The existence of publicly-accessible datasets comprised a significant opportunity for health services research to evolve into a science that supports health policy making and evaluation, proper inter- and intra-organizational decisions and optimal clinical interventions. This paper investigated the role of publicly-accessible datasets in the enhancement of health care systems in the developed world and highlighted the importance of their wide existence and use in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Discussion A search was conducted to explore the availability of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region. Although datasets were found in most countries in the region, those were limited in terms of their relevance, quality and public-accessibility. With rare exceptions, publicly-accessible datasets - as present in the developed world - were absent. Based on this, we proposed a gradual approach and a set of recommendations to promote the development and use of publicly-accessible datasets in the region. These recommendations target potential actions by governments, researchers, policy makers and international organizations. Summary We argue that the limited number of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region represents a lost opportunity for the evidence-based advancement of health systems in the region. The availability and use of publicly-accessible datasets would encourage policy makers in this region to base their decisions on solid representative data and not on estimates or small-scale studies; researchers would be able to exercise their expertise in a meaningful manner to both, policy makers and the public. The population of the MENA countries would exercise the right to benefit from locally- or regionally-based studies, versus imported and in 'best cases' customized ones. Furthermore, on a macro scale, the availability of regionally comparable publicly-accessible datasets would allow for the exploration of regional variations

  10. Relative frequency of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in selected centres in North Africa, the middle east and India: a review of 971 cases.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-03-01

    Comparative data regarding the distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes in North Africa, the Middle East and India (NAF/ME/IN) is scarce in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in this region. Five expert haematopathologists classified 971 consecutive cases of newly-diagnosed NHL from five countries in NAF/ME/IN. After review, 890 cases (91·7%) were confirmed to be NHL and compared to 399 cases from North America (NA). The male-to-female ratio was significantly higher in NAF/ME/IN (1·8) compared to NA (1·1; P< 0·05). The median ages of patients with low-grade (LG) and high-grade (HG) B-NHL in NAF/ME/IN (56 and 52 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively). In NAF/ME/IN, a significantly lower proportion of LG B-NHL (28·4%) and a higher proportion of HG B-NHL (58·4%) were found compared to NA (56·1% and 34·3%, respectively). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was more common in NAF/ME/IN (49·4%) compared to NA (29·3%), whereas follicular lymphoma was less common in NAF/ME/IN (12·4%) than in NA (33·6%). In conclusion, we found significant differences in NHL subtypes and clinical features between NAF/ME/IN and NA. Epidemiological studies are needed to better understand the pathobiology of these differences. PMID:26684877

  11. Using hepatitis C prevalence to estimate HIV epidemic potential among people who inject drugs in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina R.; Weiss, Helen A.; Vickerman, Peter; Larke, Natasha; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to understand the association between HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to estimate HIV epidemic potential among PWIDs using HCV prevalence. Design/methods: Using data from a systematic review of HIV and HCV among PWID in MENA, we conducted two analyses, stratified by HIV epidemic state: a meta-analysis of the risk ratio of HCV to HIV prevalence (RRHCV/HIV) using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models, and multivariable linear regression predicting log HIV prevalence. The HCV-HIV association from both analyses was used to estimate HIV prevalence at endemic equilibrium. We compared predicted with current HIV prevalence to classify HIV epidemic potential at country-level as low, medium or high, using predefined criteria. Results: The review identified 88 HCV prevalence measures among PWID in MENA, of which 54 had a paired HIV prevalence measure. The pooled RRHCV/HIV were 16, 4 and 3 in low-level, emerging and established HIV epidemics, respectively. There was a significant linear relationship between HCV and HIV at endemic equilibrium (P = 0.002). The predicted endemic HIV prevalence ranged between 8% (Tunisia) and 22% (Pakistan). Of the nine countries with data, five have high and three medium HIV epidemic potential. Only one country, Pakistan, appears to have reached saturation. Conclusion: HCV prevalence could be a predictor of future endemic HIV prevalence. In MENA, we predict that there will be further HIV epidemic growth among PWID. The proposed methodology can identify PWID populations that should be prioritized for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26372281

  12. Psychiatrists’ perceptions of the clinical importance, assessment and management of patient functioning in schizophrenia in Europe, the Middle East and Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that as many as two thirds of patients with schizophrenia are unable to perform basic personal and social roles or activities. Occupational functioning and social functioning, as well as independent living, are considered as core domains of patient functioning. Improvement in patient functioning has also been recognized as an important treatment goal in guidelines and an important outcome by regulatory agencies. Nevertheless, information is lacking on how these aspects are being considered by psychiatrists across the world and how they are being assessed and managed. Methods The ‘Europe, the Middle East and Africa functioning survey’ was designed to canvas opinions of psychiatrists across these regions to ascertain their perceptions of the clinical importance, assessment and management of functioning amongst their patients with schizophrenia. The survey comprised 17 questions and was conducted from March to April 2011 in 42 countries. Data collected included the demographics of respondents and their opinions regarding personal and social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Results Results were obtained from 4,163 clinicians. Psychiatrists estimated that more than two thirds (70%) of their patients with schizophrenia showed impaired or very poor levels of functioning. The majority of psychiatrists (92%) believed that personal and social functioning was an important treatment goal for patients with schizophrenia, and 91% believed it was an important goal for patients’ families. The majority of psychiatrists (55%) assess the personal and social functioning of their patient at each visit; however, 81% reported that they determine the level of functioning through clinical interview and not by using a specific assessment scale. To manage personal and social functioning in their patients, 26% of psychiatrists prefer pharmacological interventions, whereas 46% prefer psychosocial interventions. Conclusion Psychiatrists

  13. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Middle East and North Africa: Results of Global Burden of Diseases Study from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Farnaz; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILDs) are major causes of death and disability in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, they have different patterns in countries with various geographical, cultural, and socio-economic status. We aimed to compare the burden of GILDs in Iran with its neighboring countries using the results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study in 2010. METHODS Classic metrics of GBD have been used including: age-standardized rates (ASRs) of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY). All countries neighboring Iran have been selected. In addition, all other countries classified in the MENA region were included. Five major groups of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases were studied including: infections of gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal and pancreatobilliary cancers, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS The overall burden of GILDs is highest in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. Diarrheal diseases have been replaced by gastrointestinal cancers and cirrhosis in most countries in the region. However, in a number of countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, and Yemen, communicable GILDs are still among top causes of mortality and morbidity in addition to non-communicable GILDs and cancers. These countries are experiencing the double burden. In Iran, burden caused by cancers of stomach and esophagus are considerably higher than other countries. Diseases that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings have not been captured by GBD. CONCLUSION Improving the infrastructure of health care system including cancer registries and electronic recording of outpatient care is a necessity for better surveillance of GILDs in MENA. In contrast to expensive treatment, prevention of most GILDs is feasible and inexpensive. The health care systems in the region can be strengthened for

  14. Technical and Political Assessment of Peaceful Nuclear Power Program Prospects in North Africa and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Windsor, Lindsay K.; Kessler, Carol E.

    2007-09-11

    An exceptional number of Middle Eastern and North African nations have recently expressed interest in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Many of these countries have explored nuclear research in limited ways in the past, but the current focused interest and application of resources towards developing nuclear-generated electricity and nuclear-powered desalination plants is unprecedented. Consequently, questions arise in response to this emerging trend: What instigated this interest? To what end(s) will a nuclear program be applied? Does the country have adequate technical, political, legislative, nonproliferation, and safety infrastructure required for the capability desired? If so, what are the next steps for a country in preparation for a future nuclear program? And if not, what collaboration efforts are possible with the United States or others? This report provides information on the capabilities and interests of 13 countries in the region in nuclear energy programs in light of safety, nonproliferation and security concerns. It also provides information useful for determining potential for offering technical collaboration, financial aid, and/or political support.

  15. The Middle East population puzzle.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  16. The Middle East population puzzle.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  17. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis among high-risk groups: Understanding the knowledge gap in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nada M; Rahhal, Nour; Charide, Rana; Kreidieh, Khalil; El-Khatib, Rolla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify gaps in the existing knowledge on single, dual and triple infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region among men who have sex with men (MSMs), female sex workers (FSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs) and prisoners. METHODS: We performed an extensive literature search on articles published on the topic in the 25 countries of the MENA region. PubMed database was used as the main search engine. Case reports, case series, qualitative studies, editorials, commentaries, authors’ replies and animal studies were excluded. Original articles and reviews dealing with the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infection were included. Data on population type, sample size, age and markers of infections were extracted from the relevant studies. RESULTS: HIV, HBV and HCV are blood-borne viruses with similar modes of transmission. The categories of people at high risk of acquiring HIV-1, HBV and HCV commonly include: MSMs, FSW and IDUs. It is well established that HIV-positive individuals co-infected with HBV or HCV suffer from liver pathology associated with morbidity and mortality. Moreover, HIV-infected individuals do not respond well to treatment for HBV or HCV and hence are at increased risk of hepatic toxicity. Consequently, co-infection of HIV-positive individuals with HBV and/or HCV is a global health problem of significant magnitude. Our review reveals the paucity of epidemiological data for key populations in many countries of the region. Limited number of studies exists in the MENA region on the status of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infections among prisoners, MSMs and FSWs. Evidence support the continued increase of the HIV epidemic among MSMs. In addition to the lack of studies on MSMs and FSWs in the MENA region, our review highlights the lack of data on the practices, characteristics, or the status of HIV infection and viral hepatitis

  19. Distribution of body mass index among subjects with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: data from the BREATHE study

    PubMed Central

    Koniski, Marie-Louise; Salhi, Hocine; Lahlou, Aïcha; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2015-01-01

    Background Data describing the potential relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and body mass index (BMI) are limited within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Objective To evaluate the distribution of BMI among subjects with COPD in the general population of the MENA region. Methods This study was a subanalysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of ten countries in the MENA region and Pakistan. The study population consisted of subjects screened for COPD who documented their weight and height. A COPD questionnaire was administered to subjects who screened positively for COPD in order to collect data on patient characteristics, symptom severity, management and burden of disease, comorbidities, and health care resource utilization and data allowing calculation of the BMI. The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) was administered to those screened positively for COPD to collect data on the impact of respiratory symptoms. Results Nine hundred and ninety-six subjects with COPD, who completed the detailed COPD questionnaire and documented their weight and height, were included in this analysis. The mean BMI was 27.7±5.7 kg/m2. The proportion of COPD patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is significantly higher than the proportion with a BMI <25 kg/m2 (64.6% [n=643] vs 35.4% [n=353], respectively; P<0.0001). There were no significant differences between the distribution of BMI, ages, sex, COPD symptoms, exacerbations, CAT scores, COPD-associated health care resource consumption, and GOLD severity groups. However, the occurrence of comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases seemed to be significantly associated with obese or morbidly obese status (P=0.02). Conclusion In the MENA region, the majority of COPD subjects were overweight or obese, and comorbidities such as diabetes or cardiovascular diseases are likely to be associated with COPD when BMI is in the obese or morbidly

  20. Association between dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aljefree, Najlaa; Ahmed, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews the evidence related to the association of dietary pattern with coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, and the associated risk factors among adults in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Methods A systematic review of published articles between January 1990 and March 2015 was conducted using Pro-Quest Public Health, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The term ‘dietary pattern’ refers to data derived from dietary pattern analyses and individual food component analyses. Results The search identified 15 studies. The available data in the MENA region showed that Western dietary pattern has been predominant among adults with fewer adherences to the traditional diet, such as the Mediterranean diet. The Western dietary pattern was found to be associated with an increased risk of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), body mass index (BMI), and hypertension. The Mediterranean diet, labelled in two studies as ‘the traditional Lebanese diet’, was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the risk of diabetes, while one study found no association between the Mediterranean diet and MetS. Two randomised controlled trials conducted in Iran demonstrated the effect of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) in reducing metabolic risk among patients with diabetes and MetS. Likewise, the consumption of dairy products was associated with decreased blood pressure and WC, while the intake of whole grains was associated with reduced WC. In addition, the high consumption of black tea was found to be associated with decreased serum lipids. The intake of fish, vegetable oils, and tea had a protective effect on CHD, whereas the intake of full-fat yoghurt and hydrogenated fats was associated with an increased risk of CHD. Conclusion There appears to be a significant association of Western dietary pattern with the increased risk of CHD, strokes, and associated risk factors among adults in the MENA region

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Cheston B; Opal, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses have traditionally been associated with mild upper respiratory tract infections throughout the world. In the fall of 2002, a new coronavirus emerged in in Asia causing severe viral pneumonia, i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Nearly a decade following the SARS epidemic, a new coronavirus causing severe viral pneumonia has emerged, i.e., middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). Since the initial case of MERS-CoV occurred in June of 2012 in Saudi Arabia there have been 688 confirmed cases and 282 deaths in 20 countries.   Although both SARS and MERS are caused by coronaviruses, SARS was characterized by efficient human transmission and relatively low mortality rate. In contrast, MERS is relatively inefficiently transmitted to humans but has a high mortality rate. Given the potential overlap in presentation and manifestation, it is important to understand the clinical and epidemiologic differences between MERS, SARS and influenza. PMID:25089913

  2. Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Providing a gateway into the real literature emerging from the Middle East, this book shows teachers how to make the topic authentic, powerful, and relevant. "Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East": (1) Introduces teachers to this literature and how to teach it; (2) Brings to the reader a tremendous diversity of teachable texts and…

  3. Children in the Muslim Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock, Ed.

    The Middle East has been undergoing vast social and economic change, but in all reports available today, little attention has been paid to the situation of children. The purpose of this book is to help readers better understand the children of the Middle East to give a sense of their lives today and a sense of attitudes toward children and their…

  4. Simulation of the mineral dust emission over Northern Africa and Middle East using an aerodynamic roughness length map derived from the ASCAT/PARASOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Jorba, Oriol; Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Prigent, Catherine; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Aeolian aerodynamic roughness length in arid regions is a key parameter to predict the vulnerability of the surface to wind erosion, and, as a consequence, the related production of mineral aerosol (e.g. Laurent et al., 2008). Recently, satellite-derived roughness length at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity to use them in advanced emission schemes in global and regional models (i.e. Menut et al., 2013). A global map of the aeolian aerodynamic roughness length at high resolution (6 km) is derived, for arid and semi-arid regions merging PARASOL and ASCAT data to estimate aeolian roughness length. It shows very good consistency with the existing information on the properties of these surfaces. The dataset is available to the community, for use in atmospheric dust transport models. The present contribution analyses the behaviour of the NMMB/BSC-Dust model (Pérez et al., 2011) when the ASCAT/PARASOL satellite-derived global roughness length (Prigent et al, 2012) and the State Soil Geographic database Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) is used. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the dust emission scheme) and the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length. An annual evaluation of NMMB/BSC-Dust (for the year 2011) over Northern Africa and the Middle East using observed aerosol optical depths (AODs) from Aerosol Robotic Network sites and aerosol satellite products (MODIS and MISR) will be discussed. Laurent, B., Marticorena, B., Bergametti, G., Leon, J. F., and Mahowald, N. M.: Modeling mineral dust emissions from the Sahara desert using new surface properties and soil database, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D14218, doi:10.1029/2007JD009484, 2008. Menut, L., C. Pérez, K. Haustein, B. Bessagnet, C. Prigent, and S. Alfaro, Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission

  5. Helicobacter pylori: the Middle East scenario.

    PubMed Central

    Novis, B. H.; Gabay, G.; Naftali, T.

    1998-01-01

    A review of Helicobacter pylori in the Middle East is presented. Prevalence studies have been performed in asymptomatic population groups from Algeria, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. These showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is similar to that of the developing countries of the world with a high level of infection in childhood (40 to 70 percent), which increases with age to 85 to 90 percent. Israel, however, has a low prevalence in children (10 percent), but there is a rapid rise in the second decade of life to 39 percent, reaching 79 percent in those over 60 years old. The prevalence rates were higher in those living in communal settlements (72 percent) than in urban dwellers (65 percent). The infection rates were higher in persons of Mediterranean and Asian origin (89 percent) compared to those of Western European/North American origin (57 percent). The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in patients undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms has now been reported from many Middle Eastern countries, including Egypt, Iran, Israel, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. These studies showed that patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease had similar rates of infection as reported from Europe, United States and Africa (71 to 92 percent). However, patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia had higher rates of infection (61 to 89 percent). The H. pylori scenario from the prevalence rates, treatment protocols and responses to treatment does not differ very much from other developing areas of the world. PMID:10378359

  6. Magnetotelluric studies in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaler, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Since its introduction just over half a century ago, the magnetotelluric method has been used in a wide range of environments, both onshore and submarine, at a large number of length scales, and to tackle a huge variety of problems in the earth sciences, both applied and curiosity-driven. Electromagnetic fields are induced in the sub-surface by passive magnetic field sources originating from lightning strikes trapped in the ionospheric waveguide and from the solar wind interacting with the magnetosphere, which enables information on the sub-surface resistivity distribution to be derived. Measuring the tiny induced signals depends on the careful deployment of very sensitive equipment. These time series are then subject to careful selection and processing techniques in the frequency domain to make robust estimates of the tensor quantity embodying the resistivity information as a function of depth. Further processing and assessment of the data allows the practitioner to assess the minimum dimension of the underlying resistivity distribution consistent with the data. As if this wasn't enough, the inverse problem is extremely non-linear, even in the simplest case of resistivity purely a function of depth. Most modelling and interpretation thus proceeds by a combination of forward modelling and regularised inversion, with tests to assess the resolving depth of the data, and their sensitivity to certain features of the model, for example. After introducing the method, I will illustrate it with examples of experiments carried out in East Africa with which I've been involved, concentrating on two substantial inter-disciplinary studies in Ethiopia, one of the northern Main Ethiopian rift, and the other an on-going project studying magmatic and tectonic processes associated with a current rifting episode in Afar. The main target for magnetotellurics in these projects has been imaging partial melt and magma in the sub-surface. I will aim to show how the interpretation of the

  7. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Watson, Amelia K; Swerdlow, David L

    2016-06-01

    Since the identification of the first patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, over 1,600 cases have been reported as of February 2016. Most cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia or in other countries on or near the Arabian Peninsula, but travel-associated cases have also been seen in countries outside the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV causes a severe respiratory illness in many patients, with a case fatality rate as high as 40%, although when contacts are investigated, a significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic or only have mild symptoms. At this time, no vaccines or treatments are available. Epidemiological and other data suggest that the source of most primary cases is exposure to camels. Person-to-person transmission occurs in household and health care settings, although sustained and efficient person-to-person transmission has not been observed. Strict adherence to infection control recommendations has been associated with control of previous outbreaks. Vigilance is needed because genomic changes in MERS-CoV could result in increased transmissibility, similar to what was seen in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). PMID:27337460

  8. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David

    2015-06-01

    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands. PMID:25883052

  9. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David

    2015-06-01

    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands.

  10. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M. H.; Maslin, M. A.; Deino, A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    Evidence from fluvio-lacustrine sediments in ten separate basins in the Ethiopian and Kenya rifts suggests there were three protracted humid periods during the Late Cenozoic; at 2.7 - 2.5, 1.9 - 1.7, and 1.1 - 0.9 million years before present. These wet periods are coeval with known increases of aridity in parts of North West and North East Africa, indicating significant regional shifts in African climate. These three East African wet periods correspond to major global climatic changes as well as maxima in eccentricity and thus precession, suggesting a combined global and local causation. These climatic changes were important for the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominids in East Africa as it implies that key steps in human evolution occurred during relatively humid periods in a region containing extensive deep lakes.

  11. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region.

  12. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405

  13. Estimation of Severe Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases in the Middle East, 2012-2016.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Justin J; Carias, Cristina; Rudd, Jessica M; Pham, Huong T; Haber, Yonat; Pesik, Nicki; Cetron, Martin S; Gambhir, Manoj; Gerber, Susan I; Swerdlow, David L

    2016-10-01

    Using data from travelers to 4 countries in the Middle East, we estimated 3,250 (95% CI 1,300-6,600) severe cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome occurred in this region during September 2012-January 2016. This number is 2.3-fold higher than the number of laboratory-confirmed cases recorded in these countries. PMID:27648640

  14. Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

  15. The Middle East in global strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the links between international politics and strategy. The contributors provide an analysis of the strategic interests of the major international actors in the Middle East. The policies of the superpowers toward the Middle East are evaluated. The awareness of the strategic value and interests of two key regional actors - Syria and Israel - are discussed. The author further discusses NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), West European allies and the U.S., as well as Soviet dominance in foreign policy decisions made in the WTO. There is emphasis on the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Iran-Iraq war.

  16. History of Sleeping Sickness in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hide, Geoff

    1999-01-01

    The history of human sleeping sickness in East Africa is characterized by the appearance of disease epidemics interspersed by long periods of endemicity. Despite the presence of the tsetse fly in large areas of East Africa, these epidemics tend to occur multiply in specific regions or foci rather than spreading over vast areas. Many theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but recent molecular approaches and detailed analyses of epidemics have highlighted the stability of human-infective trypanosome strains within these foci. The new molecular data, taken alongside the history and biology of human sleeping sickness, are beginning to highlight the important factors involved in the generation of epidemics. Specific, human-infective trypanosome strains may be associated with each focus, which, in the presence of the right conditions, can be responsible for the generation of an epidemic. Changes in agricultural practice, favoring the presence of tsetse flies, and the important contribution of domestic animals as a reservoir for the parasite are key factors in the maintenance of such epidemics. This review examines the contribution of molecular and genetic data to our understanding of the epidemiology and history of human sleeping sickness in East Africa. PMID:9880477

  17. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  18. Fossil land snails of East Africa and their palaeoecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickford, Martin

    1995-04-01

    This study deals with the Neogene and extant land snails of tropical East Africa and their implications for interpreting the paleoenvironments of the numerous localities at which they have been found. Of major significance to the study is the intimate association between the terrestrial molluscs and the rich mammalian faunas, hominoids included, of East Africa. Thus, palaeoecological reconstructions based on land snails are directly applicable to the mammalian faunas. Palaeoecological reconstructions are proposed for most of the Lower and Middle Miocene hominoids, including Proconsul, Rangwapithecus, Limnopithecus, Micropithecus, Nyanzapithecus, Kenyapithecus and others, and for the mid-Pliocene Australopithecus from Laetoli, Tanzania. The departure point for the palaeoecological reconstructions is a comprehensive study of extant terrestrial molluscs of East Africa, the habitat preferences of which are well documented. All the fossil gastropods studied comprise extant genera and even species, so the usual problems regarding the application of actualism to fossil assemblages is avoided. Furthermore, the fossil gastropod assemblages resemble extant ones, confirming their utility for such reconstructions. Among the parameters examined are rainfall, altitude, vegetation cover and type and zoogeography. A further point of interest is that the samples are more than adequate for the purposes of the study, many of the fossil localities having yielded several thousand specimens. Finally, more than 40% of the extant genera of East Africa have now been recognized in the fossil state. The molluscs are thus, by far, the best represented biological group known in the fossil record of Africa and as such hold great potential for understanding the past. This study ends with reconstructions of the palaeoecology of numerous fossiliferous localities in East Africa which have yielded molluscs and mammals. Changes through the geological column are documented and the habitat preferences

  19. Academic Freedom and Middle East Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colla, Elliott

    2007-01-01

    When the author and his colleague Marsha Pripstein Posusney of Bryant College organized a workshop, entitled "The Study of the Middle East and Islam: Challenges after 9-11," at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University, he naively assumed it would come off without friction. After all, he thought, they were not even talking…

  20. Water Resource Conflicts in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the causes and conditions of the major sources of conflict concerning the three major international river basins in the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. Investigates possible solutions. Includes maps and population statistics of the major countries involved in the conflict. (MJP)

  1. Development of grasslands and savannas in East Africa during the Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serling, T. E.

    1992-03-01

    The development of savanna-type grasslands is a relatively recent phenomena in East Africa. The stable carbon isotopic composition of paleosol carbonates from fossil localities in East Africa show that C 4 vegetation was present by amout 8-9 Ma but made up only a relatively small proportion of the total biomass. Although the proportion of C 4 vegetation increased in the Pliocene and Pleistocene there is no evidence for the development of virtually pure C 4 grasslands, as is characterized by tropical grasslands today, until Middle Pleistocene times. This has important implications concerning the evolution of mammals in Africa, including hominids.

  2. Estimation of Severe Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases in the Middle East, 2012–2016

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Rudd, Jessica M.; Pham, Huong T.; Haber, Yonat; Pesik, Nicki; Cetron, Martin S.; Gambhir, Manoj; Gerber, Susan I.; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from travelers to 4 countries in the Middle East, we estimated 3,250 (95% CI 1,300–6,600) severe cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome occurred in this region during September 2012–January 2016. This number is 2.3-fold higher than the number of laboratory-confirmed cases recorded in these countries. PMID:27648640

  3. MISR Views the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.

    At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.

    Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.

    'MISR', as it turns

  4. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, Martin H.; Maslin, Mark A.; Deino, Alan; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2005-09-01

    Lake sediments in 10 Ethiopian, Kenyan, and Tanzanian rift basins suggest that there were three humid periods at 2.7 to 2.5 million years ago (Ma), 1.9 to 1.7 Ma, and 1.1 to 0.9 Ma, superimposed on the longer-term aridification of East Africa. These humid periods correlate with increased aridity in northwest and northeast Africa and with substantial global climate transitions. These episodes could have had important impacts on the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominins, because a number of key events, such as the origin of the genus Homo and the evolution of the species Homo erectus, took place in this region during that time.

  5. Diagnostic evaluation of the Community Earth System Model in simulating mineral dust emission with insight into large-scale dust storm mobilization in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajuli, Sagar Prasad; Yang, Zong-Liang; Lawrence, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Large amounts of mineral dust are injected into the atmosphere during dust storms, which are common in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where most of the global dust hotspots are located. In this work, we present simulations of dust emission using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2.2 (CESM 1.2.2) and evaluate how well it captures the spatio-temporal characteristics of dust emission in the MENA region with a focus on large-scale dust storm mobilization. We explicitly focus our analysis on the model's two major input parameters that affect the vertical mass flux of dust-surface winds and the soil erodibility factor. We analyze dust emissions in simulations with both prognostic CESM winds and with CESM winds that are nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis values. Simulations with three existing erodibility maps and a new observation-based erodibility map are also conducted. We compare the simulated results with MODIS satellite data, MACC reanalysis data, AERONET station data, and CALIPSO 3-d aerosol profile data. The dust emission simulated by CESM, when driven by nudged reanalysis winds, compares reasonably well with observations on daily to monthly time scales despite CESM being a global General Circulation Model. However, considerable bias exists around known high dust source locations in northwest/northeast Africa and over the Arabian Peninsula where recurring large-scale dust storms are common. The new observation-based erodibility map, which can represent anthropogenic dust sources that are not directly represented by existing erodibility maps, shows improved performance in terms of the simulated dust optical depth (DOD) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) compared to existing erodibility maps although the performance of different erodibility maps varies by region.

  6. RAND's Impact in the Middle East. Corporate Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…

  7. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids for the management of cancer pain in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East: introduction and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cherny, N I; Cleary, J; Scholten, W; Radbruch, L; Torode, J

    2013-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are critical to the effective relief of cancer pain. Effective treatment is predicated on sound assessments, individually tailored analgesic therapy, and the availability and accessibility of the required medications. In some countries, pain relief is hampered by the lack of availability or barriers to the accessibility of opioid analgesics. As the follow-up to a successful project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids and regulatory barriers in Europe, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) undertook to expand their research to those parts of the world where data were lacking regarding these aspects of care, in particular Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the states of India. This project has been undertaken in collaboration with the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), the Pain and Policy Studies Group (PPSG) of the University of Wisconsin, and the World Health Organization (WHO), together with a consortium of 17 international oncology and palliative care societies. This article describes the study methodology.

  8. Purdah and overpopulation in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Misch, A

    1990-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa constitute the Islamic world. From Morocco to Afghanistan the population is 340 million and growing at a rate of 3% annually and will double in 23 years. Currently food, water, and land resources are being taxed to their limit and continued growth will only cause larger scale problems for the region. To complicate the issue public policies and private practices and attitudes are leading to continued population growth. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism does not recognize the problem of over population. In fact the revision of family law by fundamentalist politicians has done a great deal of damage to the improvements in the status of women throughout the region. The revival of Purdah, the practice of keeping women out of the public eye and confined to home, is just one example or how the rise of Islamic fundamentalism is turning back the clock in terms of women's rights. The primary disadvantage is that since women are being returned to the home, their only source of values is as child bearers. Women cloistered at home are expected to be prolific child bearers, in fact their value as human beings is judged primarily on this basis. It is their ability to bear sons that is coveted. This of course will only compound the population problems being experienced in the region. Few countries have tried to institute state wide family planning programs, namely: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen, but none of these programs has been very successful. In Iraq, Kuwait, Oman and Saudi Arabia, population growth is viewed as a positive event because it will help eliminate the need for foreign workers. Even in this region, educated people have a lower fertility rate. For example in Jordan 60% of illiterate males "did not believe in" contraception while only 15% of men educated past the secondary level felt the same way. If women are forced out of the labor force and into the home to have children, the population problem will only grow.

  9. The post-war Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1992-03-09

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand

  10. Ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. M.

    1958-01-01

    The author gives a comprehensive account of the present status of knowledge regarding the ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Middle East and North Africa. He discusses in detail the types of habitat favoured by this snail, its life-cycle and seasonal variations in its populations, the effect of ecological factors on its distribution and occurrence, and the relationship between its control and its bionomics, stressing the many aspects of these subjects that require further investigation and suggesting lines for future research. In addition, the author outlines briefly the effect of some human activities (for example, extension of irrigation and agriculture), in their relationship to the snail host, on the incidence of bilharziasis haematobia in the Middle East and Africa. He concludes the paper with a summary of the three basic needs in respect of bilharziasis control: ecological research; prevention of pollution of waters with human excrement; and avoidance of human contact with infective water. PMID:13573115

  11. Recent developments of the Middle East catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Mehdi; Amini, Hamideh; Yazdi, Pouye; Sesetyan, Karin; Demircioglu, Mine Betul; Kalafat, Dogan; Erdik, Mustafa; Giardini, Domenico; Khan, M. Asif; Tsereteli, Nino

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes a recent study in the framework of the Global Earth model (GEM) and the Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) project to establish the new catalog of seismicity for the Middle East, using all historical (pre-1900), early and modern instrumental events up to 2006. According to different seismicity, which depends on geophysical, geological, tectonic, and seismicity data, this region is subdivided to nine subregions, consisting of Alborz-Azerbaijan, Afghanistan-Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Caucasus, Central Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Makran, Zagros, and Turkey (Eastern Anatolia; after 30° E). After omitting the duplicate events, aftershocks, and foreshocks by using the Gruenthal method, and uniform all magnitude to Mw scale, 28,244 main events remain for the new catalog of Middle East from 1250 B.C. through 2006. The magnitude of completeness ( Mc) was determined as 4.9 for five out of nine subregions, where the least values of Mc were found to be 4.2. The threshold of Mc is around 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and 4.0, for the time after 1950, 1963, 1975, and 2000, respectively. The average of teleseismic depths in all regions is less than 15 km. Totally, majority of depth for Kopeh-Dagh and Central Iran, Zagros, and Alborz-Azerbaijan, approximately, is 15, 13, and 11 km and for Afghanistan-Pakistan, Caucasus, Makran, Turkey (after 30° E), and Saudi Arabia is about 9 km.

  12. The Precambrian crustal structure of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugume, Fred Alex

    In this thesis, the Precambrian crustal structure of East African is investigated along with the crustal structures of three Cenozoic rift basins located in the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). In the first part of the thesis, P-wave receiver functions are modeled using the H-k method to obtain new insights about the bulk composition and thickness of the crust for Precambrian terrains throughout East Africa. The average crustal thickness for all but one of the terrains is between 37 and 39 km. An exception is the Ubendian terrain, which has an average crustal thickness 42 km. In all terrains, the average Poisson's ratio is similar, ranging from 0.25 to 0.26, indicating a bulk crustal composition that is felsic to intermediate. The main finding of this study is that crustal structure is similar across all terrains, which span more than 4.0 Ga of earth history. There is no discernable difference in the crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios between the Archean and Proterozoic terrains, or between the Proterozoic terrains, unlike the variability in Precambrian crustal structure found in many other continents. In the second part of the thesis, a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities and receiver functions was used to investigate the shear wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Precambrian terrains of East Africa. In comparison with other areas of similar age in southern and western Africa where the same joint inversion method has been applied, I find that while there is little difference in the mean shear wave velocities for the entire crust across all of the Precambrian terrains, and also few differences in the thickness of the crust, there exists substantial variability in lower crustal structure. This variability is reflected primarily in the thickness of the lower crustal layers with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s. This variability is found both within terrains of the same age (i

  13. Somalian Earthquakes of May, 1980, East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegg, J.C.; Lepine, J.C.; Tarantola, A.; Leveque, J.J.

    1981-04-01

    A seismic crisis, with a m/sub b/ = 5.3 main shock, occured in the Somali Republic East Africa (10 /sup 0/N, 43 /sup 0/E) from April to November 1980. Up to 2000 earthquakes with M/sub L/>2 have been recorded during this period. This earthquake sequence is of particular interest because it occurred in a seismically inactive zone and include a rather long aftershock sequence. Two groups of epicenters were identified using a relative location procedure. Aftershocks observed during the first two weeks fall very close to the Borama City, while latter shocks are situated 10km west. This may suggest that the second group of earthquakes has been induced continental margin between the Somalian Plateau shield and the quasi-oceanic crust of the Afar-Gulf of Aden region, remains active to day and is relevant to intraplate seismicity.

  14. Huntington Disease (Chorea) in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, Euan M

    2009-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) has been reported in Arab families in several Middle East countries including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt and in non-Arab populations in other countries in the region. It is probably under-reported, and until now, has not been recorded in Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan or in Iraq. The Middle East has always been on the crossroads of trade and travel, and HD was probably introduced to some of these countries in previous times. The prevalence rate in Middle Eastern Arabs is estimated to vary from 3 to 4 per 100,000. Although the HD gene which codes for the protein huntingtin has been identified, the function of this protein is not known. At present, no treatment has been found to delay the onset of HD or to treat it effectively. Although relatively rare, HD has increasingly become a focus of international gene research, with the support and collaboration of the International Huntington Association (IHA). The IHA has been represented in Saudi Arabia and Oman. PMID:21509270

  15. MERI reports on the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The MERI Reports on the current political and economic situation of the major countries of the Middle East have established themselves as one of the most authoritative sources for the region. The volumes have been expanded by the addition of considerable statistical appendices for each country. This book presents MERI Reports on Middle East Countries. Each report has five general sections; 1. Summary Conclusions. 2. Background Description. 3. Political Analysis. 4. Economic Analysis. 5. Statistical and Tabular Data. The Political Analysis is broken down into an overview of recent internal and external developments, an analysis of the present situation (internal and external), country-specific or regional issues, and projections. The Economic Analysis is divided into macroeconomic analysis, planning, sectoral analyses, balance-of-payments, opportunities for foreign business, and projections. The section on Data begins with basic information and then gives specialized data on politics, defence, resources (natural and human), the economy, transport, communications, and health, education and welfare. The statistics and tables on the economy deal successively with basic indicators, banking and finance, energy, industry, agriculture and fishing, development, trade, and labor.

  16. Global perspectives--the Middle East: Egypt.

    PubMed

    Aidaros, H

    2005-08-01

    The Middle East region is characterised by the grouping of 20 countries with similar cultural traditions and religious concepts. The majority of the population of this region follows the religion of Islam, which considers all animals as important as humans, and others follow Christianity and Judaism. The majority of people dealing with animals have their own religious concepts, but most countries have no clear enforced official animal welfare regulations. Animal welfare activities in the Middle East region, as in Egypt for example, are carried out by various individuals, non-governmental organisations and the official Veterinary Services. The slaughter of animals for human consumption is in accordance with Islamic rites, which is the least painful method for the animals. Extensive production systems are the predominant systems in the region, and it is not common for animals in the region to suffer stress during production processes or slaughter. Although some success has been achieved in the area of animal welfare, as seen in improvements in health care, the development of modern abattoirs with proper facilities, and the establishment of policies for combating stray dogs, there are still major constraints to the implementation of effective animal welfare measures, including those for wildlife. These constraints include the lack of finances and the absence of effective legislative measures to prevent the trapping and/or hunting of wild animals for pleasure or illegal trade.

  17. Sn Attenuation in the Middle-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, W.; Kaviani, A.; Bao, X.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Turkish-Iranian Plateau and Zagros Mountains, a dominant tectonic feature in the Middle-East, were formed as a result of the continental collision (between Arabian plate and Eurasia plates). In order to better understand the nature of the lithosphere mantle and origin of the measure seismic velocity anomalies we have made detailed measurements of the uppermost mantle attenuation using the high frequency regional phase Sn. In order to measure Sn attenuation. We have collected a large data set consisting of 18 years (1995-2012) of waveforms recorded by 305 permanent and temporary stations. We used a bandpass filter (0.1-0.5Hz) to identify efficient longer period Sn phases. In order to determine Sn Q we applied a Two Station Method (TSM) and Reverse Two Station Method (RTM) to eliminate the source effects. We have used the LSQR algorithm to tomographically map Sn attenuation tomography across the Middle-East. We also determined the Sn propagation efficiencies visually and tomographically map qualitatively assigned Sn propagation efficiencies across the Middle-East. The Sn Attenuation Tomography show moderately low Q values beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau (~250) and high Q values beneath the south Caspian sea (~400) and Arabian shield (~400). We also observe high Q values beneath the Zagros mountains (~450) that is consistent with the Arabian plate underthrusting beneath the Eurasia plate. The Sn Efficiency Tomography shows high attenuation within the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and low attenuation in the Arabian Plate and across the Caspian Sea. This is consistent with prior studies that suggest a hot and thin lithosphere beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and it also suggests that intrinsic attenuation is the dominant component in Sn Q across the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Due to the signal-to-noise criterion to select amplitudes and the efficiency criterion to select two-station and reverse-two-station paths for the inversion, the data are left-censored and the

  18. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunit K

    2016-08-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped RNA viruses that infect birds, mammals, and humans. Infections caused by human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are mostly associated with the respiratory, enteric, and nervous systems. The hCoVs only occasionally induce lower respiratory tract disease, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. In 2002 to 2003, a global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the seminal detection of a novel CoV (SARS-CoV). A decade later (June 2012), another novel CoV was implicated as the cause of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia. Although bats might serve as a reservoir of MERS-CoV, it is unlikely that they are the direct source for most human cases. Severe lines of evidence suggest that dromedary camels have been the major cause of transmission to humans. The emergence of MERS-CoV has triggered serious concerns about the potential for a widespread outbreak. All MERS cases were linked directly or indirectly to the Middle East region including Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, and UAE. MERS cases have also been reported in the later phases in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Tunisia. Most of these MERS cases were linked with the Middle East. The high mortality rates in family-based and hospital-based outbreaks were reported among patients with comorbidities such as diabetes and renal failure. MERS-CoV causes an acute, highly lethal pneumonia and renal dysfunction. The major complications reported in fatal cases are hyperkalemia with associated ventricular tachycardia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pericarditis, and multiorgan failure. The case-fatality rate seems to be higher for MERS-CoV (around 30%) than for SARS-CoV (9.6%). The combination regimen of type 1 interferon + lopinavir/ritonavir is considered as the first-line therapy for MERS. Antiviral treatment is generally recommended for 10 to 14 days in patients with MERS-CoV infection. Convalescent plasma

  19. Gender, ageing & carework in East and Southern Africa: A review

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 58 million persons aged 60-plus live in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2050 that number will rise sharply to 215 million. Older Africans traditionally get care in their old age from the middle generation. But in East and Southern Africa, HIV has hollowed out that generation, leaving many older persons to provide care for their children’s children without someone to care for him or herself in old age. Simultaneously, the burden of disease among older persons is changing in this region. The result is a growing care deficit. This article examines the existing literature on care for and by older persons in this region, highlighting understudied aspects of older persons’ experiences of ageing and care – including the positive impacts of carework, variation in the region, and the role of resilience and pensions. We advance a conceptual framework of gendered identities – for both men and women – and intergenerational social exchange to help focus and understand the complex interdependent relationships around carework, which are paramount in addressing the needs of older persons in the current care deficit in this region, and the Global South more generally. PMID:25947225

  20. Middle East: Slow year on the Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article surveys the petroleum outlook in the Middle East area. Observations include: Saudi Arabia's money crunch continues to keep the lid on exploration, production work; Abu Dhabi has also curtailed operations because of low oil prices, reduced budgets; Followup drilling has been disappointing around recent gas strikes in Sharjah, Dubai; Oman's aggressive EandP program will result in a 30% drilling increase this year; Kuwait isn't slowing down its development of light oil either; the goal is 40 new wells; Iran and Iraq are still boosting export capacities despite attacks on oil facilities; North Yemen's Alief field is a major find. Numerous structures remain to be drilled; Syria, Bahrain have development projects underway. Turkey is attracting U.S. majors.

  1. MODIS Views the Middle-East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    To paraphrase English author T.H. White, borders are the one thing a man sees that a bird cannot see as it flies high overhead. For the 15th consecutive day, differences in ideology have sparked violence and tension in the middle-east as the rest of the world watches, concerned. This true-color image of the region was taken on September 10, 2000, by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows the lands of Israel along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, with the countries of Jordan to the southeast and Syria to the Northeast. Jerusalem, labeled, is Israel's capital city and Aman, labeled, is the capital of Jordan. The region known as the West Bank lies between the two countries. Running from north to south, the Jordan River links the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC

  2. Books about the Middle East for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia

    This bibliography comprises a list of 236 reviewed children's books about the Middle East. All books were published since 1970 in the United States. For the purpose of this document the countries of the Middle East number 16: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab…

  3. Middle East Geopolitical Transformation: The Disappearance of a Shatterbelt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Saul B.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the future of the Middle East in the wake of the end of the Cold War. Examines the ongoing political reorientation of the region. Suggests that the United States and Europe can foster a political balance in the Middle East by acting as competitive but allied stabilizers. (SG)

  4. A Global Perspective on Public Relations Ethics: The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    Sophisticated public relations is being practiced in the Middle East. However, the models used in that region are not identical to American models, nor are they identical to those in other Western countries usually considered part of the "First World." In particular, Moslem culture heavily influences Middle East practice. Can the ethics of public…

  5. Communication in the Middle East: A Basic Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    This 48-item bibliography on communication in the Middle East includes books and journal articles published between 1951 and 1990. The bibliography includes materials dealing with Iran, Israel, Islam, media coverage of the Middle East, rhetorical strategies, and the rest of the Arab world. (RS)

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 3 Persons, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Sun; Park, SungHan; Kim, You-Jin; Kang, Hae Ji; Kim, Hak; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Joo Ae; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kim, Kisoon; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-11-01

    In May 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection was laboratory confirmed in South Korea. Patients were a man who had visited the Middle East, his wife, and a man who shared a hospital room with the index patient. Rapid laboratory confirmation will facilitate subsequent prevention and control for imported cases. PMID:26488745

  7. The Middle East Institute Resource Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    Abstracts and evaluations of over 50 instructional and resource materials related to the Middle East are presented in the resource guide. The guide is intended for use by elementary and secondary school social studies classroom teachers as they seek information about availability and potential uses of resources dealing with the Middle East. Four…

  8. The rabies situation in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, A

    2008-01-01

    Rabies is a public health problem of significant importance in the majority of Southern and Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. In some of these countries, there is a considerable death rate due to rabies. Dogs are the main source of human infection, while cats constitute the second most important group of domestic animals followed by cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys and then wild animals. There are around 300 reported human cases in these regions annually, with several hundred thousand post-exposure treatments. Laboratory confirmation of rabies cases is not always performed. In most countries, there is one central rabies diagnosis laboratory with trained staff and the diagnosis capability of district laboratories is weak. Animal rabies control consists of the vaccination of dogs and cats, the elimination of stray animals, health education for the public, etc. Mass vaccination of dogs is not implemented, and the effective coverage rate is not exactly known. The elimination of stray dogs and other animals by shooting and poisoning is still implemented in certain countries, however, this has a minimal effect on rabies transmission. Certain countries of the Middle East region are facing increasing problems due to wildlife rabies, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Israel, Iran and Turkey. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) are usually involved. Coordinated actions to confront the serious rabies public health and economic problems should be undertaken by affected countries, with the assistance of international organisations, under conditions that are suitable for each country. PMID:18634465

  9. Oil, turmoil, and Islam in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The turmoil and strife of the Middle East raises serious questions about the security of the world's oil supply. The author argues that OPEC and OAPEC can no longer afford to impose indiscriminate price increases on the marketplace because they hurt not only themselves but oil poor Third World nations as well. The author analyzes the importance of Middle Eastern oil in world politics. He emphasizes that any consideration of the forces influencing development in the Middle East should take Islamic tradition into account. Each chapter is organized around a current Middle Eastern problem: oil politics in relation to international energy needs; the ramifications of the new oil wealth and power of the Middle East; The Iran-Iraq War; Muslim insurgency in Afghanistan; The Arab-Israel conflict; turmoil in Lebanon; Palestinian nationalism; and the Middle East as a superpower.

  10. Backed tools in Middle Pleistocene central Africa and their evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Barham, Lawrence

    2002-11-01

    The fashioning of stone inserts for composite tools by blunting flakes and blades is a technique usually associated with Late Pleistocene modern humans. Recent reports from two sites in south central Africa (Twin Rivers and Kalambo Falls) suggest that this backed tool technology originated in the later Middle Pleistocene with early or "archaic" Homo sapiens. This paper investigates these claims critically from the perspective of the potential mixing of Middle and Later Stone Age deposits at the two sites and the possible creation of misleading assemblages. The review shows that backed tools form a statistically minor, but technologically significant feature of the early Middle Stone Age of south central Africa. They first appear in the Lupemban industry at approximately 300 ka and remain an element of the Middle Stone Age technological repertoire of the region. Comparisons are made with early backed tool assemblages of east Africa and with the much younger Howiesons Poort industry of southern Africa. The paper concludes that Lupemban tools lack the standardization of the Howiesons Poort backed pieces, but form part of a regionally distinctive and diverse assemblage of heavy and light duty tools. Some modern-like behaviours appear to have emerged by the later Middle Pleistocene in south central Africa.

  11. Pathogenesis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Smits, Saskia L; Haagmans, Bart L

    2015-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (CoVs) mostly cause a common cold that is mild and self-limiting. Zoonotic transmission of CoVs such as the recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, on the other hand, may be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infection. This article reviews the clinical and pathological data available on MERS and compares it to SARS. Most importantly, chest radiographs and imaging results of patients with MERS show features that resemble the findings of organizing pneumonia, different from the lesions in SARS patients, which show fibrocellular intra-alveolar organization with a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia-like pattern. These findings are in line with differences in the induction of cytopathological changes, induction of host gene responses and sensitivity to the antiviral effect of interferons in vitro when comparing both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The challenge will be to translate these findings into an integrated picture of MERS pathogenesis in humans and to develop intervention strategies that will eventually allow the effective control of this newly emerging infectious disease.

  12. Wind Resource Assessment in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, C. M. A.; Gunturu, U. B.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    This study constructs wind power resource in the Middle East using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) boundary layer flux data at 80m, 100m, and 120m. The resource is then characterized using robust metrics on abundance, variability, and intermittency of wind power density at separate heights. The analyses suggest high resource in western regions of Saudi Arabia, especially at the Red Sea and the mountainous regions away from the coastline. Southern coast of Oman and the Gulf of Aden also demonstrate high median wind power density. These corresponding high wind regions also exhibit high availability over the period of record length (1979-2013) as characterized by power density above 200W/m2, as well as similar behavior in episode length, which measures the persistence of the resource. These identified high wind regions differ in resource variability in terms of the coefficient of variation. The western mountainous regions of Saudi Arabia and the coastline of Oman show moderate variability compared to the Red Sea, where it sees two different regimes of variability, low in the north and high in the south. The Gulf of Aden demonstrates surprisingly low variability. Further statistical measures of variability, abundance, and intermittency will be elaborated. We will also discuss the geographical and meteorological factors controlling the wind resource in the region.

  13. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target.

  14. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:27631026

  15. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5'-to-3' direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5' loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5' loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:27631026

  16. Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project: Active Fault Database for the Middle East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülen, L.; Wp2 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the umbrella GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). EMME project region includes Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project will use PSHA approach and the existing source models will be revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. More importantly the most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones will be its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that will permit continuous update, refinement, and analysis. A digital active fault map of the Middle East region is under construction in ArcGIS format. We are developing a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. Similar to the WGCEP-2007 and UCERF-2 projects, the EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a “Fault Section Database”. The “Fault Section” concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far over 3,000 Fault Sections have been defined and parameterized for the Middle East region. A separate “Paleo-Sites Database” includes information on the timing and amounts of fault displacement for major fault zones. A digital reference library that includes the pdf files of the relevant papers, reports is also being prepared. Another task of the WP-2 of the EMME project is to prepare

  17. The impact of dietary habits and metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular and diabetes mortality in countries of the Middle East and North Africa in 2010: a comparative risk assessment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Afshin, Ashkan; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Fahimi, Saman; Shi, Peilin; Powles, John; Singh, Gitanjali; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Abdollahi, Morteza; Al-Hooti, Suad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Houshiar-rad, Anahita; Hwalla, Nahla; Koksal, Eda; Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Pekcan, Gulden; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Zaghloul, Sahar; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Objective/design We conducted a comparative risk assessment analysis to estimate the cardiometabolic disease (CMD) mortality attributable to 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors in 20 countries of the Middle East by age, sex and time. The national exposure distributions were obtained from a systematic search of multiple databases. Missing exposure data were estimated using a multilevel Bayesian hierarchical model. The aetiological effect of each risk factor on disease-specific mortality was obtained from clinical trials and observational studies. The number of disease-specific deaths was obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease mortality database. Mortality due to each risk factor was determined using the population attributable fraction and total number of disease-specific deaths. Setting/population Adult population in the Middle East by age, sex, country and time. Results Suboptimal diet was the leading risk factor for CMD mortality in 11 countries accounting for 48% (in Morocco) to 72% (in the United Arab Emirates) of CMD deaths. Non-optimal systolic blood pressure was the leading risk factor for CMD deaths in eight countries causing 45% (in Bahrain) to 68% (in Libya) of CMD deaths. Non-optimal body mass index and fasting plasma glucose were the third and fourth leading risk factors for CMD mortality in most countries. Among individual dietary factors, low intake of fruits accounted for 8% (in Jordan) to 21% (in Palestine) of CMD deaths and low intake of whole grains was responsible for 7% (in Palestine) to 22% (in the United Arab Emirates) of CMD deaths. Between 1990 and 2010, the CMD mortality attributable to most risk factors had decreased except for body mass index and trans-fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings highlight key similarities and differences in the impact of the dietary and metabolic risk factors on CMD mortality in the countries of the Middle East and inform priorities for policy measures to prevent CMD. PMID:25995236

  18. Enhancing Middle East climate change monitoring and indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Sensoy, S.; Peterson, T.C.; Zhang, X.

    2007-08-15

    Extreme climate events can have significant impacts on both natural and human systems, and therefore it is important to know if and how climate extremes are changing. Analysis of extremes requires long-term daily station data and, unfortunately, there are many regions in the world where these data are not internationally exchanged. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report (Folland et al. 2001) relied heavily on the multinational analysis of Frich et al (2002). However, Frich et al. had no results from all of Central and South America, and most of Africa and southern Asia, including the Middle East. To remedy this situation for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, the joint World Meteorological Organization Commission for Climatology/World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) project on Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring, and Indices (Zwiers et al. 2003) internationally coordinated a series of five regional climate change workshops and a set of indices for analyses of extremes. Two workshops covered the Americas, one in Brazil and one in Guatemala. One workshop addressed southern Africa. A workshop in India involved south and central Asia, while the workshop for the Middle East sought to address the region from Turkey to Iran and from Georgia to the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The key to a successful workshop is a collaborative approach between outside experts and regional participants. The participants here broght long-term daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature data, station history information, an understanding of their country's climate, and a willingness to analyze thse data under the tutelage of outside experts. The outside experts brought knowledge of the crucial data and climate change issues, presentations to explain these issues, and user-friendly software to aid the analyses. Xuebin Zhang of Environment Canada wrote the workshop

  19. Suggested Activities for a Unit on the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    1983-01-01

    Student activities that focus on the different cultures and the history of the Middle East from Biblical times to the present are suggested. These include debates, art projects, slide shows, maps, and research problems. (IS)

  20. Evening Pass Over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 6, 2011, from 19:46:23 ...

  1. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Hamzah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geographical distribution of involved dromedary camel populations suggested that the virus was present in dromedary camels several decades ago. Though bats and alpacas can serve as potential reservoirs for MERS-CoV, dromedary camels seem to be the only animal host responsible for the spill over human infections. PMID:27255185

  2. The Middle East: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Jane

    This is an annotated bibliography of folklore, fiction and nonfiction about the Middle East, written in English for children aged 5 and older. There are eleven chapters - one which focuses on the entire Middle Eastern region, and ten which deal with individual countries: Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and…

  3. Reducing the Burden of Cancer in East Africa

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of CGH is to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to reduce cancer deaths worldwide. To carry out that mission, we facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. CGH's latest effort, the East Africa Cancer Control Leadership Forum, carried out this mission by helping African partners develop their own individual cancer control programs.

  4. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived mo...

  5. Does Family Background Matter for Learning in East Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sam; Schipper, Youdi

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which differences in family background characteristics explain differences in learning outcomes between children captures the extent of equality in educational opportunities. This study uses large-scale data on literacy and numeracy outcomes for children of school age across East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) to investigate the…

  6. Regional initiatives in support of surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) Experience.

    PubMed

    Ope, Maurice; Sonoiya, Stanley; Kariuki, James; Mboera, Leonard E G; Gandham, Ramana N V; Schneidman, Miriam; Kimura, Mwihaki

    2013-01-01

    The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC) partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS) regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC), EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP). The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities. PMID:23362409

  7. Synoptic analysis of dust storms in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Mehdi; Kavianpour, Mohammad Reza; Shao, Yaping

    2013-05-01

    Dust storm in the Middle East and south-west Asia is a natural hazard and the Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain has been recognized as the main dust source in this area. In this study, more than 60 dust storms that occurred during the period 2003-2011 are investigated on the basis of MODIS satellite images, and 12 of the dust storms are selected for synoptic analysis using the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis Data. The potential dust sources in the Middle East and south-west Asian region (20°E to 80°E, 5°N to 50°N) are analyzed and used in the synoptic analysis. Dust storms in the region can be grouped into two main categories, i.e., the Shamal dust storms and the frontal dust storms. Synoptic systems, associated with the two categories, are distinguished and the frequency of the patterns is identified. For 68% of the Shamal dust storms, a high pressure system is situated between 0°E to 30°E and 27°N to 45°N, and a low pressure system between 50°E to 70°E and 23°N to 43°N. For 86% of the frontal dust storms, a high is located between 51°E to 67°E and 18°N to 33°N and a low between 28°E to 48°E and 32°N to 43°N. Three main patterns for Shamal dust storms are identified, which represent about 60% of the Shamal dust storms. This analysis confirms that the Shamal is related to the anticyclones located over northern Africa to Eastern Europe and the monsoon trough over Iraq, southern Iran, Pakistan and the Indian Subcontinent. The analysis also shows that the main dust sink for the frontal dust storms in Tigris and Euphrates alluvial plain extends from center of Iraq to west and center of Iran and, in most severe cases, to northern Iran and the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.

  8. Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication from the Central European Vascular Forum (C.E.V.F.)-3rd revision (2013) with the sharing of the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, and the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, G M; Kalodiki, E; L Gašpar, L; Martini, R; Minar, E; Angelides, N; Nicolaides, A N; Novo, S; Visonà, A; Prior, M; Arosio, E; Hussein, E A; Poredos, P; Antignani, P L; Avram, R; Roztocil, K; Stvrtinova, V; Kozak, M; Vacula, I

    2014-08-01

    This paper is the review of the Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication of the Central European Vascular Forum (CEVF), published in 2008, and and shared with the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology and the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery. The Document presents suggestions for general practitioners and vascular specialists for more precise and appropriate management of PAD, particularly of intermittent claudication, and underlines the investigations that should be required by GPs and what the GP should expect from the vascular specialist (angiologist, vascular surgeon). The idea of the Faculty is to produce a short document, which is an easy reference in daily clinical practice, both for the GPs and vascular specialists.

  9. SSA 02-1 SALT AND HYPERTENSION IN MIDDLE EAST.

    PubMed

    Arici, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, east of the Mediterranean Sea and the Egypt. The whole area has almost 20 countries with an approximate population of 400 million with different ethnicities. The whole area has basically a hot and dry climate. In some parts of the Middle East, there is a desert climate.Cardiovascular diseases were the leading causes of death in the Middle East, similar to the many other territories of the World. Beyond that, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized this region as a hotspot for cardiovascular disease, where disease projections will exceed those of other regions. The major reason for this is the great epidemiological transition in these countries. There is a great prevalence of smoking, increasing obesity, and a change in dietary patterns, as well, from traditional to ones higher in calories and processed foods.Diets high in salt increase blood pressure levels that are the leading contributor to cardiovascular disease mortality. Hypertension is very prevalent in the EMR and the Middle East. The average hypertension prevalence in this territory is around 30% and unawareness, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension rates were very high. Middle East ranks on the top levels for high salt intake compared to many other territories. The global salt consumption analysis showed that average sodium intake ranges from 3.74 to 4.12 grams of sodium per day in the Middle East. This corresponds to 9.35 to 10.3 grams of salt per day. This amount was nearly twice the WHO recommended limit of 5 g/day. Estimated intakes in Middle East countries were also diverse, ranging from 7,8 grams of salt per day in Lebanon to 15 grams of salt per day in Turkey.It is well known that decreasing dietary salt intake from 10 grams to 5 grams per day could reduce cardiovascular diseases rate by 17% worldwide. Several analyses have also showed that salt reduction strategies will be cost

  10. SSA 02-1 SALT AND HYPERTENSION IN MIDDLE EAST.

    PubMed

    Arici, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, east of the Mediterranean Sea and the Egypt. The whole area has almost 20 countries with an approximate population of 400 million with different ethnicities. The whole area has basically a hot and dry climate. In some parts of the Middle East, there is a desert climate.Cardiovascular diseases were the leading causes of death in the Middle East, similar to the many other territories of the World. Beyond that, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized this region as a hotspot for cardiovascular disease, where disease projections will exceed those of other regions. The major reason for this is the great epidemiological transition in these countries. There is a great prevalence of smoking, increasing obesity, and a change in dietary patterns, as well, from traditional to ones higher in calories and processed foods.Diets high in salt increase blood pressure levels that are the leading contributor to cardiovascular disease mortality. Hypertension is very prevalent in the EMR and the Middle East. The average hypertension prevalence in this territory is around 30% and unawareness, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension rates were very high. Middle East ranks on the top levels for high salt intake compared to many other territories. The global salt consumption analysis showed that average sodium intake ranges from 3.74 to 4.12 grams of sodium per day in the Middle East. This corresponds to 9.35 to 10.3 grams of salt per day. This amount was nearly twice the WHO recommended limit of 5 g/day. Estimated intakes in Middle East countries were also diverse, ranging from 7,8 grams of salt per day in Lebanon to 15 grams of salt per day in Turkey.It is well known that decreasing dietary salt intake from 10 grams to 5 grams per day could reduce cardiovascular diseases rate by 17% worldwide. Several analyses have also showed that salt reduction strategies will be cost

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome: what clinicians need to know.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Priya

    2014-08-01

    A severe viral illness caused by a newly discovered coronavirus was first reported in the Middle East in 2012. The virus has since been named the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS-CoV cases have been reported in several countries around the world in travelers from the Middle East. The illness has a high mortality rate. Limited human-to-human transmission has occurred including transmission to health care workers. The source of the virus remains unclear, but camels are a possible source. Two unrelated imported cases of MERS-CoV have been reported in the United States. Neither a vaccine nor effective therapy against the virus is available. International cooperation and information sharing will be key to understanding and ending the MERS-CoV outbreak. PMID:25034307

  12. An American anesthesia training program in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Greene, N M

    1992-10-01

    A unique 5-year program designed to improve the quality and availability of anesthesia care in developing nations has been initiated in East Africa. Based upon North American anesthesiologists serving as volunteer teachers, the program emphasizes teaching to the exclusion of taking over anesthesia care. The teaching is practical and relevant to the clinical practice of anesthesia in developing countries. The volunteers teachers serve, one at a time, 12 months of the year for several years in two pre-existing structured East African anesthesia training programs, thereby providing the advantages of consistent, reliable teaching assistance for a period of years to programs of demonstrable interest and experience in anesthesia training.

  13. Oil shales of Europe, North Africa, and the Near East

    SciTech Connect

    Troger, U.

    1984-04-01

    Oil shale deposits are known from almost all countries in Europe and range in age from Paleozoic to Eocene. The geology of Europe is well known, and the discovery of new and significant oil shale deposits is not anticipated. A considerably different situation exists in North Africa and the Near East, where sparsely tested areas in the Sahara and desert fringe might contain important oil shale deposits. Most of the oil shale deposits in these areas (1) are of Cretaceous age, (2) occur with phosphate deposits, and (3) owe their origin to sedimentary processes associated with upwelling. Oil shales can be found from Turkey to Morocco along a paleocoastline, and better definition of this feature could result in new discoveries. In contrast to the US, oil shale deposits in Europe are being used as energy sources and will probably serve the same purpose in North Africa and the Near East.

  14. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1987-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1986 totaled 4,493,973,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,312,254 BOPD), up 22.3% from the revised 1985 total of 3,673,729,000 bbl. Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, and Oman had significant increased; Iran was the only Middle East country with a significant decrease. New fields went on production in Oman and Yemen Arab Republic, and significant discoveries were reported in Iraq, Yemen Arab Republic, Oman, and Syria. However, exploration was generally down in most countries. Exploration and production operations continued to be affected by war in Iraq and Iran. 8 figures, 7 tables.

  15. Mid-Pleistocene Change in Large Mammal Faunas of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Richard; Deino, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Single-crystal 40Ar/ 39Ar age estimates of 392,000 ± 4000 to 330,000 ± 6000 yr from Lainyamok, a middle Pleistocene fossil locality in the southern Kenya rift, document the oldest evidence from sub-Saharan Africa of a diverse, large mammal fauna consisting entirely of extant species. The inferred age of this fauna implies an upper limit for extinction of species that characterize well-calibrated, mid-Pleistocene fossil assemblages in East Africa. For its age and species richness, the Lainyamok fauna is surprising for its lack of extinct forms (e.g., the bovine Pelorovis) well documented in later faunal assemblages of East and South Africa. Definitive presence of the South African blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas) is also unexpected, especially as this alcelaphine bovid is the dominant large mammal in the Lainyamok fauna. These age estimates and the faunal composition at Lainyamok indicate that geographic ranges and taxonomic associations of extant largebodied mammals were susceptible to wide fluctuations in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 330,000 yr. This inference is consistent with the hypothesis of nonanalogue, or ephemeral, biotas believed to characterize late Quaternary ecosystems of northern continents.

  16. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  17. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

  18. Spatial phylodynamics of HIV-1 epidemic emergence in east Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Rebecca R.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Lamers, Susanna; Hou, Wei; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Serwadda, David; Sewankambo, Nelson; Gray, Ronald H.; Wawer, Maria; Quinn, Thomas C.; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Salemi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Design We sought to investigate the evolutionary and historical reasons for the different epidemiological patterns of HIV-1 in the early epidemic. In order to characterize the demographic history of HIV-1 subtypes A and D in east Africa, we examined molecular epidemiology, geographical and historical data. Methodology We employed high-resolution phylodynamics to investigate the introduction of HIV-1A and D into east Africa, the geographic trends of viral spread, and the demographic growth of each subtype. We also used geographic information system data to investigate human migration trends, population growth, and human mobility. Results HIV-1A and D were introduced into east Africa after 1950 and spread exponentially during the 1970s, concurrent with eastward expansion. Spatiotemporal data failed to explain the establishment and spread of HIV based on urban population growth and migration. The low prevalence of the virus in the Democratic Republic of Congo before and after the emergence of the pandemic was, however, consistent with regional accessibility data, highlighting the difficulty in travel between major population centers in central Africa. In contrast, the strong interconnectivity between population centers across the east African region since colonial times has likely fostered the rapid growth of the epidemic in this locale. Conclusion This study illustrates how phylodynamic analysis of pathogens informed by geospatial data can provide a more holistic and evidence-based interpretation of past epidemics. We advocate that this ‘landscape phylodynamics’ approach has the potential to provide a framework both to understand epidemics' spread and to design optimal intervention strategies. PMID:19644346

  19. Language Teacher Research in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine, Ed.; Barlow, Lisa, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    An openness to new ways of teaching and learning is vital for growth among English language teachers, teacher educators, teachers in training, and students. This volume in the Language Teacher Research Series (Thomas S. C. Farrell, series editor) shares the studies and reflections of teacher researchers working in Middle Eastern countries with…

  20. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. PMID:22392794

  1. Coping With Lake Kivu, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Scholz, Christopher A.

    2010-07-01

    Workshop on Tropical Rift Lake Systems: Integrated Volcanogenic, Tectonic, Biogeochemical, and Geohazard Assessment of Lake Kivu; Gisenyi, Rwanda, 13-15 January 2010; Situated in the volcanic highlands of the East African Rift Valley's western branch, Lake Kivu contains one of the most unusual and fascinating aquatic ecosystems on the planet. Bottom waters in the 480-meter-deep lake are warmer and saltier than its surface waters. The concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide and methane are so high in the deep water that catastrophic overturn, an abrupt upwelling of deep water and gas driven by the buoyancy of expanding gas bubbles as they rise from the depths, could well happen in the coming century. Were this to occur, human fatalities would likely number in the hundreds of thousands—a disaster similar to what occurred when Lake Nyos (Cameroon) in 1986 emitted a large amount of carbon dioxide, causing hundreds of local residents to suffocate—but with orders-of-magnitude more gas release.

  2. Education in the Broader Middle East: Borrowing a Baroque Arsenal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donn, Gari, Ed.; Al Manthri, Yahya, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together academics and postgraduate students, practitioners and Ministry officials all of whom are wedded to developing an understanding of what is happening to education in the broader Middle East. They cover many countries whilst recognising that many more could have been included. In drawing attention to education in Pakistan,…

  3. Literature from the Modern Middle East: Making a Living Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    While the United States is deeply involved in the Middle East, most Americans, including students, lack knowledge about the region. Yet from Afghanistan to Palestine, from Morocco to Iraq, there is a vibrant and exciting literature by living authors that can bring the diverse experiences and perspectives of this vital part of the world to classes.…

  4. Sprue in the Middle East: five case reports

    PubMed Central

    Haeney, M. R.; Montgomery, R. D.; Schneider, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tropical sprue is a well documented condition with a special geographical distribution. This paper describes five patients with unexplained malabsorption whose symptoms began during a period of residence in the Middle East or Mediterranean areas. ImagesFig 4Fig 6 PMID:18668847

  5. Persistence of Antibodies against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Iblan, Ibrahim; Rha, Brian; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Haddadin, Aktham; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Alsanouri, Tarek; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Harcourt, Jennifer; Miao, Congrong; Tamin, Azaibi; Gerber, Susan I.; Haynes, Lia M.; Al Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa

    2016-01-01

    To determine how long antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus persist, we measured long-term antibody responses among persons serologically positive or indeterminate after a 2012 outbreak in Jordan. Antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, were detectable in 6 (86%) of 7 persons for at least 34 months after the outbreak. PMID:27332149

  6. Deconstructing the Other: Teaching Politics of the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    Discusses strategies aimed at moving undergraduates beyond the traditional stereotypical and demonized portrait of the Middle East. Suggests focusing on boundaries (shifting between national, cultural, religious, and economic), on bases of information (different students bring different knowledge levels), and using a wide variety of biographies…

  7. Archaeologists' Group Proposes Safekeeping of Middle East Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Israeli, Palestinian, and American archaeologists unveiled a draft agreement on archaeological and cultural heritage that they hope to see included in a future Middle East peace agreement. Presenting their proposal to an audience of archaeologists at the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, they said it was the first time that Israelis and Palestinians…

  8. Cooperative monitoring workshop: Focus on the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.; Dobranich, P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation hosted a workshop on the application of cooperative monitoring to the Middle East. The workshop, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from July 17 through 21, 1994, was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the US Department of State. The meeting, which focused on use of technical monitoring tools and sharing of collected information to facilitate regional agreements, included participants from five regional countries as well as from American universities, the US government, and US National Laboratories. Some attendees previously participated in meetings of the Arms Control and Regional Security working group of the Middle East Multilateral Peace Talks. The workshop combined presentations, demonstrations and hands-on experimentation with monitoring hardware and software. An exercise was conducted to evaluate and recommend cooperative monitoring options for a model agreement between two hypothetical countries. Historical precedents were reviewed and the role of environmental and natural resource conflicts explored. These activities were supplemented by roundtable discussions covering Middle East security issues, the relationship of ``national means`` to cooperative monitoring, and cooperative monitoring of ballistic missiles in the Middle East.

  9. Relighting the Torch: East Middle School's OA Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Describes the implementation of outcomes accreditation at East Middle School, in Aurora, Colorado. Reports significant gains in student success, including a 68% decline in student tardiness and a 60% decrease in suspensions. Indicates that the school was selected as a state Governor's Challenger School. (MAB)

  10. Transnational Higher Education: Offshore Campuses in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Idriss, Cynthia; Hanauer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper maps the landscape of transnational higher education in the Middle East, focusing in particular on the recent expansion of satellite, branch, and offshore educational institutions and programs that foreign institutions have set up in the region. Of the estimated 100 branch campuses currently operating worldwide, over one-third are in…

  11. United States security strategy for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    One of the most controversial questions the United States faces in the aftermath of the Cold War is when to use military force in this complex world. But there is little dispute that we must be prepared to use force to defend our vital interests: when the survival of the United States or its key allies is in danger, when our critical economic interests are threatened, or when dealing with the emergence of a future nuclear threat. Nowhere are these criteria met more clearly than in the Middle East. This report is the second in a series of regional reports undertaken by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs with the aim of defining U.S. interests and commitments in critical parts of the world. It outlines a strategy for promoting stability and peaceful change through a combination of diplomacy, peacetime engagement, forward presence, and rapid response capabilities. It also explains how we can carry out this strategy without formal alliances or permanent basing arrangements that are familiar elsewhere in the world. The prospects for stability in the Middle East in the coming decades are mixed. On the positive side, unprecedented progress has recently been made in the Middle East peace process, holding forth the hope that Israelis and Palestinians alike can finally be integrated fully into the political and economic life of the Middle East. Furthermore, U.S. capabilities to defend its vital interests in the Middle East are at an all-time high, in stark contrast to the situation less than two decades ago.

  12. International energy outlook. Volume 1. Mideast, Far East, and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The developing nations of the Mideast, Far East, and Africa face a bleaker - and more-complicated - energy picture than that of the West. Rapid industrial and agricultural expansion in the region severely drains already-inadequate energy systems. Energy-importing countries find they must diversify and develop indigenous resources, but often lack the technical known-how to do so. Volume 1 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the way 22 countries in the Mideast, Far East, and Africa are responding to the energy problems. The countries covered are: Algeria, Australia, Burma, China, Egypt, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan, Taiwan, Tunisia and Turkey. The range and detail of country reports vary, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations, its main emphasis is on the future, including estimates of future production and consumption, and descriptions of energy development plans. Some of the countries in this region are fortunate to have petrochemical resources, while electric energy expansion is crucial to national development in all. Coal will be filling the gap left by diminishing oil supplies. 61 tables.

  13. Seismicity of the Earth 1900–2010 Middle East and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Turner, Bethan; Turner, Rebecca; Hayes, Gavin P.; Davies, Sian; Dart, Richard L.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley M.

    2013-01-01

    No fewer than four major tectonic plates (Arabia, Eurasia, India, and Africa) and one smaller tectonic block (Anatolia) are responsible for seismicity and tectonics in the Middle East and surrounding region. Geologic development of the region is a consequence of a number of first-order plate tectonic processes that include subduction, large-scale transform faulting, compressional mountain building, and crustal extension. In the east, tectonics are dominated by the collision of the India plate with Eurasia, driving the uplift of the Himalaya, Karakorum, Pamir and Hindu Kush mountain ranges. Beneath the Pamir‒Hindu Kush Mountains of northern Afghanistan, earthquakes occur to depths as great as 200 km as a result of remnant lithospheric subduction. Along the western margin of the India plate, relative motions between India and Eurasia are accommodated by strike-slip, reverse, and oblique-slip faulting, resulting in the complex Sulaiman Range fold and thrust belt, and the major translational Chaman Fault in Afghanistan. Off the south coasts of Pakistan and Iran, the Makran trench is the surface expression of active subduction of the Arabia plate beneath Eurasia. Northwest of this subduction zone, collision between the two plates forms the approximately 1,500-km-long fold and thrust belts of the Zagros Mountains, which cross the whole of western Iran and extend into northeastern Iraq. Tectonics in the eastern Mediterranean region are dominated by complex interactions between the Africa, Arabia, and Eurasia plates, and the Anatolia block. Dominant structures in this region include: the Red Sea Rift, the spreading center between the Africa and Arabia plates; the Dead Sea Transform, a major strike-slip fault, also accommodating Africa-Arabia relative motions; the North Anatolia Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip structure in northern Turkey accommodating much of the translational motion of the Anatolia block westwards with respect to Eurasia and Africa; and the Cyprian

  14. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in the Middle East: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Almarzouqi, Sumayya J.; Morgan, Michael L.; Lee, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial pressure without any identifiable etiology. It is defined by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) with normal neuroimaging and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contents. IIH typically affects young obese women and produces symptoms and signs related to high ICP. Headache and blurred vision are the most common symptoms, and papilledema is the major clinical sign. In this review we examine the epidemiology and demographic features of IIH in Middle Eastern countries and compare and contrast them with the published IIH literature from Western countries. The incidence of IIH in several Middle East countries has been estimated at 2.02–2.2/100,000 in the general population, which is higher than the Western rate. Obesity is a major risk factor globally and it is associated with an increased risk of severe vision loss due to IIH. There has been an increase in obesity prevalence in the Middle East countries mainly affecting the Gulf Council Countries (GCC), which parallels increased industrial development. This rise may be contributing to the increasing incidence of IIH in these countries. Other risk factors may also be contributing to IIH in Middle East countries and the differences and similarities to Western IIH merit further study. PMID:25859136

  15. Holocene Monsoon variability in East Africa: a marine perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romahn, S.; Mackensen, A.; Groeneveld, J.; Pätzold, J.

    2012-12-01

    The processes that control past monsoon variability in the East African Tropics during the Holocene are poorly understood. Especially the role of Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) controlling East African Rainfall on millennial timescales, as it is observed on decadal timescales, is currently intensely debated. In addition, it has been suggested recently that the longitudinal migration of the Congo Air Boundary (CAB) modulates East African precipitation on a regional scale as well [Tierney et al., 2011]. Here, we present a high-resolution marine sediment record for the past 12 kyrs from offshore Tanzania, close to the Rufiji River delta, to contribute to the current debate from a marine point of view. We reconstructed past SST and δ18Oseawater, derived from planktic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and δ18O, and past Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) variations, derived from planktic foraminiferal Ba/Ca-ratios. In the vicinity of river deltas, Ba/Ca-ratios have potential to record precipitation changes in the rivers' catchment area. Our records show that East African precipitation, derived from Ba/Ca-ratios, roughly varies in concert with Indian Ocean SST, suggesting higher Indian Ocean SST to be an important prerequisite for stronger precipitation, and hence an intense monsoon episode in East Africa. We calculated the difference (ΔSST) between our record of Indian Ocean SST and SST of the tropical Atlantic [Weldeab et al., 2005], showing that ΔSST variability resembles the isotopic pattern of the Kilimanjaro ice core record [Thompson et al., 2002]. We suggest this to be the consequence of a longitudinal movement of the CAB over the African Continent, changing the trajectory of Indian Ocean moisture into the continent and therefore affecting the δ18O of the East African rainout. Thompson, L. G., et al. (2002), Kilimanjaro Ice Core Records: Evidence of Holocene Climate Change in Tropical Africa, Science, 298, 589-593. Tierney, J. E., et al. (2011), Late Quaternary behavior of the

  16. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. C.; Hall, S. A.; Ball, P.; Bird, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana. Previously proposed reconstruction models often contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate margin of Antarctica near the Riiser Larsen Sea. New satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones in the study area. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Information on crustal thickness along with the identification of fracture zones reveal the COBs that are located significantly closer to the coasts of Africa and Antarctica than previously recognized. Correlation of both fracture zone azimuths and the identified COBs over the conjugate margins suggest Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. Of several scenarios examined, the Beira High is most likely oceanic and may be a conjugate feature of the southern Astrid Ridge. An areal-balancing method that involves restoring the crust to a uniform pre-rift thickness has been used to perform the non-rigid reconstruction for both non-volcanic and volcanic margin with magmatic underplating. Based on the results, Africa underwent extension of 65-105 km while Antarctic crust was stretched by 90-190 km. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica underwent a counter-clockwise rotation with respect to Africa between 186-171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  17. In search of an oasis: Opportunity in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    VanderMeer, D.C.

    1996-03-01

    Across the Middle East, people contend with heat, dust, lack of rainfall, and a harsh geography. In this century, industrial development, political upheaval, and war have left a legacy of environmental and health problems. Scarce arable land is being lost to desertification. Fresh water is diverted, misused, and polluted with hazardous wastes, sewage, and agricultural and other chemicals. Coastal zones are polluted with oil, threatening pristine coral reefs, wild fowl, and fishing areas. Unprecedented urbanization and migration of traditionally rural peoples and resettlement of political refugees and foreign workers strain city services. Yet there is reason for optimism in the Middle East. Peace in the region is in sight, bringing an opportunity to stop the rapid environmental decline. Technology is available to assess the degradation, and the impact of environmental conditions on human health can be quantified.

  18. Oil and turmoil: America faces OPEC and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Rustow, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Middle-East expert Rustow traces the chain of events that placed economic power in an unstable region. He recounts how European imperialists acquired and surrendered their positions of domination, how nationalists such as Nasser and Qaddafi sought to manipulate the superpowers, and how leaders such as Sadat and Begin wrestled with war and peace. Meanwhile, the oil industry's Seven Sisters lost their preeminence as OPEC grew from a loose confederacy of oil shiekdoms into a cartel strong enough to shake the world economy. Rustow analyzes the confusion in oil-consuming countries that led to long gasoline lines one year and talk of an oil glut and OPEC's collapse the next. He puts into context Washington's uneven efforts to bring stability to the strife-torn Middle East. 221 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

  20. Active Faults and Seismic Sources of the Middle East Region: Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; EMME WP2 Team*

    2011-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). The EMME project covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project consists of three main modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic modules. The EMME project uses PSHA approach for earthquake hazard and the existing source models have been revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. The most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones is its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that permits continuous update, refinement, and analysis. An up-to-date earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been prepared and declustered by the WP1 team. EMME WP2 team has prepared a digital active fault map of the Middle East region in ArcGIS format. We have constructed a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. The EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a "Fault Section Database", which contains 36 entries for each fault section. The "Fault Section" concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far 6,991 Fault Sections have been defined and 83,402 km of faults are fully parameterized in the Middle East region. A separate "Paleo-Sites Database" includes information on the timing and amounts of fault

  1. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Hatch, G.C.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1982 totaled 4,499,464,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,162,915 BOPD), down 21.5% from 1981. Increases were in Iraq, Iran, and Oman. Significant decreases occurred in Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were reported in Oman, Syria, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

  2. Petroleum developments in Middle East countries in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries in 1979 totaled 7,779,619,000 bbl at an average rate of 21,314,024 b/d, up 0.4% from 1978. Principal increases were in Iraq, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, and Saudi Arabia. Significant new discoveries were made in Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Abu Dhabi. New areas were explored in Oman, Syria, offshore South Yemen, Dubai, and Qatar.

  3. Saved Lives at Risk in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Skouri, Hadi; Shurrab, Mohammed; Haj-Yahia, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    In the Middle East, heart failure prevalence seems to be high as the rest of the world. Few countries in the region recently have started implanting left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), basically as destination therapy. Terrorism and terrorist activities have been expanded worldwide especially in this part of the world. We present a case that highlights the relation between suicide bombers and LVAD patients. PMID:26735560

  4. The impacts of Middle East dust on Indian summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Q.; Yang, Z. L.; Wei, J.

    2014-12-01

    Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem), the impact of Middle East dust aerosols on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall was studied. Eight numerical experiments were conducted to take into account uncertainties related to dust-absorbing properties, various assumptions used in calculating aerosol optical depth (AOD), and various radiation schemes. In order to obtain reasonable dust emission, model-simulated AOD and radiation forcing at the top of the atmosphere were compared with multiple satellite- and surface-based observations. Consistent with observations, modeled results show heavy dust loadings in the Arabian Peninsula and Pakistan, which can be transported through long distance to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Peninsula. By heating the atmosphere in the lower troposphere over the Iranian Plateau, these dust aerosols result in strengthened Indian summer monsoon circulations, which in turn transport more water vapor to the Indian Peninsula. The model shows that northern India becomes wetter during the monsoon season in dust cases than non-dust cases. Further observational analyses show an increasing trend in AOD over the Arabian Peninsula, which corresponds to an increasing trend of rainfall in northern India during summer monsoon seasons from 2000 to 2013. These observed trends of AOD and rainfall are consistent with the model-simulated positive relationship between Middle East dust and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Our results highlight long-term (decadal) impacts of Middle East dust aerosols on the Indian summer rainfall.

  5. A new inventory for middle east dust source points.

    PubMed

    Moridnejad, Ali; Karimi, Neamat; Ariya, Parisa A

    2015-09-01

    We use the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites to present new high-resolution mapping of major atmospheric dust source points in the Middle East region on the basis of the improved version of the recently developed Middle East Dust Index (MEDI) applied to 70 dust storms, which occurred during the period between 2001 and 2012. Results indicate that 247 different source points have participated in dust storm generation in the Middle East region in which Iraq and Syria are the highest efficient sites for dust storm generation in this region, respectively. Using extracted indices for Deep Blue algorithm, identified dust sources were classified into three levels of intensity. The frequency of occurrence approach, the relationship between high atmospheric dust content and its number of occurrences, is also used to identify sensitive source points. High-intensity dust storms are mainly located west of Iraq and the border of Iraq and Syria. We will discuss the implications of our results in understanding the global dust cycle. PMID:26297415

  6. Respiratory disorders in the Middle East: a review.

    PubMed

    Waness, Abdelkarim; El-Sameed, Yaser Abu; Mahboub, Bassam; Noshi, Mohammed; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Vats, Mayank; Mehta, Atul C

    2011-07-01

    The spectrum of pulmonary pathology in the Middle East is as versatile as its civilizations and cultures. In this review, we outline the key challenges confronting pulmonologists in the Middle East. We shed light on the diverse conditions commonly encountered in the region, from the centuries-old illnesses of tuberculosis, to contemporary problems such as lung complications from chemical warfare. We specifically highlighted unique aspects related to respiratory illnesses in the Middle East, for example, climate factors in the desert region, cultural habits, for example, water-pipe smoking and disorders unique to the region, such as Behçet's disease. Pulmonologists are also faced with the consequences of modernization, including large immigrant population and associated social and health issues, rising incidence of obesity and sleep apnoea, and drug-resistant tuberculosis. Tackling these health issues will require an integrated approach involving public health, primary care as well as specialist pulmonology input, taking into consideration the unique cultural and environmental factors to ensure effective management and compliance to medical care. PMID:21564399

  7. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield; Funk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period

  8. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Roberts, J. Brent; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period.

  9. Palaeoenvironmental perspectives for sustainable development in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, R.; Finch, J.; Kinyanjui, R.; Muiruri, V.; Mumbi, C.; Platts, P. J.; Rucina, S.

    2010-05-01

    East African ecosystems are shaped by long-term interaction with changing climate, human population, fire and wildlife. There remains today a strong connection between people and ecosystems, a relationship that is being strained by the rapidly developing and growing East African population, and their associated resource needs. Predicted climatic and atmospheric change will further impact on ecosystems culminating in a host of challenges for their management and sustainable development, further compounded by a backdrop of political, land tenure and economic constraints. Given the many direct and indirect benefits that ecosystems provide to surrounding human populations, understanding how they have changed over time and space deserves a special place on the ecosystem management agenda. Such a perspective can only be derived from a palaeoecology, particularly where there is high resolution, both through time and across space. The East African palaeoecological archive is reviewed, in particular to assess how it can meet this need. Although there remain crucial gaps, the number of palaeoecological archives from East Africa growing rapidly, some employing new and novel techniques to trace past ecosystem response to climate change. When compared to the archaeological record it is possible to disentangle human from climate change impacts, and how the former interacts with major environmental changes such as increased use of fire, changing herbivore densities and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration. With this multi-dimensional perspective of environmental change impacts it is imperative that our understanding of past human-ecosystem interactions are considered to impart effective long term management strategies; such an approach will enhance possibilities for a sustainable future for East African ecosystems and maximise the livelihoods of the populations that rely on them.

  10. Dispersal and colonisation, long and short chronologies: how continuous is the Early Pleistocene record for hominids outside East Africa?

    PubMed

    Dennell, Robin

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the evidence for hominids outside East Africa during the Early Pleistocene. Most attention has focused recently on the evidence for or against a late Pliocene dispersal, ca. 1.8 Ma., of hominids out of Africa into Asia and possibly southern Europe. Here, the focus is widened to include North Africa as well as southern Asia and Europe, as well as the evidence in these regions for hominids after their first putative appearance ca. 1.8 Ma. It suggests that overall there is very little evidence for hominids in most of these regions before the Middle Pleistocene. Consequently, it concludes that the colonising capabilities of Homo erectus may have been seriously over-rated, and that even if hominids did occupy parts of North Africa, southern Europe and southern Asia shortly after 2 Ma, there is little evidence of colonisation. Whilst further fieldwork will doubtless slowly fill many gaps in a poorly documented Lower Pleistocene hominid record, it appears premature to conclude that the appearance of hominids in North Africa, Europe and Asia was automatically followed by permanent settlement. Rather, current data are more consistent with the view that Lower Pleistocene hominid populations outside East Africa were often spatially and temporally discontinuous, that hominid expansion was strongly constrained by latitude, and that occupation of temperate latitudes north of latitude 40 degrees was largely confined to interglacial periods.

  11. Diasporic dreaming: return reproductive tourism to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-11-01

    This article attempts to capture the dynamics of return reproductive tourism to the Middle East, based on ethnographic research undertaken at four different Middle Eastern locales (Egypt, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates and Arab America). Across the Middle Eastern diaspora, which is now vast, due to the disruptions of war and political violence, infertile couples often dream of making a test-tube baby 'back home' for a variety of cultural, moral and psychological reasons. These reasons – including medical expatriotism, the language of medicine, co-religion and moral trustworthiness, donor phenotype, the comforts of home and discrimination – are rarely highlighted in the scholarly literature on cross-border reproductive care. Thus, further empirical investigation is needed in order to assess additional reasons for reproductive travel beyond Euro-America. Of particular concern are the needs of 'stranded' refugee populations, who are constrained from seeking assisted reproduction technology 'back home', but who may face economic constraints and cultural discrimination in host communities.

  12. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Luan C.; Hall, Stuart A.; Bird, Dale E.; Ball, Philip J.

    2016-06-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana and Pangea. Previous reconstruction models contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean-boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate Antarctic margin near the Riiser-Larsen Sea. Satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Crustal thicknesses together with fracture zone terminations reveal COBs that are significantly closer to the African and Antarctic coasts than previously recognized. Correlation of fracture zone azimuths and identified COBs suggests Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. An areal-balancing method has been used to restore the crust to a uniform prerift thickness so as to perform a nonrigid reconstruction for both nonvolcanic and volcanic margins. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Our results suggest Africa underwent extension of 60-120 km, while Antarctic crust was stretched by 105-180 km. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica moved away from Africa in a WNW-ESE direction during the period between 184 and 171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  13. Acheulean technological behaviour in the Middle Pleistocene landscape of Mieso (East-Central Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Mora, Rafael; Arroyo, Adrian; Benito-Calvo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    The Mieso valley is a new paleoanthropological sequence located in East-Central Ethiopia. It contains Middle and Upper Pleistocene deposits with fossil and lithic assemblages in stratified deposits. This paper introduces the Middle Pleistocene archaeological sequence, attributed to the late Acheulean. Low density clusters of artefacts suggest short-term use of the landscape by Acheulean hominins. In Mieso 31, one of the excavated assemblages, refit sets indicate fragmentation of the reduction sequences and enable study of the initial stages of biface manufacture. Mieso 7, also a stratified site, is primarily characterized by a small concentration of standardized cleavers, and portrays another dimension of Acheulean technology, that related to final stages of use and discard of large cutting tools. Available radiometric dates place the Mieso Acheulean around 212 ka (thousands of years) ago, which would make this sequence among the latest evidence of the Acheulean in East Africa, in a time span when the Middle Stone Age is already documented in the region.

  14. Mediterranean summer climate and the importance of Middle-East Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isla; Seager, Richard; Shaw, Tiffany; Ting, Mingfang

    2015-04-01

    In summer, the atmospheric circulation over the Mediterranean is characterized by localized intense subsidence and low level northerlies over the central- to eastern portion of the basin. Here, simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 are used to investigate the influence of the elevated terrain of North Africa and the Middle East on this summertime circulation. This builds on previous work that recognized a role for North African topography in localizing the Mediterranean subsidence. By flattening the two regions of elevated terrain in the model it is demonstrated that, while they both conspire to produce about 30% of the summertime subsidence, contrary to previous work, the mountains of the Middle-East dominate in this topographic contribution by far. This topography, consisting primarily of the Zagros Mountain range, alters the circulation throughout the depth of the troposphere over the Mediterranean, and further East. The model results suggest that about 20% of the Mediterranean summertime moisture deficit can be attributed to this mountain induced circulation. This topography, therefore, plays an important role in the climate of the Mediterranean and the large scale circulation over the rest of Eurasia during the summer. Further stationary wave modelling reveals that the mountain influence is produced via mechanical forcing of the flow. The greatest influence of the topography occurs when the low level incident flow is easterly, as happens during the summer, primarily due to the presence of condensational heating over Asia. During other seasons, when the low level incident flow is westerly, the influence of Middle-East topography on the Mediterranean is negligible.

  15. Predictability of rainy season onset and cessation in east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, B.-M.

    2012-04-01

    PREDICTABILITY OF RAINY SEASONS ONSET AND CESSATION IN EAST AFRICA Boyard-Micheau Joseph, joseph.boyard-micheau@u-bourgogne.fr Camberlin Pierre, Kenya and northern Tanzania mainly display bimodal rainfall regimes, which are controlled by the annual migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone on both sides of the equator. In the low-income, semi-arid areas, food security is highly dependent on cereal yields (maize, millet and sorghum). Vulnerability is aggravated by the fact that these crops are mostly rainfed, and rely on the performance of the two, relatively brief rainy seasons. This performance depends on a combination of several rainy season characteristics, or rainfall descriptors, such as the onset and cessation dates of the rains, the frequency of rainy days, their intensity and the occurrence of wet/dry spells. The prediction of these descriptors some time (>15 days) before the real onset of the rainy season can be seen as a useful tool to help in the establishment of agricultural adaptation strategies. The main objective consists to understand linkages between regional variability of these rainfall descriptors and global modes of the climate system, in order to set up efficient predictive tools based on Model Output Statistics (MOS). The rainfall descriptors are computed from daily rainfall data collected for the period 1961-2001 from the Kenya Meteorological Department, the IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Center and the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. An initial spatial coherence analysis assesses the potential predictability of each descriptor, permitting eventually to eliminate those which are not spatially coherent, on the assumption that low spatial coherence denotes low potential predictability. Rainfall in East Africa simulated by a 24-ensemble member of the ECHAM 4.5 atmospheric general circulation model is compared with observations, to test the reproducibility of the rainfall descriptors. Canonical Correlation Analysis is next used to

  16. Probabilistic maize yield simulation over East Africa using ensemble seasonal climate forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, Geoffrey; Supit, Iwan; Hutjes, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal climate variability influences crop yields, especially in areas where rain fed agriculture is widely practiced such as in the East African region. Assuming that seasonal climate prediction skill would translate to similarly skillful prediction of impacts, an ensemble seasonal climate hindcast (ECMWF system4 EPS) for the period 1981 to 2010 at different initialization dates (lead months) before sowing is used to drive a crop simulation model: the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model, implemented for a single season Maize crop. The water-limited yield predictions were assessed against reference yields produced by the same crop model forced by the WATCH Forcing Data ERA-Interim (WFDEI) at grid point level. We focus on the main sowing dates of June/July (Northern region), March (Equatorial East Africa) and November (Southern region). Deviation of yields from the mean over the study period is used to indicate regions in which probabilistic yield forecasts would be useful while the Relative Operating Curve Skill Score (ROCSS) indicates prediction skill of above normal, near normal and below normal yield prediction. Equatorial regions of East Africa and coastal Kenya with sowing date in March show a mean deviation of ≥ 500 Kg/ha. Here probabilistic yield forecasts can potentially be useful as opposed to the northern and southern regions with less deviation. The high deviation in this region may also be due to the existence of more than one cropping season corresponding to the bi-modal rainfall regime since the model only simulates a single season. A positive ROCSS over a large extent of the equatorial region show predictability skill of all the tercile forecasts simulated by forecasts initialized at the start of sowing date (March i.e. lead 0 forecasts) and no predictability at longer lead months. Over Ethiopia in the northern region of East Africa, November harvests with a sowing date of June show predictability of the upper, lower and middle terciles at lead-0

  17. Oversight of energy development in Africa and the Middle East. Report to the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session, April 1980. [Committee Print

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The major findings and recommendations on energy development and related interactions with the US are reported for the countries of Ivory Coast, Nigeria, South Africa, and Saudi Arabia. The major recommendations include: (1) constant criteria to identify and evaluate areas for cooperation and bilateral agreements with foreign governments; (2) consultation to identify ways to transfer South Africa's coal-liquefaction technology in exchange for helping to improve social conditions; (3) assistance with alternative energy development in the US to reduce imports and in Saudi Arabia to assist with long-range economic development; and (4) compliance among the major oil companies with prices set by Saudi Arabia. The report is followed by background material in the form of reports, statistics, and related articles. (DCK)

  18. Oil jobs have big impact on heavily populated Middle East.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-09-01

    Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market. PMID:12286978

  19. Oil jobs have big impact on heavily populated Middle East.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-09-01

    Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market.

  20. Remote sensing of geobotanical trends in East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Timothy A.; Evans, Carla S.; Heirtzler, James R.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial and phenological distribution of vegetation was examined in a remote sensing geobotanical study of the East Africa Rift region. Six normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) scenes (February, June, and September of both 1984 and 1987) were used as a measure of vegetation presence. NOAA ETOPO-5 elevation and geographic coordinate data were coregistered with the multitemporal NDVI images. Univariate and multivariate statistics indicate that the NDVI values are significantly associated with elevation, latitude, and longitude. This supports the concept of quantifiable, regional gradients that affect large-scale geobotanical studies. A quadratic regression line was fitted to the NDVI, elevation, latitude, and longitudinal data. In this way a regional trend, as affected by elevation, was determined. The deviation of the actual data from this regional trend was displayed as an image, and shows the local climatic and geological influences.

  1. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  2. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  3. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed.

  4. Middle East respiratory syndrome: A new global threat

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Pradeep Kumar; Sethi, Priyanka; Gupta, Neeraj; Biyani, Ghansham

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is reported from Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Korea. It is a respiratory disease caused by coronavirus. Camels are considered as a source for MERS transmission in humans, although the exact source is unknown. Human-to-human transmission is reported in the community with droplet and contact spread being the possible modes. Most patients without any underlying diseases remain asymptomatic or develop mild clinical disease, but some patients require critical care for mechanical ventilation, dialysis and other organ support. MERS is a disease with pandemic potential and awareness, and surveillance can prevent such further outbreaks. PMID:27013745

  5. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Mark O; Ashley, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  6. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Mark O; Ashley, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa. PMID:25207544

  7. A Spring Forward for Hominin Evolution in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Mark O.; Ashley, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa. PMID:25207544

  8. Middle and later Pleistocene hominins in Africa and Southwest Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rightmire, G. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 700,000 years ago, Homo erectus in Africa was giving way to populations with larger brains accompanied by structural adjustments to the vault, cranial base, and face. Such early Middle Pleistocene hominins were not anatomically modern. Their skulls display strong supraorbital tori above projecting faces, flattened frontals, and less parietal expansion than is the case for Homo sapiens. Postcranial remains seem also to have archaic features. Subsequently, some groups evolved advanced skeletal morphology, and by ca. 200,000 years ago, individuals more similar to recent humans are present in the African record. These fossils are associated with Middle Stone Age lithic assemblages and, in some cases, Acheulean tools. Crania from Herto in Ethiopia carry defleshing cutmarks and superficial scoring that may be indicative of mortuary practices. Despite these signs of behavioral innovation, neither the Herto hominins, nor others from Late Pleistocene sites such as Klasies River in southern Africa and Skhūl/Qafzeh in Israel, can be matched in living populations. Skulls are quite robust, and it is only after ≈35,000 years ago that people with more gracile, fully modern morphology make their appearance. Not surprisingly, many questions concerning this evolutionary history have been raised. Attention has centered on systematics of the mid-Pleistocene hominins, their paleobiology, and the timing of dispersals that spread H. sapiens out of Africa and across the Old World. In this report, I discuss structural changes characterizing the skulls from different time periods, possible regional differences in morphology, and the bearing of this evidence on recognizing distinct species. PMID:19581595

  9. Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Weiss, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and water availability in the Middle East are important in understanding human adaptive capacities in the face of long-term environmental changes. The key role of water availability for sedentary and nomad populations in these arid to semiarid landscapes is understood, but the millennium-scale influence of hydrologic instability on vegetation dynamics, human occupation, and historic land use are unknown, which has led to a stochastic view of population responses and adaptive capacities to precipitation anomalies. Within the time-frame of the last two global climate events, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, we report hydrologic instability reconstructed from pollen-derived climate proxies recovered near Tell Leilan, at the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur Plains of northeastern Syria, at the heart of ancient northern Mesopotamia. By coupling climate proxies with archaeological-historical data and a pollen-based record of agriculture, this integrative study suggests that variability in precipitation is a key factor on crop yields, productivity, and economic systems. It may also have been one of the main parameters controlling human settlement and population migrations at the century to millennial timescales in the arid to semiarid areas of the Middle East. An abrupt shift to drier conditions at ca. AD 1400 is contemporaneous with a change from sedentary village life to regional desertion and nomadization (sheep/camel pastoralists) during the preindustrial era in formerly Ottoman realms, and thereby adds climate change to the multiple causes for Ottoman Empire “decline.” PMID:22355126

  10. Organ donation--world experience; the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Daar, A S

    1991-10-01

    Many countries in the Middle East began renal transplantation in the late 1970s and the 1980s. In many countries transplantation has evolved through distinct stages of development, and at present living-related donors continue to be the main source of kidneys. Islamic opinion has been strongly in favour of transplantation of organs from both living and cadaveric donors. Brain death as a criterion of death was accepted by Islamic Jurists in 1986, and in Saudi Arabia about 35% of all transplants are from cadaveric donors. Some patients continue to go to neighbouring countries to buy kidneys for transplantation; there is evidence that this practice has resulted in unacceptable morbidity and mortality, and is currently associated with a risk of at least 1:18 of acquiring HIV infection. Extrarenal solid organ transplantation is very new, with heart transplants being performed in Turkey, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Liver transplants have been initiated in Turkey and Kuwait. The favourable religious rulings and the resources available should enable transplantation to develop rapidly in the next few years in the Middle East and West Asia.

  11. Oil and gas development in Middle East in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.; Phillips, C.B.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1987 totaled an estimated 4,500,500,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,330,137 b/d), up slightly from the revised 1986 total of 4,478,972,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic had significant increases; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had significant decreases. Production was established for the first time in People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. New fields went on production in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and Syria, and significant oil discoveries were reported in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. The level of exploration increased in 1987 with new concessions awarded in some countries, drilling and seismic activities on the increase, new regions in mature areas explored for the first time, and significant reserve additions reported in new and old permits. The Iraq-Iran war still had a negative impact in some regions of the Middle East, particularly in and around the Gulf. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Broadband Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E M; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J

    2008-08-21

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths over a 45{sup o} x 40{sup o} region of the Middle East. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5-10 Hz. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz is found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f), an assumption that is often made.

  13. Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mia; Mazur, Steven; Ork, Britini L.; Postnikova, Elena; Hensley, Lisa E.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Reed; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to evaluate samples from MERS-CoV infected animals are more easily and efficiently completed at BSL-2 or lower containment. In order to complete experimental work at BSL-2, demonstration or proof of inactivation is required before removal of specimens from biocontainment laboratories. In the studies presented here, we evaluated typical means of inactivating viruses prior to handling specimens at a lower biocontainment level. We found that Trizol, AVL buffer and gamma irradiation were effective at inactivating MERS-CoV, that formaldehyde-based solutions required at least 30 minutes of contact time in a cell culture system while a mixture of methanol and acetone required 60 minutes to inactivate MERS-CoV. Together, these data provide a foundation for safely inactivating MERS-CoV, and potentially other coronaviruses, prior to removal from biocontainment facilities. PMID:26190637

  14. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmueller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Abdelkader, Mohamed; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. By relating the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface wind, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle, we identify regions where these attributes are significantly correlated to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. The Fertile Crescent turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD trend over these countries. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trend and interannual variability can be attributed to the above mentioned dust cycle parameters, confirming that the AOD increase is predominantly driven by dust. In particular, the positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. This suggests that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change. Based on simulations using the ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry-climate model (EMAC), we interpret the correlations identified in the observational data in terms of causal relationships.

  15. Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mia; Mazur, Steven; Ork, Britini L; Postnikova, Elena; Hensley, Lisa E; Jahrling, Peter B; Johnson, Reed; Holbrook, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to evaluate samples from MERS-CoV infected animals are more easily and efficiently completed at BSL-2 or lower containment. In order to complete experimental work at BSL-2, demonstration or proof of inactivation is required before removal of specimens from biocontainment laboratories. In the studies presented here, we evaluated typical means of inactivating viruses prior to handling specimens at a lower biocontainment level. We found that Trizol, AVL buffer and gamma irradiation were effective at inactivating MERS-CoV, that formaldehyde-based solutions required at least 30 min of contact time in a cell culture system while a mixture of methanol and acetone required 60 min to inactivate MERS-CoV. Together, these data provide a foundation for safely inactivating MERS-CoV, and potentially other coronaviruses, prior to removal from biocontainment facilities. PMID:26190637

  16. Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Weiss, Harvey

    2012-03-01

    Climate change and water availability in the Middle East are important in understanding human adaptive capacities in the face of long-term environmental changes. The key role of water availability for sedentary and nomad populations in these arid to semiarid landscapes is understood, but the millennium-scale influence of hydrologic instability on vegetation dynamics, human occupation, and historic land use are unknown, which has led to a stochastic view of population responses and adaptive capacities to precipitation anomalies. Within the time-frame of the last two global climate events, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, we report hydrologic instability reconstructed from pollen-derived climate proxies recovered near Tell Leilan, at the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur Plains of northeastern Syria, at the heart of ancient northern Mesopotamia. By coupling climate proxies with archaeological-historical data and a pollen-based record of agriculture, this integrative study suggests that variability in precipitation is a key factor on crop yields, productivity, and economic systems. It may also have been one of the main parameters controlling human settlement and population migrations at the century to millennial timescales in the arid to semiarid areas of the Middle East. An abrupt shift to drier conditions at ca. AD 1400 is contemporaneous with a change from sedentary village life to regional desertion and nomadization (sheep/camel pastoralists) during the preindustrial era in formerly Ottoman realms, and thereby adds climate change to the multiple causes for Ottoman Empire "decline." PMID:22355126

  17. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: a new enigma?

    PubMed

    Hussein, Nawfal R

    2010-07-14

    The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/10(5)) to low in Israel (12.5/10(5)) and very low in Egypt (3.4/10(5)). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

  18. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: A new enigma?

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Nawfal R

    2010-01-01

    The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/105) to low in Israel (12.5/105) and very low in Egypt (3.4/105). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

  19. The Proto-Indian Ocean and a probable paleozoic/mesozoic triradial rift system in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, R. T.; Simiyu Siambi, W. M. N.; Karanja, F. M.

    1981-02-01

    A revised Paleozoic/Mesozoic stratigraphy of coastal Kenya (including, in particular, the Karroo) based on current geological mapping near Mombasa is briefly described. This stratigraphy provides the geological framework for proposals concerning the Proto-Indian Ocean and the tectonic setting of the Karroo depositional basins. Recent geophysical evidence suggests that, within Gondwanaland, Madagascar was situated off East Africa near Kenya/Tanzania. The southern limits of the marine Lower Jurassic and southern limits of the marine Middle and Upper Jurassic are in similar positions in mainland Africa and Madagascar using the latter reconstruction. These paleogeographic limits also define the position, during the Jurassic, of an embayment from an ocean to the north. Regional geological similarities also support this reconstruction and are reinforced by paleocurrent data from the Karroo of Kenya indicating drainage north-northeast during the Permian and Triassic and possibly the Lower Jurassic. Marine connections during Karroo times appear to be of different ages in Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia, and Madagascar, probably reflecting physical limitations to marine access in fault-separated basins. The above embayment encroached across the Karroo depositional basins from northeast Kenya to southern Tanzania during the Lower and Middle Jurassic, i.e. from the direction towards which the Karroo drainage had been previously directed. Marine conditions remain to the present day so this embayment can be considered the Proto-Indian Ocean for East Africa. The marine incursion took place before the breakup of Gondwanaland suggesting that during the Jurassic the Proto-Indian Ocean in East Africa was an epicontinental sea and not a true ocean (i.e. floored by simatic crust). The epicontinental nature of this sea is confirmed by the lithologies of the associated sediments. Paleontological data indicate that this sea was an arm of Tethys. True oceanic conditions could not have been

  20. The Earliest Hominid Migration out of Africa and Near East Colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, H.; Levi, S.; Porat, N.

    2001-12-01

    It is generally accepted that Central East Africa was the springboard for hominid evolution in the latest Miocene or Early Pliocene. However the timing and pathways of migrations from Africa to Eurasia are still debatable. The only certain land bridge and main route between Africa and Eurasia since the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene is the Levantine Corridor. This is evident in some of the most ancient remains of early hominids and tools outside Africa in the Middle East. The study of Lower Paleolithic sites in this region and in the neighboring area sheds some light on several potential migration and colonization events. The determination of ages of the prehistoric sites is crucial for any study of early human migration events, but it is also the most difficult data to recover. The typo-technological studies yield only relative age, and so do sequences of raised Pleistocene beaches, marine deposits, river terraces and paleo-lake formations. The scarcity of volcanic ash deposits excludes radiometric dating. Israel located at the Levantine Corridor yields a wealth of prehistoric findings and sites. We combine paleomagnetic and thermoluminescence measurements as dating tools. This new combination yields high quality, surprising results. Several preliminary paleomagnetic studies of lake deposits, cave deposits and soil sequences in well known sites in Israel such as the Erk-El Ahmar formation, and the Lower Paleolithic Tabun Cave in Mount Carmel, the Evron Quarry in northern Israel, and Rochama site in southern Israel. We conclude that the part of Erk-El-Ahmar Formation, which bears core-choppers and flakes, identified as typical Oldowan tools were deposited about 1.7-2.0 Ma. We found that the Rochama and Evron sites are located in soil sequences, several meters below the 0.78 Ma Brunhes-Matuyama boundary. Based on continuous soil accumulation rates and pedogenesis processes the age of these sites is about 1 Ma. This new data provides the first constraint for the 1

  1. Diasporic dreaming: return reproductive tourism to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-11-01

    This article attempts to capture the dynamics of return reproductive tourism to the Middle East, based on ethnographic research undertaken at four different Middle Eastern locales (Egypt, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates and Arab America). Across the Middle Eastern diaspora, which is now vast, due to the disruptions of war and political violence, infertile couples often dream of making a test-tube baby 'back home' for a variety of cultural, moral and psychological reasons. These reasons – including medical expatriotism, the language of medicine, co-religion and moral trustworthiness, donor phenotype, the comforts of home and discrimination – are rarely highlighted in the scholarly literature on cross-border reproductive care. Thus, further empirical investigation is needed in order to assess additional reasons for reproductive travel beyond Euro-America. Of particular concern are the needs of 'stranded' refugee populations, who are constrained from seeking assisted reproduction technology 'back home', but who may face economic constraints and cultural discrimination in host communities. PMID:21955490

  2. A Spring Forward for Human Evolution in East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Ashley, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The current consensus is that humans evolved in Africa and then migrated in waves to other parts of the world starting as early as 2 Ma. The climate was both cooling and drying. One of the major unknowns connected with human survival in this climatically turbulent environment is the availability of resources, particularly water. A growing body of geological evidence shows an association between springs, stone tools and hominin fossils at a number of sites in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). The springs may have been vulnerable to climate variability, thus the role that groundwater availability may have played in human evolution and migration to other continents is not known. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the paleo-catchment of one such EARS site, Olduvai Gorge (3°S), we show how spring discharge was likely linked to climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100s to 1000 years. Our results show how groundwater would have provided 'drought proof' water supply and habitats during arid phases as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localized groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods. Thus, springs and associated wetlands may have been important factors in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during dispersal within and out of Africa. While further exploration is needed to test the geographical extent of groundwater use by early humans, we propose that groundwater flow systems produced in the EARS played a significant role in the evolution and dispersal of early humans.

  3. CRUSTAL TECTONICS AND SEISMICITY OF THE MIDDLE EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalib, H. A.; Gritto, R.; Sibol, M. S.; Herrmann, R. B.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Caron, P. F.; Wagner, R. A.; Ali, B. S.; Ali, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Arabian plate describes a geological entity and a dynamic system that has been in continuous interaction with the African plate to the west and south and the Eurasian plate to the north and east. The western and southern boundaries are distinguished by see floor spreading along the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea and transform faulting along the Dead Sea, whereas the northern and eastern boundaries are portrayed by compressional suture zones under thrusting the Turkish and Iranian plateaus. Despite this favorable juxtaposition of continental land masses and the plethora of national seismic networks in every country of the Middle East, the majority of published research on the Arabian plate and surrounding tectonic blocks still depends primarily on global seismographic stations and occasional local networks. Since 2005, we deployed a number of seismic stations, and more recently a five elements array, in close proximity to the northeastern boundary of the Arabian plate. The primary objective of the effort is to better understand the regional seismicity and seismotectonics of the Arabian plate and surrounding regions. To date over a terabyte of high quality 100 sps continuous three-component broadband data have been collected and being analyzed to derive models representative of the greater Middle East tectonic setting. This goal is, in part, achieved by estimating local and regional seismic velocity models using receiver function and surface wave dispersion analyses, and by using these models to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. The resulting events distribution reveals a distinct picture of the interaction between the seismicity and tectonics of the region. The highest seismicity rate seems to be confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases again in the Bandar Abbas region. Spatial distribution of the events and stations provide thorough

  4. Mesozoic and early Tertiary rift tectonics in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, William

    1992-08-01

    A complex history of crustal extension occurred in east and central Africa during the Mesozoic and early Tertiary. Beginning in the Late Jurassic, this resulted in a large system of rifts, the Central African rift system, that spanned from central Sudan to southern Kenya. Late Jurassic rifting is best documented in the White and Blue Nile rifts of the Sudan, and records east-west extension in half-graben that were connected by large-scale shear zones and pull-apart basins. Early Cretaceous rifting re-activated Jurassic basins and spread to the large South Sudan rifts and Anza rift in Kenya. By the Late Cretaceous, the extension direction shifted to the NE-SW, and the presently observed large-scale rift geometry was established. In the early Tertiary, some Mesozoic basins were again reactivated, while other regions underwent wrench faulting and basin inversion. The large number of basins preserved in the Central African rift system can be used to construct an evolutionary model of continental rift tectonics. Early phases of extension at low strains produced alternating half-graben/accommodation zone geometries similar to those observed in most young and active continental rifts. At higher strains, some border faults were abandoned so that through-going, simpler active fault systems could evolve. This is interpreted as representing a switch from complex, oppositely dipping detachment structures, with strike dimensions of 50-150 km, to regional detachment structures that continue for hundreds of kilometers parallel to the rift. This change in the type of detachment was accompanied by a shift in the position of the subsidence away from the breakaway to a position focused further within the regional upper plate. Non-rotational, high angle, normal faulting dominates in the development of these late basin geometries. Deciphering similar rift basin histories from passive continental margins may, in many cases, exceed the limits of available reflection seismic data. East

  5. An overview of the transboundary aquifers in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Tamiru Alemayehu

    2010-11-01

    A transboundary aquifer is a body of groundwater intersected by two or more countries with the potential threat of dispute over a shared groundwater resource. A large portion of the population in East Africa relies on surface water resources for day-to-day activities; in turn, this is dependent on episodic rainfall. Surface water in the region is vulnerable to pollution and potential climate change. Consequently, frequent conflict over the water use is a regular event in the region. This paper examines the transboundary aquifers and their significance for water supply in the six adjacent Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti). Analysis of available literature and short field visits to accessible areas were undertaken in order to examine the geology, hydrogeological dynamics, and water use. The geology of the transboundary aquifers is mainly represented by Precambrian basement, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Cenozoic volcanics and recent alluvial deposits. Taking into consideration the topographic setting and water circulation, the Ethiopian highlands are the major sources of recharge to the transboundary aquifers of the adjacent countries. The surface runoff drains through 11 major rivers into the neighbouring countries. The groundwater contained in the transboundary aquifers is yet to receive attention by the various countries, but the future trend is towards exploiting the resources to alleviate water shortages in the region. It is hoped that the systematic development of these groundwater resources would strengthen cooperation in this conflict-dominated region.

  6. Mantle plumes and associated flow beneath Arabia and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Joon; Van der Lee, Suzan

    2011-02-01

    We investigate mantle plumes and associated flow beneath the lithosphere by imaging the three-dimensional S-velocity structure beneath Arabia and East Africa. This image shows elongated vertical and horizontal low-velocity anomalies down to at least mid mantle depths. This three-dimensional S-velocity model is obtained through the joint inversion of teleseismic S- and SKS-arrival times, regional S- and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, and independent Moho constraints from receiver functions, reflection/refraction profiles, and gravity measurements. In the resolved parts of our S-velocity model we find that the Afar plume is distinctly separate from the Kenya plume, showing the Afar plume's origin in the lower mantle beneath southwestern Arabia. We identify another quasi-vertical low-velocity anomaly beneath Jordan and northern Arabia which extends into the lower mantle and may be related to volcanism in Jordan, northern Arabia, and possibly southern Turkey. Comparing locations of mantle plumes from the joint inversion with fast axes of shear-wave splitting, we confirm horizontal mantle flow radially away from Afar. Low-velocity channels in our model support southwestward flow beneath Ethiopia, eastward flow beneath the Gulf of Aden, but not northwestwards beneath the entire Red Sea. Instead, northward mantle flow from Afar appears to be channeled beneath Arabia.

  7. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  8. Stillbirth During Infection With Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Daniel C.; Iblan, Ibrahim; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Rha, Brian; Tohme, Rania A.; Abedi, Glen R.; Farag, Noha H.; Haddadin, Aktham; Sanhouri, Tarek Al; Jarour, Najwa; Swerdlow, David L.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Al Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiologic investigation among survivors of an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Jordan. A second-trimester stillbirth occurred during the course of an acute respiratory illness that was attributed to MERS-CoV on the basis of exposure history and positive results of MERS-CoV serologic testing. This is the first occurrence of stillbirth during an infection with MERS-CoV and may have bearing upon the surveillance and management of pregnant women in settings of unexplained respiratory illness potentially due to MERS-CoV. Future prospective investigations of MERS-CoV should ascertain pregnancy status and obtain further pregnancy-related data, including biological specimens for confirmatory testing. PMID:24474813

  9. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): a new zoonotic viral pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cheston B; Opal, Steven M

    2014-08-15

    Coronaviruses have traditionally been associated with mild upper respiratory tract infections throughout the world. In the fall of 2002, a new coronavirus emerged in in Asia causing severe viral pneumonia, i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Nearly a decade following the SARS epidemic, a new coronavirus causing severe viral pneumonia has emerged, i.e., middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). Since the initial case of MERS-CoV occurred in June of 2012 in Saudi Arabia there have been 688 confirmed cases and 282 deaths in 20 countries. Although both SARS and MERS are caused by coronaviruses, SARS was characterized by efficient human transmission and relatively low mortality rate. In contrast, MERS is relatively inefficiently transmitted to humans but has a high mortality rate. Given the potential overlap in presentation and manifestation, it is important to understand the clinical and epidemiologic differences between MERS, SARS and influenza.

  10. Stillbirth during infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Payne, Daniel C; Iblan, Ibrahim; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Rha, Brian; Tohme, Rania A; Abedi, Glen R; Farag, Noha H; Haddadin, Aktham; Al Sanhouri, Tarek; Jarour, Najwa; Swerdlow, David L; Jamieson, Denise J; Pallansch, Mark A; Haynes, Lia M; Gerber, Susan I; Al Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa

    2014-06-15

    We conducted an epidemiologic investigation among survivors of an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Jordan. A second-trimester stillbirth occurred during the course of an acute respiratory illness that was attributed to MERS-CoV on the basis of exposure history and positive results of MERS-CoV serologic testing. This is the first occurrence of stillbirth during an infection with MERS-CoV and may have bearing upon the surveillance and management of pregnant women in settings of unexplained respiratory illness potentially due to MERS-CoV. Future prospective investigations of MERS-CoV should ascertain pregnancy status and obtain further pregnancy-related data, including biological specimens for confirmatory testing. PMID:24474813

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: epidemiology and disease control measures

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in 2012 resulted in an increased concern of the spread of the infection globally. MERS-CoV infection had previously caused multiple health-care-associated outbreaks and resulted in transmission of the virus within families. Community onset MERS-CoV cases continue to occur. Dromedary camels are currently the most likely animal to be linked to human MERS-CoV cases. Serologic tests showed significant infection in adult camels compared to juvenile camels. The control of MERS-CoV infection relies on prompt identification of cases within health care facilities, with institutions applying appropriate infection control measures. In addition, determining the exact route of transmission from camels to humans would further add to the control measures of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25395865

  12. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Uyeki, Timothy M; Erlandson, Karl J; Korch, George; O'Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-07-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  13. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Karl J.; Korch, George; O’Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J.; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  14. Trafficking and contract migrant workers in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Jureidini, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses a number of issues regarding the extent to which trafficking may be applied to migrant domestic workers who enter under the kafala system of sponsorship in the Middle East. Migrant domestic workers are the most numerous of those mentioned in reports on trafficking for labour exploitation in the region. The discussion seeks to determine whether "trafficking" can be ex post facto, rather than ex ante? In other words, can the label of trafficking be attributed only after the worker has arrived in the receiving country and is victimized according to the principles of trafficking protocols? In addition, must there be a proven intent to traffic by agents, or can employers who harm and/or exploit them be considered as traffickers alone? Should the harm done to workers on arrival at their place of work be classified (and assisted) as victims of trafficking, or as exploited workers?

  15. Middle East respiratory syndrome: obstacles and prospects for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Papaneri, Amy B.; Johnson, Reed F.; Wada, Jiro; Bollinger, Laura; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) highlights the need to engineer new methods for expediting vaccine development against emerging diseases. However, several obstacles prevent pursuit of a licensable MERS vaccine. First, the lack of a suitable animal model for MERS complicates in vivo testing of candidate vaccines. Second, due to the low number of MERS cases, pharmaceutical companies have little incentive to pursue MERS vaccine production as the costs of clinical trials are high. In addition, the timeline from bench research to approved vaccine use is 10 years or longer. Using novel methods and cost-saving strategies, genetically engineered vaccines can be produced quickly and cost-effectively. Along with progress in MERS animal model development, these obstacles can be circumvented or at least mitigated. PMID:25864502

  16. High altitude wind resource in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya B.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a first identification of areas favorable to Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) Systems deployment in the Middle East and illustrates their diurnal and seasonal characteristics. Optimal heights of AWE system deployment are computed. The AWE literature has conventionally used a top-down approach where AWE potentials are estimated as a fraction of wind power density. This study takes the bottom-up approach where the regional AWE potentials are estimated using realistic machine specification with assumptions upon deployment conditions. The annual energy production per capita illustrates the potential of AWE systems in fulfilling electricity needs at the current level for several countries in the region. Our estimate also compares favorably to the near-surface wind power potential using identical data source from a previous study. In addition, the non-monotonicity in the vertical profile is examined for areas with potential LLJ influences, where behaviors in wind speed and direction similar to that of inertial oscillations are identified.

  17. Aeroallergens, atopy and allergic rhinitis in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Goronfolah, L

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the nature and prevalence of indoor and/or outdoor aeroallergens, atopy and symptoms of rhinitis and asthma in the Middle East region (defined here as Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - KSA, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen) was reviewed. Although documentation was poor in all countries other than Iran and the KSA, a wide range of "global" and "local" aeroallergens (grass, weed and tree pollens, fungal spores, insect allergens, dander, and house dust mites) has been observed across the region. The prevalence of current self-reported or parent-reported symptoms of rhinitis ranged from 9% to 38%. Researchers have suggested that the high atopy rates and self-reported rhinitis rates are associated with an on-going shift towards a "western" lifestyle.

  18. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmüller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. We relate the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface winds to identify regions where these attributes are directly related to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. Regarding precipitation and soil moisture, a relatively small area in and surrounding Iraq turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD over these countries. Regarding surface wind speed, the African Red Sea coastal area is relevant for the Saudi Arabian AOD. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trends and interannual variability can be attributed to soil moisture, precipitation and surface winds, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle. Our results confirm the dust driven AOD trends and variability, supported by a decreasing MODIS-derived Ångström exponent and a decreasing AERONET-derived fine mode fraction that accompany the AOD increase over Saudi Arabia. The positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. As a lower soil moisture translates into enhanced dust emissions, it is not needed to assume growing anthropogenic aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions to explain the observations. Instead, our results suggest that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change.

  19. Learning from Logframes: Reflections on Three Educational Development Projects in East and Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Against a backdrop of the importance of project evaluation in Africa, and the centrality of the project logical framework (logframes) to project evaluation, this paper reflects on experiences arising from evaluations of three educational development projects in East and Southern Africa. Each of these projects had a strong teacher development…

  20. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled in July, 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 1,950 books, journal articles, and unpublished manuscripts dealing with rural development in Africa generally and in central and east Africa specifically. General entries appear under the following headings: agriculture; economic affairs; bibliography; law; economic and technical…

  1. International trends in health science librarianship part 14: East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda).

    PubMed

    Gathoni, Nasra; Kamau, Nancy; Nannozi, Judith; Singirankabo, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    This is the 14th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. This is the second of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda). The next feature column will investigate trends in West Africa. JM.

  2. New Proxies from Loess-Paleosols on Mount Kilimanjaro document Late Pleistocene Megadroughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, R.; Huang, Y.; Russell, J. M.; Tarozo, R.; Gao, L.; Hemp, A.; Zech, W.

    2009-12-01

    Innovative, new proxies from loess and paleosol sediments hold great potential to obtain more quantitative information about paleoclimate changes in terrestrial environments. Here we present results from lipid biomarkers (GDGTs) and hydrogen isotopic measurements on long-chain fatty acids and alkanes that we extracted from 69 paleosol samples from Mt Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (~3°S). The respective soil pit and sediment core at ~2700 m above sea level is radiocarbon-dated to 38.4 ka BP, and probably covers most of the Late Pleistocene, making it one of the longest, continuous, terrestrial archives in the East African tropics. Our compound-specific deuterium measurements show lowest δD values from ~9 to 5 ka in the Early/Middle Holocene, consistent with regional evidence for an “African Humid Period,” followed by a shift towards more arid conditions during the Late Holocene (~5‰ shift). The Younger Dryas is characterized by a δD enrichment (=aridity) of ~15‰ compared to the Early/Middle Holocene, almost reaching LGM values (~20‰ shift). The enrichment during the LGM is, however, significantly smaller than the 50‰ change as observed in Lake Tanganyika further southwest. At present it is not possible to determine whether these differences result from geographic variations in precipitation and humidity, or isotopic distillation processes along the vapor transport trajectories across East Africa. Much more arid conditions (~40‰ enrichment) can be inferred for the paleosols older than ~60 ka. Although further dating efforts are required to determine the exact timing, this corroborates earlier findings from African lakes that suggested ‘megadroughts’ occurred during Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 4. Acknowledging the general perception that precipitation in East Africa is strongly controlled by ITCZ positioning, we highlight the role of (strong) eccentricity in modulating the precessional forcing, which - in combination with high-latitude glacial boundary

  3. American School Textbooks: How They Portrayed the Middle East from 1898 to 1994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Hani

    2008-01-01

    The portrayal of the Middle East in school textbooks has been reported to be inaccurate and negative as late as the mid 1990's. Numerous major studies conducted by various researchers and organizations indicate that school textbooks written between the 1970's and 1990's contributed to existing stereotypes of the Middle East held by many Americans.…

  4. Leaders of American Universities in the Middle East Bring Their Message to the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Last week the leaders of four American universities in the Middle East visited Washington and New York to present a simple message: Don't forget about us. "The American public is seeing nothing but bad-news stories coming out of the Middle East," said David D. Arnold, president of the American University in Cairo, who met with editors of The…

  5. A Dialog of Faith: Reflections on Middle East Conflict from Jewish, Muslim and Christian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, William James

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Santa Clara University's Bannan Center for Jesuit Education brought together online religious teachers and practitioners from the three world religions to discuss important issues associated with Middle East conflict: resistance, suicide bombing, America's role in the Middle East, and the future shape of peace. These conversations aimed…

  6. Exportations of Symptomatic Cases of MERS-CoV Infection to Countries outside the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Justin J.; Jewett, Amy; Gambhir, Manoj; Cohen, Nicole J.; Haber, Yoni; Pesik, Nicki; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, an outbreak of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was detected in the Arabian Peninsula. Modeling can produce estimates of the expected annual number of symptomatic cases of MERS-CoV infection exported and the likelihood of exportation from source countries in the Middle East to countries outside the region. PMID:27358972

  7. Recurring middle Pleistocene outburst floods in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Froese, D.G.; Smith, D.G.; Westgate, J.A.; Ager, T.A.; Preece, S.J.; Sandhu, A.; Enkin, R.J.; Weber, F.

    2003-01-01

    Recurring glacial outburst floods from the Yukon-Tanana Upland are inferred from sediments exposed along the Yukon River near the mouth of Charley River in east-central Alaska. Deposits range from imbricate gravel and granules indicating flow locally extending up the Yukon valley, to more distal sediments consisting of at least 10 couplets of planar sands, granules, and climbing ripples with up-valley paleocurrent indicators overlain by massive silt. An interglacial organic silt, occurring within the sequence, indicates at least two flood events are associated with an earlier glaciation, and at least three flood events are associated with a later glaciation which postdates the organic silt. A minimum age for the floods is provided by a glass fission track age of 560,000 ?? 80,000 yr on the GI tephra, which occurs 8 m above the flood beds. A maximum age of 780,000 yr for the floods is based on normal magnetic polarity of the sediments. These age constraints allow us to correlate the flood events to the early-middle Pleistocene. And further, the outburst floods indicate extensive glaciation of the Yukon-Tanana Upland during the early-middle Pleistocene, likely representing the most extensive Pleistocene glaciation of the area. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Forecast and Validation of the Rift Valley fever outbreak in East Africa: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The instantaneous occurrence of El Nino / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm events and anomalous warming of the equatorial western Indian Ocean (WIO) are associated with elevated and widespread rainfall over East Africa. Such, sustained, heavy rainfall in East is associated with the emerg...

  9. Smart Boards to Chalkboards: Professional Development for Early Childhood Teachers in Rural East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching strategies of early childhood development teachers in rural East Africa. Teams of early childhood educators from the United States presented professional development conferences for East African Early Childhood Development teachers during the summers of 2007 and 2008. The conferences introduced…

  10. Geology and petroleum resources of central and east-central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum provinces of central and east-central Africa include the Somali basin, the Ethiopian plateau and rift belt, and the central African rift basins. The western shelf on the Somali basin in the horn of Africa contains a sedimentary cover 1000-10,000 m (3000-3500 ft) thick of Mesozoic and Tertiary marine and continental clastic, carbonate, and evaporite deposits with good reservoir and potentially adequate source rock properties. To date, no commercial oil or gas discoveries have been made. The Ethiopian plateau and rift belt is a high-risk area with minimum potential for commercial petroleum because the Neogene rifting origin of the province has resulted in high geothermal gradients, extensive volcanism, and inadequate marine deposits and petroleum source rocks. The central Africa interior basins are continental craton-rifted depressions of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age containing as much as 4000 m (13,000 ft) or more of fluvial and lacustrine clastic beds, which inter-tongue with nearshore marine clastic and carbonate beds in the western basins. Since the mid-1970s, approximately 13 oil discoveries have been made in the Upper Nile, Doba-Doseo, and Chad basins. These basins produce from fluvial and lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, sourced by lacustrine organic shale beds of Cretaceous age. The Benue trough is a rifted depression of middle Cretaceous age adjoined on the southwest by the prolific Niger Delta petroleum province. The trough is filled with 6000 m (20,000 ft) or more of clastic and carbonate marine and continental rocks of late Early Cretaceous and early Cenozoic age. Very few exploratory wells have been drilled, and no commercial discoveries have been made although good reservoir and source rocks are present.

  11. Analysis of satellite precipitation over East Africa during last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Elsa; Wenhaji Ndomeni, Claudine; Merino, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Daily accumulated precipitation time series from satellite retrieval algorithms (e.g., ARC2 and TAMSAT) are exploited to extract the spatial and temporal variability of East Africa (EA - 5°S-20°N, 28°E-52°E) precipitation during last decades (1983-2013). The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to precipitation time series to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in particular for October-November-December referred to as the short rain season. Moreover, the connection among EA's precipitation, sea surface temperature, and soil moisture is analyzed through the correlation with the dominant EOF modes of variability. Preliminary results concern the first two EOF's modes for the ARC2 data set. EOF1 is characterized by an inter-annual variability and a positive correlation between precipitation and El Niño, positive Indian Ocean Dipole mode, and soil moisture, while EOF2 shows a dipole structure of spatial variability associated with a longer scale temporal variability. This second dominant mode is mostly linked to sea surface temperature variations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Further analyses are carried out by computing the time series of the joint CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI, http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/index.shtml), i.e. RX1day, RX5day, CDD, CDD, CWD, SDII, PRCPTOT, R10, R20. The purpose is to identify the occurrenes of extreme events (droughts and floods) and extract precipitation temporal variation by trend analysis (Mann-Kendall technique). Results for the ARC2 data set demonstrate the existence of a dipole spatial pattern in the linear trend of the time series of PRCPTOT (annual precipitation considering days with a rain rate > 1 mm) and SDII (average precipitation on wet days over a year). A negative trend is mainly present over West Ethiopia and Sudan, whereas a positive trend is exhibited over East Ethiopia and Somalia. CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and

  12. Understanding the nature of mantle upwelling beneath East-Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James; Goes, Saskia; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, Mike; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rumpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham

    2014-05-01

    The concept of hot upwelling material - otherwise known as mantle plumes - has long been accepted as a possible mechanism to explain hotspots occurring at Earth's surface and it is recognized as a way of removing heat from the deep Earth. Nevertheless, this theory remains controversial since no one has definitively imaged a plume and over the last decades several other potential mechanisms that do not require a deep mantle source have been invoked to explain this phenomenon, for example small-scale convection at rifted margins, meteorite impacts or lithospheric delamination. One of the best locations to study the potential connection between hotspot volcanism at the surface and deep mantle plumes on land is the East African Rift (EAR). We image seismic velocity structure of the mantle below EAR with higher resolution than has been available to date by including seismic data recorded by stations from many regional networks ranging from Saudi Arabia to Tanzania. We use relative travel-time tomography to produce P- velocity models from the surface down into the lower mantle incorporating 9250 ray-paths in our model from 495 events and 402 stations. We add smaller earthquakes (4.5 < mb < 5.5) from poorly sampled regions in order to have a more uniform data coverage. The tomographic results allow us to image structures of ~ 100-km length scales to ~ 1000 km depth beneath the northern East-Africa rift (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Yemen) with good resolution also in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle. Our observations provide evidence that the shallow mantle slow seismic velocities continue trough the transition zone and into the lower mantle. In particular, the relatively slow velocity anomaly beneath the Afar Depression extends up to depths of at least 1000 km depth while another low-velocity anomaly beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift seems to be present in the upper mantle only. These features in the lower mantle are isolated with a diameter of about 400 km

  13. Reconciling Past and Future Rainfall Trends over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowell, Dave; Booth, Ben; Nicholson, Sharon; Good, Peter

    2016-04-01

    droughts, and that the response to CO2 forcing over East Africa is not substantially non-linear (Hypotheses E and F). Further work should therefore focus on improving the modelling of aerosol impacts on regional rainfall changes, on providing a well-considered 'expert judgement' of the reliability of the model's projections for the coming century, and better understanding the relevant natural variability.

  14. Water in the Middle East, a Secondary and College Level Multi-Media Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manneberg, Eliezer

    The secondary and college level guide outlines a course of study on the Middle East, with emphasis on water problems of the area. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) make generalizations about particular Middle Eastern cultures and support them with evidence; (2) interpret environmental and social data from specific Middle Eastern…

  15. Complex Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Disease in a Culturally Diverse Region: Phylogeography of Rabies Virus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Daniel L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Marston, Denise A.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Goharrriz, Hooman; Wise, Emma; Breed, Andrew C.; Saturday, Greg; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Zilahi, Erika; Al-Kobaisi, Muhannad F.; Nowotny, Norbert; Mueller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination. PMID:25811659

  16. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Walter, W. R.; Myers, S. C.; Matzel, E.; Gok, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Ford, S. R.; Rodgers, A. J.; Ruppert, S.; Hauk, T. F.; Dodge, D.; Ganzberger, M.; Ramirez, A. L.; Ryall, F.

    2010-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a long-standing research and development program for nuclear explosion monitoring. Here, we cover aspects of recent work applied to the Middle East region, specifically data management, seismic location, event identification, and magnitude estimation. Seismic data from broadband stations in the region is available through a combination of expanding global networks, improved and increasingly available national networks, and temporary deployments. Managing the huge amounts of data necessary to perform the work is an underappreciated aspect of monitoring research. Our research database provides vertically-integrated management of seismic data, catalogs, picks, magnitudes, etc., as well as analysis tools that are fully integrated into the database. Seismic locations have improved significantly through a succession of models starting with empirical corrections to 1-D models, progressing through to 2 1/2 -D models which significantly improve regional body-wave travel times by characterizing the upper mantle as a gradient, and on through high-resolution fully 3-D models that are currently in development. Our surface wave tomography results provide additional constraints on Earth lithospheric structure and can be used to improve Ms determination. Event identification has been achieved through a number of methods including the traditional mb:Ms discriminant, regional high-frequency P/S discriminants, and analysis of the complete moment tensor solution, which also has the possibility of distinguishing between explosions and mining-type events. Optimal use of these methods requires calibration, such as the multi-phase attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle that has been developed for the region. Use of the models reduces scatter of the earthquake population and reduces misclassification. Another important aspect of explosion monitoring is getting robust estimates of event magnitude, and hence explosive yield. This has been

  17. Middle East and North Africa: A Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Harry N.; And Others

    Designed essentially for librarians in undergraduate colleges in the United States, this bibliography is arranged both on a topical/subject and country by country basis. In the general section, the reader may find the bibliographies of bibliographies, reference works, journals, and specific works which treat geography, history, government and…

  18. Asia-Pacific Africa-Middle East petroleum directory 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This directory contains the names of over 40,000 people in over 100 countries including addresses, phone, cable and telex numbers for companies in drilling, refining, exploration, pipelines, engineering, field services, and construction. Over 10,000 companies are featured. This country-by-country listing includes onshore and offshore fields.

  19. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): animal to human interaction.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Ali S; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel enzootic betacoronavirus that was first described in September 2012. The clinical spectrum of MERS-CoV infection in humans ranges from an asymptomatic or mild respiratory illness to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure; overall mortality is around 35.7%. Bats harbour several betacoronaviruses that are closely related to MERS-CoV but more research is needed to establish the relationship between bats and MERS-CoV. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies is very high in dromedary camels in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV RNA and viable virus have been isolated from dromedary camels, including some with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, near-identical strains of MERS-CoV have been isolated from epidemiologically linked humans and camels, confirming inter-transmission, most probably from camels to humans. Though inter-human spread within health care settings is responsible for the majority of reported MERS-CoV cases, the virus is incapable at present of causing sustained human-to-human transmission. Clusters can be readily controlled with implementation of appropriate infection control procedures. Phylogenetic and sequencing data strongly suggest that MERS-CoV originated from bat ancestors after undergoing a recombination event in the spike protein, possibly in dromedary camels in Africa, before its exportation to the Arabian Peninsula along the camel trading routes. MERS-CoV serosurveys are needed to investigate possible unrecognized human infections in Africa. Amongst the important measures to control MERS-CoV spread are strict regulation of camel movement, regular herd screening and isolation of infected camels, use of personal protective equipment by camel handlers and enforcing rules banning all consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and urine. PMID:26924345

  20. Distal tephras of the eastern Lake Victoria basin, equatorial East Africa: correlations, chronology and a context for early modern humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, Nick; Tryon, Christian A.; Faith, J. Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J.; Beverly, Emily J.; Li, Bo; Jacobs, Zenobia

    2015-08-01

    The tephrostratigraphic framework for Pliocene and Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological sites in East Africa has been well established through nearly 50 years of research, but a similarly comprehensive framework is lacking for the Middle and particularly the Late Pleistocene. We provide the first detailed regional record of Late Pleistocene tephra deposits associated with artifacts or fossils from the Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. Correlations of Late Pleistocene distal tephra deposits from the Wasiriya beds on Rusinga Island, the Waware beds on Mfangano Island and deposits near Karungu, mainland Kenya, are based on field stratigraphy coupled with 916 electron microprobe analyses of eleven major and minor element oxides from 50 samples. At least eight distinct distal tephra deposits are distinguished, four of which are found at multiple localities spanning >60 km over an approximately north to south transect. New optically stimulated luminescence dates help to constrain the Late Pleistocene depositional ages of these deposits. Our correlation and characterization of volcaniclastic deposits expand and refine the current stratigraphy of the eastern Lake Victoria basin. This provides the basis for relating fossil- and artifact-bearing sediments and a framework for ongoing geological, archaeological and paleontological studies of Late Pleistocene East Africa, a crucial time period for human evolution and dispersal within and out of Africa.

  1. Distal tephras of the eastern Lake Victoria basin, equatorial East Africa: correlations, chronology and a context for early modern humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, Nick; Tryon, Christian A.; Faith, J. Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J.; Beverly, Emily J.; Li, Bo; Jacobs, Zenobia

    2015-08-01

    The tephrostratigraphic framework for Pliocene and Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological sites in East Africa has been well established through nearly 50 years of research, but a similarly comprehensive framework is lacking for the Middle and particularly the Late Pleistocene. We provide the first detailed regional record of Late Pleistocene tephra deposits associated with artifacts or fossils from the Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. Correlations of Late Pleistocene distal tephra deposits from the Wasiriya beds on Rusinga Island, the Waware beds on Mfangano Island and deposits near Karungu, mainland Kenya, are based on field stratigraphy coupled with 916 electron microprobe analyses of eleven major and minor element oxides from 50 samples. At least eight distinct distal tephra deposits are distinguished, four of which are found at multiple localities spanning >60 km over an approximately north to south transect. New optically stimulated luminescence dates help to constrain the Late Pleistocene depositional ages of these deposits. Our correlation and characterization of volcaniclastic deposits expand and refine the current stratigraphy of the eastern Lake Victoria basin. This provides the basis for relating fossil- and artifact-bearing sediments and a framework for ongoing geological, archaeological and paleontological studies of Late Pleistocene East Africa, a crucial time period for human evolution and dispersal within and out of Africa.

  2. 76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of... response costs concerning the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray... Site name East Calloway County ] Middle School Mercury Spill Site by one of the following methods:...

  3. Is the Saudi public aware of Middle East respiratory syndrome?

    PubMed

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Al-Shirian, Sarah D; Al-Otaibi, Salman K; Tamim, Hani M; Masuadi, Emad M; Fakhoury, Hana M

    2016-01-01

    To limit the spread of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Health tried to raise public awareness using different public campaigns. We aimed to measure public awareness of MERS in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June 2014 using a newly designed Arabic questionnaire that was distributed and completed online. We analyzed the response of 1149 respondents across Saudi Arabia. We found that 97% of the participants were aware of MERS. In addition, 72% realized that coughing and sneezing could spread the infection. Furthermore, 83% thought that some patients with MERS could be cured. Moreover, 62% knew that no vaccine can prevent the disease. However, only 36% realized that taking antibiotics will not stop the infection, and only 41% recognized that no medication has yet been manufactured to treat it. Regarding protection measures, 74% used hand sanitizers, 43% avoided crowded places, and 11% wore masks in public places. Moreover, only 47% knew that bats and camels are the primary source of the virus. As anticipated, this level of awareness varied between the different categories of the studied population. Female, married, older, and more educated participants were significantly more knowledgeable about the disease. Public awareness of MERS is generally sufficient. However, some false beliefs about treatment were fairly common. In addition, almost half of the population remains unaware that bats and camels are the most likely sources of the virus. PMID:26589657

  4. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacob; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-06-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak.

  5. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak. PMID:27433376

  6. Paleointensity determinations from Middle Miocene volcanic rocks, Far East, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Shcherbakova, Valentina; Zhidkov, Grigoriy; Bretstein, Yury

    2010-05-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleointensity studies of a representative collection of Middle Miocene volcanic rocks of (12.4-10.0) Ma age from Far East, Russia were carried out. A comprehensive rock magnetic investigation has been performed in order to determine the mineralogy of magnetic fraction and to identify the origin of NRM. Successful Thellier palaeointensity determinations with pTRM checks were obtained for 4 sites (33 samples). The Thellier experiments were complimented by the Wilson's express method. Values of the VDMs range from 3.1 to 7.5 (10^22 Am^2) with the mean VDM = 5.5×10^22 Am^2. A total 88 Thellier-type palaeointensity determinations were found in the World Paleointensity database for the 5-23 Ma period with the overall mean VDM = 5×10^22 Am^2. The VDM distribution is characterized by high variance from 1.5 to 12 (10^22 Am^2). No significant difference between the VDM distributions for the normal and reverse polarity intervals was revealed.

  7. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacob; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-06-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak. PMID:27433376

  8. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection is inhibited by griffithsin.

    PubMed

    Millet, Jean K; Séron, Karin; Labitt, Rachael N; Danneels, Adeline; Palmer, Kenneth E; Whittaker, Gary R; Dubuisson, Jean; Belouzard, Sandrine

    2016-09-01

    Highly pathogenic human coronaviruses associated with a severe respiratory syndrome, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have recently emerged. The MERS-CoV epidemic started in 2012 and is still ongoing, with a mortality rate of approximately 35%. No vaccine is available against MERS-CoV and therapeutic options for MERS-CoV infections are limited to palliative and supportive care. A search for specific antiviral treatments is urgently needed. Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses, with the spike proteins present on their surface responsible for virus entry into the target cell. Lectins are attractive anti-coronavirus candidates because of the highly glycosylated nature of the spike protein. We tested the antiviral effect of griffithsin (GRFT), a lectin isolated from the red marine alga Griffithsia sp. against MERS-CoV infection. Our results demonstrate that while displaying no significant cytotoxicity, griffithsin is a potent inhibitor of MERS-CoV infection. Griffithsin also inhibits entry into host cells of particles pseudotyped with the MERS-CoV spike protein, suggesting that griffithsin inhibits spike protein function during entry. Spike proteins have a dual function during entry, they mediate binding to the host cell surface and also the fusion of the viral envelope with host cell membrane. Time course experiments show that griffithsin inhibits MERS-CoV infection at the binding step. In conclusion, we identify griffithsin as a potent inhibitor of MERS-CoV infection at the entry step. PMID:27424494

  9. The Influence of European Pollution on Ozone in the Near East and Northern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, B. N.; West, J. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average greater than 120 micrograms per cubic meters or approximately 60 ppbv) in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000) in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  10. A Revised Holocene History of Lake Kivu, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, J. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Hecky, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The great lakes of the East African Rift valley are a vast chain of lakes formed in a region of active tectonics. These large, deep lakes are relatively old and many (e.g. Tanganyika, Malawi, and Turkana) have greatly influenced our understanding of terrestrial, tropical East African paleoclimate. Lake Kivu (max depth, 485m) sits at the heart of these rift lakes, north of Lake Tanganyika between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda (roughly 250 km west of Lake Victoria). At over 1,400 meters in elevation, this 2,060 km2 mesotrophic lake has a complex stratification regime imposed by hydrothermal springs and deep waters supersaturated at STP in CO2 and CH4 gasses. The active Virunga Volcanoes to the north of the lake supply heated, high-salinity waters below 280 meters water depth maintaining the modern crenogenic meromixis. Based on detailed studies of diatom assemblages and bulk sedimentology, previous workers have suggested this hydrothermal activity began roughly 5,000 years BP. Unfortunately, dating and stratigraphic correlations of these original cores from the 1970 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's expedition have been problematic. Here we offer an improved chronology and new carbonate analyses from cores recovered in 2012 and 2013. Our AMS radiocarbon ages come from six terrigeneous macrofossils spanning the last 9,100 years (cal BP). These ages suggest a rather high sedimentation rate on the order of 70cm/kyr, and hence, our 8 m-long core provides us with a high-resolution lake history for the past 10,000 years. Most notable over the past 5,000 years in the lake history is the repeated onset and cessation of carbonate deposition, punctuated by organic-rich intervals. Earlier studies of the Woods Hole cores placed the onset of carbonate deposition at ca. 11,000 years BP suggesting changes in lake hydrology (i.e. closed to open), while the abrupt cessation of carbonate was dated at ca. 5,000 years BP and attributed to the beginning of

  11. Reduced interannual rainfall variability in East Africa during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christian; Haug, Gerald H; Timmermann, Axel; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Brauer, Achim; Sigman, Daniel M; Cane, Mark A; Verschuren, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    Interannual rainfall variations in equatorial East Africa are tightly linked to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with more rain and flooding during El Niño and droughts in La Niña years, both having severe impacts on human habitation and food security. Here we report evidence from an annually laminated lake sediment record from southeastern Kenya for interannual to centennial-scale changes in ENSO-related rainfall variability during the last three millennia and for reductions in both the mean rate and the variability of rainfall in East Africa during the Last Glacial period. Climate model simulations support forward extrapolation from these lake sediment data that future warming will intensify the interannual variability of East Africa's rainfall.

  12. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  13. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana; Becic, Tarik; Bhonsle, Uday; Jalilian, Amir R; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; Osso, Joao Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Middle East region has experienced an important growth in the last 2 decades and has become crucial in providing healthcare to the region's population of about 395 million people. Even though there are some countries in which the services provided are limited to basic coverage of studies with (99m)Tc and (131)I, most have well-established practices covering most of the available studies in this medical specialty; this is the case in for example, Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. According to data provided by the NM professionals in the 17 countries included in the present publication, which was collected by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015, the total number of gamma cameras in the region is 910 with an average of 2.3 gamma cameras per million inhabitants. Out of these, 107 cameras, or 12%, are SPECT/CT cameras. There are 194 operating PET/CT scanners, translating to one PET/CT scanner for 2.04 million people on average. The availability of PET/CT scanners in relation to population is the highest in Lebanon and Kuwait, with 2.2 and 1.7 scanners per million people, respectively. There is a total of 628 NM centers in the 17 countries, whereas most NM centers belong to the public healthcare system and in most of the countries are widely spread and not confined exclusively to capital cities. As for the radionuclide therapies, (131)I is used regularly in diagnostic workup as well as in therapeutic applications in all the countries included in this analysis. Only five countries have the capability of assembling (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators (Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Turkey), and cold kits are produced in several countries. Although there are no capabilities in the region to produce (99)Mo from nuclear reactors, a total of 46 cyclotrons are operated for production of PET radionuclides. The most widely used PET tracer in the region is (18)F-FDG followed by (18)F-NaF; concomitantly, the

  14. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana; Becic, Tarik; Bhonsle, Uday; Jalilian, Amir R; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; Osso, Joao Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Middle East region has experienced an important growth in the last 2 decades and has become crucial in providing healthcare to the region's population of about 395 million people. Even though there are some countries in which the services provided are limited to basic coverage of studies with (99m)Tc and (131)I, most have well-established practices covering most of the available studies in this medical specialty; this is the case in for example, Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. According to data provided by the NM professionals in the 17 countries included in the present publication, which was collected by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015, the total number of gamma cameras in the region is 910 with an average of 2.3 gamma cameras per million inhabitants. Out of these, 107 cameras, or 12%, are SPECT/CT cameras. There are 194 operating PET/CT scanners, translating to one PET/CT scanner for 2.04 million people on average. The availability of PET/CT scanners in relation to population is the highest in Lebanon and Kuwait, with 2.2 and 1.7 scanners per million people, respectively. There is a total of 628 NM centers in the 17 countries, whereas most NM centers belong to the public healthcare system and in most of the countries are widely spread and not confined exclusively to capital cities. As for the radionuclide therapies, (131)I is used regularly in diagnostic workup as well as in therapeutic applications in all the countries included in this analysis. Only five countries have the capability of assembling (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators (Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Turkey), and cold kits are produced in several countries. Although there are no capabilities in the region to produce (99)Mo from nuclear reactors, a total of 46 cyclotrons are operated for production of PET radionuclides. The most widely used PET tracer in the region is (18)F-FDG followed by (18)F-NaF; concomitantly, the

  15. The state of mobile health in the developing world and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Ababtain, Arwa F; Almulhim, Deana A; Househ, Mowafa S

    2013-01-01

    The rapid expansion and development of mobile technology have advanced an area called mobile health (mHealth), which is expected to improve healthcare delivery and increase the efficacy of healthcare services. This paper provides an overview of mHealthuse in the developing world with a specific focus on the Middle East. Different search engines and databases were used to search for Mobile Health (mHealth) literature on the developing world and the Middle East, in September 2012. The results show that there is a growing demand within the developing world and the Middle East for the use of mobile technologies that focus on information gathering and sharing, accessibility and reach, and public health. The future of mHealth in the developing world and the Middle East is also discussed.

  16. 75 FR 15686 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  17. 75 FR 18783 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  18. The Islamic Middle East: A Short Annotated Bibliography for High School Teachers and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of 133 books about the Middle East. Categories are reference works; general works; pre-modern history and geography; Islamic religion, law, institutions, and thought; Islamic literature; and Islamic art and archaeology. (AV)

  19. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-3 157.4630. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-4 157.4631. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-4 157.4631. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-3 157.4630. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Aidaros, H

    2014-04-01

    Religion, ethics and culture are an important group of drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East. In many countries of the region the understanding of animal welfare is expressed more in terms of religious precepts and humane ethics than via regulations and legislation. In fact, regulatory and legislated animal welfare standards are still not well implemented and many animal welfare issues require attention. The Qur'an provides considerable support for conscientiously attending to animal welfare. For example, the Islamic rules on the process of slaughter were intended to provide a quick, humane and relatively painless death. Current practices that are not in accordance with these religious teachings may cause great suffering to animals. Although these rules have been in place for 1,400 years or more, now, in the 21st Century, they are found to closely correspond to the related standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The OIE plays an important role in improving animal welfare by developing global animal welfare standards. These should assist countries in two important ways: first, by helping them to establish new, or to refine existing, animal welfare legislation, and second, at the OIE regional level, by facilitating interactions between Member Countries as they develop and refine a strategic plan for the advancement of animal welfare. As the OIE standards are compatible with the requirements of Islamic law, issuing animal welfare legislation referring to those standards and implementing them at a national level is highly recommended. A dialogue between the OIE and the Veterinary Services and religious leaders in the region should therefore start with the objective of improving animal welfare.

  4. Animal models of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Munster, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second time that a new, highly pathogenic coronavirus has emerged in the human population in the 21st century. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of animal models of MERS-CoV infection. Commonly used laboratory animal species such as Syrian hamsters, mice and ferrets are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, due to differences in the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The initially developed animal models comprise two nonhuman primate species, the rhesus macaque and the common marmoset. Rhesus macaques develop a mild to moderate respiratory disease upon inoculation, reminiscent of milder MERS cases, whereas marmosets develop a moderate to severe respiratory disease, recapitulating the severe disease observed in some patients. Dromedary camels, considered to be the reservoir for MERS-CoV, develop a mild upper respiratory tract infection with abundant viral shedding. Although normal mice are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, expression of the human DPP4 (hDPP4) overcomes the lack of susceptibility. Transgenic hDPP4 mice develop severe and lethal respiratory disease upon inoculation with MERS-CoV. These hDPP4 transgenic mice are potentially the ideal first line animal model for efficacy testing of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures. Further characterization of identified countermeasures would ideally be performed in the common marmoset model, due to the more severe disease outcome. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:26192750

  5. Genomics and zoonotic infections: Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wernery, U; Lau, S K P; Woo, P C Y

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the discovery of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 suggests that another SARS-like epidemic is occurring. Unlike the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, which rapidly disappeared in less than one year, MERS has persisted for over three years. More than 1,600 cases of MERS have been reported worldwide, and the disease carries a worryingly high fatality rate of >30%. A total of 182 MERS-CoV genomes have been sequenced, including 94 from humans and 88 from dromedary camels. The 182 genomes all share >99% identity, indicating minimal variation among MERS-CoV genomes. MERS-CoV is a lineage C Betacoronavirus (ßCoV). MERS-CoV genomes can be roughly divided into two clades: clade A, which contains only a few strains, and clade B, to which most strains belong. In contrast to ORF1ab and structural proteins, the putative proteins encoded by ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, ORF5 and ORF8b in the MERS-CoV genome do not share homology with any known host or virus protein, other than those of its closely related lineage C ßCoVs. Human and dromedary viral genomes have intermingled, indicating that multiple camel-to-human transmission events have occurred. The multiple origins of MERS-CoV suggest that the virus has been resident in dromedaries for many years. This is consistent with the detection of anti-MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels as early as the 1980s. PMID:27217178

  6. Genomics and zoonotic infections: Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wernery, U; Lau, S K P; Woo, P C Y

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the discovery of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 suggests that another SARS-like epidemic is occurring. Unlike the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, which rapidly disappeared in less than one year, MERS has persisted for over three years. More than 1,600 cases of MERS have been reported worldwide, and the disease carries a worryingly high fatality rate of >30%. A total of 182 MERS-CoV genomes have been sequenced, including 94 from humans and 88 from dromedary camels. The 182 genomes all share >99% identity, indicating minimal variation among MERS-CoV genomes. MERS-CoV is a lineage C Betacoronavirus (ßCoV). MERS-CoV genomes can be roughly divided into two clades: clade A, which contains only a few strains, and clade B, to which most strains belong. In contrast to ORF1ab and structural proteins, the putative proteins encoded by ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, ORF5 and ORF8b in the MERS-CoV genome do not share homology with any known host or virus protein, other than those of its closely related lineage C ßCoVs. Human and dromedary viral genomes have intermingled, indicating that multiple camel-to-human transmission events have occurred. The multiple origins of MERS-CoV suggest that the virus has been resident in dromedaries for many years. This is consistent with the detection of anti-MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels as early as the 1980s.

  7. Drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Aidaros, H

    2014-04-01

    Religion, ethics and culture are an important group of drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East. In many countries of the region the understanding of animal welfare is expressed more in terms of religious precepts and humane ethics than via regulations and legislation. In fact, regulatory and legislated animal welfare standards are still not well implemented and many animal welfare issues require attention. The Qur'an provides considerable support for conscientiously attending to animal welfare. For example, the Islamic rules on the process of slaughter were intended to provide a quick, humane and relatively painless death. Current practices that are not in accordance with these religious teachings may cause great suffering to animals. Although these rules have been in place for 1,400 years or more, now, in the 21st Century, they are found to closely correspond to the related standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The OIE plays an important role in improving animal welfare by developing global animal welfare standards. These should assist countries in two important ways: first, by helping them to establish new, or to refine existing, animal welfare legislation, and second, at the OIE regional level, by facilitating interactions between Member Countries as they develop and refine a strategic plan for the advancement of animal welfare. As the OIE standards are compatible with the requirements of Islamic law, issuing animal welfare legislation referring to those standards and implementing them at a national level is highly recommended. A dialogue between the OIE and the Veterinary Services and religious leaders in the region should therefore start with the objective of improving animal welfare. PMID:25000780

  8. Filipino workers in the Middle East: social profile and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Smart, J E; Teodosio, V A; Jimenez, C J

    1985-03-01

    The characteristics of international labor migrants from the Philippines are examined. "Based on an analysis of a sample of 495 Middle East workers and 1983 worker placements, this paper presents a profile of Filipino workers in the Middle East with reference to such variables as occupation, gender, age and work experience, civil status, education, Philippine residence, household size and number of dependents." (summary in FRE, SPA)

  9. Maternal Death Surveillance and Response in East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, Heather; Dairo, Akinyele

    2015-10-01

    Maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) is one of several low cost, high impact strategies to reduce maternal mortality. This initiative is supported in eastern and southern Africa by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and other partners. Currently, South Africa is the leading country in the institutionalization of MDSR through the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD). With the support of UNFPA and other partners, at least 15 countries in the region have introduced MDSR into maternal and newborn health care programs. The report from the knowledge-sharing meeting and the findings of the evaluation of the South African MDSR show that MDSR is still not at an optimal level in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the efforts of national authorities and support from a number of development partners. Additional work is required on the part of national authorities, communities, and development organizations, and the challenges being faced were highlighted at the knowledge-sharing meeting. PMID:26606709

  10. The Qatar genome: a population-specific tool for precision medicine in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Fakhro, Khalid A; Staudt, Michelle R; Ramstetter, Monica Denise; Robay, Amal; Malek, Joel A; Badii, Ramin; Al-Marri, Ajayeb Al-Nabet; Khalil, Charbel Abi; Al-Shakaki, Alya; Chidiac, Omar; Stadler, Dora; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Salit, Jacqueline; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L

    2016-01-01

    Reaching the full potential of precision medicine depends on the quality of personalized genome interpretation. In order to facilitate precision medicine in regions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), a population-specific genome for the indigenous Arab population of Qatar (QTRG) was constructed by incorporating allele frequency data from sequencing of 1,161 Qataris, representing 0.4% of the population. A total of 20.9 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 3.1 million indels were observed in Qatar, including an average of 1.79% novel variants per individual genome. Replacement of the GRCh37 standard reference with QTRG in a best practices genome analysis workflow resulted in an average of 7* deeper coverage depth (an improvement of 23%) and 756,671 fewer variants on average, a reduction of 16% that is attributed to common Qatari alleles being present in QTRG. The benefit for using QTRG varies across ancestries, a factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting an appropriate reference for analysis. PMID:27408750

  11. The politics of assessment: water and sanitation MDGs in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Zawahri, Neda; Sowers, Jeannie; Weinthal, Erika

    2011-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is generally considered to be making adequate progress towards meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which calls for halving the proportion of the population with inadequate access to drinking water and sanitation. Progress towards achieving Target 10 is evaluated by the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), run by UNICEF and WHO. This article shows that the assessment methodologies employed by the JMP significantly overstate coverage rates in the drinking water and sanitation sectors, by overlooking and ‘not counting’ problems of access, affordability, quality of service and pollution. The authors show that states in MENA often fail to provide safe drinking water and adequate sanitation services, particularly in densely populated informal settlements, and that many centralized water and sanitation infrastructures contribute to water pollution and contamination. Despite the glaring gap between the MDG statistics and the evidence available from national and local reports, exclusionary political regimes in the region have had few incentives to adopt more accurate assessments and improve the quality of service. While international organizations have proposed some reforms, they too lack incentives to employ adequate measures that gauge access, quality and affordability of drinking water and sanitation services.

  12. Disillusionment with Higher Education in the Middle East and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    University graduates in the Middle East and the United States of America are disillusioned with their higher education degrees. Youth expect to be well employed upon graduation and to improve their social status. Employment has been guaranteed from the earliest university certificates granted in Middle Eastern yeshivas, Houses of Learning, and…

  13. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  14. Crustal Structure of the Middle East from Regional Seismic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, Roland; Sibol, Matthew; Caron, Pierre; Ghalib, Hafidh; Chen, Youlin

    2010-05-01

    We present results of crustal studies obtained with seismic data from the Northern Iraq Seismic Network (NISN). NISN has operated ten broadband stations in north-eastern Iraq since late 2005. This network was supplemented by the five-element broadband Iraq Seismic Array (KSIRS) in 2007. More recently, the former Iraq Seismic Network (ISN), destroyed during the war with Iran, was reestablished with the deployment of six broadband stations throughout Iraq. The aim of the present study is to derive models of the local and regional crustal structure of the Middle East, including Eastern Turkey, Iraq and Iran. To achieve this goal, we derive crustal velocity models using receiver function, surface wave and body wave analyses. These refined velocity models will eventually be used to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. Our analysis of preliminary hypocenter locations produced a clearer picture of the seismicity associated with the tectonics of the region. The largest seismicity rate is confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases in the Bandar Abbas region again. Additionally, the rift zones in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are clearly demarked by high seismicity rates. Surface wave velocity analysis resulted in a clear demarcation of the tectonic features in the region. The Arabian shield, Zagros thrust zone and the Red Sea are apparent through distinct velocity distributions separating them from each other. Furthermore, the shear wave velocity of the crust in North Iraq appears to be 10% higher than that of the Iranian plateau. The velocity anomaly of the Zagros mountains appears to be present into the upper mantle beyond the resolving limit of our model. Analysis of waveform data for obstructed pathways indicates clear propagation paths from the west or south-west across the Arabian shield as well as from the north and east into NISN. Phases

  15. Annotated list of Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) from the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania and new Tettigoniidae species from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2013-12-21

    A list of the Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) of the East Usambara Mountains is presented and 16 new species are described from East Africa. A total number of 29 Tettigoniidae species is recorded for the East Usambara Mountains. New species are described from the Shimba Hills in Kenya, coastal Tanzania from the Kazimzumbwi forest reserve, Mt Kilimanjaro, the East and West Usambara and Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania, namely in Conocephalinae Afroagraecia pwania n. sp., Afroagraecia shimbaensis n. sp., Afroanthracites discolor n. sp., Afroanthracites jagoi n. sp. and Afroanthracites viridis n. sp., in Meconematinae Afrophisis flagellata n. sp., Afrophisis kisarawe n. sp., Afrophisis mazumbaiensis n. sp. and Afrophisis pseudoflagellata n. sp., in Hexacentrinae Aerotegmina megaloptera n. sp., in Mecopodinae Apteroscirtus cristatus n. sp., and A. planidorsatus n. sp., in Phaneropterinae Gelotopoia amabilis n. sp., and in Pseudophyllinae Cymatomerella pardopunctata n. sp. and Cymatomera viridimaculata n. sp. Seven species are endemic to the East Usambara Mountains which are 25% of the recorded forest-bound bush crickets. The Tettigoniidae fauna is compared between the East Usambara Mountains and Mt Kilimanjaro and mechanisms of speciation discussed in Orthoptera for the area. New Tettigoniidae records are given for Mt Kilimanjaro (Oxyecous apertus Ragge, Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge and Eurycorypha conclusa Hemp).

  16. Traditional Music of East Africa: Experiencing "Ngoma" in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ngoma is present throughout Eastern and Southern Africa. Ngoma refers to the tradition of expression via music, drumming, dance, and storytelling. History, values, education, and even identity can be transmitted between generations. This article traces the experiences of a music teacher from the United States traveling and studying…

  17. A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in East Africa these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but...

  18. Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…

  19. Lessons from Mount Kilimanjaro: Schooling, Community, and Gender in East Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    This book presents an ethnographic study of a school and community in East Africa. It focuses on the role school plays in the development of the children's identity and relationships to their parents and community, and in the development of the region. At issue here are the competing influences of Western modernity and the cultural traditions of…

  20. Investigating Students' Behavioural Intention to Adopt and Use Mobile Learning in Higher Education in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raisamo, Roope

    2014-01-01

    Recent penetration of mobile technologies and its services in East Africa has provided a new platform for institutions to widen access to education through mobile learning. Mobile technologies provide learners with flexibility and ubiquity to learn anytime and anywhere via wireless Internet. However, far too little research has been conducted to…

  1. Food habits and infant feeding in newly resettled refugee families from Chile and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Hjern, A; Kocturk-Runefors, T; Jeppson, O

    1990-09-01

    Food habits and infant feeding patterns of 45 newly resettled refugee families from Chile and the Middle East were studied in the suburbs of Stockholm. The social background of the sample was mixed and the level of maternal education high with the exception of the rural Kurds from Turkey. Children from rural Middle East areas had been breastfed for longer periods than the children from urban areas. Solid and semi-solid foods were introduced late in the Middle East. Chileans had a characteristic meal pattern, emphasizing lunch and often replacing dinner with a light meal. Resettled Chileans and Middle Easterners had a varied and well balanced diet with the characteristics of each culture. Foods containing sucrose were consumed frequently in both refugee groups.

  2. Reduced Interannual Rainfall Variability in East Africa During the Last Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Christian; Haug, Gerald H.; Timmermann, Axel; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Brauer, Achim; Sigman, Daniel M.; Cane, Mark A.; Verschuren, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    Interannual rainfall variations in equatorial East Africa are tightly linked to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with more rain and flooding during El Niño and droughts in La Niña years, both having severe impacts on human habitation and food security. Here we report evidence from an annually laminated lake sediment record from southeastern Kenya for interannual to centennial-scale changes in ENSO-related rainfall variability during the last three millennia and for reductions in both the mean rate and the variability of rainfall in East Africa during the Last Glacial period. Climate model simulations support forward extrapolation from these lake sediment data that future warming will intensify the interannual variability of East Africa’s rainfall.

  3. Teaching about the Middle East: Challenges and Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Cyrisse

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Petzen began working as a part-time outreach coordinator at Harvard University's Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES) a week before September 11, 2001. She was finishing her dissertation in Middle Eastern studies, specializing in the Ottoman Empire and Arab history, and thought it would be a good job to have while she completed her…

  4. The Future of Area Studies: The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes problems in Middle Eastern studies, focusing on: (1) the problem of access for students and faculty conducting research due to countries being completely closed or highly restrictive; (2) declines in Middle Eastern and American corporate donations to language and area studies as oil prices decrease; and (3) the difficulties inherent in…

  5. Plate tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D P; Davies, D; Molnar, P

    1970-04-18

    The relative motion between the plates on each side of the East African Rift Valley can be obtained from the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The calculated direction of relative motion agrees well with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the equator. PMID:16057189

  6. Postgraduate training in Britain for psychiatrists from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Cox, J L

    1977-01-01

    The training of overseas psychiatrists in Britain is arousing increasing concern. Specific assistance may be necessary to maximise the advantages and minimise the disadvantages of such training. This paper describes several aspects of this topic, with particular reference to East African psychiatrists, and the awareness of Britain being a multicultural society.

  7. Plate tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D P; Davies, D; Molnar, P

    1970-04-18

    The relative motion between the plates on each side of the East African Rift Valley can be obtained from the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The calculated direction of relative motion agrees well with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the equator.

  8. Study of the genetic heterogeneity of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-Saharan Africa with specific focus on East Africa.

    PubMed

    Sahle, M; Dwarka, R M; Venter, E H; Vosloo, W

    2007-12-01

    The epidemiology of serotype SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-Saharan Africa by phylogenetic analysis using the 1D gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. Fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to East Africa, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. The genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between East, southern and south-western Africa. One lineage was unique to West Africa. These results established numerous incursions across country borders in East Africa and long term conservation of sequences for periods up to 41 years. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda have all experienced outbreaks from more than one unrelated strain, demonstrating the potential for new introductions. The amount of variation observed within this serotype nearly equalled that which was found between serotypes; this has severe implications for disease control using vaccination. PMID:18453238

  9. The Hydroclimate of East Africa: Seasonal cycle, Decadal Variability, and Human-induced Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchang

    The hydroclimate of East Africa shows distinctive variabilities on seasonal to decadal time scales and poses a great challenge to climatologists attempting to project its response to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Increased frequency and intensity of droughts over East Africa in recent decades raise the question of whether the drying trend will continue into the future. To address this question, we first examine the decadal variability of the East African rainfall during March--May (MAM, the major rainy season in East Africa) and assess how well a series of models simulate the observed features. Observational results show that the drying trend during MAM is associated with decadal natural variability of sea surface temperature (SST) variations over the Pacific Ocean. The multimodel mean of the SST-forced, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) AMIP experiment models reproduces both the climatological annual cycle and the drying trend in recent decades. The fully coupled models from the CMIP5 historical experiment, however, have systematic errors in simulating the East African rainfall annual cycle by underestimating the MAM rainfall while overestimating the October--December (OND, the second rainy season in East Africa) rainfall. The multimodel mean of the historical coupled runs of the MAM rainfall anomalies, which is the best estimate of the radiatively-forced change, shows a weak wetting trend associated with anthropogenic forcing. However, the SST anomaly pattern associated with the MAM rainfall has large discrepancies with the observations. The errors in simulating the East African hydroclimate with coupled models raise questions about how reliable model projections of future East African climate are. This motivates a fundamental study of why East African climate is the way it is and why coupled models get it wrong. East African hydroclimate is characterized by a dry annual mean climatology compared to other deep tropical

  10. Analysis of dust samples from the Middle East using high-density resequencing micro-array RPM-TEI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leski, T. A.; Gregory, M. J.; Malanoski, A. P.; Smith, J. P.; Glaven, R. H.; Wang, Z.; Stenger, D. A.; Lin, B.

    2010-04-01

    A previously developed resequencing microarray, "Tropical and Emerging Infections (RPM-TEI v.1.0 chip)", designed to identify and discriminate between tropical diseases and other potential biothreat agents, their near-neighbor species, and/or potential confounders, was used to characterize the microbes present in the silt/clay fraction of surface soils and airborne dust collected from the Middle East. Local populations and U.S. military personnel deployed to the Middle East are regularly subjected to high levels of airborne desert dust containing a significant fraction of inhalable particles and some portion require clinical aid. Not all of the clinical symptoms can be directly attributed to the physical action of material in the human respiratory tract. To better understand the potential health effects of the airborne dust, the composition of the microbial communities associated with surface soil and/or airborne dust (air filter) samples from 19 different sites in Iraq and Kuwait was identified using RPM-TEI v.1.0. Results indicated that several microorganisms including a class of rapidly growing Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Brucella, Clostridium and Coxiella burnetti, were present in the samples. The presence of these organisms in the surface soils and the inhalable fraction of airborne dust analyzed may pose a human health risk and warrants further investigation. Better understanding of the factors influencing the composition of these microbial communities is important to address questions related to human health and is critical to achieving Force Health Protection for the Warfighter operating in the Middle East, Afghanistan, North Africa and other arid regions.

  11. Obesity Researches Over the Past 24 years: A Scientometrics Study in Middle East Countries

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers call for updated valid evidences to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of obesity. We quantify the trends of obesity/overweight researches outputs of Middle East countries. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, with the most coverage in health and biomedicine disciplines for all related obesity/overweight publications, from 1990 to 2013. These scientometrics analysis assessed the trends of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers in Middle East countries. We also provided Information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the field of obesity/overweight. Results: Over 24-year period, the number of obesity/overweight publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. Globally, during 1990–2013, 415,126 papers have been published, from them, 3.56% were affiliated to Middle East countries. Iran with 26.27%, compare with other countries in the regions, after Turkey (47.94%) and Israel (35.25%), had the third position. Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in research outputs, more efforts required for promotion of collaborative partnerships. Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These findings also could be used for future complementary analysis. PMID:26015861

  12. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region

    PubMed Central

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse. PMID:24829628

  13. Rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa during the past 1,100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Laird, Kathleen R.; Cumming, Brian F.

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of natural long-term rainfall variability is essential for water-resource and land-use management in sub-humid regions of the world. In tropical Africa, data relevant to determining this variability are scarce because of the lack of long instrumental climate records and the limited potential of standard high-resolution proxy records such as tree rings and ice cores. Here we present a decade-scale reconstruction of rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa over the past 1,100 years, based on lake-level and salinity fluctuations of Lake Naivasha (Kenya) inferred from three different palaeolimnological proxies: sediment stratigraphy and the species compositions of fossil diatom and midge assemblages. Our data indicate that, over the past millennium, equatorial east Africa has alternated between contrasting climate conditions, with significantly drier climate than today during the `Medieval Warm Period' (~ AD 1000-1270) and a relatively wet climate during the `Little Ice Age' (~ AD 1270-1850) which was interrupted by three prolonged dry episodes. We also find strong chronological links between the reconstructed history of natural long-term rainfall variation and the pre-colonial cultural history of east Africa, highlighting the importance of a detailed knowledge of natural long-term rainfall fluctuations for sustainable socio-economic development.

  14. Usefulness of ECMWF system-4 ensemble seasonal climate forecasts for East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, Geoffrey; Franssen, Wietse; Supit, Iwan; Omondi, Philip; Hutjes, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates whether European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) system-4 seasonal forecasts can potentially be used as input for impact analysis over East Africa. To be of any use, these forecasts should have skill. We used the 15-member ensemble runs and tested potential forecast skill of precipitation (tp), near surface air temperature (tas) and surface downwelling shortwave radiation (rsds) for future use in impact models. Probabilistic measures verified the ECMWF ensemble forecasts against the WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data (WFDEI) climatology for the period 1981-2010. The Ranked Probability Skill Score (RPSS) assesses the overall forecast skill, whereas the Relative Operating Curve Skill Score (ROCSS) analyses skill of the forecasted tercile at both grid cell and over sub-regions with homogeneous rainfall characteristics. The results show that predictability of the three variables varies with season, location and forecast month (lead-time) before start of the seasons. Quantile-quantile bias correction clears biases in the raw forecasts but does not improve probabilistic skills. The October-December (OND) tp forecasts show skill over a larger area up to lead-time of three months compared to the March-May (MAM) and June-August (JJA) seasons. Temperature forecasts are skillful up to a minimum three months lead-time in all seasons, while the rsds is less skillful. ROCSS analyses indicate high skill in simulation of upper- and lower-tercile forecasts compared to simulation of the middle-terciles. Upper- and lower-tercile precipitation forecasts are 20-80% better than climatology over a larger area at 0-3 month lead-time; tas forecasts are 40-100% better at shorter lead-times while rsds forecasts are less skillful in all seasons. The forecast system captures manifestations of strong El Niño and La Niña years in terms of precipitation but the skill scores are region dependent.

  15. Analog models of convergence and divergence: perspectives of the tectonics of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mart, Yossi

    2010-05-01

    propagate continuously like wedge. However, where the deviation exceeds 150, the rifting takes place in two stages. At first a series of structural basins develops along an axial zone with no continuous boundary fault. Then the basins expand in their axial direction and, in time, interconect to form a rift with boundary faults that determine the down-thrown rift from its elevated margins. When these structures were welded into a mountain chain, it would be very complicated to determine the low friction from the high friction subduction, the temporal transition from subduction to collision, and the penetration of a spreading ridge into a tectonic convergence zone. The Middle East offers a unique view into the structural development of the continental lithosphere as it takes place. References: Bellahsen, N., Faccenna, C., Funiciello, F., Daniel J. M., Jolivet, L., 2003. Why did Arabia separate from Africa? Insights from 3-D laboratory experiments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 216, 365-381. Mart, Y. and Dauteuil, O., 2000. Analogue experiments of propagation of oblique rifts. Tectonophysics, 316: 121-132. Mart, Y., Aharonov, E., Mulugeta, G., Ryan, W.B.F., Tentler, T., Goren, L., 2005. Analog modeling of the initiation of subduction. Geophys. J. Int., 160, 1081-1091.

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on the Climate Extremes of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. Tufan; Collu, Kamil; Deler, F. Busra; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    The Middle East is one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. Because of the importance of the region and its vulnerability to global climate change, the studies including the investigation of projected changes in the climate of the Middle East play a crucial role in order to struggle with the negative effects of climate change. This research points out the relationship between the climate change and climate extremes indices in the Middle East and it investigates the changes in the number of extreme events as described by the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). As part of the study, the regional climate model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) is run to obtain future projection data. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  17. Access to orphan drugs in the Middle East: Challenge and perspective

    PubMed Central

    Almalki, Ziyad S.; Alahmari, Abdullah K.; Guo, Jeff J.; Kelton, Christina M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary An orphan drug is a drug developed specifically to treat a rare medical condition. With a combined population of less than 400 million, about 2.8 million patients are estimated to be suffering from a rare disease in the Middle East. Some disorders such as hemoglobinopathy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, autosomal recessive syndromes, and several metabolic disorders have a presence throughout the Middle East. In order to promote the treatment of these diseases, Middle Eastern governments need to facilitate education and training of healthcare personnel; develop and execute a method for obtaining and paying for orphan drugs; and, finally, provide tax, marketing, and other incentives to domestic and international firms to develop drugs specifically for the diseases of most importance to Middle Eastern patients. PMID:25343087

  18. Access to orphan drugs in the Middle East: Challenge and perspective.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Ziyad S; Alahmari, Abdullah K; Guo, Jeff J; Kelton, Christina M L

    2012-11-01

    An orphan drug is a drug developed specifically to treat a rare medical condition. With a combined population of less than 400 million, about 2.8 million patients are estimated to be suffering from a rare disease in the Middle East. Some disorders such as hemoglobinopathy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, autosomal recessive syndromes, and several metabolic disorders have a presence throughout the Middle East. In order to promote the treatment of these diseases, Middle Eastern governments need to facilitate education and training of healthcare personnel; develop and execute a method for obtaining and paying for orphan drugs; and, finally, provide tax, marketing, and other incentives to domestic and international firms to develop drugs specifically for the diseases of most importance to Middle Eastern patients. PMID:25343087

  19. Characterisation of mineral dust emission in the Middle EAST using the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennen, M.; Shahgedanova, M.; White, K.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Spinning Enhanced Visual and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on-board Meteosat's second generation satellite (MSG), mineral dust emissions from the Middle East were observed at a high temporal and spatial resolution between the years 2006 and 2013. This research provides a subjective derivation of mineral dust source locations in the Middle East using the thermal infrared Dust RGB product. Focusing on the brightness temperature difference around 10.8 µm channel and their spectral contrast with clear sky conditions, the Dust RGB product has been recognised as a major asset in detecting dust. While the product has already been used to map dust emissions in Sahara and south Africa, this research is the first to map dust emissions in the Middle East using SEVIRI, one of the dustiest regions in the world second only to the Sahara Desert. For every dust storm activation within the Middle East, the point of first emission is derived from visual inspection of each 15 minute image, these points were then recorded in a dust source climatology (DSC) database, along with time and direction of dust movement. To take account of potential errors inherent in this subjective detection method, a degree of confidence is associated with each data point with relevance to time of day (which has a strong effect on ability to detect dust in these products) and weather conditions, in particular presence of clouds. These results are compared with an automated retrieval using Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements form the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS); which, due to its sun-synchronous orbit allows a measurement of dust in the atmosphere once a day. Differences in the spatial distribution of SEVIRI dust sources and MODIS inferred dust source regions can be explained by inherent transport bias in the latter's low sampling rate and prevailing wind conditions. This database will provide an important tool in further understanding dust emission processes in the region

  20. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A. F.; Al-Hazmi, Ali M.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2011-01-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  1. Beyond the desertification narrative: a framework for agricultural drought in semi-arid East Africa.

    PubMed

    Slegers, Monique F W; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2008-07-01

    In the 20th century, much research was done on desertification. Desertification developed into a complex and vague construct that means land degradation under specific conditions. Projects focusing on land degradation in semiarid East Africa have met with limited success because farmers prioritize drought as the major productivity-reducing problem. Yet studies on long-term rainfall trends have not confirmed that droughts are more frequent. In this article, we combine drought and land degradation effects into an Agricultural Drought Framework, which departs from the farmers' prioritization of drought and accommodates scientists' concern for land degradation. It includes meteorological drought, soil water drought, and soil nutrient drought. The framework increases insight into how different land degradation processes influence the vulnerability of land and farmers to drought. A focus on increased rainwater use efficiency will address both problems of land degradation and drought, thereby improving productivity and food security in semiarid East Africa.

  2. The upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of East Africa derived from Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J.; Nyblade, A.; Adams, A. N.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.

    2012-12-01

    An expanded model of the three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath East Africa has been developed using data from the latest phases of the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from preceding studies. The combined dataset consists of 331 events recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this latest study, 149 events were used to determine fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 seconds using the two-plane-wave method. These were subsequently combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for an updated upper mantle three-dimensional shear wave velocity model. Newly imaged features include a substantial fast anomaly in eastern Zambia that may have exerted a controlling influence on the evolution of the Western Rift Branch. Furthermore, there is a suggestion that the Eastern Rift Branch trends southeastward offshore eastern Tanzania.

  3. Changes in Hadley Circulation, Azores High and Winter Precipitation over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. J.; Hameed, S.

    2008-12-01

    We present a study of changes in winter precipitation over a region comprising Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania during 1952-2002. A persistent drying trend in addition to interannual variability is noted. Previously variability of precipitation in East Africa has been interpreted in terms of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our results show that the centers of action approach, i.e., considering changes in the Azores High and the Icelandic low separately gives quantitatively improved explanation of changes in rainfall. The drying trend in East Africa is seen to be related to a strengthening as well as poleward displacement of the Azores High pressure system, which are attributed to changes in Hadley circulation over the North Atlantic.

  4. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  5. STS-55 Earth observation of Lake Natron, Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Lake Natron in Tansania, in the 35-mile-wide East African Rift Valley. This lake is surrounded by sodium carbonate volcanoes. Through erosion, these salts of volcanic origin are transported into the rift valley lakes. The various shades of bright red reflecting from the lake result from the water chemistry and biotic blooms. The white spots in the lakebed are drying soda salts. The depth and circulation of the water in the southern end of the lake cause it to appear dark blue rather than bright red. In the repeated photographs of this lake from orbit, we have seen the extent and intensity of its colors fluctuate seasonally. In this photograph, the biotic activity appears to be at a peak. Such a large extent of red-colored water was not present in the photos taken from STS-56, just a few days before (04-10-93).

  6. Food and water security scenarios for East Africa over next 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Broad areas of East Africa face chronic water and agricultural insecurity. Over the last decade, the region has experienced frequent drought events leading to food security emergencies and even famine in Somalia in 2011. The impact of these drought events, associated with recent declines in rainfall during major growing seasons, has been particularly severe due to the high vulnerability of subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods, rapid population growth, and the limited availability of resources for agricultural development and climate change adaptation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity that brings together international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and food security information in Africa and other regions of the developing world. To assist USAID with planning agricultural development strategies over the next ten years in East Africa, FEWS NET is partnering with climate scientists and adaptation specialists at regional institutions to study and assess future changes in precipitation and temperature in light of global climate change, natural climate variability, and their related impacts on agricultural and water security in the region. The overarching objective of this study is to provide future scenarios of food and water security (as estimated by trends in soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff) for East Africa. We do so by following two approaches: Constructed Analogs and the Composite Delta Method. In the first approach we downscaled climate projections (precipitation and temperature projections) of long-term Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) experiments over (a) historical (1850-2005) and (b) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (2006-2030) periods. Current climate is characterized by two ENSO modes, the intensity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the strength

  7. Water Uses and Children's Lives in East Africa. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Robert

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  8. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  9. East Africa seminar and workshop of remote sensing of natural resources and environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    Report on total program covering East Africa Seminar and Workshop on remote sensing of natural resources and the environment held in Nairobi, Kenya, March 21 April 3, 1974, attended by participants from 10 English-speaking African nations. Appendices are included for Seminar proceedings, workshop lectures and outlines, field trip reports and critiques by participants, and reports on potential applications of an operational earth resources satellite for the participating countries.

  10. Seasonal drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Greg; Funk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    In East Africa, agriculture is mostly rainfed and hence sensitive to interannual rainfall variability, and the increasing food and water demands of a growing population place further stresses on the water resources of this region. Skillful seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform timely water and agricultural management decisions, support the proper allocation of the region's water resources, and help mitigate socio-economic losses. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal drought forecast system that is being used for providing seasonal outlooks of agricultural drought in East Africa. We present a test case of the evaluation and applicability of this system for March-April-May growing season over equatorial East Africa (latitude 20 south to 80 North and 360 E to 460E) that encompasses one of the most food insecure and climatically and socio-economically vulnerable regions in East Africa. This region experienced famine as recently as in 2011. The system described here combines advanced satellite and re-analysis as well as station-based long term and real-time observations (e.g. NASA's TRMM, Infra-red remote sensing, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system (NCEP's Climate Forecast System Verison-2) and large scale land surface models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity, NASA's Land Information System) to provide forecasts of seasonal rainfall, soil moisture and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) throughout the season - with an emphasis on times when water is the most critical: start of season/planting and the mid-season/crop reproductive phase. Based on the hindcast assessment of this system, we demonstrate the value of this approach to the US Agency for International Development (USAID)'s efforts to mitigate future losses of lives and economic losses by allowing a proactive approach of drought management that includes early warning and timely action.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of four East Africa Geologic Provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Four geologic provinces along the east coast of Africa recently were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 27.6 billion barrels of oil, 441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 13.77 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  12. Thermal plume models and melt generation in East Africa: A dynamic modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Chiao, Ling-Yun; van Keken, Peter E.

    2005-08-01

    The hypothesis that thermal plumes contribute to the Cenozoic magmatism in East Africa is now widely accepted. The controversy lies on how many plumes exist and where they may be located. In this study we show numerical experiments of mantle convection models for a number of thermal plume models and discuss the implications for the melt generation in East Africa. We investigate how the plume(s), the Tanzania craton, and the African lithospheric structure may interplay to result in the magmatism distribution in East Africa since the Eocene. Our results demonstrate that the variable thickness of the lithosphere modulates melt generation. A single-plume model cannot reproduce the observations consistently. Double-plume models with plumes located at Afar and Kenya regions are viable with reasonable physical properties. The distribution of the plume material, however, is sensitive to the angle at which the Tanzania craton and regions of thick lithosphere approach the plume, as the African plate moves. Models that have present-day location of the second plume (Kenya plume) under the Eastern rift or the interior of the Tanzania craton can best match the basalt distribution. Our model results suggest that the basaltic eruptions associated with the Afar plume tap a relatively deep source of the plume body in general, whereas melting occurs at shallower depths for the Kenya plume except for the Eocene episode. The magmatism is derived from a more depleted mantle source in the low-Ti basalt province of northwestern Ethiopia. Our experiments indicate the thermal influence of the Afar plume but predict an absence of plume-derived melts, suggesting the melt generation within lithosphere triggered by thermal influence of Afar plume in this region. Our model results suggest that plume plays an active role on the initiation of the rifting process in East Africa.

  13. Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of East Africa. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in East Africa owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in East Africa during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.

  14. Cenozoic magmatism throughout east Africa resulting from impact of a single plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Sleep, N. H.

    1998-10-01

    The geology of northern and central Africa is characterized by broad plateaux, narrower swells and volcanism occurring from ~45Myr ago to the present. The greatest magma volumes occur on the >1,000-km-wide Ethiopian and east African plateaux, which are transected by the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and east African rift systems, active since the late Oligocene epoch. Evidence for one or more mantle plumes having impinged beneath the plateaux comes from the dynamic compensation inferred from gravity studies, the generally small degrees of extension observed and the geochemistry of voluminous eruptive products. Here we present a model of a single large plume impinging beneath the Ethiopian plateau that takes into account lateral flow and ponding of plume material in pre-existing zones of lithospheric thinning. We show that this single plume can explain the distribution and timing of magmatism and uplift throughout east Africa. The thin lithosphere beneath the Mesozoic-Palaeogene rifts and passive margins of Africa and Arabia guides the lateral flow of plume material west to the Cameroon volcanic line and south to the Comoros Islands. Our results demonstrate the strong control that the lithosphere exerts on the spatial distribution of plume-related melting and magmatism.

  15. Analysis and simulation of recent climate variability in the high-mountain regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Emily; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Kilimanjaro is the highest free-standing mountain in the world, and the glaciers at its summit represent regionally unique high-altitude sampling points in the troposphere. The region is influenced by, among other phenomena, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. However, the impacts of these phenomena as well as interactions between them on climate conditions in the high-mountain regions of East Africa are poorly constrained. Here we analyze recent high-altitude climate variability in East Africa using a combination of atmospheric reanalysis data, convection permitting (~1 km grid spacing) numerical simulations with the regional atmospheric model WRF, and multi-year in-situ weather station data at the summits of Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. We utilize these datasets to elucidate the impact of modes of internal climate variability, with a particular emphasis on ENSO, on both the large- and local-scale atmospheric conditions. Our analysis is compared with a ten-year record of glacier surface-height-change measurements on Kilimanjaro to elucidate the drivers of recent glacier response in East Africa.

  16. The influence of urbanisation on measures of Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Omumbo, J.A.; Guerra, C.A.; Hay, S.I.; Snow, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the effects of urbanisation in Africa on Plasmodium falciparum risks and disease outcomes. We undertook a review of published and unpublished literature to identify parasite survey data from communities in East Africa. Data were selected to represent the most reliable and contemporary estimates of infection prevalence and were categorised by urban or rural status using a number of approaches. We identified 329 spatially distinct surveys undertaken since 1980 in the sub-region of which 37 were undertaken in urban settlements and 292 in rural settlements. Overall rural settlements reported significantly higher parasite prevalence among children aged 0–14 than urban settlements (on average 10% higher infection rates; p < 0.05). No urban settlements recorded parasite prevalence in excess of 75%. In areas of East Africa where climatic conditions are likely to support higher parasite transmission, the rural–urban difference was most marked. There was a significant trend towards documenting higher classes of parasite prevalence in rural compared to urban settlements (p < 0.05) and the mean difference between rural and urban samples was 18% (p < 0.001). These results further highlight the need to better define urban extents in Africa in order to capture the non-climatic determinants of infection and disease risk and provide a more informed approach to describing the burden of disease across the continent. PMID:15589793

  17. Automated inter-station phase velocity measurements across the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawy, Amr; Weidle, Christian; Christiano, Luigia; Soomro, Riaz; Lebedev, Sergi; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the lithosphere in northeastern Africa, eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East is highly variable. It ranges from young oceanic lithosphere in the Red Sea to what is considered the oldest oceanic lithosphere on Earth in the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya, and from highly deformed continental lithosphere at the east-Mediterranean margins to more stable continental lithosphere of Phanerozoic origin and to cratonic lithosphere beneath the Arabian Peninsula. Details of the lithospheric structure are, however, poorly known. Surface waves are ideally suited for studies of the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by surface wave tomography. Using regional to teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about its seismic structure by examining phase velocities as a function of frequency. A newly developed algorithm for automated inter-station phase velocity measurements (Soomro et al. 2016) is applied here to obtain both Rayleigh and Love fundamental mode phase velocities. We utilize a database consisting of more than 3800 regional and teleseismic earthquakes recorded by more than 1850 broadband seismic stations within the area, provided by the European Integrated Data Archive (WebDc/EIDA) and IRIS. Moreover, for the first time, data from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), recorded by up to 25 broad band seismic stations, is also included in the analysis. For each station pair approximately located on the same great circle path, the recorded waveforms are cross correlated and the dispersion curves of fundamental modes are calculated from the phase of the weighted cross correlation functions. Path average dispersion curves are obtained by averaging the smooth parts of single-event dispersion curves. Parameters tests and preliminary results of automatically measured phase velocities are

  18. An evaluation of GRACE groundwater estimates over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanteza, J.; Thomas, B. F.; de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The East African (EA) region, comprised of five countries (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi), is among those regions characterized as vulnerable to water stress. The region's freshwater resources, both surface and groundwater, are impacted due to increased pressure from changes in climate and human activities. Better management approaches are required to ensure that these pressures do not significantly impact water availability and accessibility. However, the lack of adequate ground-based observation networks to monitor freshwater resources - especially groundwater (the major source of freshwater in EA), limits effective management of the available water resources. In this study, we explore the potential of using remotely sensed data to monitor freshwater resources over EA. The study uses data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite to estimate groundwater storage variations over EA during the last decade. The satellite's performance in accurately observing changes in groundwater storage is examined by evaluating the GRACE groundwater estimates against spatially interpolated in-situ groundwater observations using goodness of fit criteria including linear regression coefficient, coefficient of determination and root mean square errors. The results demonstrate that GRACE performs well in observing the behavior of groundwater storage. These results can be useful in improving land surface model simulations - a basis for better decision making in water resources management in the region.

  19. Persistence of Rift Valley fever virus in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gachohi, J.; Hansen, F.; Bett, B.; Kitala, P.

    2012-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv) is a mosquito-borne pathogen of livestock, wildlife and humans that causes severe outbreaks in intervals of several years. One of the open questions is how the virus persists between outbreaks. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based simulation model of the RVFv transmission dynamics to investigate this question. The model, is based on livestock and mosquito population dynamics. Spatial aspects are explicitly represented by a set of grid cells that represent mosquito breeding sites. A grid cell measures 500 by 500m and the model considers a grid of 100 by 100 grid cells; the model thus operates on the regional scale of 2500km2. Livestock herds move between grid cells, and provide connectivity between the cells. The model is used to explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of RVFv persistence in absence of a wildlife reservoir in an east African semi-arid context. Specifically, the model assesses the importance of local virus persistence in mosquito breeding sites relative to global virus persistence mitigated by movement of hosts. Local persistence is determined by the length of time the virus remains in a mosquito breeding site once introduced. In the model, this is a function of the number of mosquitoes that emerge infected and their lifespan. Global persistence is determined by the level of connectivity between isolated grid cells. Our work gives insights into the ecological and epidemiological conditions under which RVFv persists. The implication for disease surveillance and management are discussed.

  20. Four-year study of Middle East and Sahara dust intrusions in terms of particle lidar ratio: Observations with lidar and sun/sky photometer over Limassol, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisantzi, Argyro; Elisavet Mamouri, Rodanthi; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Ansmann, Albert

    2015-04-01

    The remote sensing station of the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) at Limassol (34.7oN, 33oE, 50m above sea level a.s.l.) is located in the southeast part of the Mediterranean (150km south of Turkey and 250km west of Syria) and dust aerosol components from Sahara and Middle East deserts comprise the major sources of dust layers in the study area. The CUT station is equipped with a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidar and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun/sky photometer. The combined database of four years (2010 -2013) of observations was used to compare extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios) for dust from Middle East and Sahara deserts. For the first time, a long-term lidar study on the lidar ratio of Middle East desert dust is presented. The results are compared with respective findings for Saharan dust outbreaks. The Limassol lidar station at the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean Sea is unique because it is the only site of the EARLINET which is influenced by a statistically significant number (5-7) of Middle East dust outbreaks each year as well as by numerous Saharan dust outbreaks (>10 per year). For this analysis we considered 17 major dust outbreaks from the Middle East and 32 dust outbreaks from North Africa. Simultaneous EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations were conducted at Limassol almost day by day over the four year period from April 2010 to December 2013. The quality of the retrieval is checked within a case study by comparing the results with respective Raman lidar solutions for particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio. The applied combined lidar/photometer retrievals corroborate recent findings regarding the difference between Middle East and Saharan desert dust lidar ratios. We found values from 44-65 sr with a mean value of 52.7 sr for Saharan dust and from 35-46 sr with a mean value of 41.1 sr for Middle East dust. The presented data analysis, however, also demonstrates the

  1. Seeking Truth in the Social Studies Classroom: Media Literacy, Critical Thinking and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Chris

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how he uses media literacy activities in his classroom when discussing issues involving the Middle East countries. He relates how this strategy helps him to teach accurate information about the most challenging and controversial aspects of the contemporary Middle East. He shares that through media analysis,…

  2. Tobacco smoking in Tanzania, East Africa: population based smoking prevalence using expired alveolar carbon monoxide as a validation tool

    PubMed Central

    Jagoe, K; Edwards, R; Mugusi, F; Whiting, D; Unwin, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of tobacco smoking in an urban East African population while using a simple validation procedure to examine the degree of under reporting in men and women. Design: A cross sectional population based study in adults (15 years and over) with sampling from a well maintained census register. Setting: Ilala Ilala, a middle income district of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: An age and sex stratified random sample of 973 men and women. Main outcome measures: Self reported smoking status with correction by exhaled alveolar carbon monoxide (EACO). Results: From the 605 participants (response rate 67.9%) age standardised (new world population) smoking prevalence, based on questionnaire and EACO, was 27.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8% to 33.2%) in males and 5.0% (95% CI 2.8% to 7.2%) in females. The age specific prevalence of smoking was highest in the age group 35–54 years (34.3%) for men and in the over 54 years group (16%) for women. Of those classified as smokers, 7.3% of men and 27.3% of women were reclassified as current smokers based on EACO (≥ 9 parts per million), after they had reported themselves to be an ex- or non-smoker in the questionnaire. Conclusions: The data suggest: (1) high rates of smoking among men in an urban area of East Africa; and (2) the importance of validating self reports of smoking status, particularly among women. PMID:12198270

  3. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives, post-secondary…

  4. The American Role in Education in the Middle East: Ideology and Experiment, 1920-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ment, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In a significant 1925 essay, "Western Education in Moslem Lands", Paul Monroe addressed the emerging cultural and political forces faced by American educators in the Middle East. Monroe was widely recognised at the time as editor of the Cyclopedia of Education and director of the International Institute of Teachers College, Columbia University.…

  5. Internationalisation in US Higher Education: Studying the Middle East in the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Idriss, Cynthia; Worden, Elizabeth Anderson

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the organisation of the production of knowledge about international issues in US higher education, drawing on six case studies of Middle East studies. We review three key findings. First, we suggest that the American model for studying "the international" is rooted in a default, and outmoded, way of thinking about international…

  6. Becoming Jordan's Writers: Developing Powerful Writing Instruction in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Christopher; DeLiddo, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The United States involvement in the Middle East has been prominent in our recent national history, sometimes clouded by myths and misrepresentations of the people of that region of the world. This article details the experiences of teacher-researchers working with teachers and students in Amman, Jordan, to develop powerful English writing…

  7. Faculty Response to Ethical Issues at an American University in the Middle-East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabsh, Sami W.; El Kadi, Hany A.; Abdelfatah, Akmal S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to get feedback on faculty perception of ethical issues related to teaching, scholarship and service at a relatively new American-style university in the Middle-East. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire involving 21 scenarios with multiple choice answers was developed and distributed to all faculty…

  8. TeachMideast: An Educational Initiative of the Middle East Policy Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzen, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity wherein she uses the first Arab Human Development Report to examine not only the levels and measures of development in the Arab countries of the Middle East, but also to examine the act of measuring itself. The goal of the Arab Human Development Report is to measure "development in all its…

  9. Escaping from Sunday School: Teaching "The Middle East" in the Setting of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The article argues that, in the teaching of religion at undergraduate level, many students approach understanding the historical or contemporary Middle East in ways that are coloured by what they think is biblical knowledge or basic Christian beliefs. This is less noticeable for students in disciplines such as history or politics. Many history or…

  10. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  11. Mortality Risk Factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Maimuna S; Kluberg, Sheryl A; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Brownstein, John S

    2015-11-01

    As of July 15, 2015, the South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare had reported 186 case-patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome in South Korea. For 159 case-patients with known outcomes and complete case histories, we found that older age and preexisting concurrent health conditions were risk factors for death.

  12. Crisis Paper No. 32. The Middle East and the Super Powers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critchley, Julian, Ed.

    This "Crisis Paper" examines the events of October, 1973, relating to the Middle East war. A chronology of events during the month is established, followed by short editorial commentary. A multi-national view of the situation is developed, quoting newspapers and journals from France, West Germany, USSR, China, Switzerland, Austria, Egypt, Lebanon,…

  13. Dissemination of carbapenemases producing Gram negative bacteria in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi bialvaei, Abed; Samadi kafil, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo, Hamed; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria, that hydolyze most β-lactams, including carbapenems, are a major concern of public health system worldwide, particularly in the Middle East area. Since the plasmids harboring resistance genes could be spread across other bacterial populations, detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms has become more problematic. These organisms produce different types of enzymes including the most prevalent types including KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Carbapenemase producers are mostly identified among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. This study reviewed almost all papers, which conducted in the Middle East. In order to decrease the spread of resistance, the regional cooperation has been emphasized by the Middle East countries. The highest resistance, which is mediated by KPC has been observed in Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia and Jordan followed by NDM in Pakistan and OXA in Turkey and Pakistan. It is important to mention that the spread of these types have been reported sporadically in the other countries of this area. This review described the widespread carbapenemases in the Middle East area, which have been identified in an alarming rate. PMID:26719779

  14. Acute middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wernery, Ulrich; Corman, Victor M; Wong, Emily Y M; Tsang, Alan K L; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K P; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Drosten, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother-calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.

  15. Launching of an American Medical College in the Middle East: "Educational Challenges in a Multicultural Environment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajjar, David P.; Gotto, Antonio M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The graduation of the first class of medical students in May 2008 from the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q), Cornell University's branch campus in the Middle East, was the first time that an M.D. degree from an American university was awarded abroad. It marked a milestone in American higher education. The establishment of WCMC-Q is…

  16. An Empirical Study of the Distributional Changes in Higher Education among East, Middle and West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Chunjiao; Li, Song

    2008-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research and comparative study method, this paper attempts to make a systematic study and analysis of regional differences which have existed since 1949 in higher education among East, Middle and West China. The study is intended to explore the causes, regional differences, social changes, and their co-related…

  17. Gas projects surge in the Middle East as governments seek new revenue sources

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.D.

    1997-02-24

    The rapid development of natural gas and condensate reserves in the Middle East results from a simple motivation: the desire of governments to earn revenues. For the past decade, Middle East governments have run budget deficits, which they funded by drawing down foreign assets and issuing debt. Now in the process of structural economic reform, they have begun to use an under-utilized resource--natural gas, of which Middle East governments own about one third of the world`s reserves. Governments receive revenues from several sources in natural gas developments, which makes the projects very attractive. Revenue comes from the sale of the natural gas in the domestic market and, if exported, the international market; the sale of associated condensates; the additional exports of crude oil or refined products if natural gas is substituted for refined products in domestic markets; the increased sale of crude oil if natural gas is injected into reservoirs to maintain pressure; and the sale of petrochemicals where natural gas is used as feedstock. Large projects under way in the Middle East highlight the consequences of multiple revenue sources and interlinked costs of natural gas and condensate development. Other countries in the region are undertaking similar projects, so examples cited represent only a portion of what is occurring. The paper describes Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Iran.

  18. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  19. A Song for Humanistic Education: Pedagogy and Politics in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: If we take as a given the desirability of an education that promotes principles of respect, pluralism, rational critical inquiry, compassion, innovation, and excellence, then humanistic pedagogies should be paramount to that educational vision. Yet humanistic education in the Middle East has been on the demise in past decades…

  20. Contact Tracing for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min; Zhong, Haojie; Hou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Li, Jiansen; Wu, Jie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghhui

    2016-01-01

    Confirmation of an imported case of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China triggered intensive contact tracing and mandatory monitoring. Using a hotline and surveillance video footage was effective for tracing all 110 identified contacts. Contact monitoring detected no secondary transmission of infection in China. PMID:27532887

  1. Selected Factors Influencing Student Enrollment at Area Vocational Schools in East, Middle and West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Willie E., Jr.

    An analysis was made of selected factors influencing students to enroll in area postsecondary vocational schools in East, Middle, and West Tennessee. Four hundred forty-three students were surveyed concerning three broad areas of dependent variables: domestic environment, perceived opportunities, and assessment of program. Data were analyzed by…

  2. At the Crossroads of the World: Women of the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret S.; Pervez, Nadia; Katz, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    The authors offer a brief introduction to the history of women of the Middle East, with a focus on three major religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Schools are paying increased attention to teaching world history, but they are giving too little attention to incorporating women as part of world history. One of the major dividing lines…

  3. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 18: The Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey).

    PubMed

    Zeraatkar, Kimia; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Havlin, Tracy; Neves, Karen; Şendir, Mesra

    2016-06-01

    This is the 18th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey). The next feature column will investigate trends in the Balkan States JM.

  4. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  5. A Matter of Perspective: Teaching International Relations in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author looks at several popular international relations textbooks in light of his experience teaching students in the Middle East. He finds that, for their many strengths, most of the books lack some key features that would make them more useful for students abroad.

  6. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  7. Seeing Other Sides: Nongame Simulations and Alternative Perspectives of Middle East Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylouny, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Simple role-play simulations can not only demonstrate the dynamics of a conflict but also create awareness of multiple perspectives even among populations relatively set in their opinions. To teach my student population of military officers, I utilize simple, nongame simulations of multisided Middle East conflicts that not only facilitate learning…

  8. Viral RNA in Blood as Indicator of Severe Outcome in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Yeon; Park, Sun Jae; Cho, Sook Young; Cha, Ran-hui; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Gayeon; Shin, Hyoung-Shik; Kim, Yeonjae; Jung, Yu Mi; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Jee-Soo; Lee, Seung Jun; Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Sung Sup

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic and clinical usefulness of blood specimens to detect Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in 21 patients from the 2015 outbreak in South Korea. Viral RNA was detected in blood from 33% of patients at initial diagnosis, and the detection preceded a worse clinical course. PMID:27479636

  9. Modern Tools of Propaganda: Television Treatments of National Anthems in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    Because of the close proximity of countries in the Middle East, broadcast signals freely cross national boundaries, bringing not always friendly endemic populations into contact with each other through radio and television programming--a fact that has not been lost on the governments which fund broadcasting facilities. National anthems are…

  10. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  11. Improving the Preparation of Middle Grades Mathematics Teachers: The Case of East Carolina University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Ron; Rachlin, Sid; DeBellis, Valerie; Robinson, Zachary; Sinicrope, Rose

    This paper describes the mathematics concentration program at East Carolina University (ECU) that is taken by preservice middle grades teachers intending to teach mathematics. Following a brief examination of the forces that impacted the formation of this mathematics concentration, this paper describes the program and highlights five courses from…

  12. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

    This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4) Institutions, Power & Government"; and (5)…

  13. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

    This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4) "Aesthetics, Celebrations and Values"; (5)…

  14. Contact Tracing for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, China, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min; Song, Tie; Zhong, Haojie; Hou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Li, Jiansen; Wu, Jie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghhui

    2016-09-01

    Confirmation of an imported case of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China triggered intensive contact tracing and mandatory monitoring. Using a hotline and surveillance video footage was effective for tracing all 110 identified contacts. Contact monitoring detected no secondary transmission of infection in China. PMID:27532887

  15. Viral RNA in Blood as Indicator of Severe Outcome in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Park, Sun Jae; Cho, Sook Young; Cha, Ran-Hui; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Gayeon; Shin, Hyoung-Shik; Kim, Yeonjae; Jung, Yu Mi; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Jee-Soo; Lee, Seung Jun; Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic and clinical usefulness of blood specimens to detect Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in 21 patients from the 2015 outbreak in South Korea. Viral RNA was detected in blood from 33% of patients at initial diagnosis, and the detection preceded a worse clinical course. PMID:27479636

  16. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  17. Fibrous calcite from the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation (east Tennessee)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.J.; Walker, K.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Fibrous calcite from buildups, which occur near the top of the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation, were examined from two localities near Knoxville, TN (Alcoa Highway and Deanne Quarry). Buildups at these localities were deposited under open-marine conditions, slightly down-slope from the platform edge. Fibrous calcite (mainly radiaxial fibrous) occur most commonly as cements in mainly stromatactis structures present in bioherms and intergranular porosity in beds that flank bioherms. Fibrous calcite is interpreted to have been precipitated in a marine setting. Fibrous calcite is uniformly turbid or banded with interlayered turbid and clearer cement. Fibrous calcite most commonly shows patchy or blotchy dull-non-luminescence under cathodoluminescence. Bands of uniformly non-luminescent and relatively bright luminescent calcite are present. [delta][sup 13]C compositions of fibrous calcite vary little (0.6 to 1.0%) but [delta][sup 18]O values are highly variable ([minus]4.8 to [minus]7.1%). Post-marine cement consists of ferroan and non-ferroan, dull luminescent equant calcite ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]8.6 to [minus]11.5) and is interpreted as precipitated in a deep meteoric or burial setting. Depleted [delta][sup 18]O compositions of fibrous calcite reflect addition of post-depositional calcite during stabilization. Most enriched [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O fibrous calcite composition are similar to enriched values from other Middle Ordovician southern Appalachian buildups (other localities of Holston (TN) and Effna (VA) formations) ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]3.9 to [minus]4.8) and may reflect fibrous calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with Middle Ordovician sea water.

  18. Only the bad died young in the ancient Middle East.

    PubMed

    Arnett, W S

    1985-01-01

    Biblical writers generally viewed old age as a reward for righteousness and piety. Consequently, they stressed the belief that the elderly were blessed and that they should be venerated. While life expectancy was usually below forty years, there are exceptional cases on record of individuals--men and women--living to advanced old ages. An analysis of these special few cases and a discussion of extra-Biblical texts shows that other ancient Middle Eastern societies held attitudes toward aging and the aged comparable to those expressed in the Hebrew Bible.

  19. Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Jos; Beirle, Steffen; Hörmann, Christoph; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century. PMID:26601240

  20. Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Jos; Beirle, Steffen; Hörmann, Christoph; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century. PMID:26601240

  1. Diabetes research in Middle East countries; a scientometrics study from 1990 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peykari, Niloofar; Djalalinia, Shirin; Kasaeian, Amir; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Hasannia, Tahereh; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes burden is a serious warning for urgent action plan across the world. Knowledge production in this context could provide evidences for more efficient interventions. Aimed to that, we quantify the trend of diabetes research outputs of Middle East countries focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, and international collaboration. Materials and Methods: This scientometrics study was performed based on the systematic analysis through three international databases; ISI, PubMed, and Scopus from 1990 to 2012. International collaboration of Middle East countries and citations was analyzed based on Scopus. Diabetes’ publications in Iran specifically were assessed, and frequent used terms were mapped by VOSviewer software. Results: Over 23-year period, the number of diabetes publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. The number of articles on diabetes in ISI, PubMed, and Scopus were respectively; 13,994, 11,336, and 20,707. Turkey, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt have devoted the five top competition positions. In addition, Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Iran in all databases stands on third position and produced 12.7% of diabetes publications within region. Regarding diabetes researches, the frequent used terms in Iranian articles were “effect,” “woman,” and “metabolic syndrome.” Conclusion: Ascending trend of diabetes research outputs in Middle East countries is appreciated but encouraging to strategic planning for maintaining this trend, and more collaboration between researchers is needed to regional health promotion. PMID:26109972

  2. Middle East: Iran isn't missed much

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A concerted effort to further develop productive capacity is evident in most Middle Eastern Countries, through exploration, field development, and secondary recovery. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Abu Dhabi all plan expanded petroleum industry programs in 1980. Oil production in Saudi Arabia through the first one-half of 1980 averaged 9.5 million bpd, and the Saudis are proceeding with the large-scale associated gas utilization and industrialization program. Iraq's near-term interest is in development of the Majnoon Discovery. Abu Dhabi is continuing efforts to complete development of a giant offshore field and finalize an onshore/offshore associated gas utilization facility. Only Iran and Kuwait are expected to be relatively inactive in petroleum programs during the remainder of 1980. Individual country reports are presented for Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, Kuwait, the Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, South Yemen, and Yemen Arab Republic.

  3. Impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; Worden, John R.; Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Henze, Daven K.

    2016-05-01

    Significant progress has been made in identifying the influence of different processes and emissions on the summertime enhancements of free tropospheric ozone (O3) at northern midlatitude regions. However, the exact contribution of regional emissions, chemical and transport processes to these summertime enhancements is still not well quantified. Here we focus on quantifying the influence of regional emissions on the summertime O3 enhancements over the Middle East, using updated reactive nitrogen (NOx) emissions. We then use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model with these updated NOx emissions to show that the global total contribution of lightning NOx on middle free tropospheric O3 over the Middle East is about 2 times larger than that from global anthropogenic sources. The summertime middle free tropospheric O3 enhancement is primarily due to Asian NOx emissions, with approximately equivalent contributions from Asian anthropogenic activities and lightning. In the Middle Eastern lower free troposphere, lightning NOx from Europe and North America and anthropogenic NOx from Middle Eastern local emissions are the primary sources of O3. This work highlights the critical role of lightning NOx on northern midlatitude free tropospheric O3 and the important effect of the Asian summer monsoon on the export of Asian pollutants.

  4. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ˜17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (˜100 ka) and Kisaaka (˜50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ˜7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (˜4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  5. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ∼17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (∼100 ka) and Kisaaka (∼50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ∼7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (∼4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  6. Connecting Science and Stakeholders for Improved Drought and Crop Productivity Assessments in East Africa: Early Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S. L.; Macharia, D.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is the 'backbone' of the economies in East Africa and is dominated by smallholder farms that are mainly rain-fed and highly vulnerable to climate change, variability, and drought. However the region lacks access to developed, reliable, and effective data and analysis to guide planning for agriculture and drought mitigation. Advances in remote sensing technologies and associated tools enable the collection and quantitative analysis of observations over large geographic regions. As such, data from remote sensing platforms have become a critical tool in developed countries for climate adaptation, water resources management, drought planning and mitigation, and agriculture. Yet barriers remain in Africa due to cost (even as costs decline), issues of sustainability, and lack of capacity and expertise. A shift must be facilitated at the policy maker and practitioner level to adopt or incorporate remote sensing observations and analysis to make better, more informed decisions for drought and agricultural management and planning. Based on an on-going NASA-USAID SERVIR East Africa Drought and Crop Productivity project, recent experience is presented to illustrate best practices and lessons learned in transitioning NASA Earth Science research results to decision making in Kenya through capacity building.

  7. Middle Stone Age bedding construction and settlement patterns at Sibudu, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Lyn; Sievers, Christine; Bamford, Marion; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Miller, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) is associated with early behavioral innovations, expansions of modern humans within and out of Africa, and occasional population bottlenecks. Several innovations in the MSA are seen in an archaeological sequence in the rock shelter Sibudu (South Africa). At ~77,000 years ago, people constructed plant bedding from sedges and other monocotyledons topped with aromatic leaves containing insecticidal and larvicidal chemicals. Beginning at ~73,000 years ago, bedding was burned, presumably for site maintenance. By ~58,000 years ago, bedding construction, burning, and other forms of site use and maintenance intensified, suggesting that settlement strategies changed. Behavioral differences between ~77,000 and 58,000 years ago may coincide with population fluctuations in Africa.

  8. Sunspots, El Niño, and the levels of Lake Victoria, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stager, J. Curt; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Conway, Declan; Verburg, Piet; Mason, Peter J.

    2007-08-01

    An association of high sunspot numbers with rises in the level of Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the focus of many investigations and vigorous debate during the last century. In this paper, we show that peaks in the ~11-year sunspot cycle were accompanied by Victoria level maxima throughout the 20th century, due to the occurrence of positive rainfall anomalies ~1 year before solar maxima. Similar patterns also occurred in at least five other East African lakes, which indicates that these sunspot-rainfall relationships were broadly regional in scale. Although irradiance fluctuations associated with the sunspot cycle are weak, their effects on tropical rainfall could be amplified through interactions with sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation systems, including ENSO. If this Sun-rainfall relationship persists in the future, then sunspot cycles can be used for long-term prediction of precipitation anomalies and associated outbreaks of insect-borne disease in much of East Africa. In that case, unusually wet rainy seasons and Rift Valley Fever epidemics should occur a year or so before the next solar maximum, which is expected to occur in 2011-2012 AD.

  9. Evolutionary analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 isolates from east africa suggests two independent introductions from southern africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In East Africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. Little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. To enhance our appreciation of the epidemiological status of serotype SAT 1 virus in the region, we inferred its evolutionary and phylogeographic history by means of genealogy-based coalescent methods using 53 VP1 coding sequences covering a sampling period from 1948-2007. Results The VP1 coding sequence of 11 serotype SAT 1 FMD viruses from East Africa has been determined and compared with known sequences derived from other SAT 1 viruses from sub-Saharan Africa. Purifying (negative) selection and low substitution rates characterized the SAT 1 virus isolates in East Africa. Two virus groups with probable independent introductions from southern Africa were identified from a maximum clade credibility tree. One group was exclusive to Uganda while the other was present within Kenya and Tanzania. Conclusions Our results provide a baseline characterization of the inter-regional spread of SAT 1 in sub-Saharan Africa and highlight the importance of a regional approach to trans-boundary animal disease control in order to monitor circulating strains and apply appropriate vaccines. PMID:21118525

  10. Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Beard, K. Christopher; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Soe, Aung Naing; Sein, Chit; Lazzari, Vincent; Marivaux, Laurent; Marandat, Bernard; Swe, Myat; Rugbumrung, Mana; Lwin, Thit; Valentin, Xavier; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Reconstructing the origin and early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) is a current focus of paleoprimatology. Although earlier hypotheses frequently supported an African origin for anthropoids, recent discoveries of older and phylogenetically more basal fossils in China and Myanmar indicate that the group originated in Asia. Given the Oligocene-Recent history of African anthropoids, the colonization of Africa by early anthropoids hailing from Asia was a decisive event in primate evolution. However, the fossil record has so far failed to constrain the nature and timing of this pivotal event. Here we describe a fossil primate from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, Afrasia djijidae gen. et sp. nov., that is remarkably similar to, yet dentally more primitive than, the roughly contemporaneous North African anthropoid Afrotarsius. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Afrasia and Afrotarsius are sister taxa within a basal anthropoid clade designated as the infraorder Eosimiiformes. Current knowledge of eosimiiform relationships and their distribution through space and time suggests that members of this clade dispersed from Asia to Africa sometime during the middle Eocene, shortly before their first appearance in the African fossil record. Crown anthropoids and their nearest fossil relatives do not appear to be specially related to Afrotarsius, suggesting one or more additional episodes of dispersal from Asia to Africa. Hystricognathous rodents, anthracotheres, and possibly other Asian mammal groups seem to have colonized Africa at roughly the same time or shortly after anthropoids gained their first toehold there. PMID:22665790

  11. Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa.

    PubMed

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Beard, K Christopher; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Soe, Aung Naing; Sein, Chit; Lazzari, Vincent; Marivaux, Laurent; Marandat, Bernard; Swe, Myat; Rugbumrung, Mana; Lwin, Thit; Valentin, Xavier; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-26

    Reconstructing the origin and early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) is a current focus of paleoprimatology. Although earlier hypotheses frequently supported an African origin for anthropoids, recent discoveries of older and phylogenetically more basal fossils in China and Myanmar indicate that the group originated in Asia. Given the Oligocene-Recent history of African anthropoids, the colonization of Africa by early anthropoids hailing from Asia was a decisive event in primate evolution. However, the fossil record has so far failed to constrain the nature and timing of this pivotal event. Here we describe a fossil primate from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, Afrasia djijidae gen. et sp. nov., that is remarkably similar to, yet dentally more primitive than, the roughly contemporaneous North African anthropoid Afrotarsius. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Afrasia and Afrotarsius are sister taxa within a basal anthropoid clade designated as the infraorder Eosimiiformes. Current knowledge of eosimiiform relationships and their distribution through space and time suggests that members of this clade dispersed from Asia to Africa sometime during the middle Eocene, shortly before their first appearance in the African fossil record. Crown anthropoids and their nearest fossil relatives do not appear to be specially related to Afrotarsius, suggesting one or more additional episodes of dispersal from Asia to Africa. Hystricognathous rodents, anthracotheres, and possibly other Asian mammal groups seem to have colonized Africa at roughly the same time or shortly after anthropoids gained their first toehold there.

  12. Agricultural nematology in East and Southern Africa: problems, management strategies and stakeholder linkages.

    PubMed

    Talwana, Herbert; Sibanda, Zibusiso; Wanjohi, Waceke; Kimenju, Wangai; Luambano-Nyoni, Nessie; Massawe, Cornel; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Davies, Keith G; Hunt, David J; Sikora, Richard A; Coyne, Danny L; Gowen, Simon R; Kerry, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    By 2050, Africa's population is projected to exceed 2 billion. Africa will have to increase food production more than 50% in the coming 50 years to meet the nutritional requirements of its growing population. Nowhere is the need to increase agricultural productivity more pertinent than in much of Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is currently static or declining. Optimal pest management will be essential, because intensification of any system creates heightened selection pressures for pests. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their damage potential are intertwined with intensified systems and can be an indicator of unsustainable practices. As soil pests, nematodes are commonly overlooked or misdiagnosed, particularly where appropriate expertise and knowledge transfer systems are meager or inadequately funded. Nematode damage to roots results in less efficient root systems that are less able to access nutrients and water, which can produce symptoms typical of water or nutrient deficiency, leading to misdiagnosis of the underlying cause. Damage in subsistence agriculture is exacerbated by growing crops on degraded soils and in areas of low water retention where strong root growth is vital. This review focuses on the current knowledge of economically important nematode pests affecting key crops, nematode control methods and the research and development needs for sustainable management, stakeholder involvement and capacity building in the context of crop security in East and Southern Africa, especially Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. PMID:26299755

  13. How boys become dogs: stigmatization and marginalization of uninitiated xhosa males in East London, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mavundla, Thandisizwe R; Netswera, Fulufhelo G; Toth, Ferenc; Bottoman, Brian; Tenge, Stembele

    2010-07-01

    Male circumcision is practiced in South Africa among the Xhosa people as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. The manhood status achieved after the ritual accords men power and authority in the community over women and uncircumcised men. Therefore, uninitiated men experience great pressures to get circumcised. We describe the experience of newly initiated Xhosa men in East London, South Africa. Interpretive phenomenology was used as the inquiry of choice. Data were collected through focus group discussions in which 14 men participated. The theme of marginalization of uninitiated Xhosa males emerged with two categories: (a) rejection, and (b) lack of respect. The participants revealed that uninitiated men are rejected by the community, their own families, friends, and women. We frame the discussion around the concept of stigma. Acknowledging that uninitiated males are stigmatized can help mitigate stigma, and in turn, the incidence of medical complications from botched circumcisions. PMID:20363954

  14. Community-based carbon sequestration in East Africa: Linking science and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultman, N. E.

    2004-12-01

    International agreements on climate change have set the stage for an expanding market for greenhouse gas emissions reduction credits. Projects that can generate credits for trading are diverse, but one of the more controversial types involve biological carbon sequestration. For several reasons, most of the activity on these "sinks" projects has been in Latin America and Southeast Asia. Yet people in sub-saharan Africa could benefit from properly implemented projects. This poster will discuss estimates of the potential and risks of such projects in East Africa, and will describe in detail a case study located in central Tanzania and now part of the World Bank's BioCarbon Fund portfolio. Understanding climate variability and risk can effectively link international agreements on climate change, local realities of individual projects, and the characteristics of targeted ecosystems.

  15. Current kinematics and dynamics of Africa and the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, D. S.; Flesch, L. M.; Calais, E.; Ghosh, A.

    2014-06-01

    Although the East African Rift System (EARS) is an archetype continental rift, the forces driving its evolution remain debated. Some contend buoyancy forces arising from gravitational potential energy (GPE) gradients within the lithosphere drive rifting. Others argue for a major role of the diverging mantle flow associated with the African Superplume. Here we quantify the forces driving present-day continental rifting in East Africa by (1) solving the depth averaged 3-D force balance equations for 3-D deviatoric stress associated with GPE, (2) inverting for a stress field boundary condition that we interpret as originating from large-scale mantle tractions, (3) calculating dynamic velocities due to lithospheric buoyancy forces, lateral viscosity variations, and velocity boundary conditions, and (4) calculating dynamic velocities that result from the stress response of horizontal mantle tractions acting on a viscous lithosphere in Africa and surroundings. We find deviatoric stress associated with lithospheric GPE gradients are ˜8-20 MPa in EARS, and the minimum deviatoric stress resulting from basal shear is ˜1.6 MPa along the EARS. Our dynamic velocity calculations confirm that a force contribution from GPE gradients alone is sufficient to drive Nubia-Somalia divergence and that additional forcing from horizontal mantle tractions overestimates surface kinematics. Stresses from GPE gradients appear sufficient to sustain present-day rifting in East Africa; however, they are lower than the vertically integrated strength of the lithosphere along most of the EARS. This indicates additional processes are required to initiate rupture of continental lithosphere, but once it is initiated, lithospheric buoyancy forces are enough to maintain rifting.

  16. Seasonal Drought Prediction in East Africa: Can National Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, Christopher; Robertson, F. R.; Hoell, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. As recently as in 2011 part of this region underwent one of the worst famine events in its history. Timely and skillful drought forecasts at seasonal scale for this region can inform better water and agro-pastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts. However seasonal drought prediction in this region faces several challenges. Lack of skillful seasonal rainfall forecasts; the focus of this presentation, is one of those major challenges. In the past few decades, major strides have been taken towards improvement of seasonal scale dynamical climate forecasts. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) is one such state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system. The NMME incorporates climate forecasts from 6+ fully coupled dynamical models resulting in 100+ ensemble member forecasts. Recent studies have indicated that in general NMME offers improvement over forecasts from any single model. However thus far the skill of NMME for forecasting rainfall in a vulnerable region like the East Africa has been unexplored. In this presentation we report findings of a comprehensive analysis that examines the strength and weakness of NMME in forecasting rainfall at seasonal scale in East Africa for all three of the prominent seasons for the region. (i.e. March-April-May, July-August-September and October-November- December). Simultaneously we also describe hybrid approaches; that combine statistical approaches with NMME forecasts; to improve rainfall forecast skill in the region when raw NMME forecasts lack in skill.

  17. Seasonal Drought Prediction in East Africa: Can National Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, Christopher; Robertson, F. R.; Hoell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. As recently as in 2011 part of this region underwent one of the worst famine events in its history. Timely and skillful drought forecasts at seasonal scale for this region can inform better water and agro-pastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts. However seasonal drought prediction in this region faces several challenges. Lack of skillful seasonal rainfall forecasts; the focus of this presentation, is one of those major challenges. In the past few decades, major strides have been taken towards improvement of seasonal scale dynamical climate forecasts. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) is one such state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system. The NMME incorporates climate forecasts from 6+ fully coupled dynamical models resulting in 100+ ensemble member forecasts. Recent studies have indicated that in general NMME offers improvement over forecasts from any single model. However thus far the skill of NMME for forecasting rainfall in a vulnerable region like the East Africa has been unexplored. In this presentation we report findings of a comprehensive analysis that examines the strength and weakness of NMME in forecasting rainfall at seasonal scale in East Africa for all three of the prominent seasons for the region. (i.e. March-April-May, July-August-September and October-November- December). Simultaneously we also describe hybrid approaches; that combine statistical approaches with NMME forecasts; to improve rainfall forecast skill in the region when raw NMME forecasts lack in skill.

  18. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus ORF4b protein inhibits type I interferon production through both cytoplasmic and nuclear targets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Fei; Zhu, Na; Wang, Wenling; Deng, Yao; Zhao, Zhengdong; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel and highly pathogenic human coronavirus and has quickly spread to other countries in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa and Asia since 2012. Previous studies have shown that MERS-CoV ORF4b antagonizes the early antiviral alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) response, which may significantly contribute to MERS-CoV pathogenesis; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that ORF4b in the cytoplasm could specifically bind to TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε), suppress the molecular interaction between mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and IKKε, and inhibit IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and subsequent IFN-β production. Further analysis showed that ORF4b could also inhibit IRF3 and IRF7-induced production of IFN-β, whereas deletion of the nuclear localization signal of ORF4b abrogated its ability to inhibit IRF3 and IRF7-induced production of IFN-β, but not IFN-β production induced by RIG-I, MDA5, MAVS, IKKε, and TBK-1, suggesting that ORF4b could inhibit the induction of IFN-β in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Collectively, these results indicate that MERS-CoV ORF4b inhibits the induction of type I IFN through a direct interaction with IKKε/TBK1 in the cytoplasm, and also in the nucleus with unknown mechanism. Viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade or thwart a host’s antiviral responses. A novel human coronavirus (HCoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is distinguished from other coronaviruses by its high pathogenicity and mortality. However, virulence determinants that distinguish MERS-CoV from other HCoVs have yet to be identified. MERS-CoV ORF4b antagonizes the early antiviral response, which may contribute to MERS-CoV pathogenesis. Here, we report the identification of the interferon (IFN) antagonism mechanism of MERS-CoV ORF4b. MERS-CoV ORF4b inhibits the production

  19. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  20. Fluoride in groundwater in selected villages in Eritrea (North East Africa).

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Viswanatham, K S; Kahsai, Fikremariam; Fisahatsion, Abraham; Asmellash, Micheal

    2002-04-01

    A study was undertaken to estimate fluoride content in the groundwater in certain parts of rural Eritrea. North-East Africa, along the River Anseba. Standard procedure was adopted for fluoride detection. Results indicate elevated concentration of fluoride in groundwater. The highest concentration was found to be 3.73 mg L(-1), well above the safety level for consumption. Geological basis for the high concentration of high fluoride has been established; it is presumed to be the pegmatite intrusion hosted by a granitic batholith. Extensive dental fluorosis has been observed in the population exposed to drinking water of high fluoride content.

  1. Fluoride in groundwater in selected villages in Eritrea (North East Africa).

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Viswanatham, K S; Kahsai, Fikremariam; Fisahatsion, Abraham; Asmellash, Micheal

    2002-04-01

    A study was undertaken to estimate fluoride content in the groundwater in certain parts of rural Eritrea. North-East Africa, along the River Anseba. Standard procedure was adopted for fluoride detection. Results indicate elevated concentration of fluoride in groundwater. The highest concentration was found to be 3.73 mg L(-1), well above the safety level for consumption. Geological basis for the high concentration of high fluoride has been established; it is presumed to be the pegmatite intrusion hosted by a granitic batholith. Extensive dental fluorosis has been observed in the population exposed to drinking water of high fluoride content. PMID:12002285

  2. Seismic Hazard Assessment of Middle East Region: Based on the Example to Georgia (Preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Akkar, S.; Askan, A.; Varazanashvili, O.; Adamia, S.; Chkhitunidze, M.

    2012-12-01

    The country of Georgia is located between Russia and Turkey. The main morphological units of Georgia are the mountain ranges of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus separated by the Black Sea-Rioni and Kura (Mtkvari)-South Caspian intermountain troughs. Recent geodynamics of Georgia and adjacent territories of the Black Sea-Caspian Sea region, as a whole, are determined by its position between the still-converging Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. That caused moderate seismicity in the region. However, the risk resulting from these earthquakes is considerably high, as recent events during the last two decades have shown. Seismic hazard and risk assessment is a major research topic in various recent international and national projects. Despite the current efforts, estimation of regional seismic hazard assessment remains as a major problem. Georgia is one of the partners of ongoing regional project EMME (Earthquake Model for Middle East region). The main objective of EMME is calculation of Earthquake hazard uniformly with heights standards. One approach used in the project is the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment PSHA. In this study, we present the preliminary results of PSHA for Georgia in this project attempting to improve gaps especially in such steps as: determination of seismic sources; selection or derivation of ground motion prediction equations models; estimation of maximum magnitude Mmax. Seismic sources (SS) were obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. Finely new SS have been developed for Georgia and adjacent region. Each zone was defined with the following parameters: the magnitude-frequency parameters, maximum magnitude, and depth distribution as well as modern dynamical characteristics widely used for complex processes. As the ground motion dataset is absolutely insufficient by itself to derive a ground motion prediction model for Georgia, two approaches were taken in defining ground motions. First

  3. Public health laboratory systems development in East Africa through training in laboratory management and field epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Mosha, Fausta; Oundo, Joseph; Mukanga, David; Njenga, Kariuki; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Laboratories are integral to the delivery of quality health care and for public health functions; however laboratory systems and services are often neglected in resource-poor settings such as the East African region. In order to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in resource-poor countries, there is a need to train laboratory personnel to work in clinical as well as public health laboratories. In 2004,Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan began training public health laboratory workers jointly with field epidemiologists in the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), and later through the Tanzania FELTP, as a strategy to strengthen public health laboratories. These programs train laboratory epidemiologists through a two-year public health leadership development course, and also offer various types of short course training for frontline staff. The FELTP laboratory graduates in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and South Sudan are working in their respective countries to strengthen public health laboratory systems while the short course participants provide a pool of frontline implementers with the capacity to support the lower tiers of health systems, as well as serve as surge capacity for the regions and the national level. Through training competent public health laboratory workers, the East African ministries of health, in collaboration with other regional partners and stakeholders are now engaged in developing and implementing a holistic approach that will guarantee an overall strengthening of the health system by using well-trained public health laboratory leaders to drive the process. Strengthening public health laboratory medicine in East Africa is critical to improve health-care systems. The experience with the FELTP model in East Africa is a step in the right direction towards ensuring a stronger role for the laboratory in public health. PMID:22359702

  4. Palaeohydrological corridors for hominin dispersals in the Middle East ∼250-70,000 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breeze, Paul S.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Drake, Nick A.; White, Tom S.; Jennings, Richard P.; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    The timing and extent of palaeoenvironmental connections between northeast Africa, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula during the Middle and Late Pleistocene are critical to debates surrounding dispersals of hominins, including movements of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Although there is evidence that synchronous episodes of climatic amelioration during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene may have allowed connections to form between northern Africa and western Asia, a number of palaeoclimate models indicate the continued existence of an arid barrier between northern Arabia and the Levant. Here we evaluate the palaeoenvironmental setting for hominin dispersals between, and within, northeast Africa and southwest Asia during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-5 using reconstructions of surface freshwater availability as an environmental proxy. We use remotely sensed data to map palaeohydrological features (lakes, wetlands and rivers) across the presently hyper-arid areas of northern Arabia and surrounding regions, integrating these results with palaeoclimate models, palaeoenvironmental proxy data and absolute dating to determine when these features were active. Our analyses suggest limited potential for dispersals during MIS 7 and 6, but indicate the formation of a palaeohydrological corridor (the 'Tabuk Corridor') between the Levant and the Arabian interior during the MIS 6-5e glacial-interglacial transition and during MIS 5e. A recurrence of this corridor, following a slightly different route, also occurred during MIS 5a. These palaeohydrological and terrestrial data can be used to establish when proposed routes for hominin dispersals became viable. Furthermore, the distribution of Arabian archaeological sites with affinities to Levantine assemblages, some of which are associated with Homo sapiens fossils, and the relative density of Middle Palaeolithic assemblages within the Tabuk Corridor, are consistent with it being utilised for dispersals at various times.

  5. Consensus recommendation for meningococcal disease prevention in children and adolescents in the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Shibl, Atef; Tufenkeji, Haysam; Khalil, Mohamed; Memish, Ziad

    2012-03-01

    Facing the availability of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo®, Menactra® and others pending for license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries of the Middle East region met at a "Meningococcal Leadership Forum" (MLF), which took place in May 2010 in Dubai. The participants of the conference discussed the importance of introducing the concept of conjugate vaccines - especially for children and adolescents - and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision makers with their expertise. In experts' opinion, conjugate vaccines are the best choice for the prevention of meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y. As quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines are registered and available in the Middle East region, they should replace plain polysaccharide vaccines and be integrated in pediatric and adolescent vaccination schedules, including infant vaccination concomitantly with basic EPI vaccines when licensed.

  6. Nuclear war in the Middle East: where is the voice of medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Cham E; Burkle, Frederick M

    2011-10-01

    Once again, the politically volatile Middle East and accompanying rhetoric has escalated the risk of a major nuclear exchange. Diplomatic efforts have failed to make the medical consequences of such an exchange a leading element in negotiations. The medical and academic communities share this denial. Without exaggeration, the harsh reality of the enormous consequences of an imminently conceivable nuclear war between Iran and Israel will encompass an unprecedented millions of dead and an unavoidable decline in public health and environmental devastation that would impact major populations in the Middle East for decades to come. Nuclear deterrence and the uncomfortable but real medical and public health consequences must become an integral part of a broader global health diplomacy that emphasizes health security along with poverty reduction and good governance. PMID:22509536

  7. Marshak Lectureship Talk: SESAME: An International Collaborative Science Project in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowwan, Mukhles

    2010-02-01

    In this talk I will speak about the international collaborative science project SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East). SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO and is modeled closely on CERN. The first beam line will be operational in 2012. Several hundred scientists from the region and other parts of the world are expected to use this facility, which will cover disciplines ranging from archaeology to the medical sciences and nanotechnology. The members of SESAME are (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Jordan, Pakistan, Turkey). This makes SESAME a unique multidisciplinary centre in this part of the world. In addition, I will talk about the Nanotechnology Research at Al-Quds University, and my views on science and politics, and international collaboration, in a volatile environment like the Middle East. )

  8. Consistent response of Indian summer monsoon to Middle East dust in observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Q.; Wei, J.; Yang, Z.-L.; Pu, B.; Huang, J.

    2015-06-01

    The response of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) circulation and precipitation to Middle East dust aerosols on sub-seasonal timescales is studied using observations and the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem). Satellite data shows that the ISM rainfall in coastal southwest India, central and northern India, and Pakistan are closely associated with Middle East dust aerosols. The physical mechanism behind this dust-ISM rainfall connection is examined through ensemble simulations with and without dust emission. Each ensemble includes 16 members with various physical and chemical schemes to consider the model uncertainties in parameterizing shortwave radiation, the planetary boundary layer, and aerosol chemical mixing rules. Experiments show that dust aerosols increase rainfall by about 0.44 mm day-1 (~ 10%) in coastal southwest India, central and northern India, and northern Pakistan, a pattern consistent with the observed relationship. The ensemble mean rainfall response over India shows much stronger spatial correlation with the observed rainfall response than any of the ensemble members. The largest modeling uncertainties are from the boundary layer schemes, followed by shortwave radiation schemes. In WRF-Chem, the dust AOD over the Middle East shows the strongest correlation with the ISM rainfall response when dust AOD leads rainfall response by about 11 days. Further analyses show that the increased ISM rainfall is related to the enhanced southwesterly flow and moisture transport from the Arabian Sea to the Indian subcontinent, which are associated with the development of an anomalous low pressure system over the Arabian Sea, the southern Arabian Peninsula, and the Iranian Plateau due to dust-induced heating in the lower troposphere (800-500 hPa). This study demonstrates a thermodynamic mechanism that links remote desert dust emission in the Middle East to the ISM circulation and precipitation variability on sub-seasonal timescales

  9. Revised East-West Antarctic plate motions since the Middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J.; Damaske, D.

    2010-12-01

    The middle Cenozoic (43-26 Ma) rifting between East and West Antarctica is defined by an episode of ultraslow seafloor spreading in the Adare Basin, located off northwestern Ross Sea. The absence of fracture zones and the lack of sufficient well-located magnetic anomaly picks have resulted in a poorly constrained kinematic model (Cande et al., 2000). Here we utilize the results from a dense aeromagnetic survey (Damaske et al., 2007) collected as part of GANOVEX IX 2005/06 campaign to re-evaluate the kinematics of the West Antarctic rift system since the Middle Eocene. We identify marine magnetic anomalies (anomalies 12o, 13o, 16y, and 18o) along a total of 25,000 km of the GPS navigated magnetic profiles. The continuation of these anomalies into the Northern Basin has allowed us to use the entire N-S length of this dataset in our calculations. A distinct curvature in the orientation of the spreading axis provides a strong constraint on our calculated kinematic models. The results from two- (East-West Antarctica) and three- (Australia-East Antarctica-West Antarctica) plate solutions agree well and create a cluster of rotation axes located south of the rift system, near the South Pole. These solutions reveal that spreading rate and direction, and therefore motion between East and West Antarctica, were steady between the Middle Eocene and Early Oligocene. Our kinematic solutions confirm the results of Davey and De Santis (2005) that the Victoria Land Basin has accommodated ~95 km of extension since the Middle Eocene. This magnetic pattern also provides valuable constraints on the post-spreading deformation of the Adare Basin (Granot et al., 2010). The Adare Basin has accommodated very little extension since the Late Oligocene (<7 km), but motion has probably increased southward. The details of this younger phase of motion are still crudely constrained.

  10. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Nasser, Wissam; Abou Abbas, Linda; Elias, Elias; Leveque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000-2013) was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m(3), PM10 = 20 μg/m(3)). We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases. PMID:26216305

  11. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus during Pregnancy, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2013.

    PubMed

    Malik, Asim; El Masry, Karim Medhat; Ravi, Mini; Sayed, Falak

    2016-03-01

    As of June 19, 2015, the World Health Organization had received 1,338 notifications of laboratory-confirmed infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Little is known about the course of or treatment for MERS-CoV in pregnant women. We report a fatal case of MERS-CoV in a pregnant woman administered combination ribavirin-peginterferon-α therapy.

  12. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Nasser, Wissam; Abou Abbas, Linda; Elias, Elias; Leveque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000-2013) was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m(3), PM10 = 20 μg/m(3)). We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases.

  13. Laboratory Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, California, USA, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Shahkarami, Mahtab; Yen, Cynthia; Glaser, Carol; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James

    2015-01-01

    Since Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) first emerged, the California Department of Public Health has coordinated efforts to identify possible cases in travelers to California, USA, from affected areas. During 2013–2014, the department investigated 54 travelers for MERS-CoV; none tested positive, but 32 (62%) of 52 travelers with suspected MERS-CoV had other respiratory viruses. PMID:26291839

  14. Origins of the Iberomaurusian in NW Africa: new AMS radiocarbon dating of the Middle and Later Stone Age deposits at Taforalt Cave, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Barton, R N E; Bouzouggar, A; Hogue, J T; Lee, S; Collcutt, S N; Ditchfield, P

    2013-09-01

    Recent genetic studies based on the distribution of mtDNA of haplogroup U6 have led to subtly different theories regarding the arrival of modern human populations in North Africa. One proposes that groups of the proto-U6 lineage spread from the Near East to North Africa around 40-45 ka (thousands of years ago), followed by some degree of regional continuity. Another envisages a westward human migration from the Near East, followed by further demographic expansion at ∼22 ka centred on the Maghreb and associated with a microlithic bladelet culture known as the Iberomaurusian. In evaluating these theories, we report on the results of new work on the Middle (MSA) and Later Stone (LSA) Age deposits at Taforalt Cave in Morocco. We present 54 AMS radiocarbon dates on bone and charcoals from a sequence of late MSA and LSA occupation levels of the cave. Using Bayesian modelling we show that an MSA non-Levallois flake industry was present until ∼24.5 ka Cal BP (calibrated years before present), followed by a gap in occupation and the subsequent appearance of an LSA Iberomaurusian industry from at least 21,160 Cal BP. The new dating offers fresh light on theories of continuity versus replacement of populations as presented by the genetic evidence. We examine the implications of these data for interpreting the first appearance of the LSA in the Maghreb and providing comparisons with other dated early blade and bladelet industries in North Africa.

  15. The recent ancestry of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Korea has been shaped by recombination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Il; Kim, You-Jin; Lemey, Philippe; Lee, Ilseob; Park, Sehee; Bae, Joon-Yong; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Hyejin; Jang, Seok-Il; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Hak; Kim, Dae-Won; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Kim, Kisoon; Myun Lee, Jae; Song, Man Ki; Song, Daesub; Chang, Jun; Hong, Kee-Jong; Bae, Yong-Soo; Song, Jin-Won; Lee, Joo-Shil; Park, Man-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe cases of human respiratory disease. Since 2012, the victims have mainly come from the Middle East countries or sporadically from some other geographical regions seeded by the travelers who visited the Middle East. Such an introduction through travelling led to the emergence of a MERS-CoV outbreak in Korea in May 2015, which caused more than 140 confirmed human cases in less than a month. Using 70 complete genome sequences of MERS-CoV isolates, including the most recent sequences for the Korean and Chinese isolates, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of the complete genome and the individual protein coding regions. The Korean MERS-CoV strain clustered in the previously established Hafr-Al-Batin-1_2013 clade together with two Saudi Arabian and one Chinese strain sampled in 2015. Although these four strains remained monophyletic in the entire protein-coding region, this clade showed different phylogenetic relationships across the genome, indicating a shared unique recombination pattern that is different from previously reported putative recombination strains. Our findings suggest that the recent ancestor of the Korean and its related MERS-CoV strains is characterized by unique mosaic genome pattern that is different from other putative recombinants. PMID:26732651

  16. Game theory, international law, and future environmental cooperation in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.

    1998-12-31

    Through the use of game theory, this article explores some of the principal factors influencing the emergence and maintenance of international cooperation in order to develop legal guidelines for establishing an effective environmental mechanism in the Middle East. As this article shows, game theory concepts and models provide a valuable tool for analyzing the phenomenon of cooperation, enabling international lawyers to shape legal norms which will enhance the prospects for environmental cooperation in the Middle East. Part 2 of this article sets for the basic concepts and models of game theory and its relationship to modern international relations theory. Part 3 presents a game theoretical analysis of two major environmental settings in the Middle East: marine pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba and water contamination of the Mountain Aquifer. It then suggests some legal mechanisms to enhance the likelihood of cooperation in these settings. Part 4 concludes the article by exploring the options nd limits of combining game theory and international law as an instrument to improve the prospects of cooperation. The article ultimately states that this combination offers scholars and policy-makers important insights into better legal mechanisms for long-term international cooperation.

  17. Climatic change and the history of the Middle East: Did major climatic changes alter the course of Middle Eastern history during the past 5,000 years?

    SciTech Connect

    Issar, A.S.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the influence of climatic change on history, specifically that of the Middle Eastern regions. The Middle east may provide a unique model and opportunity to assess the impact of climatic change on human evenst. The climatic history of the Middle East varied considerably during the past 10,000 years (after the beginning of the agricultural revolution) and there is a rich archeological and historical record. The author looks at the conventional reasons for upheavels in the region and then superimposes the climatic changes to find another explanation which better fits the archeological and historical facts. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Iwo Eleru's place among Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene populations of North and East Africa.

    PubMed

    Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2014-10-01

    The Iwo Eleru site in Nigeria preserves the only terminal Pleistocene fossil from tropical West Africa. The peoples of this region contributed to significant population movements throughout the continent during the Holocene. As such, characterizing the phenotype of Late Pleistocene West African populations is critical for disentangling the evolutionary signatures of a highly complex African population history and structure. Previous research approached the calvaria's morphology from a paleoanthropological perspective, noting its mosaic of archaic and modern neurocranial features and distinctiveness from Pleistocene fossil taxa and contemporary modern human samples. In this paper, I compare Iwo Eleru with contemporary Late Pleistocene Africans and also consider the specimen's affinities with Holocene populations of the central and western Sahara, Nile Valley, and East Africa. Craniometric data were recorded for 22 neurocranial dimensions and subjected to principal components analysis and Mahalanobis distance estimation. Multidimensional scaling of distances indicated that Iwo Eleru fell outside the observed range of variation of other terminal Pleistocene supra-equatorial African populations, confirming previous results that documented its divergence from Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Europeans, and modern Africans. The calvaria was also distinct from Holocene Saharan, Nile Valley, and East African populations, which suggests limited West African input into the Sahara during the African Humid Period. Results presented here bolster previous research that suggested Iwo Eleru's anatomy reflected either admixture with archaic humans or the long-term survival of populations with more archaic neurocranial anatomy until the end of the Pleistocene.

  19. Reconstructing the origin and dispersal patterns of village chickens across East Africa: insights from autosomal markers

    PubMed Central

    Mwacharo, J M; Nomura, K; Hanada, H; Han, J L; Amano, T; Hanotte, O

    2013-01-01

    Unravelling the genetic history of any livestock species is central to understanding the origin, development and expansion of agricultural societies and economies. Domestic village chickens are widespread in Africa. Their close association with, and reliance on, humans for long-range dispersal makes the species an important biological marker in tracking cultural and trading contacts between human societies and civilizations across time. Archaezoological and linguistic evidence suggest a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species on the continent, with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop analysis revealing the presence of five distinct haplogroups in East African village chickens. It supports the importance of the region in understanding the history of the species and indirectly of human interactions. Here, through a detailed analysis of 30 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 657 village chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan), we identify three distinct autosomal gene pools (I, II and III). Gene pool I is predominantly found in Ethiopia and Sudan, while II and III occur in both Kenya and Uganda. A gradient of admixture for gene pools II and III between the Kenyan coast and Uganda's hinterland (P = 0.001) is observed, while gene pool I is clearly separated from the other two. We propose that these three gene pools represent genetic signatures of separate events in the history of the continent that relate to the arrival and dispersal of village chickens and humans across the region. Our results provide new insights on the history of chicken husbandry which has been shaped by terrestrial and maritime contacts between ancient and modern civilizations in Asia and East Africa. PMID:23611649

  20. High-Throughput High-Resolution Class I HLA Genotyping in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Rebecca N.; Walsh, Anne M.; Sanders-Buell, Eric E.; Eller, Leigh Anne; Eller, Michael; Currier, Jeffrey R.; Bautista, Christian T.; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Hoelscher, Michael; Maboko, Leonard; Kim, Jerome; Michael, Nelson L.; Robb, Merlin L.; McCutchan, Francine E.; Kijak, Gustavo H.

    2010-01-01

    HLA, the most genetically diverse loci in the human genome, play a crucial role in host-pathogen interaction by mediating innate and adaptive cellular immune responses. A vast number of infectious diseases affect East Africa, including HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, but the HLA genetic diversity in this region remains incompletely described. This is a major obstacle for the design and evaluation of preventive vaccines. Available HLA typing techniques, that provide the 4-digit level resolution needed to interpret immune responses, lack sufficient throughput for large immunoepidemiological studies. Here we present a novel HLA typing assay bridging the gap between high resolution and high throughput. The assay is based on real-time PCR using sequence-specific primers (SSP) and can genotype carriers of the 49 most common East African class I HLA-A, -B, and -C alleles, at the 4-digit level. Using a validation panel of 175 samples from Kampala, Uganda, previously defined by sequence-based typing, the new assay performed with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The assay was also implemented to define the HLA genetic complexity of a previously uncharacterized Tanzanian population, demonstrating its inclusion in the major East African genetic cluster. The availability of genotyping tools with this capacity will be extremely useful in the identification of correlates of immune protection and the evaluation of candidate vaccine efficacy. PMID:20505773

  1. Tectonic and lithological constraints on the evolution of the Karoo graben of northern Malawi (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, U.

    1995-09-01

    The results of a lithostratigraphic, tectonic and kinematic study of the Karoo deposits of northern Malawi are reported. The objective of the lithostratigraphic study is to correlate the deposits of the Karoo basins of northern Malawi with the well-known deposits of southern Tanzania, thus establishing a stratigraphic framework through which the timing of faulting can be constrained. The kinematic analysis of faulting constrains the opening direction for the Karoo graben in this area and provides basic data to discuss the Karoo graben development within the regional tectonic framework of south-eastern Africa. The studied adults are defined by moderately to steeply dipping cataclastic zones with a width of up to 15 m and are characterized by an array of slickensided fault surfaces with different orientations and slip directions. In this study, small faults (offset < 10 m) and meso-scale faults (offset > 10 m, but generally not exceeding 30 40 m) have been distinguished. Methods used to analyse the kinematic data include the ‘pressure tension’ (PT) method, which estimates the principal axes for the bulk brittle strain, and the internal rotation axis (IRA) method, which estimates the axis of bulk internal rotation and the overall sense of slip at the faults. A mass balance calculation reveals a volume increase of up to 16% during cataclastic deformation in the fault zones. The PT method shows an approximately east trending extension direction for faults that occur only in the latest Carboniferous (?) and Early Permian strata, whereas the fault kinematics from faults that cut middle Permian to Early Triassic rocks is characterized by a ESE to SE trending extension direction. The small faults yield essentially the same kinematic results as the meso-scale faults. In a transport-parallel cross-sectional view, the principal extension axes are at an acute angle of approximately 60° to the major fault planes. Given the moderate fault density, the relatively high angle

  2. Tectonic and lithological constraints on the evolution of the Karoo graben of northern Malawi (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, U.

    The results of a lithostratigraphic, tectonic and kinematic study of the Karoo deposits of northern Malawi are reported. The objective of the lithostratigraphic study is to correlate the deposits of the Karoo basins of northern Malawi with the well-known deposits of southern Tanzania, thus establishing a stratigraphic framework through which the timing of faulting can be constrained. The kinematic analysis of faulting constrains the opening direction for the Karoo graben in this area and provides basic data to discuss the Karoo graben development within the regional tectonic framework of south-eastern Africa. The studied faults are defined by moderately to steeply dipping cataclastic zones with a width of up to 15m and are characterized by an array of slickensided fault surfaces with different orientations and slip directions. In this study, small faults (offset <10m) and meso-scale faults (offset >10m, but generally not exceeding 30-40m) have been distinguished. Methods used to analyse the kinematic data include the 'pressure tension' (PT) method, which estimates the principal axes for the bulk brittle strain, and the internal rotation axis (IRA) method, which estimates the axis of bulk internal rotation and the overall sense of slip at the faults. A mass balance calculation reveals a volume increase of up to 16% during cataclastic deformation in the fault zones. The PT method shows an approximately east trending extension direction for faults that occur only in the latest Carboniferous (?) and Early Permian strata, whereas the fault kinematics from faults that cut middle Permian to Early Triassic rocks is characterized by a ESE to SE trending extension direction. The small faults yield essentially the same kinematic results as the meso-scale faults. In a transport-parallel cross-sectional view, the principal extension axes are at an acute angle of approximately 60° to the major fault planes. Given the moderate fault density, the relatively high angle between the

  3. Seismic Analysis of Magmatism in the Galapagos Archipelago and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepp, Gabrielle

    Magmatism and deformation are consequences of fundamental processes shaping Earth's ˜150 km-thick continental and <125 km-thick oceanic plates. Earthquake seismology encompasses many methods to detect compositional and thermal boundaries from Earth's surface to the dynamic mantle driving plate tectonics. This work uses three different seismic methods to probe magma migration and storage and tectonism in two intraplate hotspot provinces: the Galapagos and East Africa. First, seismic body-wave tomography is used to image magma within oceanic crust of the largest Galapagos volcano, Sierra Negra. A laterally large, low-velocity region with many smaller, high-magnitude velocity anomalies is imaged at 8--15.5 km depths. No sharp seismic velocity increase is imaged within the resolvable depths, indicating that the thickened crust is at least 16 km deep. The second study involves a spectral analysis of earthquakes induced by the intrusion of thin sheets of magma rising beneath the Afar rift, East Africa. Earthquakes have varying spectral content, some with unusually large amplitude low-frequency content and enhanced surface waves. The analysis showed no clear boundaries between spectral types, suggesting that they are all primarily the result of brittle failure. Deep dike segments (tops > 3 km) induce only high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes, while shallower dike segments induce the full range of spectral types. This suggests that low-frequency content is a result of shallow hypocenters, with path and site effects, surface ruptures, and dike fluid interactions all possible secondary causes. In the final study, shear-wave splitting analysis of teleseismic body-wave phases is conducted to evaluate strain and crack fabrics at the base of the continental plate as a consequence of magmatism, mantle flow, and plate stretching in the Western rift, East Africa. On average, fast directions are northeast, consistent with geodynamic models of mantle flow from the African

  4. A Call to Learning Focus in East Africa: Uwezo's Measurement of Learning in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugo, John Kabutha; Ruto, Sara Jerop; Nakabugo, Mary Goretti; Mgalla, Zaida

    2015-01-01

    From the late 1990s, education in East Africa started to be appraised on the basis of enrolment. The universalisation of primary education that started in Uganda in 1997--and peaked in Tanzania in 2002, as well as in Kenya in 2003--was politicised as the epitome of education reform. Yet, alternative voices called for consideration of improving…

  5. Internationalization "vs" Regionalization of Higher Education in East Africa and the Challenges of Quality Assurance and Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogachi, Oanda

    2009-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education in East Africa raises various questions related to its magnitude and intensity, its capacity to address issues of access, equity and regional research and developmental needs. Internationalization and regionalization as processes in higher education can synergize each other but can also limit the success of…

  6. Randomized Impact Evaluation of Education Interventions: Experiences and Lessons from a Reading to Learn Intervention in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Abuya, Benta; Oketch, Moses; Admassu, Kassahun; Mutisya, Maurice; Musyoka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences and lessons learnt during the design and implementation of the randomized impact evaluation (IE) of a reading to learn (RtL) intervention in early primary grades. The study was to assess the impact of RtL on literacy and numeracy among pupils in low-performing districts in East Africa. The intervention was…

  7. Pathways to healing: curative travel among Muslims and non-Muslims in eastern East Africa.

    PubMed

    Parkin, David

    2014-01-01

    Two areas of therapeutic provision in eastern East Africa are contrasted: a coastal stretch inhabited mainly by Muslims, and a largely non-Muslim hinterland, each with its own healers, medicines, and customary ethic. Spread over both areas are providers of biomedicine associated originally, and to some extent today, with Christianity. Whether or not they also attend biomedical sites, Muslims seek healers in the coastal stretch and non-Muslims usually in the hinterland, each following ethico-religious preferences. However, because people move through the two areas and compare treatments, individuals' journeys can change direction, with non-Muslims sometimes seeking Muslim healers and either of these groups choosing the more dispersed biomedical outlets. The notion of 'pathways' to health thus combines set journeys to areas known for particular healers and a distinctive ethic, with possible detours to alternative sources of therapy, including biomedicine not regarded as governed by the same ethic. PMID:24383750

  8. Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Mbua, Emma; Kirera, Francis M.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Grine, Frederick E.; Leakey, Meave G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Uno, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    The East African hominin Paranthropus boisei was characterized by a suite of craniodental features that have been widely interpreted as adaptations to a diet that consisted of hard objects that required powerful peak masticatory loads. These morphological adaptations represent the culmination of an evolutionary trend that began in earlier taxa such as Australopithecus afarensis, and presumably facilitated utilization of open habitats in the Plio-Pleistocene. Here, we use stable isotopes to show that P. boisei had a diet that was dominated by C4 biomass such as grasses or sedges. Its diet included more C4 biomass than any other hominin studied to date, including its congener Paranthropus robustus from South Africa. These results, coupled with recent evidence from dental microwear, may indicate that the remarkable craniodental morphology of this taxon represents an adaptation for processing large quantities of low-quality vegetation rather than hard objects. PMID:21536914

  9. Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Mbua, Emma; Kirera, Francis M; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Grine, Frederick E; Leakey, Meave G; Sponheimer, Matt; Uno, Kevin T

    2011-06-01

    The East African hominin Paranthropus boisei was characterized by a suite of craniodental features that have been widely interpreted as adaptations to a diet that consisted of hard objects that required powerful peak masticatory loads. These morphological adaptations represent the culmination of an evolutionary trend that began in earlier taxa such as Australopithecus afarensis, and presumably facilitated utilization of open habitats in the Plio-Pleistocene. Here, we use stable isotopes to show that P. boisei had a diet that was dominated by C(4) biomass such as grasses or sedges. Its diet included more C(4) biomass than any other hominin studied to date, including its congener Paranthropus robustus from South Africa. These results, coupled with recent evidence from dental microwear, may indicate that the remarkable craniodental morphology of this taxon represents an adaptation for processing large quantities of low-quality vegetation rather than hard objects. PMID:21536914

  10. Chronology of volcanism and rift basin propagation - Rungwe volcanic province, East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Deino, A. L.; Drake, R. E.; Tesha, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial and temporal development of along-axis segmentation in youthful continental rifts was investigated using the results of field, remote sensing, and K-Ar geochronology studies conducted in four (Rukwa, Songwe, Usangu, and Karonga) rift basins within the Rungwe volcanic province in East Africa. Results indicated that the Rukwa and Karonga border fault segments formed between 7.25 and 5 m.y. ago, the Usangu border fault segment developed between 3 and 2 m.y. ago, and subsidence along the Songwe border fault segment had occurred by 0.5 Ma. It is shown that individual basins developed diachronously, each following a similar sequence: (1) initial border fault development; (2) asymmetric basin subsidence/flank uplift and the development of monoclines opposite the border faults; and (3) continued subsidence and tilting along intrabasinal faults with flexural upwarping of the rift flanks, enhancing basinal asymmetries.

  11. 'Deadly gonorrhoea': history, collective memory and early HIV epidemiology in East Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhanen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This article combines local oral reminiscences with recent epidemiological literature to sketch a historical context around the onset and expansion of the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Uganda and north-western Tanzania. The local historical imagination has associated the appearance of AIDS in two ways. First, with specific socio-economic structures and circumstances common in the region since the 1960s and their enhancement during the 1970s due to economic changes at national and global levels. Second, the epidemic is associated with changes in the epidemiological situation. Local perspectives are supported by recent phylogenetic research and circumstantial historical evidence, on the basis of which a hypothesis on the expansion of HIV-1 in East Central Africa (southern Uganda, north-western Tanzania, Rwanda) is presented.

  12. The Impact of the SESAME Project on Science and Society in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2008-04-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is a UNESCO-sponsored project that is constructing an international research laboratory, closely modeled on CERN, in Jordan (www.sesame.org.jo). Ten Members of the governing Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, and Turkey) have responsibility for the project, led by Herwig Schopper, Council President since 1999. In late 2008 Chris Llewellyn-Smith will become Council President. SESAME was initiated by a gift from Germany of the decommissioned BESSY I facility. The BESSY I 0.8 GeV injector is now being installed in the recently completed building, funded by Jordan, as components are procured for a new 133 m circumference, 2.5 GeV third-generation storage ring with 12 locations for insertion devices. Beam line equipment has been provided by laboratories in France, UK, and US. Support also comes from EU, IAEA, ICTP, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the US Department of Energy and State Department, and laboratories around the world. The broad scientific program includes biomedical, environmental, and archaeological programs particularly relevant to the Middle East. Five scientific workshops and six annual Users' meetings have brought together several hundred scientists from the region, along with researchers from around the world. Training programs have enabled about 100 scientists from the region to work at synchrotron radiation laboratories. These activities have already had significant impact on science and society in the Middle East, for example leading to collaborations between scientists from countries that are not particularly friendly with each other, and to national planning emphasizing synchrotron radiation research. When research starts in 2011 this impact will grow as graduate students are trained in the region in many scientific disciplines, and scientists working abroad are attracted to return.

  13. Water and Land Limitations to Future Agricultural Production in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. A. M.; Wimmer, F.; Schaldach, R.

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Middle East use a large fraction of their scarce water resources to produce cash crops, such as fruit and vegetables, for international markets. At the same time, these countries import large amounts of staple crops, such as cereals, required to meet the nutritional demand of their populations. This makes food security in the Middle East heavily dependent on world market prices for staple crops. Under these preconditions, increasing food demand due to population growth, urban expansion on fertile farmlands, and detrimental effects of a changing climate on the production of agricultural commodities present major challenges to countries in the Middle East that try to improve food security by increasing their self-sufficiency rate of staple crops.We applied the spatio-temporal land-use change model LandSHIFT.JR to simulate how an expansion of urban areas may affect the production of agricultural commodities in Jordan. We furthermore evaluated how climate change and changes in socio-economic conditions may influence crop production. The focus of our analysis was on potential future irrigated and rainfed production (crop yield and area demand) of fruit, vegetables, and cereals. Our simulation results show that the expansion of urban areas and the resulting displacement of agricultural areas does result in a slight decrease in crop yields. This leads to almost no additional irrigation water requirements due to the relocation of agricultural areas, i.e. there is the same amount of "crop per drop". However, taking into account projected changes in socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a large volume of water would be required for cereal production in order to safeguard current self-sufficiency rates for staple crops. Irrigation water requirements are expected to double until 2025 and to triple until 2050. Irrigated crop yields are projected to decrease by about 25%, whereas there is no decrease in rainfed crop yields to be expected.

  14. Enhancing research ethics capacity in the Middle East: experience and challenges of a Fogarty-sponsored training program.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Henry; Edwards, Hillary; Shamoo, Adil; Matar, Amal

    2013-12-01

    We describe the research ethics capacity needs of the countries from the Middle East region. Against this background, we relate the experience of an international training program focused on providing long-term training in research ethics to individuals from low and middle-income countries in the Middle East area. We describe our pedagogical approach to training, program changes to address challenges faced, and accomplishments of trainees. Many former trainees developed research ethics curricula in their home institutions, established or enhanced their institutions' research ethics committees, provided leadership to national research ethics systems, and conducted research in research ethics. Based on our analysis, we make recommendations for how trainees can further address current regional research ethics needs in the Middle East and conduct future research. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program.

  15. Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity in the Middle East: Experience and Challenges of a Fogarty-Sponsored Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Henry; Edwards, Hillary; Shamoo, Adil; Matar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    we describe the research ethics capacity needs of the countries from the Middle East region. Against this background, we relate the experience of an international training program focused on providing long-term training in research ethics to individuals from low- and middle-income countries in the Middle East area. We describe our pedagogical approach to training, program changes to address challenges faced, and accomplishments of trainees. Many former trainees developed research ethics curricula in their home institutions, established or enhanced their institutions’ research ethics committees, provided leadership to national research ethics systems, and conducted research in research ethics. Based on our analysis, we make recommendations for how trainees can further address current regional research ethics needs in the Middle East and conduct future research. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384515

  16. Metagenomic analysis demonstrates the diversity of the fecal virome in asymptomatic pigs in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Amimo, Joshua O; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Githae, Dedan; Wamalwa, Mark; Djikeng, Apollinaire; Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2016-04-01

    Pigs harbor a variety of viruses that are closely related to human viruses and are suspected to have zoonotic potential. Little is known about the presence of viruses in smallholder farms where pigs are in close contact with humans and wildlife. This study provides insight into viral communities and the prevalence and characteristics of enteric viral co-infections in smallholder pigs in East Africa. Sequence-independent amplification and high-throughput sequencing were applied to the metagenomics analysis of viruses in feces collected from asymptomatic pigs. A total of 47,213 de novo-assembled contigs were constructed and compared with sequences from the GenBank database. Blastx search results revealed that 1039 contigs (>200 nt) were related to viral sequences in the GenBank database. Of the 1039 contigs, 612 were not assigned to any viral taxa because they had little similarity to known viral genomic or protein sequences, while 427 contigs had a high level of sequence similarity to known viruses and were assigned to viral taxa. The most frequent contigs related to mammalian viruses resembling members of the viral genera Astrovirus, Rotavirus, Bocavirus, Circovirus, and Kobuvirus. Other less abundant contigs were related to members of the genera Sapelovirus, Pasivirus, Posavirus, Teschovirus and Picobirnavirus. This is the first report on the diversity of the fecal virome of pig populations in East Africa. The findings of the present study help to elucidate the etiology of diarrheal diseases in pigs and identify potential zoonotic and emerging viruses in the region. Further investigations are required to compare the incidence of these viruses in healthy and diseased pigs in order to better elucidate their pathogenic role. PMID:26965436

  17. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  18. Cropland land surface phenology and seasonality in East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Most people in East Africa depend on rainfed agriculture. Rainfall in the region has been decreasing recently and is highly variable in space and time leading to high food insecurity. A comprehensive understanding of the regional cropland dynamics is therefore needed. Land surface phenology and land surface seasonality have important roles in monitoring cropland dynamics in a region with sparse coverage of in situ climatic and biophysical observations. However, commonly used optical satellite data are often degraded by cloud cover, aerosols, and dust and they are restricted to daytime observations. Here we used near-daily passive microwave (PM) data at 25 km spatial resolution from a series of microwave radiometers—AMSR-E, FengYun3B/MWRI, AMSR2—to study cropland dynamics for 2003-2013 in three important grain production areas of East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan. PM data can be collected through clouds and at night. Based on Google Earth imagery, we identified several cropland areas corresponding to PM grid cells. Rainfall from TRMM and atmospheric water vapor (V) from PM data displayed temporal patterns that were unimodal in Ethiopia and South Sudan, but bimodal in Tanzania. We fitted convex quadratic models to link growing season increments of V and vegetation optical depth (VOD) to accumulated V (AV). The models yielded high coefficients of determination (r2 ≥0.8) and phenometrics calculated from the parameter coefficients. Peak rainfall lagged peak V, but preceded peak VOD. Growing degree-days (GDD), calculated from the PM air temperature data, displayed a weaker bimodal seasonality in which the lowest values occurred during the peak rainy season, due to the cooling effect of latent heat flux and coupled with higher reflection of insolation by the cloud deck. V as a function of GDD displays quasi-periodic behavior. Drier sites in the region displayed larger (smaller) intra-annual dynamic range of V (GDD) compared to the moister sites.

  19. Challenges with routine data sources for PMTCT programme monitoring in East Africa: insights from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Michael, Denna; Reniers, Georges; Urassa, Mark; Njau, Prosper; Kajoka, Deborah; Lema, Levina; Zaba, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Routinely collected clinic data have the potential to provide much needed information on the uptake of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, and to measure HIV prevalence in pregnant women. This article describes the methodological challenges associated with using such data, based on the experiences of researchers and programme implementers in Tanzania and drawing from other examples from East Africa. PMTCT data are routinely collected in maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in East Africa using paper-based registers corresponding to distinct services within the PMTCT service continuum. This format has inherent limitations with respect to maintaining and accurately recording unique identifiers that can link patients across the different clinics (antenatal, delivery, child), and also poses challenges when compiling aggregate data. Recent improvements to recording systems include assigning unique identifiers to HIV-positive pregnant women in MCH clinics, although this should ideally be extended to all pregnant women, and recording mother and infant identifiers alongside each other in registers. The use of 'health passports', as in Malawi, which maintains the same antenatal clinic identifier over time, also holds promise. Routine data hold tremendous potential for clinic-level patient management, surveillance, and evaluating PMTCT/MCH programmes. Linking clinic data to community research datasets can also provide population-level estimates of coverage with PMTCT services, currently a problematic but vital statistic for monitoring programme performance and negotiating donor funding. Enhancements to indexing and recording of routine PMTCT/MCH data are needed if we are to capitalise on this rich data source.

  20. Investigating the terrestrial-atmospheric water balance for the Tana River basin, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerandi, Noah; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The fully coupled atmospheric-hydrological WRF-Hydro modeling system is applied to the Tana River basin (TRB) in East Africa for the period 2011-2014 in order to analyze the terrestrial-atmospheric water balance components and their feedback mechanisms. The outputs from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF stand-alone model. The study area encompasses the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km²) in the upper TRB. Our model set up consists of two domains at 25 km and 5 km horizontal resolution covering East Africa and the study area, respectively. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at a 500 m horizontal grid resolution. The simulated monthly precipitation over the subcatchment compared with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data gives an overall correlation coefficient of 0.8/0.7 for fully coupled/stand-alone model and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.5 mm/day for both models for the entire simulation period. Overall the models yield more annual total precipitation compared to TRMM. The two models are drier during the March, April, May (MAM) season and wetter during the October, November, December (OND) season. Compared to observation stations, both modeling systems provide a correlation coefficient of 0.6 for precipitation. The simulated and observed discharges at the Tana Rukanga gauge, located in the subcatchment, exhibit a correlation coefficient of 0.5 at daily resolution. The WRF-Hydro also overestimates the cumulated discharge (2011-2014) by about 50 %. The analysis of the atmospheric water balance in both WRF and WRF-Hydro simulation reveals a positive moisture divergence during the MAM and OND rainy seasons. Precipitation recycling and efficiency measures derived from the atmospheric water budget are also investigated.