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Sample records for africa middle east

  1. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  2. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  3. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  4. Mineral facilities of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eros, J.M.; Candelario-Quintana, Luissette

    2006-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. The data used in this poster were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbook (Africa and Middle East volume), Minerals Statistics and Information from the USGS Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists. See Table 1 for general information about each mineral facility site including country, location and facility name, facility type, latitude, longitude, mineral commodity, mining method, main operating company, status, capacity, and units.

  5. 76 FR 55456 - The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ..., 2011, speech on recent developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the President called for a Trade and Investment Partnership Initiative to explore ways to further strengthen economic... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa...

  6. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  7. Event location in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.; Ruppert, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress towards improving the ability of the IMS seismic network to locate small-magnitude events in the Middle East and North Africa (MIYNA). Given that high-grade ground truth (such as known explosions) has been difficult to obtain in these regions, we have placed a significant effort towards the development of a teleseismically constrained seismic database that provides event locations good to within 20m km. This data set is used to make an initial evaluation of the effectiveness of calibration on the proposed seismic IMS network in the MWNA. Utilizing a surrogate IMS regional network in the Middle East we find that when a seismic event lies within the footprint of the recording network the uncalibrated event locations are good to within about 25 km of the teleseismically constrained (TC) location. Using region-specific static station corrections further reduces this difference to about 20 km. To obtain further improvement in location accuracy we have used the modified kriging technique developed by SNL to interpolate new travel-time corrections. We compare this technique withe other robust linear interpolation techniques with the goal of enhancing the estimation of travel-time corrections. This is important to TC events which we find can have large uncorrelated uncertainties. Finally, we are making a large effort to incorporate LLNL analyst picks on primary and secondary phases and develop azimuth and slownsess estimates horn current IMS arrays to improve/supplement the NEIC picks.

  8. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  9. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Burden in Africa and the Middle East: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Omar, Mohamed I.; Raal, Frederick J.; Rashed, Wafa; Hamoui, Omar; Kane, Abdoul; Alami, Mohamed; Abreu, Paula; Mashhoud, Walid M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased urbanization in the developing world parallels a rising burden of chronic diseases. Developing countries account for ∼80% of global cardiovascular (CV) deaths, but contribute a paucity of systematic epidemiological data on CV risk factors. Objective To estimate the prevalence of CV risk factors in rural and urban cohorts attending general practice clinics in the Africa and Middle East (AfME) region. Methods In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the presence of CV risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus (diabetes), dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and abdominal obesity) were evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending general practice primary care clinics. A rural population was defined as isolated (>50 km or lack of easy access to commuter transportation) from urban centers. Results 4,378 outpatients were systematically recruited from 94 clinics across 14 AfME countries. Mean age was 46±14 years and 52% of outpatients were female. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia (70%) and abdominal obesity (68%) were observed, followed by hypertension (43%) and diabetes (25%). The vast majority of outpatients (92%) had at least one modifiable CV risk factor, many (74%) had more than one, and half (53%) had 3 or more. These findings were observed in both genders and across urban and rural centers. Among outpatients with pre-existing hypertension or dyslipidemia, many were not at their target blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol goals. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among relatively young, stable outpatients attending general practice clinics across AfME. The findings support opportunistic screening for CV risk factors whenever outpatients visit a general practitioner and provide an opportunity for early identification and management of CV risk factors, including lifestyle interventions. PMID:25090638

  11. Observations of equatorial ionization anomaly over Africa and Middle East during a year of deep minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaji, Olawale; Owolabi, Oluwafisayo; Falayi, Elijah; Jimoh, Emmanuel; Kotoye, Afolabi; Odeyemi, Olumide; Rabiu, Babatunde; Doherty, Patricia; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Yamazaki, Yosuke; Adeniyi, Jacob; Kaka, Rafiat; Onanuga, Kehinde

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the veracity of an ion continuity equation in controlling equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) morphology using total electron content (TEC) of 22 GPS receivers and three ground-based magnetometers (Magnetic Data Acquisition System, MAGDAS) over Africa and the Middle East (Africa-Middle East) during the quietest periods. Apart from further confirmation of the roles of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and integrated equatorial electrojet (IEEJ) in determining hemispheric extent of EIA crest over higher latitudes, we found some additional roles played by thermospheric meridional neutral wind. Interestingly, the simultaneous observations of EIA crests in both hemispheres of Africa-Middle East showed different morphology compared to that reported over Asia. We also observed interesting latitudinal twin EIA crests domiciled at the low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Our results further showed that weak EEJ strength associated with counter electrojet (CEJ) during sunrise hours could also trigger twin EIA crests over higher latitudes.

  12. Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Seismic Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J L; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Ryall, F

    2003-07-14

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Database (SRDB) used for deriving seismic calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. In addition to an overview of select individual information products, we present an overview of our visualization, integration, validation, and organizational processes. Development of these processes and the LLNL SRDB was necessitated by both the very large amount of data and information involved (over 15 terabytes) and the varied data and research result formats utilized. The LLNL SRDB allows for the collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provides an interface for researchers to access data, provides a framework to store research results and integrate datasets, and supports assembly, integration and dissemination of datasets to the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The LLNL SRDB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources (both in-house-derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. In order to efficiently organize information within the LLNL SRDB, it was necessary to automate procedures needed to create and update database tables, but a large effort is still required by technicians and scientists to load special datasets, review results of automated processing and resolve quality issues. The LLNL SRDB currently has 3 million reconciled event origins and arrivals from several global, regional and local seismic bulletins and 30 million

  13. Middle East and North Africa consensus on osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, G; Gannagé-Yared, M H; Ezzedine, J; Larijani, B; Badawi, S; Rached, A; Zakroui, L; Masri, B; Azar, E; Saba, E; Nammari, R; Adib, G; Abou Samra, H; Alrawi, Z; Salman, S; El Muntasser, K; Tarseen, R; El Kharousi, W; Al-Lamki, M; Alothman, A N; Almarzook, N; El Dessouki, M; Sulaimani, R; Saleh, J; Suhaili, A R; Khan, A; Delmas, P; Seeman, E

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing life expectancy, osteoporosis is becoming a major worldwide health problem. The magnitude of the disease may become larger in developing countries, more particularly in the Middle East region where the prevalence of low bone mass is higher than in western countries. Although several local organizations and countries have developed guidelines for osteoporosis, no previous regional guidelines have been developed encompassing all Middle-Eastern and North African countries. The present document reviews all the regional published data on bone mineral density, risk factors, fracture prevalence and vitamin D status. It also gives simple recommendations applicable to all these countries. This document was endorsed by leading members of all the different regional countries including, Iran, Egypt, Tunisia, Jordan, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Libya, Oman, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

  14. Breaking the poverty/malnutrition cycle in Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Atinmo, Tola; Mirmiran, Parvin; Oyewole, Oyediran E; Belahsen, Rekia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2009-05-01

    The cost to developing countries, for current and future generations, of not eradicating hunger and poverty - in terms of recurrent conflicts and emergencies, widening inequalities, depleted resources, ill health, and premature death - is enormous. Although strategies are underway to address certain problems in Africa and the Middle East, much remains to be done. Breaking the poverty cycle in these regions demands both local and international attention. Nutrition transition is a key factor, since many countries in the region also suffer the consequences of the excessive and unbalanced diets that are typical of developed countries. This paper reviews the experiences with facing malnutrition in Sub-Saharan and North Africa and the Middle East.

  15. Education in the Middle East and North Africa: The Current Situation and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkari, Abdeljalil

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the educational development in the Middle East and North Africa, drawing on data from different international and national institutions. The paper begins with a review of similarities between countries within the region, and continues by investigating the situation of basic education, literacy rates and quality of…

  16. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  17. MERS and the dromedary camel trade between Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Younan, M; Bornstein, S; Gluecks, I V

    2016-08-01

    Dromedary camels are the most likely source for the coronavirus that sporadically causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in humans. Serological results from archived camel sera provide evidence for circulation of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among dromedary camels in the Greater Horn of Africa as far back as 1983 and in Saudi Arabia as far back as 1992. High seroprevalences of MERS-CoV antibodies and the high virus prevalence in Saudi Arabian dromedary camels indicate an endemicity of the virus in the Arabian Peninsula, which predates the 2012 human MERS index case. Saudi Arabian dromedary camels show significantly higher MERS-CoV carrier rates than dromedary camels imported from Africa. Two MERS-CoV lineages identified in Nigerian camels were found to be genetically distinct from those found in camels and humans in the Middle East. This supports the hypothesis that camel imports from Africa are not of significance for circulation of the virus in camel populations of the Arabian Peninsula.

  18. HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their

  19. Incarceration or mandatory treatment: Drug use and the law in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Al-Shazly, Fattouh; Tinasti, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), drug policies are embedded in the prohibition paradigm. Laws and legislation criminalize all types of activities related to illicit drugs. This article gives a detailed assessment of the provisions of Arab national laws to control the use of illicit drugs across the areas of punishment of drug users, penalties for drug dependence, legislation on use and dependence treatment, and the right of the convicted people who use drugs to confidentiality. It reviews the national legislations on drug control of 16 Arab countries as amended in January 2011.

  20. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  1. Sexuality and sexual health: constructs and expressions in the extended Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    El-Kak, Faysal

    2013-12-30

    The extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region is the world region with the second youngest population, where globalization, migration, information technology, and political changes are contributing to the shaping of sexuality and sexual behaviors. Understanding the various sociocultural, demographic and public health dimensions of sexual and reproductive health of young people is fundamental to understanding the pattern of sexual behavior and the burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human papillomavirus-related diseases. New norms and forms of marriage have emerged to accommodate the changing trends in sexual behavior of premarital and extra-marital sex, as well as reports of increased prevalence of premarital penetrative and non-penetrative sexual behavior. Despite these trends, the burden of sexual illnesses remains low and is estimated at 7% of the general population being infected with curable STIs. Other STIs, such as herpes simplex virus 2, are also prevalent. The existing policies and health systems remain short of promoting youth reproductive and sexual health. Efforts should address establishing national preventive programmes, such as screening for STIs, primary prevention, comprehensive sexuality education, as well as youth-friendly services. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  2. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  3. Mycotoxin occurrence in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients sourced in the Middle East and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, I.; Handl, J.; Binder, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Between February and October 2009, 324 grain, feed and feed commodity samples were sourced directly at animal farms or feed production sites in Middle East and Africa and tested for the presence of A- and B-trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, or for selected groups of mycotoxins only. Samples were analyzed after clean-up by immunoaffinity or solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC with derivatization where appropriate and fluorescence, UV or mass spectrometric detection. The percentage of positive samples of B-trichothecenes ranged from 0 to 87% of tested samples. The prevalence of fumonisins in the different countries was >50% in most cases. Zearalenone was present in tested commodities from all countries except three. The presence of aflatoxin in analyzed samples varied from 0 to 94%. Ochratoxin A was present in 67% of samples in Sudan and in 100% of Nigerian samples. No A-trichothecenes were found in this survey. PMID:24786003

  4. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships. PMID:22536488

  5. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa. Arabic edition

    SciTech Connect

    Berkoff, J.

    1995-03-21

    Proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to managing water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. The people of the Middle East and North Africa have faced scarce water resources since time immemorial. Today, burgeoning populations dwarf the concerns of the past. New strategies for planning and managing water are urgently needed to avoid escalating conflicts and to reverse environmental degradation. This booklet details the implications of a new World Bank policy for the region, calling for a strong effort by governments and Bank staff to manage water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. A practical, step-by-step strategy is proposed that could lead to new Bank-funded operations throughout the water sector. The issues involved are complex but must be addressed if water scarcity is not to hinder development projects. The strategy proposed in this booklet could help build a new partnership for sustainable water management between the World Bank and regional governments.

  6. Languages of the Middle East and North Africa. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of the Middle East and North Africa. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). The emphasis is on materials for the adult…

  7. A Comprehensive Review of the Status of Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Mohammad Salih

    This report reviews the status of early childhood education (ECE) programs in UNICEF's Middle East and North Africa region. The report compiles information about ECE programs in 18 countries based on a questionnaire sent to UNICEF country offices and other sources. The introduction sets out the economic and social rationales for investing in early…

  8. U.S. Students Study Abroad in the Middle East/North Africa: Factors Influencing Growing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane-Toomey, Cara K.; Lane, Shannon R.

    2013-01-01

    The political events of the last decade and the Arab Spring have made it more important than ever for Americans to understand the language, culture, and history of the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. Study abroad is one important method that can significantly increase American students' understanding of the Arabic language and the culture…

  9. Girls' Drop-Out from Primary Schooling in the Middle East and North Africa: Challenges and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrah, Golnar

    The present situation in the Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) regarding primary school drop-out and repetition, with special reference to the situation of the girl child, is examined in this study. The in-school as well as out-of-school causes of primary school drop-out are examined, and solutions that help reduce or eliminate the…

  10. Strategies for Female Education in the Middle East and North Africa. Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rihani, May; Prather, Cynthia J.

    This paper is designed to assist education planners and policymakers in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to identify a range of strategic options to increase the access and retention of girls in the education system. It provides a review of materials relating to the status of female education in the MENA region, statistical data on…

  11. A Human Economy: A "Third Way" for the Future of Young People in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in…

  12. The Quality of Secondary Education in the Middle East and North Africa: What Can We Learn from TIMSS' Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhlila, Donia Smaali

    2011-01-01

    Research on educational quality has been scarce in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, whereas the debates over educational quality date from 1966 in the USA with the Coleman Report. Fortunately TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) starts to fill this gap by providing data on students' achievement and for many…

  13. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  14. Evaluation and inter-comparison of modern day reanalysis datasets over Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Hobbins, M.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Reanalysis datasets are potentially very valuable for otherwise data-sparse regions such as Africa and the Middle East. They are potentially useful for long-term climate and hydrologic analyses and, given their availability in real-time, they are particularity attractive for real-time hydrologic monitoring purposes (e.g. to monitor flood and drought events). Generally in data-sparse regions, reanalysis variables such as precipitation, temperature, radiation and humidity are used in conjunction with in-situ and/or satellite-based datasets to generate long-term gridded atmospheric forcing datasets. These atmospheric forcing datasets are used to drive offline land surface models and simulate soil moisture and runoff, which are natural indicators of hydrologic conditions. Therefore, any uncertainty or bias in the reanalysis datasets contributes to uncertainties in hydrologic monitoring estimates. In this presentation, we report on a comprehensive analysis that evaluates several modern-day reanalysis products (such as NASA's MERRA-1 and -2, ECMWF's ERA-Interim and NCEP's CFS Reanalysis) over Africa and the Middle East region. We compare the precipitation and temperature from the reanalysis products with other independent gridded datasets such as GPCC, CRU, and USGS/UCSB's CHIRPS precipitation datasets, and CRU's temperature datasets. The evaluations are conducted at a monthly time scale, since some of these independent datasets are only available at this temporal resolution. The evaluations range from the comparison of the monthly mean climatology to inter-annual variability and long-term changes. Finally, we also present the results of inter-comparisons of radiation and humidity variables from the different reanalysis datasets.

  15. Accuracy of teleseismic event locations in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1996-12-04

    Seismic characterization at the regional level requires accurate determination of phases and travel times for many combinations of stations and events. An important consideration in the process is the accuracy of event locations. The LLNL Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Research Program is currently working on data from the Middle East and North Africa, where seismic station coverage is relatively sparse and ``ground truth`` seismic source information is practically nonexistent. In this report the investigator use after shock studies as a source of local ground truth. He evaluates teleseismic location accuracy by comparing hypocenters determined by local networks with those determined teleseismically [e.g. the International Seismological Center (ISC) and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC)]. Epicentral locations, origin times, and depth determinations of events from three aftershocks studies (Algeria, Armenia, and Iran) and one local network study (Iran) are compared with ISC and NEIC locations for the same events. The key parameter for the ISC locations is the number of observations used in the location determination. For more than 40-50 observations, the agreement rapidly diminishes and ISC locations can differ from local determinations by as much as 80 km or more. Events in Iran show a distinct bias of ISC location errors toward the northeast; events in Armenia and Algeria show no directional bias. This study shows that only events with ISC M{sub b} {gt} 4.4-4.5 or NEIS M{sub b} {gt} 4.7-4. should be used for compiling travel time information from teleseismic bulletins in the Middle East/North Africa region when locations from the NEIC and ISC bulletins are used.

  16. Seasonal Scale Water Deficit Forecasting in East Africa and the Middle East Region Using the NMME Models Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Narapusetty, B.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we report on our ongoing efforts to provide seasonal scale water deficit forecasts in East Africa and the Middle East regions. First, we report on the skill of the seasonal climate forecasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) models over this region. We evaluated deterministic (anomaly correlation), categorical (the equitable threat score) and probabilistic (the ranked probabilistic skill score) skill of the NMME models forecasts over the hindcast period of 1982-2010, focusing on the primary rainy seasons of March-May (MAM), July-September (JAS) and October-December (OND). We also examined the potential predictability of the NMME models using the anomaly correlation between the ensemble mean forecasts from a given model against a single ensemble member of the same model (homogenous predictability) and rest of the models (heterogeneous predictability), and observations (forecast skill). Overall, we found precipitation forecast skill in this region to be sparse and limited (up to three month of lead) to some locations and seasons, and temperature forecast skill to be much more skillful than the precipitation forecast skill. Highest level of skill exists over equatorial East Africa (OND season) and over parts of northern Ethiopia and southern Sudan (JAS season). Categorical and probabilistic forecast skills are also higher in those regions. We found the homogeneous predictability to be greater than the forecast skill indicating potential for forecast skill improvement. In the rest of the presentation we describe implementation and evaluation of a hybrid approach (that combines statistical and dynamical approaches) of downscaling climate forecasts to improve the precipitation forecast skill in this region. For this part of the analysis we mainly focus on two of the NMME models (NASA's GMAO and NCEP's CFSv2). Past research on a hybrid approach focusing only over equatorial East Africa has shown promising results. We found that MAM

  17. Distribution and variability of deformed wing virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Noureddine, Adjlane; Al-Shagour, Banan; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; El-Niweiri, Mogbel A A; Anaswah, Eman; Hammour, Wafaa Abu; El-Obeid, Dany; Imad, Albaba; Shebl, Mohamed A; Almaleky, Abdulhusien Sehen; Nasher, Abdullah; Walid, Nagara; Bergigui, Mohamed Fouad; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2017-02-01

    Three hundred and eleven honeybee samples from 12 countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Yemen, Palestine, and Sudan) were analyzed for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV). The prevalence of DWV throughout the MENA region was pervasive, but variable. The highest prevalence was found in Lebanon and Syria, with prevalence dropping in Palestine, Jordan, and Egypt before increasing slightly moving westwards to Algeria and Morocco Phylogenetic analysis of a 194 nucleotide section of the DWV Lp gene did not identify any significant phylogenetic resolution among the samples, although the sequences did show consistent regional clustering, including an interesting geographic gradient from Morocco through North Africa to Jordan and Syria. The sequences revealed several clear variability hotspots in the deduced amino acid sequence, which furthermore showed some patterns of regional identity. Furthermore, the sequence variants from the Middle East and North Africa appear more numerous and diverse than those from Europe.

  18. Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion across Northern Africa, Southern Europe and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, D.E.; Walter, W.R.

    1997-07-15

    THis report presents preliminary results from a large scale study of surface wave group velocity dispersion throughout Northern Africa, the Mediterranean, Southern Europe and the Middle East. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by improving the resolution of global surface wave tomographic studies. We hope to accomplish this goal by incorporating regional data at relatively short periods (less than 40 sec), into the regionalization of lateral velocity variation. Due to the sparse distributions of stations and earthquakes throughout the region (Figure 1) we have relied on data recorded at both teleseismic and regions; distances. Also, to date we have concentrated on Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements since valuable measurements can be made without knowledge of the source. In order to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity throughout the region, vertical component teleseismic and regional seismograms were gathered from broadband, 3-component, digital MEDNET, GEOSCOPE and IRIS stations plus the portable PASSCAL deployment in Saudi Arabia. Figure 1 shows the distribution of earthquakes (black circles) and broadband digital seismic stations (white triangles) throughout southern Europe, the middle east and northern Africa used in this study. The most seismicly active regions of northern Africa are the Atlas mountains of Morocco and Algeria as well as the Red Sea region to the east. Significant seismicity also occurs in the Mediterranean, southern Europe and throughout the high mountains and plateaus of the middle-east. To date, over 1300 seismograms have been analyzed to determine the individual group velocities of 10-150 second Rayleigh waves. Travel times, for each period, are then inverted in a back projection tomographic method in order to determine the lateral group velocity variation throughout the region. These results are preliminary, however, Rayleigh wave group velocity maps for a range of

  19. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  20. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  1. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fatāwa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals.

  2. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  3. Bilharziasis control in relation to water resources development in Africa and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Donald B.; Buzo, Z. J.; Rainey, Marshall B.; Francotte, Jean

    1962-01-01

    As part of its world-wide programme for the control of bilharziasis, the World Health Organization has set up a Bilharziasis Advisory Team, composed of an epidemiologist and an engineer, to investigate in different countries the prevalence of the disease and its relationship to irrigation, agriculture and a variety of factors associated with the development of water resources. This paper is an appraisal of the situation in 15 countries in Africa and the Middle East, based largely on surveys conducted by the Bilharziasis Advisory Team in the period 1958-60. Analyses of data from these 15 countries indicate that about 26 million people, out of a total population of 107 million, have bilharziasis. In spite of considerable expenditure on control measures, the prevalence of the disease is increasing. This trend is closely related to water resources development. On the basis of observations in the field, it is believed that improved water management and agricultural methods, stream and water impoundment control, the proper use of molluscicides and mechanical barriers, and certain aspects of environmental sanitation offer practical solutions to this problem. The complexity of these measures requires the closest co-operation between the various agencies, national and international, concerned with agriculture, water resources and public health. PMID:20604119

  4. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  5. Improving water use in agriculture. Experiences in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Tuijl, W.V.

    1993-08-01

    As water becomes more scarce, many countries are under pressure to conserve water, especially in the agricultural sector. This paper examines strategies that save water in river basins, irrigation projects, and on farms throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Countries elsewhere can use these suggestions in their own water conservation strategies. Improved surface irrigation techniques and micro-irrigation systems are evaluated. These systems use sprinkler, drip/trickle, or micro-spray methods. The author reviews the preliminary work that is needed to install modern irrigation technologies. He describes the role that governments must play to improve the infrastructure and institutions that affect water use. He also provides detailed case studies of efficient irrigation practices in Cyprus, Israel, and Jordan. These case studies describe the conditions that made better irrigation technology a necessity. They look at ways to plan for development, management, and utilization of water in the face of growing demand. Key topics include how to oversee water rights, adopt essential land reforms, and install a graduated system of water pricing and allocation. The study also recommends projects in water conservation and research.

  6. Sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Ercevik Amado, Liz

    2004-05-01

    A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential.

  7. Diabetes in the Middle-East and North Africa: an update.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Azeem; El-Sayed, Adel A; Khoja, Tawfik; Alshamsan, Riyadh; Millett, Christopher; Rawaf, Salman

    2014-02-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of diabetes has risen dramatically in many countries of the International Diabetes Federation's (IDF) Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) Region. This increase has been driven by a range of factors that include rapid economic development and urbanisation; changes in lifestyle that have led to reduced levels of physical activity, increased intake of refined carbohydrates, and a rise in obesity. These changes have resulted in the countries of MENA Region now having among the highest rates of diabetes prevalence in the world. The current prevalence of diabetes in adults in the Region is estimated to be around 9.2%. Of the 34 million people affected by diabetes, nearly 17 million were undiagnosed and therefore at considerable risk of diabetes complications and poor health outcomes. Enhanced research on the epidemiology of diabetes in the MENA Region needs to be combined with more effective primary prevention of diabetes; and early detection and improved management of patients with established diabetes, including an increased focus on self-management and management in primary care and community settings.

  8. Treated Wastewater's Potential for Improving Water and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) contains just 1% of the world's freshwater; however, even in the very arid countries of the Gulf region, high quality treated wastewater rarely sees a productive use. As countries deal with growing populations and strive for increased food security, freshwater alone cannot be relied upon to meet these demands. This research identifies best practices from the MENA for reusing treated wastewater in agricultural production, and calculates the potential of treated wastewater for increasing food production in select countries. Drawing upon both published and original treated wastewater quality data for locations in the MENA, the annual volume of treated wastewater produced, and crop water demands, estimates for potential crop production from treated wastewater are calculated. The volume of wastewater treated annually is equivalent to 10-40% of agricultural withdrawals in most MENA countries. Irrigation by treated wastewater has significant potential to impact water and food security by reducing agricultural water withdrawals and increasing domestic food production. Such initiatives require application of best management practices, such as transparent monitoring and evaluation of reuse projects for public and environmental health risks, and support from both farmers and policy makers.

  9. Concentrating solar power in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: achieving its potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz-Paal, R.; Amin, A.; Bettzüge, M.; Eames, P.; Fabrizi, F.; Flamant, G.; Garcia Novo, F.; Holmes, J.; Kribus, A.; van der Laan, H.; Lopez, C.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.; Pihl, E.; Smith, P.; Wagner, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a commercially available renewable energy technology capable of harnessing the immense solar resource in Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region), and elsewhere. This paper summarises the findings of a study by the European Academies Science Advisory Council which has examined the current status and development challenges of CSP, and consequently has evaluated the potential contribution of CSP in Europe and the MENA region to 2050. It identifies the actions that will be required by scientists, engineers, policy makers, politicians, business and investors alike, to enable this vast solar resource to make a major contribution to establishing a sustainable energy system. The study concludes that cost reductions of 50-60% in CSP electricity may reasonably be expected in the next 10-15 years, enabling the technology to be cost competitive with fossil-fired power generation at some point between 2020 and 2030. Incorporation of storage delivers added value in enabling CSP to deliver dispatchable power. Incentive schemes will be needed in Europe and MENA countries to enable this point to be achieved. Such schemes should reflect the true value of electricity to the grid, effectively drive R&D, and ensure transparency of performance and cost data.

  10. Regional Climate Response to Volcanic Radiative Forcing in Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, G.; Dogar, M.

    2012-04-01

    We have tested the regional climate sensitivity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) to radiation perturbations caused by the large explosive equatorial volcanic eruptions of the second part of 20th century, El Chichon and Pinatubo occurred, respectively, in 1982 and 1991. The observations and reanalysis data show that the surface volcanic cooling in the MENA region is two-three times larger than the global mean response to volcanic forcing. The Red Sea surface temperature appears to be also very sensitive to the external radiative impact. E.g., the sea surface cooling, associated with the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, caused deep water mixing and coral bleaching for a few years. To better quantify these effects we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) to conduct simulations of both the El Chichon and Pinatubo impacts with the effectively 25-km grid spacing. We find that the circulation changes associated with the positive phase of the arctic oscillation amplified the winter temperature anomalies in 1982-1984 and 1991-1993. The dynamic response to volcanic cooling also is characterized by the southward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in summer and associated impact on the precipitation patterns. Thus, these results suggest that the climate regime in the MENA region is highly sensitive to external forcing. This is important for better understanding of the climate variability and change in this region.

  11. Modeling water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Terink, W.; Hoogeveen, J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Negewo, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. An advanced physical based distributed hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectorial water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 132 km3 yr-1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr-1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection; an increase of 157 km3. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 to 283 km3 in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  12. Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Regional Climate Impact over Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalth, H. K.; Stenchikov, G.; Zampieri, M.; Bantges, R.; Brindley, H.

    2012-04-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a unique region due in part to the abundance of atmospheric aerosols and their significant contribution to the energy balance of the region. Mineral dust plays a leading role in this process. In this study we evaluate the radiative forcing of dust aerosols in the MENA region and their impact on the regional circulation and temperature distribution using a global high-resolution atmospheric model HIRAM developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. We found that dust aerosols reduce downward radiative fluxes at surface up to 30 W/m2 and warm by about this amount the lower five-km-deep atmospheric layer. To better quantify radiative impact of aerosols we have employed the available aerosol satellite observations that primarily provide column integral aerosol optical depth (AOD), as a measure of aerosol burden. Climatology of AOD from different satellites (MODIS, MISR, SEVIRI and CALIPSO) over MENA and their inter comparison is made to have a comprehension of the discrepancies and agreement between them. Though the observed AODs vary among the different instruments spatially and temporally, the difference falls within a factor of less than two. We implement these observed aerosols in HIRAM. The radiative forcing corresponding to the satellite aerosol observation and the sensitivity of regional climate to this forcing are analyzed. The analysis shows that the differential heating in the vertical and the corresponding response of the vertical temperature profile have a profound impact on the tropospheric dynamics and the structure of the boundary layer.

  13. Metallogenic evolution of uranium deposits in the Middle East and North Africa deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, Fares; Goodell, Philip; Salman, Abdulaty

    2016-02-01

    This paper is briefly involved in classification and distributions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uranium deposits. The study of these mineral systems can significantly contribute to our further understanding of the metallogeny of known and poorly explored deposits. This provides contribution to, and further enhancement of, current classifications and metallogenic models of uranium systems, allowing researchers to emphasize on unknown or poorly studied mineral systems found in MENA. The present study identified eight metallogenic types of uranium associated with: 1) the Archean rocks and intra-cratonic basins, 2) the Pan-African granites and rhyolites which are characterized by igneous activity, 3) Phanerozoic (Paleozoic) clastics, these deposits are the sedimentological response to Pan African magmatism, 4) Mesozoic (basal) clastics type e.g. Nubia sandstones which are characterized by uranium minerals, 5) regional sedimentary phosphate deposits which are categorized as geosynclinal, or continental margin deposits, on the shelf of the Tethys Ocean, 6) Cenozoic Intracratonic Felsic Magmatism of the Tibesti and Hoggar, and the sandstone U deposits of adjoining Niger. These are similar to the Pan-African magmatism metallogenic, 7) Calcretes, and 8) Resistate minerals which are often enriched in rare earth elements, sometimes including uranium. They are thus sometimes considered as U resources but poorly explored in the MENA region. These metallogenic types are described and discussed in the current paper.

  14. The Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System: First Results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, J. D.; Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Ozdogan, M.; Toll, D. L.; Engman, E. T.; Habib, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Arab region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydroclimatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of MENA meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. This presentation will cover early results from the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. The MENA LDAS is envisaged to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA to be used for flood and drought assessment.

  15. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Terink, W.; Hoogeveen, J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Debele, B.

    2012-09-01

    Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. An advanced, physically based, distributed, hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectoral water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 393 km3 yr-1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr-1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection, an increase of 157 km3 yr-1. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty, based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 yr-1 to 283 km3 yr-1~in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  16. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  17. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  18. Middle to Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in subtropical southern East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Caley, Thibaut; Dupont, Lydie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Malaizé, Bruno; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    In this study we investigate Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in southern East Africa by examining plant leaf waxes in a marine sediment core that receives terrestrial runoff from the Limpopo River. The plant leaf wax records are compared to a multi-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record and pollen assemblage data from the same site. We find that Indian Ocean SST variability, driven by high-latitude obliquity, exerted a strong control on the vegetation of southern East Africa during the past 800,000 yr. Interglacial periods were characterized by relatively wetter and warmer conditions, increased contributions of C3 vegetation, and higher SST, whereas glacial periods were marked by cooler and arid conditions, increased contributions of C4 vegetation, and lower SST. We find that Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e, 11c, 15e and 7a-7c are strongly expressed in the plant leaf wax records but MIS 7e is absent while MIS 9 is rather weak. Our plant leaf wax records also record the climate transition associated with the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) suggesting that the pre-MBE interval (430-800 ka) was characterized by higher inputs from grasses in comparison to relatively higher inputs from trees in the post-MBE interval (430 to 0 ka). Differences in vegetation and SST of southern East Africa between the pre- and post-MBE intervals appear to be related to shifts in the location of the Subtropical Front. Comparison with vegetation records from tropical East Africa indicates that the vegetation of southern East Africa, while exhibiting glacial-interglacial variability and notable differences between the pre- and post-MBE portions of the record, likely did not experience such dramatic extremes as occurred to the north at Lake Malawi.

  19. Dengue in the Middle East and North Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, John M.; Cleton, Natalie B.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) infection is widespread and its disease burden has increased in past decades. However, little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Methodology / Principal Findings Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed available records across MENA describing dengue occurrence in humans (prevalence studies, incidence studies, and outbreak reports), occurrence of suitable vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), and DENV vector infection rates. We identified 105 human prevalence measures in 13 of 24 MENA countries; 81 outbreaks reported from 9 countries from 1941–2015; and reports of Ae. aegypti and/or Ae. albopictus occurrence in 15 countries. The majority of seroprevalence studies were reported from the Red Sea region and Pakistan, with multiple studies indicating >20% DENV seroprevalence in general populations (median 25%, range 0–62%) in these subregions. Fifty percent of these studies were conducted prior to 1990. Multiple studies utilized assays susceptible to serologic cross-reactions and 5% of seroprevalence studies utilized viral neutralization testing. There was considerable heterogeneity in study design and outbreak reporting, as well as variability in subregional study coverage, study populations, and laboratory methods used for diagnosis. Conclusions / Significance DENV seroprevalence in the MENA is high among some populations in the Red Sea region and Pakistan, while recent outbreaks in these subregions suggest increasing incidence of DENV which may be driven by a variety of ecologic and social factors. However, there is insufficient study coverage to draw conclusions about Aedes or DENV presence in multiple MENA countries. These findings illustrate the epidemiology of DENV in the MENA while revealing priorities for DENV surveillance and Aedes control. PMID:27926925

  20. Smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Adel; Javaid, Arshad; Iraqi, Ghali; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Ben Kheder, Ali; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Shahrour, Naem; Taright, Samya; Idrees, Magdy; Polatli, Mehmet; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Few recent comparative data exist on smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate smoking patterns in a large general population sample of individuals aged ≥ 40 years in ten countries in the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan, using a standardised methodology. A random sample of 457,258 telephone numbers was generated and called. This identified 65,154 eligible subjects, of whom 62,086 agreed to participate. A screening questionnaire was administered to each participant, which included six questions relating to cigarette consumption and waterpipe use. The age- and gender-adjusted proportion of respondents reporting current or past smoking of cigarettes or waterpipes was 31.2% [95% CI: 30.9-31.6%]. This proportion was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in men (48.0%) than in women (13.8%), but no relevant differences were observed between age groups. Smoking rates were in general lowest in the Maghreb countries and Pakistan and highest in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, ranging from 15.3% in Morocco to 53.9% in Lebanon. Consumption rates were 28.8% [28.4-29.2%] for cigarette smoking and 3.5% [3.4-3.6%] for waterpipe use. Use of waterpipes was most frequent in Saudi Arabia (8.5% of respondents) but remained low in the Maghreb countries (< 1.5%). Cumulative cigarette exposure was high, with a mean number of pack · years smoked of 18.5 ± 20.5 for women and 29.1 ± 26.2 for men. In conclusion, smoking is a major health issue in the MENA region.

  1. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Getirana, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drought impacts water resources required by crops and communities, in turn threatening lives and livelihoods. Early warning systems, which rely on inputs from hydro-climate models, are used to help manage risk and provide humanitarian assistance to the right place at the right time. However, translating advancements in hydro-climate science into action is a persistent and time-consuming challenge: scientists and decision-makers need to work together to enhance the salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the hydrological data products being produced. One organization that tackles this challenge is the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), which has been using evidence-based approaches to address food security since the 1980s.In this presentation, we describe the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), developed by FEWS NET and NASA hydrologic scientists to maximize the use of limited hydro-climatic observations for humanitarian applications. The FLDAS, an instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS), is comprised of land surface models driven by satellite rainfall inputs already familiar to FEWS NET food security analysts. First, we evaluate the quality of model outputs over parts of the Middle East and Africa using remotely sensed soil moisture and vegetation indices. We then describe derived water availability indices that have been identified by analysts as potentially useful sources of information. Specifically, we demonstrate how the Baseline Water Stress and Drought Severity Index detect recent water availability crisis events in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin and the Gaborone Reservoir, Botswana. Finally we discuss ongoing work to deliver this information to FEWS NET analysts in a timely and user-friendly manner, with the ultimate goal of integrating these water availability metrics into regular decision-making activities.

  2. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment: Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Sardashti, Sara; Samaei, Mehrnoosh; Firouzeh, Mona Mohammadi; Mirshahvalad, Seyed Ali; Pahlaviani, Fatemeh Golsoorat; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad

    2015-05-12

    New World Health Organization guidelines recommend the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of ≤ 500 cells/mm(3). Substantial reduction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is addressed as a major public health outcome of this new approach. Middle East and North Africa (MENA), known as the area of controversies in terms of availability of comprehensive data, has shown concentrated epidemics among most of it's at risk population groups. Serious challenges impede the applicability of new guidelines in the MENA Region. Insufficient resources restrict ART coverage to less than 14%, while only one fourth of the countries had reportable data on patients' CD4 counts at the time of diagnosis. Clinical guidelines need to be significantly modified to reach practical utility, and surveillance systems have not yet been developed in many countries of MENA. Based on available evidence in several countries people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men are increasingly vulnerable to HIV and viral hepatitis, while their sexual partners - either female sex workers or women in monogamous relationships with high-risk men - are potential bridging populations that are not appropriately addressed by regional programs. Research to monitor the response to ART among the mentioned groups are seriously lacking, while drug resistant HIV strains and limited information on adherence patterns to treatment regimens require urgent recognition by health policymakers. Commitment to defined goals in the fight against HIV, development of innovative methods to improve registration and reporting systems, monitoring and evaluation of current programs followed by cost-effective modifications are proposed as effective steps to be acknowledged by National AIDS Programs of the countries of MENA Region.

  3. Dynamical downscaling with WRF for the Middle-East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezfuli, A. K.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H. S.; Bergaoui, K.; Zaaboul, R.; Bhattacharjee, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) experience the highest risk of water stress in the world. This underlines the importance of climate analysis for water resources management and climate change adaptation for this region, particularly in transboundary basins such as the Tigris-Euphrates system. Such analysis, however, is difficult due to a paucity of high quality precipitation data. The network of gauge stations is quite sparse and the data are often available only at monthly time-scale. Satellite-based products, such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), offer better temporal resolution; however, these data are available only for periods that are short for hydroclimatic analysis, and they often misrepresent precipitation over regions with complex topography or strong convection. To fill this gap, we have implemented the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, initialized with the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis II, to generate high-resolution precipitation estimates for MENA. Several sensitivity analyses have been performed in order to find a set of physics parameters that appropriately captures the annual cycle and year-to-year variability of rainfall over select areas in MENA. The results show that WRF, particularly over highlands, estimates the precipitation more accurately than the satellite products. In addition to these reanalysis-driven simulations, we have performed several simulations using the historical and twenty first century outputs of a select number of GCMs available at the CMIP5 archive. These runs enable us to detect changes in rainfall behavior under different greenhouse gas scenarios and reveal synoptic to mesoscale mechanisms responsible for such changes.

  4. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (< 0.5 Myr) and affected intracratonic basins of Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The organisation of the glacial sedimentary record is considered to be controlled at the basin-scale by the location of fast-flowing ice streams active during glacial maxima, and by the processes of meltwater release during glacial recession. In these latter

  5. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  6. Scientific Wealth in Middle East and North Africa: Productivity, Indigeneity, and Specialty in 1981-2013.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Afreen; Stoppani, Jonathan; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Several developing countries seek to build knowledge-based economies by attempting to expand scientific research capabilities. Characterizing the state and direction of progress in this arena is challenging but important. Here, we employ three metrics: a classical metric of productivity (publications per person), an adapted metric which we denote as Revealed Scientific Advantage (developed from work used to compare publications in scientific fields among countries) to characterize disciplinary specialty, and a new metric, scientific indigeneity (defined as the ratio of publications with domestic corresponding authors) to characterize the locus of scientific activity that also serves as a partial proxy for local absorptive capacity. These metrics-using population and publications data that are available for most countries-allow the characterization of some key features of national scientific enterprise. The trends in productivity and indigeneity when compared across other countries and regions can serve as indicators of strength or fragility in the national research ecosystems, and the trends in specialty can allow regional policy makers to assess the extent to which the areas of focus of research align (or not align) with regional priorities. We apply the metrics to study the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)-a region where science and technology capacity will play a key role in national economic diversification. We analyze 9.8 million publication records between 1981-2013 in 17 countries of MENA from Morocco to Iraq and compare it to selected countries throughout the world. The results show that international collaborators increasingly drove the scientific activity in MENA. The median indigeneity reached 52% in 2013 (indicating that almost half of the corresponding authors were located in foreign countries). Additionally, the regional disciplinary focus in chemical and petroleum engineering is waning with modest growth in the life sciences. We find repeated

  7. Scientific Wealth in Middle East and North Africa: Productivity, Indigeneity, and Specialty in 1981–2013

    PubMed Central

    Stoppani, Jonathan; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Several developing countries seek to build knowledge-based economies by attempting to expand scientific research capabilities. Characterizing the state and direction of progress in this arena is challenging but important. Here, we employ three metrics: a classical metric of productivity (publications per person), an adapted metric which we denote as Revealed Scientific Advantage (developed from work used to compare publications in scientific fields among countries) to characterize disciplinary specialty, and a new metric, scientific indigeneity (defined as the ratio of publications with domestic corresponding authors) to characterize the locus of scientific activity that also serves as a partial proxy for local absorptive capacity. These metrics—using population and publications data that are available for most countries–allow the characterization of some key features of national scientific enterprise. The trends in productivity and indigeneity when compared across other countries and regions can serve as indicators of strength or fragility in the national research ecosystems, and the trends in specialty can allow regional policy makers to assess the extent to which the areas of focus of research align (or not align) with regional priorities. We apply the metrics to study the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)—a region where science and technology capacity will play a key role in national economic diversification. We analyze 9.8 million publication records between 1981–2013 in 17 countries of MENA from Morocco to Iraq and compare it to selected countries throughout the world. The results show that international collaborators increasingly drove the scientific activity in MENA. The median indigeneity reached 52% in 2013 (indicating that almost half of the corresponding authors were located in foreign countries). Additionally, the regional disciplinary focus in chemical and petroleum engineering is waning with modest growth in the life sciences. We find

  8. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  9. HIV/AIDS related knowledge among school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Boneberger, Anja; Rückinger, Simon; Guthold, Regina; Kann, Laura; Riley, Leanne

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this secondary analysis was to present cross-national data about HIV/AIDS related knowledge among 13- to 15-year-old school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa. Data from 23673 school-going adolescents from seven countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates) that undertook the Global School-Based Student Health Survey between 2004 and 2008 were analysed. HIV/AIDS related knowledge varied significantly between countries and gender. Research for this sensitive topic is scarce in this region. In addition, schools could be among the many key players for HIV/AIDS education.

  10. Swanea (Southwest Asia--Northeast Africa): A Climatological Study. Volume 2. The Middle East Peninsula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    encouragement. Thanks to the members of the DESERT STORM Forecast Unit; Capt John Murphy, Capt Jeff Johnson, Capt Tom Coe, Lt Dave Wood, MSgt Neal...for the excellent terminal forecast reference notebooks. Thanks to Lt Col Gerald Riley and Lt Col Kenneth A. Nash for helping to obtain data necessary...study came from three sources: provide summarized meteorological observational data for many airports on the Middle East * Terminal forecast reference

  11. Prospects and challenges in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jumaan, Aisha O; Ghanem, Soha; Taher, Jalaa; Braikat, Mhammed; Al Awaidy, Salah; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2013-12-30

    The development of effective and safe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides a great opportunity to prevent a devastating disease, cervical cancer, and a host of other related diseases. However, the introduction of these vaccines has been slow in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. Only one country has introduced the vaccine and few countries plan HPV vaccine introduction in the coming 5 years. Several factors influence the slow uptake in the region, including financial constraints, weak infrastructure for adolescent vaccine delivery, competition with high priority vaccines, and lack of reliable data on the burden of HPV disease. Other barriers include cultural and religious sensitivities, as the vaccines are offered to prevent a sexually transmitted disease in young girls. Recommendations to enhance HPV vaccine introduction in EMENA countries include establishing a regional joint vaccine procurement program, enhancing the adolescent vaccination platform, documenting the burden of cervical cancer, strengthening local National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups and designing Information, Education and Communication material that address cultural concerns. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  12. Challenges of diagnosis and management of axial spondyloarthritis in North Africa and the Middle East: An expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Abdulaziz, Sultana; Alosaimi, Hanan; Al-Rayes, Hanan; Aldeen Sarakbi, Hussam; Baamer, Matouqa; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Dahou Makhloufi, Chafia; Janoudi, Nahid; Shirazy, Khalid; Sieper, Joachim; Sukhbir, Uppal

    2016-04-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a spectrum of inflammatory disease with stages characterized by both nonradiographic and radiographic sacroiliitis. Nonradiographic axial SpA is associated with health-related quality-of-life impairment and may progress to ankylosing spondylitis. Axial SpA has a low prevalence in some countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and pooling of data and resources is needed to increase understanding of the regional picture. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are required to reduce disease burden and prevent progression. Anti-TNF therapy is recommended for patients with persistently high disease activity despite conventional treatment, and has been shown to be effective in patients without radiographic damage. Diagnostic delays can be an obstacle to early treatment and appropriate referral strategies are needed. In some countries, restricted access to magnetic resonance imaging and anti-TNF agents presents a challenge. In this article, a group of experts from North Africa and the Middle East evaluated the diagnosis and management of axial SpA with particular reference to this region.

  13. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  14. Mapping crustal heterogeneity using Lg propagation efficiency throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.E.; Walter, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation of Lg characteristics such as Lg blockage, efficient Lg propagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Lg is used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These applications can give significantly biased results if the Lg phase is reduced or blocked by discontinuous structure or thin crust. Mapping these structures using quantitative techniques for determining Lg amplitude attenuation can break down when the phase is below background noise. In such cases Lg blockage and inefficient propagation zones are often mapped out by hand. With our approach, we attempt to visually simplify this information by imaging crustal structure anomalies that significantly diminish the amplitude of Lg. The visualization of such anomalies is achieved by defining a grid of cells that covers the entire region of interest. We trace Lg rays for each event/ station pair, which is simply the great circle path, and attribute to each cell a value equal to the maximum value of the Lg/P-coda amplitude ratio for all paths traversing that particular cell. The resulting map, from this empirical approach, is easily interpreted in terms of crustal structure and can successfully image small blockage features often missed by analysis of raypaths alone. This map can then be used to screen out events with blocked Lg prior to performing Q tomography, and to avoid using Lg-based methods of event identification for the CTBT in regions where they cannot work. For this study we applied our technique to one of the most tectonically complex regions on the earth. Nearly 9000 earthquake/station raypaths, traversing the vast region comprised of the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa, have been

  15. The state of harm reduction in the Middle East and North Africa: A focus on Iran and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Himmich, Hakima; Madani, Navid

    2016-05-01

    HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs are on the rise in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. But the regional response to the epidemic falls short both in terms of the quality and scale of response. From the threat of the death sentence for drug offenses to the burden of refugees fleeing conflict, there are many legal, political and social barriers that hinder the introduction and expansion of harm reduction in the region. However Iran and Morocco are two pioneering countries and over the last decade they have been providing evidence that harm reduction is feasible and acceptable in MENA. Using different approaches, these two countries have overcome various obstacles and encouraged discussion and collaboration among stakeholders, including government, health professionals, civil society and community-based organizations. In so doing they have created an enabling environment to endorse a national harm strategy.

  16. Improving the Quality and Quantity of HIV Data in the Middle East and North Africa: Key Challenges and Ways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Madani, Navid; Doroudi, Fardad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Although the HIV pandemic is witnessing a decline in the number of new infections in most regions of the world, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has a rapidly growing HIV problem. While generating HIV data has been consistently increasing since 2005, MENA’s contribution to the global HIV literature is just over 1% and the existing evidence often falls behind the academic standards. Several factors could be at play that contribute to the limited quantity and quality of HIV data in MENA. This editorial tries to explore and explain the barriers to collecting high-quality HIV data and generating precise estimates in MENA. These barriers include a number of logistic and socio-political challenges faced by researchers, public health officials, and policy-makers. Looking at successful regional HIV programs, we explore examples were policies have shifted and lessons could be learned in developing appropriate responses to HIV across the region.

  17. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  18. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  19. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  20. Analysis of aerosol absorption properties and transport over North Africa and the Middle East using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Adetokunbo, Peter; Fuad, Abu-Tharr

    2016-11-01

    In this paper particle categorization and absorption properties were discussed to understand transport mechanisms at different geographic locations and possible radiative impacts on climate. The long-term Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data set (1999-2015) is used to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and the absorption Ångström exponent (αabs) at eight locations in North Africa and the Middle East. Average variation in SSA is calculated at four wavelengths (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm), and the relationship between aerosol absorption and physical properties is used to infer dominant aerosol types at different locations. It was found that seasonality and geographic location play a major role in identifying dominant aerosol types at each location. Analyzing aerosol characteristics among different sites using AERONET Version 2, Level 2.0 data retrievals and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT) backward trajectories shows possible aerosol particle transport among different locations indicating the importance of understanding transport mechanisms in identifying aerosol sources.

  1. A human economy: A ``third way'' for the future of young people in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-06-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in this region. There is a consequent lack of participation at all levels, and a large number of youth are showing symptoms of low self-esteem, frustration, anger and unrest. After discussing the outcomes of years of an inhuman economic system on a global level, this article points to a more humane and empowering path. The author argues that, instead of continuing with profit-oriented capitalism or relying on the informal sector, the co-operative way represents a third alternative to existing economic sectors within the dominant contemporary economic system. The article analyses the many benefits of this path for the realisation of a humane economy. In so doing, it touches on issues of equity and social protection. Finally, the article outlines what needs to be done if this is to be a viable solution for a human economy. While giving many examples of successful co-operative enterprises worldwide, the author singles out the MENA region as one which could also benefit from the new trends outlined.

  2. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  3. Smoking prevention and cessation in the Africa and Middle East region: a consensus draft guideline for healthcare providers--executive summary.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed Yousif M; Safwat, Tarek; Onyemelukwe, Geoffrey; Otaibi, Moh'd Amin Al; Amir, Ashraf A; Nawas, Yousef N; Aouina, Hichem; Afif, Moulay Hicham; Bolliger, Chris T

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundance of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and other forms of tobacco use, the tobacco epidemic remains an important public health problem and by 2030 it is predicted that more than 80% of tobacco deaths will be in developing countries. In Africa and the Middle East, many local factors contribute to the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Although efforts to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with smoking and tobacco dependence are underway, there is a need for guidance on how to utilize appropriate tobacco control policies and psychology- and pharmacology-based therapies to counter tobacco dependence as recommended by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). A group of tobacco cessation experts from public health services and/or academic institutions in Africa and the Middle East participated in a series of four meetings held in Cairo, Cape Town, and Dubai between May 2008 and February 2011 to develop a draft guideline tailored to their region. This article provides the background to the development of this draft smoking cessation guideline and discusses how the recommendations can be implemented and progress monitored to promote both primary prevention and cessation of tobacco use within our countries. The draft guideline for Africa and the Middle East provides an important resource in combating the devastating effects of tobacco use in these regions which can be further localized through engagement with local stakeholders in the countries of the region.

  4. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  5. Mushrooms and Truffles: Historical Biofactories for Complementary Medicine in Africa and in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A.; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A.

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710

  6. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria. The first paper addressed the DVS of the Americas and the third will consider those of the Asian Pacific Region. Here, the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East are discussed. The continent of Africa experiences the bulk of the global malaria burden due in part to the presence of the An. gambiae complex. Anopheles gambiae is one of four DVS within the An. gambiae complex, the others being An. arabiensis and the coastal An. merus and An. melas. There are a further three, highly anthropophilic DVS in Africa, An. funestus, An. moucheti and An. nili. Conversely, across Europe and the Middle East, malaria transmission is low and frequently absent, despite the presence of six DVS. To help control malaria in Africa and the Middle East, or to identify the risk of its re-emergence in Europe, the contemporary distribution and bionomics of the relevant DVS are needed. Results A contemporary database of occurrence data, compiled from the formal literature and other relevant resources, resulted in the collation of information for seven DVS from 44 countries in Africa containing 4234 geo-referenced, independent sites. In Europe and the Middle East, six DVS were identified from 2784 geo-referenced sites across 49 countries. These occurrence data were combined with expert opinion ranges and a suite of environmental and climatic variables of relevance to anopheline ecology to produce predictive distribution maps using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) method. Conclusions The predicted geographic extent for the following DVS (or species/suspected species complex*) is provided for Africa: Anopheles (Cellia) arabiensis, An. (Cel.) funestus*, An. (Cel.) gambiae, An. (Cel.) melas, An. (Cel.) merus, An. (Cel.) moucheti and An. (Cel.) nili*, and in the European and Middle Eastern Region: An. (Anopheles) atroparvus, An. (Ano

  7. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  8. Drug policy and harm reduction in the Middle East and North Africa: The role of civil society.

    PubMed

    Aaraj, Elie; Jreij Abou Chrouch, Micheline

    2016-05-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are the principal partners of government in scaling up the response to HIV and in implementing national policies. In return, CSOs expect endorsement of their work by the governments. Some CSOs face weaknesses and need capacity-building in order for them to reach the level of response required for reducing drug-related harm in this region. Substance use and the transmission of HIV are increasing in the MENA region. The limited data available on drug use show that there are approximately 630,000 people who inject drugs (PWID) across the region. The HIV epidemic remains concentrated among PWID and other key populations in the region. Comprehensive harm reduction programs which include prevention, care, and HIV treatment for PWID are being implemented by CSOs. This could not happen without the presence of a conducive environment which has been facilitated by the CSOs, and which aims to lead to a positive response in health policies, and thus to harm reduction programs in some countries in the region. However, based on the international data, antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage remains low in these countries, even if the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART is increasing. This increase can sometimes mask important challenges in equity: in several countries PWID are the most likely to be infected with HIV while being the least likely to be receiving care and ART. Therefore, concentrated efforts need to continue toward the goal of having mainstream harm reduction approaches in region.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated healthcare resource consumption in the Middle East and North Africa: the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Polatli, Mehmet; Ben Kheder, Ali; Wali, Siraj; Javed, Arshad; Khattab, Adel; Mahboub, Bassam; Iraqi, Ghali; Nejjari, Chakib; Taright, Samya; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Data on COPD-related healthcare resources use are rarely documented in developing countries. This article presents data on COPD-related healthcare resource consumption in the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan and addresses the association of this variable with illness severity. A large survey of COPD was conducted in eleven countries of the region, namely Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates, using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened. This identified 2,187 subjects fulfilling the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. A detailed questionnaire was administered to document data on COPD-related healthcare consumption. Symptom severity was assessed using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). 1,392 subjects were analysable. Physician consultations were the most frequently used healthcare resource, ranging from 43,118 [95% CI: 755-85,548] consultations in UAE to 4,276,800 [95% CI: 2,320,164-6,230,763] in Pakistan, followed by emergency room visits, ranging from 15,917 [95% CI: 0-34,807] visits in UAE to 683,697 [95% CI: 496,993-869,737] in Turkey and hospitalisations, ranging from 15,563 [95% CI: 7,911-23,215] in UAE to 476,674 [95% CI: 301,258-652,090] in Turkey. The use of each resource increased proportionally with the GOLD 2011 severity groups and was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in subjects with more symptoms compared to those with lower symptoms and in subjects with exacerbations to those without exacerbations. The occurrence of exacerbations and the CAT score were independently associated with use of each healthcare resource. In conclusion, the BREATHE study revealed that physician consultation is the most frequently COPD-related healthcare resource used in the region. It showed that the deterioration of COPD symptoms and the frequency of exacerbations raised healthcare resource consumption.

  10. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Majdy; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Taright, Samya; Shahrour, Naeem; Polatli, Mehmet; Ben Kheder, Ali; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Iraqi, Ghali; Khattab, Adel; Javed, Arshad; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a potentially severe chronic progressive respiratory condition requiring long-term treatment and frequently involving episodic hospitalisations to manage exacerbations. The objective of this analysis was to document diagnosis, evaluation, treatment and management of COPD-related respiratory symptoms in 1,392 subjects fulfilling an epidemiological definition of COPD identified in a general population sample of 62,086 individuals aged ≥ 40 years in ten countries in the Middle East and North Africa region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan. 442 subjects (31.8%) claimed to have received a diagnosis of COPD from a physician and 287 (20.6%) had undergone spirometry in the previous year. Use of specific treatments for respiratory symptoms was reported by 218 subjects (15.7%). Use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators together with corticosteroids (53 subjects; 3.8%) and use of oxygen therapy (31 subjects; 2.3%) was very low. 852 subjects (61.2%) had consulted a physician about their respiratory condition at least once in the previous year, with a mean number of consultations of 3.4 ± 3.6. Moreover, 284 subjects (20.4%) had been hospitalised overnight for their COPD, with a mean of 2.3 ± 3.7 hospitalisations per year. Use of all healthcare resources was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in subjects with CAT scores ≥ 10 than in those with scores < 10, and greater in those with exacerbations than in those without. In conclusion, COPD in the region is under-diagnosed, inadequately evaluated and inadequately treated. Nonetheless, COPD symptoms are responsible for considerable healthcare consumption, with high levels of physician consultation and hospitalisation.

  11. The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Uzaslan, Esra; Mahboub, Bassam; Beji, Majed; Nejjari, Chakib; Tageldin, Mohamed Awad; Khan, Javaid Ahmed; Nafti, Salim; Obeidat, Nathir M; Sayiner, Abdullah; Wali, Siraj; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    COPD is a progressive pulmonary disease which may have a profound impact on general health status and quality of life. This article presents data on the burden of COPD obtained from the BREATHE study in the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan. This study was a large general population survey of COPD conducted in eleven countries of the region using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom 2,187 fulfilled the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. Data on symptoms, perceived disease severity, impact on work, limitations in activities and psychological distress were collected. 1,392 subjects were analysable of whom 661 (47.5%) reported experiencing an exacerbation of their respiratory condition, 49.4% reported comorbidities and 5.5% reported severe breathlessness as measured with the MRC breathlessness questionnaire. The degree of breathlessness, as well as the perceived severity, was correlated with the overall disease impact as measured with the COPD Assessment Test (p < 0.001). 374 subjects (28.4%) reported that their respiratory condition prevented them from working and this proportion rose to 47.8% in subjects who perceived their respiratory condition as severe. 47.9% of subjects reported difficulties in normal physical exertion, 37.5% in social activities and 31.7% in family activities. Psychological distress was reported by between 42.3% and 53.2% of subjects, depending on the item. In conclusion, the burden of COPD is important, and covers central aspects of daily life. For this reason, physicians should take time to discuss it with their patients, and ensure that the management strategy proposed addresses all their needs.

  12. Distribution of COPD-related symptoms in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Tageldin, Mohamed Awad; Nafti, Salim; Khan, Javaid Ahmed; Nejjari, Chakib; Beji, Majed; Mahboub, Bassam; Obeidat, Nathir M; Uzaslan, Esra; Sayiner, Abdullah; Wali, Siraj; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, its epidemiology in many developing countries is poorly characterised. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate respiratory symptoms which could be COPD-related in a large sample of individuals aged ≥ 40 years in ten countries in the Middle East and North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan, using a standardised methodology. A random sample of 457,258 telephone numbers was contacted. A screening questionnaire was administered to each eligible participant, which included six questions relating to respiratory symptoms. Of 65,154 eligible subjects, 62,086 agreed to participate and 61,551 provided usable data. The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of symptoms (persistent productive cough or breathlessness or both) was 14.3% [95% CI: 14.0-14.6%], ranging from 7.2% in UAE to 19.1% in Algeria. Symptoms were more frequent (p < 0.0001) in women (16.7%) than in men (12.2%). The adjusted prevalence of COPD according to the "epidemiological" definition (symptoms or diagnosis and cigarette use ≥ 10 pack · years) was 3.6% [95% CI: 3.5-3.7%] (range: 1.9% in UAE to 6.1% in Syria). COPD was more frequent (p < 0.0001) in men (5.2%) than in women (1.8%). The frequency of symptoms was significantly higher in cigarette smokers (p< 0.001), as well as in waterpipe users (p < 0.026). In conclusion, the prevalence of COPD in this region seems to be lower than that reported in industrialised countries. Under-reporting and risk factors other than smoking may contribute to this difference.

  13. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  14. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  15. GROUND TRUTH, MAGNITUDE CALIBRATION AND REGIONAL PHASE PROPAGATION AND DETECTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND HORN OF AFRICA

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A

    2006-07-10

    In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian

  16. East Africa continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bosellini, A.

    1986-01-01

    New well data from Somalia, together with the history of sea-floor spreading in the Indian Ocean derived from magnetic anomalies, show that the East African margins from latitude 15/sup 0/S into the Gulf of Aden comprise four distinct segments that formed successively by the southward drift of Madagascar from Somalia during the Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, by the northeastward drift of India along the Owen Transform during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, and by the opening of the Gulf of Aden during the Neogene.

  17. Psychometric evaluation of the COPD assessment test: data from the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul W; Shahrour, Naem; Nejjari, Chakib; Lahlou, Aicha; Doble, Adam; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity and performance of the Arabic and Turkish versions of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) for evaluating the severity and impact of COPD symptoms. The data were obtained from the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region, a large general population survey of COPD conducted in ten countries of the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom a random sample of 5,681 subjects were administered the CAT by telephone. 5,639 evaluable questionnaires were recovered, representing a completion rate of 99%. In addition, the CAT was administered to an additional 833 subjects fulfilling the epidemiological diagnostic criteria for COPD. Mean scores in the general population were 6.99 ± 6.91 for the Arabic version and 9.88 ± 9.04 for the Turkish version. In patients with COPD, mean scores were 16.2 ± 9.1 and 20.9 ± 10.2 respectively. Scores were consistently higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In the general population, the proportion of respondents fulfilling criteria for COPD rose with higher CAT scores, and particularly above the 80th percentile, where 63% of COPD cases were to be found. This suggests that the CAT may be useful as a case-finding tool in the general population. In the COPD population, healthcare resource consumption rose linearly with CAT score above a threshold score of twenty, arguing in favour of the good criterion validity of the CAT. The internal consistency of the CAT was high (Cronbach's α 0.85 for the Arabic and 0.86 for the Turkish versions) and the factorial structure was unidimensional. In conclusion, this study performed in Arabic and Turkish speaking populations confirms the utility and validity of the CAT as a simple tool to collect data on the severity and impact of COPD symptoms, and suggests that it may potentially be

  18. Status of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among prisoners in the Middle East and North Africa: review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The status of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among incarcerated populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the links between prisons and the HIV epidemic are poorly understood. This review synthesized available HIV and HCV data in prisons in MENA and highlighted opportunities for action. Methods The review was based on data generated through the systematic searches of the MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2003 to December 15, 2015) and the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2011 to December 15, 2015). Sources of data included peer-reviewed publications and country-level reports and databases. Results and discussion We estimated a population of 496,000 prisoners in MENA, with drug-related offences being a major cause for incarceration. Twenty countries had data on HIV among incarcerated populations with a median prevalence of 0.6% in Afghanistan, 6.1% in Djibouti, 0.01% in Egypt, 2.5% in Iran, 0% in Iraq, 0.1% in Jordan, 0.05% in Kuwait, 0.7% in Lebanon, 18.0% in Libya, 0.7% in Morocco, 0.3% in Oman, 1.1% in Pakistan, 0% in Palestine, 1.2% in Saudi Arabia, 0% in Somalia, 5.3% in Sudan and South Sudan, 0.04% in Syria, 0.05% in Tunisia, and 3.5% in Yemen. Seven countries had data on HCV, with a median prevalence of 1.7% in Afghanistan, 23.6% in Egypt, 28.1% in Lebanon, 15.6% in Pakistan, and 37.8% in Iran. Syria and Libya had only one HCV prevalence measure each at 1.5% and 23.7%, respectively. There was strong evidence for injecting drug use and the use of non-sterile injecting-equipment in prisons. Incarceration and injecting drugs, use of non-sterile injecting-equipment, and tattooing in prisons were found to be independent risk factors for HIV or HCV infections. High levels of sexual risk behaviour, tattooing and use of non-sterile razors among prisoners were documented. Conclusions Prisons play an important role in HIV and HCV dynamics in MENA and have facilitated the emergence of large HIV epidemics in

  19. Education Quality in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest…

  20. Diagnosis and predictive molecular analysis of non-small-cell lung cancer in the Africa-Middle East region: challenges and strategies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Slavik, Tomas; Asselah, Fatima; Fakhruddin, Najla; El Khodary, Ahmed; Torjman, Fairouz; Anis, Elia; Quinn, Martin; Khankan, Azzam; Kerr, Keith M

    2014-11-01

    The identification of tumor biomarkers provides information on the prognosis and guides the implementation of appropriate treatment in patients with many different cancer types. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), targeted treatment plans based on biomarker identification have already been used in the clinic. However, such predictive molecular testing is not currently a universally used practice. This is the case, in particular, in developing countries where lung cancer is increasingly prevalent. In September 2012 and November 2013, a committee of 16 lung cancer experts from Africa and the Middle East met to discuss key issues related to diagnosis and biomarker testing in NSCLC and the implementation of personalized medicine in the region. The committee identified current challenges for effective diagnosis and predictive analysis in Africa and the Middle East. Moreover, strategies to encourage the implementation of biomarker testing were discussed. A practical approach for the effective diagnosis and predictive molecular testing of NSCLC in these regions was derived. We present the key issues and recommendations arising from the meetings.

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-05

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential.

  2. HIV among People Who Inject Drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina R.; Weiss, Helen A.; Thomas, Sara L.; Riome, Suzanne; Setayesh, Hamidreza; Riedner, Gabriele; Semini, Iris; Tawil, Oussama; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is perceived that little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The primary objective of this study was to assess the status of the HIV epidemic among PWID in MENA by describing HIV prevalence and incidence. Secondary objectives were to describe the risk behavior environment and the HIV epidemic potential among PWID, and to estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and covering 23 MENA countries. PubMed, Embase, regional and international databases, as well as country-level reports were searched up to December 16, 2013. Primary studies reporting (1) the prevalence/incidence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, or hepatitis C virus (HCV) among PWIDs; or (2) the prevalence of injecting or sexual risk behaviors, or HIV knowledge among PWID; or (3) the number/proportion of PWID in MENA countries, were eligible for inclusion. The quality, quantity, and geographic coverage of the data were assessed at country level. Risk of bias in predefined quality domains was described to assess the quality of available HIV prevalence measures. After multiple level screening, 192 eligible reports were included in the review. There were 197 HIV prevalence measures on a total of 58,241 PWID extracted from reports, and an additional 226 HIV prevalence measures extracted from the databases. We estimated that there are 626,000 PWID in MENA (range: 335,000–1,635,000, prevalence of 0.24 per 100 adults). We found evidence of HIV epidemics among PWID in at least one-third of MENA countries, most of which are emerging concentrated epidemics and with HIV prevalence overall in the range of 10%–15%. Some of the epidemics have however already reached considerable levels including some of the highest HIV prevalence among PWID globally (87.1% in Tripoli, Libya). The relatively high

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  4. Middle East Environmental Ministries, Partners and other Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA works with many partners to ensure capacity building and efficient, successful programs, including environmental ministries, enforcement networks, non-governmental organizations, and more in the Middle East and North Africa region.

  5. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa; Strategie pour la gestion de l`eau au moyen-orient et en afrique du nord

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Water has always been of central concern to life in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Burgeoning populations are placing unprecendented pressures on the resource, calling urgently for new approaches to water planning and management if escalating conflicts are to be avoided and if environmental degradation is to be reversed. The booklet sets out the implications of the new Bank policy for the MENA region, calling for a concerted effort by government and Bank staff to address water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. It proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to achieving this objective that could lead to new Bank-supported operations to address the water sector as a whole.

  6. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates collected from the Middle East and Africa between 2004 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Kanj, Souha S; Whitelaw, Andrew; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) was established in 2004 to monitor longitudinal changes in bacterial susceptibility to numerous antimicrobial agents, specifically tigecycline. In this study, susceptibility among Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates between 2004 and 2011 from the Middle East and Africa was examined. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) interpretive criteria, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution methods. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved breakpoints were used for tigecycline. In total, 2967 Gram-positive and 6322 Gram-negative isolates were examined from 33 participating centres. All Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including meticillin-resistant S. aureus, were susceptible to tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin. Vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and levofloxacin were highly active (>97.6% susceptibility) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-non-susceptible strains. All Enterococcus faecium isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and linezolid, including 32 vancomycin-resistant isolates. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were produced by 16.6% of Escherichia coli and 32.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae. More than 95% of E. coli and Enterobacter spp. were susceptible to amikacin, tigecycline, imipenem and meropenem. The most active agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were amikacin (88.0% susceptible) and minocycline (64.2% susceptible), respectively; the MIC90 (MIC required to inhibit 90% of the isolates) of tigecycline against A. baumannii was low at 2mg/L. Tigecycline and carbapenem agents were highly active against most Gram-negative pathogens. Tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin showed good activity against most Gram-positive pathogens from the Middle East and Africa.

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the adult population within the Middle East and North Africa region: rationale and design of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader; Rashid, Nauman; Lahlou, Aicha; Salhi, Hocine; Doble, Adam; Nejjari, Chakib

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the BREATHE study was to estimate the regional prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms within the general population in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region and to document risk factors, disease characteristics and management using a standardised methodology. This was an observational population-based survey performed in ten countries in the Middle East and North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan. A general population sample of 10,000 subjects ≥ 40 years of age in each country or zone was generated from random telephone numbers. Structured interviews were proposed by telephone. A screening questionnaire was administered to each subject collecting information on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. Subjects with chronic bronchitis or breathlessness and smoking ≥ 10 pack · years fulfilled the epidemiological definition of COPD ("COPD" population). This population then completed a full disease questionnaire, the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and a cost-of-disease questionnaire. A randomly selected sample was also assessed by spirometry. In all, 457,258 telephone numbers were generated and contact was established with 210,121 subjects, of whom 65,154 were eligible and 62,086 accepted to participate. The overall response rate was 74.2%. 2,187 (3.5%) subjects fulfilled the criteria for the "COPD" population. Evaluable spirometry data were obtained from 1,847 (14.2%) subjects to whom it was proposed. The BREATHE study has collected a large amount of information on COPD variables from a representative sample of the general population of countries in the MENA region, which can be compared with other regional COPD initiatives.

  8. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS)

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. Research design and methods In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011–2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3–6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Results Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. Conclusions In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU. PMID:28123754

  9. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2014-02-01

    The humanitarian crises caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought forecasts with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model precipitation forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for March-May and October-December rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the consensus forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF), which is the present operational product for precipitation forecast over East Africa. Complementing the original ECMWF precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  10. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also been found in camels and in one bat. While it is believed to come from animals, ... Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated December 2, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  11. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development.

  12. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Emmah; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Dutra, Emanuel; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Pappenberger, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF), which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  13. Simultaneous Inversion of Receiver Functions, Multi-Mode Dispersion, and Travel-Time Tomography for Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Middle East and North Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    served and predicted radial receiver functions and fundamental mode group velocity values for station SODA located near the western edge of the Arabian...AFIF, HALM, RANI, SODA , Exceedingly Complex Receiver Function Observations. We list stations with exceedingly complex receiver functions in Table 3.2...1995-97 Middle-East XI SODA 18.29 42.37 2876 289 41 1995-97 Middle-East XI TAIF 21.28 40.34 2050 43 6 1996 Middle-East continued on next page APPENDIX A

  14. Model-based impact and cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane J; Sharma, Monisha; O'Shea, Meredith; Sweet, Steven; Diaz, Mireia; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    To date, no studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in countries in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. We synthesized population and epidemiologic data for 20 EMENA countries using a model-based approach to estimate averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost-effectiveness ratios (I$ [international dollars] per DALY averted) associated with HPV vaccination of pre-adolescent girls. We utilized additional epidemiologic data from Algeria, Lebanon, and Turkey to evaluate select cervical cancer screening strategies either alone or in combination with vaccination. Results showed that pre-adolescent vaccination of five consecutive birth cohorts at 70% coverage has the potential to prevent over 180,000 cervical cancer cases. Cases averted varied by country, largely due to differences in cancer burden and population size; 69% of cases averted occurred in the three GAVI-eligible countries in EMENA. Despite the low cervical cancer incidence in EMENA, we found that HPV vaccination was cost-effective using a threshold of each country's gross domestic product per capita (a common metric for evaluating cost-effectiveness) in all but five countries at a cost per vaccinated girl of I$25 ($5 per dose). However, cost-effectiveness diminished with increasing vaccine cost; at a cost of I$200 per vaccinated girl, HPV vaccination was cost-effective in only five countries. When the cost per vaccinated girl exceeded I$50 in Lebanon and Turkey and I$150 in Algeria, screening alone was most attractive. We identified opportunities to improve upon current national screening guidelines, involving less frequent screening every 3-5 years. While pre-adolescent HPV vaccination promises to be a cost-effective strategy in most EMENA countries at low costs, decision makers will need to consider many other factors, such as affordability, acceptability, feasibility, and competing health

  15. Are HIV Epidemics among Men Who Have Sex with Men Emerging in the Middle East and North Africa?: A Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina; Hilmi, Nahla; McFarland, Willi; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Semini, Iris; Riedner, Gabriele; Tawil, Oussama; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionately higher burden of HIV infection than the general population. MSM in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are a largely hidden population because of a prevailing stigma towards this type of sexual behavior, thereby limiting the ability to assess infection transmission patterns among them. It is widely perceived that data are virtually nonexistent on MSM and HIV in this region. The objective of this review was to delineate, for the first time, the evidence on the epidemiology of HIV among MSM in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review of all biological, behavioral, and other related data on HIV and MSM in MENA. Sources of data included PubMed (Medline), international organizations' reports and databases, country-level reports and databases including governmental and nongovernmental organization publications, and various other institutional documents. This review showed that onsiderable data are available on MSM and HIV in MENA. While HIV prevalence continues at low levels among different MSM groups, HIV epidemics appear to be emerging in at least few countries, with a prevalence reaching up to 28% among certain MSM groups. By 2008, the contribution of MSM transmission to the total HIV notified cases increased and exceeded 25% in several countries. The high levels of risk behavior (4–14 partners on average in the last six months among different MSM populations) and of biomarkers of risks (such as herpes simplex virus type 2 at 3%–54%), the overall low rate of consistent condom use (generally below 25%), the relative frequency of male sex work (20%–76%), and the substantial overlap with heterosexual risk behavior and injecting drug use suggest potential for further spread. Conclusions This systematic review and data synthesis indicate that HIV epidemics appear to be emerging among MSM in at least a few MENA countries and could already be in a concentrated state among several

  16. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2013-08-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in the East African region have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with adequate lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts and drought indices, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), promises to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The October-December rain season has higher skill that the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF) which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extend and intensity of the drought event.

  17. Multidisciplinary management of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma in Africa and the Middle East: current practice and recommendations for improvement.

    PubMed

    Zekri, Jamal; Dreosti, Lydia M; Ghosn, Marwan; Hamada, Emad; Jaloudi, Mohamed; Khorshid, Ola; Larbaoui, Blaha

    2015-01-01

    The management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has evolved considerably in recent years. This report represents the consensus of 22 relevant medical specialists from Africa and the Middle East region engaged in the management of RCC. Partial or radical nephrectomy is the standard of care for most patients with localized RCC. It is essential that patients are followed up appropriately after surgery to enable local and distant relapses to be identified and treated promptly. The treatment of advanced/metastatic disease has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies. Follow-up of these patients enables therapy optimization and assessment of response to treatment. There was universal agreement on the importance of management of RCC by a multidisciplinary team supported by a multidisciplinary tumor board. Barriers hindering this approach were identified. These included lack of awareness of the benefits of multidisciplinary team role, poor communication among relevant disciplines, time constraints, and specifics of private practice. Other challenges include shortage of expert specialists as urologists and oncologists and lack of local management guidelines in some countries. Solutions were proposed and discussed. Medical educational initiatives and awareness activities were highlighted as keys to encouraging cooperation between specialties to improve patients' outcome. Establishing combined genitourinary cancer clinics and formal referral systems should encourage a culture of effective communication. Joining forces with professionals in peripheral areas and the private sector is likely to help standardize care. Sustained action will be required to ensure that all patients with RCC in the region benefit from up-to-date care.

  18. Experience and challenges for biologic use in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis in Africa and the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Al Hammadi, Anwar; Al-Sheikh, Afaf; Ammoury, Alfred; Ghosn, Samer; Gisondi, Paolo; Hamadah, Issam; Kibbi, Abdul-Ghani; Shirazy, Khalid

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of psoriasis in Africa and the Middle East (AfME) is high as in other regions and represents a significant problem for both dermatologists and patients. Psoriasis co-morbidities such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are also particularly common in these regions and may be under-recognized and under-treated. Despite this, regional guidelines to aid physicians on the appropriate use of biologic agents in their clinical practice are limited. A group of expert dermatologists from across the AfME region were surveyed to help establish best practice across the region, alongside supporting data from the literature. Although biologics have significantly improved patient outcomes since their introduction, the results of this survey identified several unmet needs, including the lack of consensus regarding their use in clinical practice. Discrepancy also exists among AfME physicians concerning the clinical relevance of immunogenicity to biologics, despite increasing data across inflammatory diseases. Significant treatment and management of challenges for psoriasis patients remain, and a move towards individualized, tailored care may help to address these issues. The development of specific local guidelines for the treatment of both psoriasis and PsA could also be a step towards understanding the distinct patient profiles in these regions.

  19. Veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Middle East/North Africa regional consensus on prevention, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Al Jefri, A H; Abujazar, H; Al-Ahmari, A; Al Rawas, A; Al Zahrani, Z; Alhejazi, A; Bekadja, M A; Ibrahim, A; Lahoucine, M; Ousia, S; Bazarbachi, A

    2016-11-28

    Veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) of the liver is a serious, early complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), severe and very severe forms of which are associated with a high mortality rate. A wide variety of patient, disease and treatment-related risk factors for VOD/SOS have been identified. Several bodies have published recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and management of VOD/SOS following HSCT. A group of regional experts have developed a consensus statement on the diagnosis, prevention and management of VOD/SOS in the Middle East and North Africa region to help in the management of HSCT patients in the region. Risk factors of particular relevance in the region include iron overload in thalassaemia patients, some hereditary metabolic disorders due to consanguinity and infection with hepatitis virus B or C. Recommendations include diagnosis of VOD/SOS based on established clinical criteria, prophylaxis with defibrotide and/or ursodeoxycholic acid in patients at increased risk of VOD/SOS, and treatment with defibrotide for patients with severe/very severe VOD/SOS (and, if clinically indicated, in those with moderate or rapidly progressing VOD/SOS, as per the new European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation classification).Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 28 November 2016; doi:10.1038/bmt.2016.300.

  20. Potential for human immunodeficiency virus parenteral transmission in the Middle East and North Africa: An analysis using hepatitis C virus as a proxy biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Mohamoud, Yousra A; Miller, F DeWolfe; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2014-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has endured several major events of infection parenteral transmission. Recent work has established the utility of using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a proxy biomarker for assessing the epidemic potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parenteral transmission. In this review, we use data on the prevalence of HCV infection antibody (seroprevalence) among general population and high risk population groups to assess the potential for HIV parenteral transmission in MENA. Relatively low prevalence of HCV infection in the general population groups was reported in most MENA countries indicating that parenteral HIV transmission at endemic levels does not appear to be a cause for concern. Nonetheless, there could be opportunities for localized HIV outbreaks and transmission of other blood-borne infections in some settings such as healthcare facilities. Though there have been steady improvements in safety measures related to parenteral modes of transmission in the region, these improvements have not been uniform across all countries. More precautions, including infection control training programs, surveillance systems for nosocomial infections and wider coverage and evaluation of hepatitis B virus immunization programs need to be implemented to avoid the unnecessary spread of HIV, HCV, and other blood-borne pathogens along the parenteral modes of transmission. PMID:25278675

  1. [Cluster structure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations at hordein-coding loci in countries of Southwest Asia, North and Northeast Africa, the Middle East, and South Arabia].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2013-10-01

    The cluster population structure of barley landraces with known sampling localities in nine countries of Southwest Asia, the Middle East, North and Northeast Africa, and South Arabia was examined using the allele-frequency data for three hordein-coding loci. A total of 92 populations from Turkey, 56 populations from Syria, 34 from Jordan, 23 populations from Iraq, 6 from Morocco, 16 from Algeria, 34 from Egypt, 100 from Ethiopia, and 71 populations from Yemen with known sampling localities were included in the analysis. It was demonstrated that the cluster population structure in different countries was different and varied from a single cluster in Morocco to five clusters in Ethiopia. Furthermore, populations with sampling sites located at a considerable distance from one another were grouped into one cluster. It is suggested that the existence of several population clusters within a single country can be evidence of repeated population introduction, while the grouping of the populations with sampling sites considerably distant from one another into one cluster can indicate the distribution of once introduced populations of cultivated barley within countries through local farmer migration.

  2. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely-Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, J. D.; Ozdogan, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.

    2012-12-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  3. Role of dust direct radiative effect on the tropical rain belt over Middle East and North Africa: A high-resolution AGCM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the influence of direct radiative effect of dust on the tropical summer rain belt across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the present study utilizes the high-resolution capability of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model, the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. Ensembles of Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project style simulations have been conducted with and without dust radiative impacts, to differentiate the influence of dust on the tropical rain belt. The analysis focuses on summer season. The results highlight the role of dust-induced responses in global- and regional-scale circulations in determining the strength and the latitudinal extent of the tropical rain belt. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet and West African Monsoon circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rain belt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Importantly, the summer precipitation over the semiarid strip south of Sahara, including Sahel, increases up to 20%. As this region is characterized by the "Sahel drought," the predicted precipitation sensitivity to the dust loading over this region has a wide range of socioeconomic implications. Overall, the study demonstrates the extreme importance of incorporating dust radiative effects and the corresponding circulation responses at various scales, in the simulations and future projections of this region's climate.

  4. Modulation of Heavy Rainfall in the Middle East and North Africa by Madden-Julian Oscillation Using High Resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.; McCabe, M. F.; Bangalath, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the modulation of subtropical rainfall by the dominant tropical intraseasonal signal of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), has been explored through the discussion of the MJO-convection-induced Kelvin and Rossby wave related teleconnection patterns. Our study focuses on characterizing the modulation of heavy rainfall in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region by the MJO, using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) simulations (25-km; 1979-2012) and a combination of available atmospheric products from satellite, in-situ and reanalysis data. The observed Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) and the simulated SST from GFDL's global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models (ESM2M) are employed in HIRAM to investigate the sensitivity of the simulated heavy rainfall and MJO to SST. The future trend of the extreme rainfalls and their links to the MJO response to climate change are examined using HIRAM simulations of 2012-2050 with the RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios to advance the possibility of characterization and forecasting of future extreme rainfall events in the MENA region.

  5. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration, and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part...the Arabian Peninsula. In the first part of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have...algorithm and forward modeling of teleseismic depth phases. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for

  6. AED in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  7. A review of the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of COX-2 inhibitors for Africa and the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Anwar Z; Al Sayed, Bashar; Bargaoui, Naceur; Djebbar, Mourad; Djennane, Malik; Donald, Royden; El Deeb, Khamis; Joudeh, Raed A; Nabhan, Abdullah; Schug, Stephan A

    2013-04-01

    Despite an increasingly sophisticated understanding of pain mechanisms, acute and chronic pain remain undertreated throughout the world. This situation reflects the large gap that exists between evidence and practice in pain management and is typified by inappropriate use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The scientific evidence around these drugs continues to expand at a high rate, yet physicians are often unaware of best practice. To address this gap among physicians in Africa and the Middle East, an Expert Panel meeting was convened with representatives from the region. The principal objective of the meeting was to review the latest guidelines on the management of acute and chronic pain and to review the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors in these settings. The main outcome of this review process was a number of consensus statements concerning the definitions of acute and chronic pain, and the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of traditional nonselective NSAIDs (nsNSAIDs) and selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs). The panel agreed that nsNSAIDs and coxibs are effective analgesics with similar efficacy for acute pain; for chronic musculoskeletal pain, NSAIDs are significantly more effective than either placebo or paracetamol. Coxibs offer important safety advantages over nsNSAIDs, including gastrointestinal safety and preservation of platelet function; notably, the cardiovascular safety of coxibs has been the subject of much recent debate. Furthermore, the panel agreed there is substantial evidence to indicate that cost savings can be achieved by using celecoxib in patients at moderate to high risk of gastrointestinal adverse events, even in countries with moderate healthcare expenditures.

  8. Multidisciplinary management of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma in Africa and the Middle East: current practice and recommendations for improvement

    PubMed Central

    Zekri, Jamal; Dreosti, Lydia M; Ghosn, Marwan; Hamada, Emad; Jaloudi, Mohamed; Khorshid, Ola; Larbaoui, Blaha

    2015-01-01

    The management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has evolved considerably in recent years. This report represents the consensus of 22 relevant medical specialists from Africa and the Middle East region engaged in the management of RCC. Partial or radical nephrectomy is the standard of care for most patients with localized RCC. It is essential that patients are followed up appropriately after surgery to enable local and distant relapses to be identified and treated promptly. The treatment of advanced/metastatic disease has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies. Follow-up of these patients enables therapy optimization and assessment of response to treatment. There was universal agreement on the importance of management of RCC by a multidisciplinary team supported by a multidisciplinary tumor board. Barriers hindering this approach were identified. These included lack of awareness of the benefits of multidisciplinary team role, poor communication among relevant disciplines, time constraints, and specifics of private practice. Other challenges include shortage of expert specialists as urologists and oncologists and lack of local management guidelines in some countries. Solutions were proposed and discussed. Medical educational initiatives and awareness activities were highlighted as keys to encouraging cooperation between specialties to improve patients’ outcome. Establishing combined genitourinary cancer clinics and formal referral systems should encourage a culture of effective communication. Joining forces with professionals in peripheral areas and the private sector is likely to help standardize care. Sustained action will be required to ensure that all patients with RCC in the region benefit from up-to-date care. PMID:26251610

  9. Psychiatrists’ awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, José Manuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Emsley, Robin; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Papageorgiou, George; Roca, Miquel; Thomas, Pierre; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists’ perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively. Methods The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January–March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Results Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication. Conclusion Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in

  10. Relative frequency of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in selected centres in North Africa, the middle east and India: a review of 971 cases.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-03-01

    Comparative data regarding the distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes in North Africa, the Middle East and India (NAF/ME/IN) is scarce in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in this region. Five expert haematopathologists classified 971 consecutive cases of newly-diagnosed NHL from five countries in NAF/ME/IN. After review, 890 cases (91·7%) were confirmed to be NHL and compared to 399 cases from North America (NA). The male-to-female ratio was significantly higher in NAF/ME/IN (1·8) compared to NA (1·1; P< 0·05). The median ages of patients with low-grade (LG) and high-grade (HG) B-NHL in NAF/ME/IN (56 and 52 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively). In NAF/ME/IN, a significantly lower proportion of LG B-NHL (28·4%) and a higher proportion of HG B-NHL (58·4%) were found compared to NA (56·1% and 34·3%, respectively). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was more common in NAF/ME/IN (49·4%) compared to NA (29·3%), whereas follicular lymphoma was less common in NAF/ME/IN (12·4%) than in NA (33·6%). In conclusion, we found significant differences in NHL subtypes and clinical features between NAF/ME/IN and NA. Epidemiological studies are needed to better understand the pathobiology of these differences.

  11. Technical and Political Assessment of Peaceful Nuclear Power Program Prospects in North Africa and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Windsor, Lindsay K.; Kessler, Carol E.

    2007-09-11

    An exceptional number of Middle Eastern and North African nations have recently expressed interest in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Many of these countries have explored nuclear research in limited ways in the past, but the current focused interest and application of resources towards developing nuclear-generated electricity and nuclear-powered desalination plants is unprecedented. Consequently, questions arise in response to this emerging trend: What instigated this interest? To what end(s) will a nuclear program be applied? Does the country have adequate technical, political, legislative, nonproliferation, and safety infrastructure required for the capability desired? If so, what are the next steps for a country in preparation for a future nuclear program? And if not, what collaboration efforts are possible with the United States or others? This report provides information on the capabilities and interests of 13 countries in the region in nuclear energy programs in light of safety, nonproliferation and security concerns. It also provides information useful for determining potential for offering technical collaboration, financial aid, and/or political support.

  12. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  13. The Middle East population puzzle.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  14. Middle East Mass Communications: Selected Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowlana, Hamid

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion of bibliographical sources for research on the Middle East is followed by a bibliography of information and research from 1950-1971. The Middle East is defined as that group of countries bounded on the north by Turkey, on the east by Iran, on the south by the Persian Gulf, and on the west by Egypt. (JEG)

  15. Middle East respiratory syndrome vaccines.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Stanley; Vijay, Rahul

    2016-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has infected over 1600 individuals with nearly 600 deaths since it was first identified in human populations in 2012. No antiviral therapies or vaccines are available for its treatment or prophylaxis. Approaches to the development of MERS vaccines are discussed herein, including a summary of previous efforts to develop vaccines useful against human and non-human coronaviruses. A striking feature of MERS is the important role that camels have in transmission. Camel vaccination may be a novel approach to preventing human infection.

  16. Association between dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aljefree, Najlaa; Ahmed, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews the evidence related to the association of dietary pattern with coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, and the associated risk factors among adults in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Methods A systematic review of published articles between January 1990 and March 2015 was conducted using Pro-Quest Public Health, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The term ‘dietary pattern’ refers to data derived from dietary pattern analyses and individual food component analyses. Results The search identified 15 studies. The available data in the MENA region showed that Western dietary pattern has been predominant among adults with fewer adherences to the traditional diet, such as the Mediterranean diet. The Western dietary pattern was found to be associated with an increased risk of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), body mass index (BMI), and hypertension. The Mediterranean diet, labelled in two studies as ‘the traditional Lebanese diet’, was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the risk of diabetes, while one study found no association between the Mediterranean diet and MetS. Two randomised controlled trials conducted in Iran demonstrated the effect of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) in reducing metabolic risk among patients with diabetes and MetS. Likewise, the consumption of dairy products was associated with decreased blood pressure and WC, while the intake of whole grains was associated with reduced WC. In addition, the high consumption of black tea was found to be associated with decreased serum lipids. The intake of fish, vegetable oils, and tea had a protective effect on CHD, whereas the intake of full-fat yoghurt and hydrogenated fats was associated with an increased risk of CHD. Conclusion There appears to be a significant association of Western dietary pattern with the increased risk of CHD, strokes, and associated risk factors among adults in the MENA region

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a National Sample of Adolescent Population in the Middle East and North Africa: The CASPIAN III Study.

    PubMed

    Khashayar, Patricia; Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Aminaee, Tahere; Ardalan, Gelayol; Farrokhi-Khajeh-Pasha, Yasin; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Larijani, Bagher; Kelishadi, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different combinations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Methods. The study sample, obtained as part of the third study of the school-based surveillance system entitled CASPIAN III, was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged from 10 to 18 years. The prevalence of different components of MetS was studied and their discriminative value was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results. The study participants consisted of 5738 students (2875 girls) with mean age of 14.7 ± 2.4 years) living in 23 provinces in Iran; 17.4% of participants were underweight and 17.7% were overweight or obese. Based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for the adolescent age group, 24.2% of participants had one risk factor, 8.0% had two, 2.1% had three, and 0.3% had all the four components of MetS. Low HDL-C was the most common component (43.2% among the overweight/obese versus 34.9% of the normal-weight participants), whereas high blood pressure was the least common component. The prevalence of MetS was 15.4% in the overweight/obese participants, the corresponding figure was 1.8% for the normal-weight students, and 2.5% in the whole population studied. Overweight/obese subjects had a 9.68 increased odds of (95% CI: 6.65-14.09) the MetS compared to their normal-weight counterparts. For all the three risk factors, AUC ranged between 0.84 and 0.88, 0.83 and 0.87, and 0.86 and 0.89 in waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and BMI for boys and between 0.78 and 0.97, 0.67 and 0.93, and 0.82 and 0.96 for girls, respectively. Conclusion. The findings from this study provide alarming evidence-based data on the considerable prevalence of obesity, MetS, and CVD risk factors in the adolescent age group. These results are confirmatory evidence for

  18. Modeling the distribution of the West Nile and Rift Valley Fever vector Culex pipiens in arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is under continuous threat of the re-emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), two pathogens transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens. Predicting areas at high risk for disease transmission requires an accurate model of vector distribution, however, most Cx. pipiens distribution modeling has been confined to temperate, forested habitats. Modeling species distributions across a heterogeneous landscape structure requires a flexible modeling method to capture variation in mosquito response to predictors as well as occurrence data points taken from a sufficient range of habitat types. Methods We used presence-only data from Egypt and Lebanon to model the population distribution of Cx. pipiens across a portion of the MENA that also encompasses Jordan, Syria, and Israel. Models were created with a set of environmental predictors including bioclimatic data, human population density, hydrological data, and vegetation indices, and built using maximum entropy (Maxent) and boosted regression tree (BRT) methods. Models were created with and without the inclusion of human population density. Results Predictions of Maxent and BRT models were strongly correlated in habitats with high probability of occurrence (Pearson’s r = 0.774, r = 0.734), and more moderately correlated when predicting into regions that exceeded the range of the training data (r = 0.666,r = 0.558). All models agreed in predicting high probability of occupancy around major urban areas, along the banks of the Nile, the valleys of Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The most powerful predictors of Cx. pipiens habitat were human population density (60.6% Maxent models, 34.9% BRT models) and the seasonality of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) (44.7% Maxent, 16.3% BRT). Maxent models tended to be dominated by a single predictor. Areas of high probability corresponded with sites of

  19. Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Providing a gateway into the real literature emerging from the Middle East, this book shows teachers how to make the topic authentic, powerful, and relevant. "Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East": (1) Introduces teachers to this literature and how to teach it; (2) Brings to the reader a tremendous diversity of teachable texts…

  20. Children in the Muslim Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock, Ed.

    The Middle East has been undergoing vast social and economic change, but in all reports available today, little attention has been paid to the situation of children. The purpose of this book is to help readers better understand the children of the Middle East to give a sense of their lives today and a sense of attitudes toward children and their…

  1. Simulation of the mineral dust emission over Northern Africa and Middle East using an aerodynamic roughness length map derived from the ASCAT/PARASOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Jorba, Oriol; Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Prigent, Catherine; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Aeolian aerodynamic roughness length in arid regions is a key parameter to predict the vulnerability of the surface to wind erosion, and, as a consequence, the related production of mineral aerosol (e.g. Laurent et al., 2008). Recently, satellite-derived roughness length at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity to use them in advanced emission schemes in global and regional models (i.e. Menut et al., 2013). A global map of the aeolian aerodynamic roughness length at high resolution (6 km) is derived, for arid and semi-arid regions merging PARASOL and ASCAT data to estimate aeolian roughness length. It shows very good consistency with the existing information on the properties of these surfaces. The dataset is available to the community, for use in atmospheric dust transport models. The present contribution analyses the behaviour of the NMMB/BSC-Dust model (Pérez et al., 2011) when the ASCAT/PARASOL satellite-derived global roughness length (Prigent et al, 2012) and the State Soil Geographic database Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) is used. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the dust emission scheme) and the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length. An annual evaluation of NMMB/BSC-Dust (for the year 2011) over Northern Africa and the Middle East using observed aerosol optical depths (AODs) from Aerosol Robotic Network sites and aerosol satellite products (MODIS and MISR) will be discussed. Laurent, B., Marticorena, B., Bergametti, G., Leon, J. F., and Mahowald, N. M.: Modeling mineral dust emissions from the Sahara desert using new surface properties and soil database, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D14218, doi:10.1029/2007JD009484, 2008. Menut, L., C. Pérez, K. Haustein, B. Bessagnet, C. Prigent, and S. Alfaro, Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission

  2. Assessment of TRMM Products and Their Influence on Hydrologic Models within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; El Kadiri, R.; Durham, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing datasets have been increasingly employed as an ancillary source of essential hydrologic measurements used for the modeling of hydrologic fluxes. Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological forcing parameter in hydrological investigations and land surface modeling, yet it is largely unknown or misused in water budgets and hydrologic models. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite products are widely being used by the scientific community due to the general spatial and temporal paucity of precipitation data in many parts of world and particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This research utilized a two-fold approach towards understanding the accuracy of satellite-based rainfall and its application in hydrologic models First, we evaluated the uncertainty, accuracy, and precision of various rainfall satellite products (i.e. TRMM 3B42 V6, TRMM 3B42 V7, TRMM 3B42 V7a and TRMM 3B42 RT) in comparison to in situ gauge data from more than 150 rain gauges in Morocco and across the MENA region. Our analyses extend over many parts of the MENA region in order to assess the effect that different climatic regimes and topographic characteristics have on each TRMM product. Secondly, we analyzed and compared the hydrologic fluxes produced from different modeling inputs for several watersheds within the MENA region. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrologic models have been developed for the Oum Er Rbia (Morocco), Asyuti (Egypt), and the Sakarya (Turkey) watersheds. SWAT models produced for each watershed include, one model for each of the four satellite TRMM product (STBM-V6, STBM-V7, STBM-V7a, and STBM-RT) and one model for rain gauge based model (RGBM). Findings indicate the best correlation between field-based and satellite-based rainfall measurements is the TRMM V7a (Pearson coefficient: 0.875) product, followed by TRMM V7 (Pearson coefficient: 0.84), then TRMM V6 (Pearson coefficient: 0

  3. A short narrative - Challenges and opportunities in expanding research in the Middle East, North Afr

    Cancer.gov

    CGH CRTA, Hedieh Mehrtash interviews CGH's Dr. Marie Ricciardone who works with a network of partners in the Middle East and North Africa region, on experiences, challenges, and opportunities in the region.

  4. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David

    2015-06-01

    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands.

  5. EPA Efforts in the Middle East

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    US EPA’s environmental cooperation in the Middle East focuses on capacity building in environmental governance, water pollution and water security, clean fuels and vehicles, public participation, and pollution prevention.

  6. Islamist Extremism in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Opportunities for East African youth to study in the Arab world steadily expanded. As these youth returned home, they brought with them more rigid...and exclusivist interpretations of Islam. The expanding reach of Arab satellite television has reinforced and acculturated these interpretations to a...East Africa—imported from the Arab world—challenging long-established norms of tolerance. u Confronting Islamist extremism with heavy-handed or

  7. View of east Africa ravaged by drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of a portion of east Africa revaged by drought for the past five years is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The semi-desert scene is in southwestern Niger.

  8. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M. H.; Maslin, M. A.; Deino, A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    Evidence from fluvio-lacustrine sediments in ten separate basins in the Ethiopian and Kenya rifts suggests there were three protracted humid periods during the Late Cenozoic; at 2.7 - 2.5, 1.9 - 1.7, and 1.1 - 0.9 million years before present. These wet periods are coeval with known increases of aridity in parts of North West and North East Africa, indicating significant regional shifts in African climate. These three East African wet periods correspond to major global climatic changes as well as maxima in eccentricity and thus precession, suggesting a combined global and local causation. These climatic changes were important for the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominids in East Africa as it implies that key steps in human evolution occurred during relatively humid periods in a region containing extensive deep lakes.

  9. Resource Materials on the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catholic Near East Welfare Association, New York, NY.

    This annotated bibliography is intended for all who want to learn more about the Middle East--the land, the people, and the communities of ancient and modern times. The document is specifically designed to enrich religion and social studies programs in elementary and middle schools. The types of resources listed are: resource directories,…

  10. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region.

  11. Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

  12. The Middle East in global strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the links between international politics and strategy. The contributors provide an analysis of the strategic interests of the major international actors in the Middle East. The policies of the superpowers toward the Middle East are evaluated. The awareness of the strategic value and interests of two key regional actors - Syria and Israel - are discussed. The author further discusses NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), West European allies and the U.S., as well as Soviet dominance in foreign policy decisions made in the WTO. There is emphasis on the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Iran-Iraq war.

  13. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  14. Fossil land snails of East Africa and their palaeoecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickford, Martin

    1995-04-01

    This study deals with the Neogene and extant land snails of tropical East Africa and their implications for interpreting the paleoenvironments of the numerous localities at which they have been found. Of major significance to the study is the intimate association between the terrestrial molluscs and the rich mammalian faunas, hominoids included, of East Africa. Thus, palaeoecological reconstructions based on land snails are directly applicable to the mammalian faunas. Palaeoecological reconstructions are proposed for most of the Lower and Middle Miocene hominoids, including Proconsul, Rangwapithecus, Limnopithecus, Micropithecus, Nyanzapithecus, Kenyapithecus and others, and for the mid-Pliocene Australopithecus from Laetoli, Tanzania. The departure point for the palaeoecological reconstructions is a comprehensive study of extant terrestrial molluscs of East Africa, the habitat preferences of which are well documented. All the fossil gastropods studied comprise extant genera and even species, so the usual problems regarding the application of actualism to fossil assemblages is avoided. Furthermore, the fossil gastropod assemblages resemble extant ones, confirming their utility for such reconstructions. Among the parameters examined are rainfall, altitude, vegetation cover and type and zoogeography. A further point of interest is that the samples are more than adequate for the purposes of the study, many of the fossil localities having yielded several thousand specimens. Finally, more than 40% of the extant genera of East Africa have now been recognized in the fossil state. The molluscs are thus, by far, the best represented biological group known in the fossil record of Africa and as such hold great potential for understanding the past. This study ends with reconstructions of the palaeoecology of numerous fossiliferous localities in East Africa which have yielded molluscs and mammals. Changes through the geological column are documented and the habitat preferences

  15. Development of grasslands and savannas in East Africa during the Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serling, T. E.

    1992-03-01

    The development of savanna-type grasslands is a relatively recent phenomena in East Africa. The stable carbon isotopic composition of paleosol carbonates from fossil localities in East Africa show that C 4 vegetation was present by amout 8-9 Ma but made up only a relatively small proportion of the total biomass. Although the proportion of C 4 vegetation increased in the Pliocene and Pleistocene there is no evidence for the development of virtually pure C 4 grasslands, as is characterized by tropical grasslands today, until Middle Pleistocene times. This has important implications concerning the evolution of mammals in Africa, including hominids.

  16. Estimation of Severe Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases in the Middle East, 2012–2016

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Rudd, Jessica M.; Pham, Huong T.; Haber, Yonat; Pesik, Nicki; Cetron, Martin S.; Gambhir, Manoj; Gerber, Susan I.; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from travelers to 4 countries in the Middle East, we estimated 3,250 (95% CI 1,300–6,600) severe cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome occurred in this region during September 2012–January 2016. This number is 2.3-fold higher than the number of laboratory-confirmed cases recorded in these countries. PMID:27648640

  17. Diagnostic evaluation of the Community Earth System Model in simulating mineral dust emission with insight into large-scale dust storm mobilization in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajuli, Sagar Prasad; Yang, Zong-Liang; Lawrence, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Large amounts of mineral dust are injected into the atmosphere during dust storms, which are common in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where most of the global dust hotspots are located. In this work, we present simulations of dust emission using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2.2 (CESM 1.2.2) and evaluate how well it captures the spatio-temporal characteristics of dust emission in the MENA region with a focus on large-scale dust storm mobilization. We explicitly focus our analysis on the model's two major input parameters that affect the vertical mass flux of dust-surface winds and the soil erodibility factor. We analyze dust emissions in simulations with both prognostic CESM winds and with CESM winds that are nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis values. Simulations with three existing erodibility maps and a new observation-based erodibility map are also conducted. We compare the simulated results with MODIS satellite data, MACC reanalysis data, AERONET station data, and CALIPSO 3-d aerosol profile data. The dust emission simulated by CESM, when driven by nudged reanalysis winds, compares reasonably well with observations on daily to monthly time scales despite CESM being a global General Circulation Model. However, considerable bias exists around known high dust source locations in northwest/northeast Africa and over the Arabian Peninsula where recurring large-scale dust storms are common. The new observation-based erodibility map, which can represent anthropogenic dust sources that are not directly represented by existing erodibility maps, shows improved performance in terms of the simulated dust optical depth (DOD) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) compared to existing erodibility maps although the performance of different erodibility maps varies by region.

  18. MISR Views the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.

    At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.

    Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.

    'MISR', as it turns

  19. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids for the management of cancer pain in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East: introduction and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cherny, N I; Cleary, J; Scholten, W; Radbruch, L; Torode, J

    2013-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are critical to the effective relief of cancer pain. Effective treatment is predicated on sound assessments, individually tailored analgesic therapy, and the availability and accessibility of the required medications. In some countries, pain relief is hampered by the lack of availability or barriers to the accessibility of opioid analgesics. As the follow-up to a successful project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids and regulatory barriers in Europe, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) undertook to expand their research to those parts of the world where data were lacking regarding these aspects of care, in particular Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the states of India. This project has been undertaken in collaboration with the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), the Pain and Policy Studies Group (PPSG) of the University of Wisconsin, and the World Health Organization (WHO), together with a consortium of 17 international oncology and palliative care societies. This article describes the study methodology.

  20. RAND's Impact in the Middle East. Corporate Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…

  1. Purdah and overpopulation in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Misch, A

    1990-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa constitute the Islamic world. From Morocco to Afghanistan the population is 340 million and growing at a rate of 3% annually and will double in 23 years. Currently food, water, and land resources are being taxed to their limit and continued growth will only cause larger scale problems for the region. To complicate the issue public policies and private practices and attitudes are leading to continued population growth. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism does not recognize the problem of over population. In fact the revision of family law by fundamentalist politicians has done a great deal of damage to the improvements in the status of women throughout the region. The revival of Purdah, the practice of keeping women out of the public eye and confined to home, is just one example or how the rise of Islamic fundamentalism is turning back the clock in terms of women's rights. The primary disadvantage is that since women are being returned to the home, their only source of values is as child bearers. Women cloistered at home are expected to be prolific child bearers, in fact their value as human beings is judged primarily on this basis. It is their ability to bear sons that is coveted. This of course will only compound the population problems being experienced in the region. Few countries have tried to institute state wide family planning programs, namely: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen, but none of these programs has been very successful. In Iraq, Kuwait, Oman and Saudi Arabia, population growth is viewed as a positive event because it will help eliminate the need for foreign workers. Even in this region, educated people have a lower fertility rate. For example in Jordan 60% of illiterate males "did not believe in" contraception while only 15% of men educated past the secondary level felt the same way. If women are forced out of the labor force and into the home to have children, the population problem will only grow.

  2. Ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. M.

    1958-01-01

    The author gives a comprehensive account of the present status of knowledge regarding the ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Middle East and North Africa. He discusses in detail the types of habitat favoured by this snail, its life-cycle and seasonal variations in its populations, the effect of ecological factors on its distribution and occurrence, and the relationship between its control and its bionomics, stressing the many aspects of these subjects that require further investigation and suggesting lines for future research. In addition, the author outlines briefly the effect of some human activities (for example, extension of irrigation and agriculture), in their relationship to the snail host, on the incidence of bilharziasis haematobia in the Middle East and Africa. He concludes the paper with a summary of the three basic needs in respect of bilharziasis control: ecological research; prevention of pollution of waters with human excrement; and avoidance of human contact with infective water. PMID:13573115

  3. The post-war Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1992-03-09

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand

  4. Security and Defense of the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    groundwork for the Turco-German alliance had been well and truly laid by the state visit of Kaiser Wilhem II to Abdul Hamid in 1898 and by the...Canal, Sir John Maxwell, Commander of the British forces in Egypt had by December 1914, deployed the 10th and llth Indian Divisions for the defense...Boston: Little, Brown, 1975. 23. Curtis, Michael. The Middle East Reader. New York, New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1986. 24. Glubb, John , Sir. A Short

  5. Israel - Keystone of the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    8 April 1966 ISRAEL - KEYSTONE OF THE MIDDLE EAST By *» * SEP 27 1966 SIDNEY GRITZ Colonel, Adjutant General’s Corps!. REPRODUCTION OF THIS...earth under the leadership of the World Zionist •’•United Nations, Everyman’s United Nations, p. 7. ^Nadav Safran , "Israel Today: A Profile...emotional force is considered. ^ Safran , op. cit., p. 4. "William R. Polk and others, Backdrop to Tragedy, p. 133. The tribal ancestors of the Jews

  6. Recent developments of the Middle East catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Mehdi; Amini, Hamideh; Yazdi, Pouye; Sesetyan, Karin; Demircioglu, Mine Betul; Kalafat, Dogan; Erdik, Mustafa; Giardini, Domenico; Khan, M. Asif; Tsereteli, Nino

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes a recent study in the framework of the Global Earth model (GEM) and the Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) project to establish the new catalog of seismicity for the Middle East, using all historical (pre-1900), early and modern instrumental events up to 2006. According to different seismicity, which depends on geophysical, geological, tectonic, and seismicity data, this region is subdivided to nine subregions, consisting of Alborz-Azerbaijan, Afghanistan-Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Caucasus, Central Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Makran, Zagros, and Turkey (Eastern Anatolia; after 30° E). After omitting the duplicate events, aftershocks, and foreshocks by using the Gruenthal method, and uniform all magnitude to Mw scale, 28,244 main events remain for the new catalog of Middle East from 1250 B.C. through 2006. The magnitude of completeness ( Mc) was determined as 4.9 for five out of nine subregions, where the least values of Mc were found to be 4.2. The threshold of Mc is around 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and 4.0, for the time after 1950, 1963, 1975, and 2000, respectively. The average of teleseismic depths in all regions is less than 15 km. Totally, majority of depth for Kopeh-Dagh and Central Iran, Zagros, and Alborz-Azerbaijan, approximately, is 15, 13, and 11 km and for Afghanistan-Pakistan, Caucasus, Makran, Turkey (after 30° E), and Saudi Arabia is about 9 km.

  7. The Precambrian crustal structure of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugume, Fred Alex

    In this thesis, the Precambrian crustal structure of East African is investigated along with the crustal structures of three Cenozoic rift basins located in the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). In the first part of the thesis, P-wave receiver functions are modeled using the H-k method to obtain new insights about the bulk composition and thickness of the crust for Precambrian terrains throughout East Africa. The average crustal thickness for all but one of the terrains is between 37 and 39 km. An exception is the Ubendian terrain, which has an average crustal thickness 42 km. In all terrains, the average Poisson's ratio is similar, ranging from 0.25 to 0.26, indicating a bulk crustal composition that is felsic to intermediate. The main finding of this study is that crustal structure is similar across all terrains, which span more than 4.0 Ga of earth history. There is no discernable difference in the crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios between the Archean and Proterozoic terrains, or between the Proterozoic terrains, unlike the variability in Precambrian crustal structure found in many other continents. In the second part of the thesis, a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities and receiver functions was used to investigate the shear wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Precambrian terrains of East Africa. In comparison with other areas of similar age in southern and western Africa where the same joint inversion method has been applied, I find that while there is little difference in the mean shear wave velocities for the entire crust across all of the Precambrian terrains, and also few differences in the thickness of the crust, there exists substantial variability in lower crustal structure. This variability is reflected primarily in the thickness of the lower crustal layers with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s. This variability is found both within terrains of the same age (i

  8. Somalian Earthquakes of May, 1980, East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegg, J.C.; Lepine, J.C.; Tarantola, A.; Leveque, J.J.

    1981-04-01

    A seismic crisis, with a m/sub b/ = 5.3 main shock, occured in the Somali Republic East Africa (10 /sup 0/N, 43 /sup 0/E) from April to November 1980. Up to 2000 earthquakes with M/sub L/>2 have been recorded during this period. This earthquake sequence is of particular interest because it occurred in a seismically inactive zone and include a rather long aftershock sequence. Two groups of epicenters were identified using a relative location procedure. Aftershocks observed during the first two weeks fall very close to the Borama City, while latter shocks are situated 10km west. This may suggest that the second group of earthquakes has been induced continental margin between the Somalian Plateau shield and the quasi-oceanic crust of the Afar-Gulf of Aden region, remains active to day and is relevant to intraplate seismicity.

  9. Flash Point: Middle East; A Selective Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Jean . PARTY AND POLITICS IN ISRAEL: THREE VISIONS OF A JEWISH STATE. New York, NY: Longman, 1981. 228 p. JQ 1825 .P37 18 Ismael, Tareq Y. IRAQ AND...AFFAIRS 61:67-83, Fall 1982; Discussion 61:457-459, Winter 1982/83 "Begin’s War and the Future of Judaism." M. Pinto -Duschinsky. GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION...Comunity.- Jacques Roumani. MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL 37:151-168, Spring 1983 ’From War to Peace: The Transition Between Egypt and Israel.* SP. Cohen and E.E. Azar

  10. The Middle East, and Her Geographic Approaches.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    NAKHLEH, EMILE A. "BAHRAIN AND QATAR: SOCIOPOLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS", AEI, 2:3,4,:65-7, ,* .. L . -’. -> .’ --. ’..’ ~ .- ~. -.p .-, CYPRUS WANS, T.W. " CRISIS ...34 JORUSI, 105൥-47, FEB.1960. STEWART, RICHARD A. "OMAN: THE NEXT CRISIS ? USNIP, 106:97-102,APR.1980. TREMAYNE, PENELOPE. "END OF & TEN YEARS WAR...9, JAN.1974. "KUWAIT: DETERRENCE AND INSTABILITY," AFJI, 118:59-60, NOV.1980. LEE, DAVID "BRITISH DEPARTURE FROM THE MIDDLE EAST: THE KUWAIT CRISIS OF

  11. East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly section than CO-172-AO-4. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Quartermaster's Storehouse, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. North side, middle section, looking east from the left edge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, middle section, looking east from the left edge of the pavilion in CO-172-BR-15. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. REPRODUCTIVE PERIODICITIES OF MARINE ANIMALS OF TROPICAL MIDDLE EAST WATERS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AQUATIC ANIMALS, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), MARINE BIOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS, ECHINODERMATA , MOLLUSCA, CRUSTACEA, PERIODIC VARIATIONS, SEA WATER, TEMPERATURE, INLAND WATERWAYS, RED SEA, MIDDLE EAST.

  14. Gender, ageing & carework in East and Southern Africa: A review

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 58 million persons aged 60-plus live in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2050 that number will rise sharply to 215 million. Older Africans traditionally get care in their old age from the middle generation. But in East and Southern Africa, HIV has hollowed out that generation, leaving many older persons to provide care for their children’s children without someone to care for him or herself in old age. Simultaneously, the burden of disease among older persons is changing in this region. The result is a growing care deficit. This article examines the existing literature on care for and by older persons in this region, highlighting understudied aspects of older persons’ experiences of ageing and care – including the positive impacts of carework, variation in the region, and the role of resilience and pensions. We advance a conceptual framework of gendered identities – for both men and women – and intergenerational social exchange to help focus and understand the complex interdependent relationships around carework, which are paramount in addressing the needs of older persons in the current care deficit in this region, and the Global South more generally. PMID:25947225

  15. Sn Attenuation in the Middle-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, W.; Kaviani, A.; Bao, X.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Turkish-Iranian Plateau and Zagros Mountains, a dominant tectonic feature in the Middle-East, were formed as a result of the continental collision (between Arabian plate and Eurasia plates). In order to better understand the nature of the lithosphere mantle and origin of the measure seismic velocity anomalies we have made detailed measurements of the uppermost mantle attenuation using the high frequency regional phase Sn. In order to measure Sn attenuation. We have collected a large data set consisting of 18 years (1995-2012) of waveforms recorded by 305 permanent and temporary stations. We used a bandpass filter (0.1-0.5Hz) to identify efficient longer period Sn phases. In order to determine Sn Q we applied a Two Station Method (TSM) and Reverse Two Station Method (RTM) to eliminate the source effects. We have used the LSQR algorithm to tomographically map Sn attenuation tomography across the Middle-East. We also determined the Sn propagation efficiencies visually and tomographically map qualitatively assigned Sn propagation efficiencies across the Middle-East. The Sn Attenuation Tomography show moderately low Q values beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau (~250) and high Q values beneath the south Caspian sea (~400) and Arabian shield (~400). We also observe high Q values beneath the Zagros mountains (~450) that is consistent with the Arabian plate underthrusting beneath the Eurasia plate. The Sn Efficiency Tomography shows high attenuation within the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and low attenuation in the Arabian Plate and across the Caspian Sea. This is consistent with prior studies that suggest a hot and thin lithosphere beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and it also suggests that intrinsic attenuation is the dominant component in Sn Q across the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Due to the signal-to-noise criterion to select amplitudes and the efficiency criterion to select two-station and reverse-two-station paths for the inversion, the data are left-censored and the

  16. Observation of summertime enhanced ozone over the middle troposphere in the vicinity of the Middle East by spaceborne TES instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jane; Jones, Dylan; Worden, John; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jayanta

    We used a global chemical transport model, namely GEOS-Chem, to interpret recent observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) onboard of on the NASA EOS Aura satellite. TES observations reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere ( 500-400 hPa, 5-7 km) over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Central Asia in summer 2005 and 2006. This enhancement has some similarities to and differences from the "Middle East ozone maximum" that was previously suggested in a model study, revealing complexity of the feature. We found, based on the TES data, that although there is general enhancement of ozone at 400-500 hPa over the Middle East and surrounding areas, no one single maximum is centralized in the Middle East as described in the previous modelling work. Instead, localized maxima are seen within the ozone-enhanced area. The location and intensity of these maxima vary from year to year. We found that the region of elevated ozone is closely associated with the location of the subtropical westerly jet and anticyclones over North Africa and the Persian Gulf. The ozone distribution in the region is greatly influenced by the seasonal evolution of these systems. We examined the influence of photochemical production and transport on the ozone budget in the region. A tagged ozone simulation was conducted to track ozone in the region from its origins in Asia, Africa, North America, and European. The outcome shows that long-range transport and in situ chemical production both contribute to the formation of the ozone enhancement. Our results suggests that accurately simulating the magnitude and spatial distribution of the ozone enhancement requires properly reproducing ozone production rate in the upper troposphere and the atmospheric response to Asian monsoon heating that is reflected in the strengths of the anticyclones over North Africa and the Persian Gulf.

  17. MODIS Views the Middle-East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    To paraphrase English author T.H. White, borders are the one thing a man sees that a bird cannot see as it flies high overhead. For the 15th consecutive day, differences in ideology have sparked violence and tension in the middle-east as the rest of the world watches, concerned. This true-color image of the region was taken on September 10, 2000, by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows the lands of Israel along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, with the countries of Jordan to the southeast and Syria to the Northeast. Jerusalem, labeled, is Israel's capital city and Aman, labeled, is the capital of Jordan. The region known as the West Bank lies between the two countries. Running from north to south, the Jordan River links the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC

  18. Middle East: Slow year on the Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article surveys the petroleum outlook in the Middle East area. Observations include: Saudi Arabia's money crunch continues to keep the lid on exploration, production work; Abu Dhabi has also curtailed operations because of low oil prices, reduced budgets; Followup drilling has been disappointing around recent gas strikes in Sharjah, Dubai; Oman's aggressive EandP program will result in a 30% drilling increase this year; Kuwait isn't slowing down its development of light oil either; the goal is 40 new wells; Iran and Iraq are still boosting export capacities despite attacks on oil facilities; North Yemen's Alief field is a major find. Numerous structures remain to be drilled; Syria, Bahrain have development projects underway. Turkey is attracting U.S. majors.

  19. Sri Lankan housemaids in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Eelens, F C; Schampers, A J

    1990-01-01

    Traditional studies of migration patterns have only examined male migration patterns. This was based on the assumption that any female migration would be associational in nature. However, a large migration movement of Sri Lankan housemaids to the Middle East has created the need to study the impacts of female migration of the families and society. Out of approximately 200,000 Sri Lankan migrant contract workers, 125,000-150,000 were women working in the Middle East. Sri Lanka has the highest portion of female to male migrant workers in Asia. This study is based on a survey of 899 return migrant and 859 family members of current migrants. Almost all the female migrants find employment through brokers, while 24.9% rely on friends or relatives abroad. These brokers charge a large fee which is often borrowed at 15-30% interest. The current minimum wage stipulated for Sri Lankan female overseas labor is $100/month. 71% earn less than that. The average salary is $95/month. The main reasons for returning is that their contract was finished (57.3%), sickness or injury (6.8%), too heavy a workload (5.8%). The situation that migrant labor puts Sri Lankan women in is complex. For the poor, it is the best source of income for their families. Often the women are the chief contributors to their families' income. However, this short term benefit is outweighed by several disadvantages. The amount of money they earn is offset by the broker fee, travel expenses, and other costs. The money they are able to send home is often spent by the time they return. Further, the societal image of migrant female workers is low because of stories of misconduct by some women (0.7% cited pregnancy as their reason for returning). Other disadvantages include a reduction in their will to fight for emancipation and the stress of being away from their families for so long (the typical contract is for 2 years).

  20. Mental health and psychiatry in the Middle East: historical development.

    PubMed

    Mohit, A

    2001-05-01

    A brief account is given of attitudes towards mental health and the development of psychiatry in the Middle East from an historical perspective. The Middle East is considered as a cultural entity and the influence of the beliefs and practices of ancient times on the collective mind of the people of the Region is discussed.

  1. Communication in the Middle East: A Basic Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    This 48-item bibliography on communication in the Middle East includes books and journal articles published between 1951 and 1990. The bibliography includes materials dealing with Iran, Israel, Islam, media coverage of the Middle East, rhetorical strategies, and the rest of the Arab world. (RS)

  2. The Middle East Institute Resource Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    Abstracts and evaluations of over 50 instructional and resource materials related to the Middle East are presented in the resource guide. The guide is intended for use by elementary and secondary school social studies classroom teachers as they seek information about availability and potential uses of resources dealing with the Middle East. Four…

  3. Books about the Middle East for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia

    This bibliography comprises a list of 236 reviewed children's books about the Middle East. All books were published since 1970 in the United States. For the purpose of this document the countries of the Middle East number 16: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab…

  4. Backed tools in Middle Pleistocene central Africa and their evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Barham, Lawrence

    2002-11-01

    The fashioning of stone inserts for composite tools by blunting flakes and blades is a technique usually associated with Late Pleistocene modern humans. Recent reports from two sites in south central Africa (Twin Rivers and Kalambo Falls) suggest that this backed tool technology originated in the later Middle Pleistocene with early or "archaic" Homo sapiens. This paper investigates these claims critically from the perspective of the potential mixing of Middle and Later Stone Age deposits at the two sites and the possible creation of misleading assemblages. The review shows that backed tools form a statistically minor, but technologically significant feature of the early Middle Stone Age of south central Africa. They first appear in the Lupemban industry at approximately 300 ka and remain an element of the Middle Stone Age technological repertoire of the region. Comparisons are made with early backed tool assemblages of east Africa and with the much younger Howiesons Poort industry of southern Africa. The paper concludes that Lupemban tools lack the standardization of the Howiesons Poort backed pieces, but form part of a regionally distinctive and diverse assemblage of heavy and light duty tools. Some modern-like behaviours appear to have emerged by the later Middle Pleistocene in south central Africa.

  5. Middle East future line plans muddled following Gulf War

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that the recent Gulf War has left the middle East in an awkward situation on current and future pipe line projects. Much of Kuwait's production capacity was destroyed and its ability to regain its previous position as an oil producer in the Middle East in the near term is questionable. Iraq's production remains severely curtailed by international agreement. Saudi Arabia and the other Middle Eastern states continue to produce at the higher than normal levels instigated in the early days of the crisis. The continuing efforts to bring the Kuwait oilfields under control, coupled with ongoing excessive production by some Middle eastern countries and the world response to Sadam Hussein's questionable intentions leave the Middle East pipe line construction picture muddled. The war forestalled pipe line projects in Kuwait and Iraq and many of the planned projects now are questionable. In other areas of the Middle East, the war may have firmed tentative plans for pipe line construction.

  6. Climatology of the Middle East dust events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezazadeh, M.; Irannejad, P.; Shao, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Major sources of dust in the Middle East have been identified by analyzing the surface meteorological records from weather stations for the period 1998-2003. The geographical distribution, possible sources, and the wind patterns favoring the occurrence of four different types of dust events, i.e. dust-in-suspension, blowing dust, dust storm and severe dust storm, are examined. Four major regions of dust events are found in the study domain. These regions cover Sudan, parts of Saudi Arabia and Iraq, Pakistan, and parts of Iran and Afghanistan. The highest frequency of dust events occurs in Sudan, where the number of dust-in-suspension and severe dust storm is maximum. These events generally occur when north-easterly and north-westerly winds of less than 8 ms-1 prevail. The maximum numbers of blowing dust and dust storm are observed over Iran and Afghanistan as a result of strong north-westerlies, known as Sistan's 120-day winds. The highest values of mean dust concentration, estimated based on visibility, are found in Pakistan. The region of Saudi Arabia and Iraq are associated with relatively strong wind speeds during dust events that may carry dust particles from the sources. Because the synoptic features responsible for dust emission are different, the peak of the seasonal cycle of dust events occurs in different months of the year in different dust source regions. The major sources of dust are seen in the western parts of the domain during the winter months and shift to the east progressing towards the summer.

  7. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:27631026

  8. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy.

  9. The impact of dietary habits and metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular and diabetes mortality in countries of the Middle East and North Africa in 2010: a comparative risk assessment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Afshin, Ashkan; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Fahimi, Saman; Shi, Peilin; Powles, John; Singh, Gitanjali; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Abdollahi, Morteza; Al-Hooti, Suad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Houshiar-rad, Anahita; Hwalla, Nahla; Koksal, Eda; Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Pekcan, Gulden; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Zaghloul, Sahar; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Objective/design We conducted a comparative risk assessment analysis to estimate the cardiometabolic disease (CMD) mortality attributable to 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors in 20 countries of the Middle East by age, sex and time. The national exposure distributions were obtained from a systematic search of multiple databases. Missing exposure data were estimated using a multilevel Bayesian hierarchical model. The aetiological effect of each risk factor on disease-specific mortality was obtained from clinical trials and observational studies. The number of disease-specific deaths was obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease mortality database. Mortality due to each risk factor was determined using the population attributable fraction and total number of disease-specific deaths. Setting/population Adult population in the Middle East by age, sex, country and time. Results Suboptimal diet was the leading risk factor for CMD mortality in 11 countries accounting for 48% (in Morocco) to 72% (in the United Arab Emirates) of CMD deaths. Non-optimal systolic blood pressure was the leading risk factor for CMD deaths in eight countries causing 45% (in Bahrain) to 68% (in Libya) of CMD deaths. Non-optimal body mass index and fasting plasma glucose were the third and fourth leading risk factors for CMD mortality in most countries. Among individual dietary factors, low intake of fruits accounted for 8% (in Jordan) to 21% (in Palestine) of CMD deaths and low intake of whole grains was responsible for 7% (in Palestine) to 22% (in the United Arab Emirates) of CMD deaths. Between 1990 and 2010, the CMD mortality attributable to most risk factors had decreased except for body mass index and trans-fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings highlight key similarities and differences in the impact of the dietary and metabolic risk factors on CMD mortality in the countries of the Middle East and inform priorities for policy measures to prevent CMD. PMID:25995236

  10. Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project: Active Fault Database for the Middle East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülen, L.; Wp2 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the umbrella GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). EMME project region includes Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project will use PSHA approach and the existing source models will be revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. More importantly the most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones will be its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that will permit continuous update, refinement, and analysis. A digital active fault map of the Middle East region is under construction in ArcGIS format. We are developing a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. Similar to the WGCEP-2007 and UCERF-2 projects, the EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a “Fault Section Database”. The “Fault Section” concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far over 3,000 Fault Sections have been defined and parameterized for the Middle East region. A separate “Paleo-Sites Database” includes information on the timing and amounts of fault displacement for major fault zones. A digital reference library that includes the pdf files of the relevant papers, reports is also being prepared. Another task of the WP-2 of the EMME project is to prepare

  11. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  12. Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Schumeyer, G.

    1990-04-01

    Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities are high and relations tense, are significant. The study will address chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. It will examine why proliferation occurred and look at initiatives and efforts to prevent proliferation. This study will also discuss the chemical weapons capabilities of the Middle East states, the threat to the region posed by chemical weapons, and some of the implications for balance and stability in the region. Finally, this study will examine future prospects for the region in terms of chemical weapons proliferation there.

  13. Evening Pass Over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 6, 2011, from 19:46:23 ...

  14. Middle east crisis has varied effect on wastewater utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.B.

    1990-10-01

    The jump in oil prices that followed Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in early August of 1990 was felt throughout the US economy. The authors particularly discuss the impact of the Middle East Crisis as it relates to wastewater utilities.

  15. Forecasters Handbook for the Middle East/Arabian Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Naval Weather Service World-Wide Airfield Summaries, Middle East. Vol. 1I, Part 1 ( Revised ) and Part 2 ( Revised ), National Technical Information...Technical Applications Center, Air Weather Service, 1974: U.S. Naval Weather Service World-Wide Airfield Summaries, Middle East. Vol. II, Part I ( Revised ...and Part 2 ( Revised ), National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Springfield, VA, 22151. Environmental Technical Applications Center, Air Weather

  16. Leveraging the Security -- Development Nexus in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-28

    THE SECURITY-DEVELOPMENT NEXUS IN EAST AFRICA America is in a state of hypnosis . Many outside the beltway do not know, and/or care, how reckless...invariably, what policy makers are implicitly tasked to do, because America will not come out of its hypnosis at the count of three. Endnotes 1 Susan

  17. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived mo...

  18. Melamine milk powder and infant formula sold in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar

    2010-09-01

    This is the first study proving the existence of melamine in milk powder and infant formula exported to the African market. A total of 49 milk powder batches were collected in Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa), the center of international trade in East Africa, which serves as a commercial bottleneck and shipment hub for sub-Saharan, Central, and East Africa. Two categories of samples were collected between October and December 2008, immediately after the melamine contamination of Chinese products became public: (i) market brands of all international companies supplying the East African market and (ii) illegally sold products from informal channels. Melamine concentration was determined with the AgraQuant Melamine Sensitive Assay. Despite the national import prohibition of Chinese milk products and unlabeled milk powder in Tanzania, 11% (22 of 200) of inspected microretailers sold milk powder on the local black market. Manufacturers could be identified for only 55% (27) of the 49 investigated batches. Six percent (3 of 49) of all samples and 11% (3 of 27) of all international brand name products tested revealed melamine concentrations up to 5.5 mg/kg of milk powder. This amount represents about twice the tolerable daily intake as suggested by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. Based on our study, we can assume that the number of affected children in Africa is substantial.

  19. Reducing the Burden of Cancer in East Africa

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of CGH is to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to reduce cancer deaths worldwide. To carry out that mission, we facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. CGH's latest effort, the East Africa Cancer Control Leadership Forum, carried out this mission by helping African partners develop their own individual cancer control programs.

  20. Does Family Background Matter for Learning in East Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sam; Schipper, Youdi

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which differences in family background characteristics explain differences in learning outcomes between children captures the extent of equality in educational opportunities. This study uses large-scale data on literacy and numeracy outcomes for children of school age across East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) to investigate the…

  1. Socialisation in Architectural Education: A View from East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olweny, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Concern for the state of architectural education in East Africa was a catalyst for this exploration of socialisation, which sought to understand socialisation and its influence on educational outcomes in the region. Socialisation within architectural education has long been known to influence how students acquire important aspects of the…

  2. Perspective on Grade Assignment at East Africa's State Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takona, J. ole

    This paper discusses approaches to grading students that are being used or could be used in state universities in East Africa. Grade assignment usually means that some kind of comparison is being made, whether with other students or established standards or based on improvement and ability. For the most part, university regulations encourage and…

  3. Modern Mathematics in East Africa: A Survey, 1961-1971

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, D.

    1973-01-01

    Shetched are the educational developments of East Africa, particularly in Tanzania. Emphasis is on establishing a modern mathematics program for the secondary school. The modifications made on the School Mathematics Project (SMP) curriculum and the development of the Entebbe Project designed to meet African needs are described. (JP)

  4. The Middle East: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Jane

    This is an annotated bibliography of folklore, fiction and nonfiction about the Middle East, written in English for children aged 5 and older. There are eleven chapters - one which focuses on the entire Middle Eastern region, and ten which deal with individual countries: Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and…

  5. The Middle East: The Image and the Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Jonathan

    Ten authors offer a large array of theoretical and practical ideas for developing a viable Middle Eastern K-12 curriculum. A major purpose of the 10 articles is to help teachers in the United States become aware of problems confronting them in teaching about the Middle East. In the first article, the author discusses some problems--for example,…

  6. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ope, Maurice; Sonoiya, Stanley; Kariuki, James; Mboera, Leonard E.G.; Gandham, Ramana N.V.; Schneidman, Miriam; Kimura, Mwihaki

    2013-01-01

    The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC) partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS) regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC), EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP). The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities. PMID:23362409

  7. Fatality risks for nosocomial outbreaks of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Middle East and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jianping; Li, Yuan; Chen, Xiaowen; Hu, Yan; Ren, Yajin; Geng, Xingyi; Zhang, Zhiruo; Liu, Shelan

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first isolated in 2012. The largest known outbreak outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea in 2015. As of 29 June 2016, 1769 laboratory-confirmed cases (630 deaths; 35.6 % case fatality rate [CFR]) had been reported from 26 countries, particularly in the Middle East. However, the CFR for hospital outbreaks was higher than that of family clusters in the Middle East and Korea. Here, we compared the mortality rates for 51 nosocomial outbreaks in the Middle East and one outbreak of MERS-CoV in South Korea. Our findings showed the CFR in the Middle East was much higher than that in South Korea (25.9 % [56/216] vs. 13.8 % [24/174], p = 0.003). Infected individuals who died were, on average, older than those who survived in both the Middle East (64 years [25-98] vs. 46 years [2-85], p = 0.000) and South Korea (68 years [49-82] vs. 53.5 years [16-87], p = 0.000). Similarly, the co-morbidity rates for the fatal cases were statistically higher than for the nonfatal cases in both the Middle East (64.3 % [36/56] vs. 28.1 % [45/160], p = 0.000) and South Korea (45.8 % [11/24] vs. 12.0 % [18/150], p = 0.000). The median number of days from onset to confirmation of infection in the fatal cases was longer than that for survivors from the Middle East (8 days [1-47] vs. 4 days [0-14], p = 0.009). Thus, older age, pre-existing concurrent diseases, and delayed confirmation increase the odds of a fatal outcome in nosocomial MERS-CoV outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea.

  8. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Ritmeijer, Koert; Boelaert, Marleen; Hailu, Asrat; van Griensven, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is an important protozoan opportunistic disease in HIV patients in endemic areas. East Africa is second to the Indian subcontinent in the global VL caseload and first in VL-HIV coinfection rate. Because of the alteration in the disease course, the diagnostic challenges, and the poor treatment responses, VL with HIV coinfection has become a very serious challenge in East Africa today. Field experience with the use of liposomal amphotericin B in combination with miltefosine, followed by secondary prophylaxis and antiretroviral drugs, looks promising. However, this needs to be confirmed through clinical trials. Better diagnostic and follow-up methods for relapse and prediction of relapse should also be looked for. Basic research to understand the immunological interaction of the two infections may ultimately help to improve the management of the coinfection.

  9. The origin of Europeans is not rooted in the Middle East but in southern east Asia.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D

    1998-01-01

    The study of tooth crown variables has proven useful in the assessment of human origin and dispersal. I show that multivariate analysis of quantified total tooth structure from dental X-rays is a powerful phylogenetic methodology. From an analysis of the complex global dental phenotype ("GDP," composed of approximately 30 root, pulp, crown, and enamel variables per tooth), a representative Western European population was found to associate with Southeast Asians, while Mongolians formed a tight cluster with all Native Americans. The results suggest that either an emigrant wave, or waves, of modern humans emerged from Africa and with time segregated into at least three groups: Australian aborigines, Europeans, and Southeast Asians, or less likely due to genetic and archaeologic observations, a southern Asia origin of all modern humans from an emigrant African hominid. Both hypotheses portend an early evolution of the European genotype and support the argument that Europeans are principally derived from Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, and thus Middle East Neolithic people did not have a major genetic impact on Europeans.

  10. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. B.; Hain, C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Anderson, M. C.; Alo, C. A.; Yilmaz, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    East Africa contains a number of highly drought prone regions, and the humanitarian consequences of drought in those regions can be severe. The severity of these drought impacts combined with a paucity of in situ monitoring networks has given rise to numerous efforts to develop reliable remote drought monitoring systems based on satellite data, physically-based models, or a combination of the two. Here we present the results of a cross-comparison and preliminary integration of three soil moisture monitoring methodologies that, combined, offer the potential for a soil moisture based drought monitoring system that is robust across the diverse climatic and ecological zones of East Africa. Three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies, the AMSR-E microwave based satellite sensor, the ALEXI thermal infrared based model and the Noah land surface model, are evaluated using triple collocation error analysis (TCEA). TCEA is used to estimate the reliability of each soil moisture anomaly methodology through statistical cross-comparison-a particularly useful approach given the virtual absence of in situ soil moisture data in this region. While AMSR-E, ALEXI, and Noah each appear to produce reliable soil moisture anomaly estimates over some areas within East Africa, many areas posed significant challenges to one or more methods. These challenges include seasonal cloud cover that hinders ALEXI estimates, dense vegetation that impedes AMSR-E retrievals, and complex hydrology that tests the limits of Noah model assumptions. TCEA allows for assessment of the reliability of each method across seasonal and geographic gradients and provides systematic criteria for merging the three methods into an integrated estimate of spatially distributed soil moisture anomalies for all of East Africa. Results for the period 2007-2011 demonstrate the potential and the limitations of this approach in application to real time drought monitoring.

  11. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  12. Gondwana assembly: The view from Southern Africa and East Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. J.; Grunow, A. M.; Hanson, R. E.

    1997-07-01

    Neoproterozoic-Cambrian tectonism in Africa, Antarctica and formerly adjacent parts of East Gondwana records the final assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent. Here we compile recent data regarding the timing and kinematics of tectonism for critical parts of southern Africa and East Gondwana, focusing on the period between ~ 650-500 Ma, and integrate these data into a regional framework in order to investigate aspects of the assembly of this portion of Gondwana. We use this information to address the following questions. What cratons remained coherent continental blocks between Rodinia break-up and Gondwana assembly? What were the configurations of Neoproterozoic-Cambrian oceans that separated these coherent blocks? When did the cratons reassemble into the Gondwana supercontinent? In southern Africa, the apparent continuity of older terranes across the Neoproterozoic Zambezi belt, together with other evidence, suggest that the Congo and Kalahari cratons have been a coherent block since ~ 1.1 Ga. The Khomas/Adamastor ocean did not transect the Congo/ Kalahari block; instead any tectonic connection with the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian collisional plate boundary in the Mozambique belt must have been via shear zones such as the Mwembeshi dislocation, which was active at ~ 550 Ma. Age and structural data from Queen Maud Land in East Antarctica indicate that this area was also linked with the Congo/Kalahari block and remained attached to it during the breakup of Rodinia. A suture must thus separate this block from the main part of the East Antarctic craton and likely represents the southern continuation of the Mozambique Ocean. Accumulating evidence for Neoproterozoic-Cambrian orogenesis (~ 550-520 Ma) in the Lützow-Holm Bay and Queen Maud Land regions of East Antarctica suggest the postulated continuation of the Mozambique suture zone may lie beneath the ice, where it separates the main part of the East Antarctic craton from the Congo-Kalahari block and contiguous sectors

  13. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1987-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1986 totaled 4,493,973,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,312,254 BOPD), up 22.3% from the revised 1985 total of 3,673,729,000 bbl. Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, and Oman had significant increased; Iran was the only Middle East country with a significant decrease. New fields went on production in Oman and Yemen Arab Republic, and significant discoveries were reported in Iraq, Yemen Arab Republic, Oman, and Syria. However, exploration was generally down in most countries. Exploration and production operations continued to be affected by war in Iraq and Iran. 8 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Language Teacher Research in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine, Ed.; Barlow, Lisa, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    An openness to new ways of teaching and learning is vital for growth among English language teachers, teacher educators, teachers in training, and students. This volume in the Language Teacher Research Series (Thomas S. C. Farrell, series editor) shares the studies and reflections of teacher researchers working in Middle Eastern countries with…

  15. Coping With Lake Kivu, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Scholz, Christopher A.

    2010-07-01

    Workshop on Tropical Rift Lake Systems: Integrated Volcanogenic, Tectonic, Biogeochemical, and Geohazard Assessment of Lake Kivu; Gisenyi, Rwanda, 13-15 January 2010; Situated in the volcanic highlands of the East African Rift Valley's western branch, Lake Kivu contains one of the most unusual and fascinating aquatic ecosystems on the planet. Bottom waters in the 480-meter-deep lake are warmer and saltier than its surface waters. The concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide and methane are so high in the deep water that catastrophic overturn, an abrupt upwelling of deep water and gas driven by the buoyancy of expanding gas bubbles as they rise from the depths, could well happen in the coming century. Were this to occur, human fatalities would likely number in the hundreds of thousands—a disaster similar to what occurred when Lake Nyos (Cameroon) in 1986 emitted a large amount of carbon dioxide, causing hundreds of local residents to suffocate—but with orders-of-magnitude more gas release.

  16. Glossary of Terms Relating to Languages of the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This glossary gives brief, non-technical explanations of the following kinds of terms: (1) names of all important languages now spoken in the Middle East, or known to have been spoken in the area; (2) names of language families represented in the area; (3) descriptive terms used with reference to the writing systems of the area; (4) names of…

  17. Literature from the Modern Middle East: Making a Living Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    While the United States is deeply involved in the Middle East, most Americans, including students, lack knowledge about the region. Yet from Afghanistan to Palestine, from Morocco to Iraq, there is a vibrant and exciting literature by living authors that can bring the diverse experiences and perspectives of this vital part of the world to classes.…

  18. Transnational Higher Education: Offshore Campuses in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Idriss, Cynthia; Hanauer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper maps the landscape of transnational higher education in the Middle East, focusing in particular on the recent expansion of satellite, branch, and offshore educational institutions and programs that foreign institutions have set up in the region. Of the estimated 100 branch campuses currently operating worldwide, over one-third are in…

  19. Deconstructing the Other: Teaching Politics of the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    Discusses strategies aimed at moving undergraduates beyond the traditional stereotypical and demonized portrait of the Middle East. Suggests focusing on boundaries (shifting between national, cultural, religious, and economic), on bases of information (different students bring different knowledge levels), and using a wide variety of biographies…

  20. Archaeologists' Group Proposes Safekeeping of Middle East Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Israeli, Palestinian, and American archaeologists unveiled a draft agreement on archaeological and cultural heritage that they hope to see included in a future Middle East peace agreement. Presenting their proposal to an audience of archaeologists at the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, they said it was the first time that Israelis and Palestinians…

  1. Education in the Broader Middle East: Borrowing a Baroque Arsenal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donn, Gari, Ed.; Al Manthri, Yahya, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together academics and postgraduate students, practitioners and Ministry officials all of whom are wedded to developing an understanding of what is happening to education in the broader Middle East. They cover many countries whilst recognising that many more could have been included. In drawing attention to education in Pakistan,…

  2. Cooperative monitoring workshop: Focus on the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.; Dobranich, P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation hosted a workshop on the application of cooperative monitoring to the Middle East. The workshop, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from July 17 through 21, 1994, was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the US Department of State. The meeting, which focused on use of technical monitoring tools and sharing of collected information to facilitate regional agreements, included participants from five regional countries as well as from American universities, the US government, and US National Laboratories. Some attendees previously participated in meetings of the Arms Control and Regional Security working group of the Middle East Multilateral Peace Talks. The workshop combined presentations, demonstrations and hands-on experimentation with monitoring hardware and software. An exercise was conducted to evaluate and recommend cooperative monitoring options for a model agreement between two hypothetical countries. Historical precedents were reviewed and the role of environmental and natural resource conflicts explored. These activities were supplemented by roundtable discussions covering Middle East security issues, the relationship of ``national means`` to cooperative monitoring, and cooperative monitoring of ballistic missiles in the Middle East.

  3. Relighting the Torch: East Middle School's OA Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Describes the implementation of outcomes accreditation at East Middle School, in Aurora, Colorado. Reports significant gains in student success, including a 68% decline in student tardiness and a 60% decrease in suspensions. Indicates that the school was selected as a state Governor's Challenger School. (MAB)

  4. The Middle East in Conflict. Strategies and Worksheets: Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum guide presents strategies for teaching a unit on the Middle East conflict including a rationale, performance objectives, background information, and questions. Worksheets contain simulations, poetry, and news stories which are used to teach the origins of and issues concerning the conflict. A simulation of the 1897 Zionist Congress…

  5. Steps toward a Middle East free of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.

    1991-04-01

    In the aftermath of the Gulf War, all eyes are focused on the dangers of proliferation in the Middle East. President Bush, in his postwar address to Congress, called for immediate action to control the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the missiles used to deliver them, warning that it would be tragic if the nations of the Middle East and Persian Gulf were now, in the wake of war, to embark on a new arms race. Secretary of State James Baker has recently returned from a tour of the region, and consultations on proliferation were reportedly high on his agenda. At the same time, the fierce political antagonisms and unbridled military competitions that have long characterized the Middle East leave many skeptical as to what can realistically be done. While all states in the region - including Israel - have publicly supported the idea of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) in the Middle East, doubt over the feasibility of the proposal runs high. Why on earth, it is asked, would Israelis give up the protection of their nuclear monopoly What assurances from their Arab adversaries or from the US could possibly replace this ultimate deterrent

  6. International energy outlook. Volume 1. Mideast, Far East, and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The developing nations of the Mideast, Far East, and Africa face a bleaker - and more-complicated - energy picture than that of the West. Rapid industrial and agricultural expansion in the region severely drains already-inadequate energy systems. Energy-importing countries find they must diversify and develop indigenous resources, but often lack the technical known-how to do so. Volume 1 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the way 22 countries in the Mideast, Far East, and Africa are responding to the energy problems. The countries covered are: Algeria, Australia, Burma, China, Egypt, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan, Taiwan, Tunisia and Turkey. The range and detail of country reports vary, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations, its main emphasis is on the future, including estimates of future production and consumption, and descriptions of energy development plans. Some of the countries in this region are fortunate to have petrochemical resources, while electric energy expansion is crucial to national development in all. Coal will be filling the gap left by diminishing oil supplies. 61 tables.

  7. A Cause for Concern The Spread of Militant Islam in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-11

    actors have played in the current uptick in militant Islam in East Africa. Historic turmoil and instability in East Africa have served as catalysts for...political alienation and the perception of underrepresentation by Muslims in government.14 This perception in Tanzania has historically applied...Islam in East Africa.” 6 development—within the last 30 years—in a region that has long-standing historical ties to the Arab world.18 These

  8. Seismicity of the Earth 1900–2010 Middle East and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Turner, Bethan; Turner, Rebecca; Hayes, Gavin P.; Davies, Sian; Dart, Richard L.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley M.

    2013-01-01

    No fewer than four major tectonic plates (Arabia, Eurasia, India, and Africa) and one smaller tectonic block (Anatolia) are responsible for seismicity and tectonics in the Middle East and surrounding region. Geologic development of the region is a consequence of a number of first-order plate tectonic processes that include subduction, large-scale transform faulting, compressional mountain building, and crustal extension. In the east, tectonics are dominated by the collision of the India plate with Eurasia, driving the uplift of the Himalaya, Karakorum, Pamir and Hindu Kush mountain ranges. Beneath the Pamir‒Hindu Kush Mountains of northern Afghanistan, earthquakes occur to depths as great as 200 km as a result of remnant lithospheric subduction. Along the western margin of the India plate, relative motions between India and Eurasia are accommodated by strike-slip, reverse, and oblique-slip faulting, resulting in the complex Sulaiman Range fold and thrust belt, and the major translational Chaman Fault in Afghanistan. Off the south coasts of Pakistan and Iran, the Makran trench is the surface expression of active subduction of the Arabia plate beneath Eurasia. Northwest of this subduction zone, collision between the two plates forms the approximately 1,500-km-long fold and thrust belts of the Zagros Mountains, which cross the whole of western Iran and extend into northeastern Iraq. Tectonics in the eastern Mediterranean region are dominated by complex interactions between the Africa, Arabia, and Eurasia plates, and the Anatolia block. Dominant structures in this region include: the Red Sea Rift, the spreading center between the Africa and Arabia plates; the Dead Sea Transform, a major strike-slip fault, also accommodating Africa-Arabia relative motions; the North Anatolia Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip structure in northern Turkey accommodating much of the translational motion of the Anatolia block westwards with respect to Eurasia and Africa; and the Cyprian

  9. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  10. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in the Middle East: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Almarzouqi, Sumayya J.; Morgan, Michael L.; Lee, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial pressure without any identifiable etiology. It is defined by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) with normal neuroimaging and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contents. IIH typically affects young obese women and produces symptoms and signs related to high ICP. Headache and blurred vision are the most common symptoms, and papilledema is the major clinical sign. In this review we examine the epidemiology and demographic features of IIH in Middle Eastern countries and compare and contrast them with the published IIH literature from Western countries. The incidence of IIH in several Middle East countries has been estimated at 2.02–2.2/100,000 in the general population, which is higher than the Western rate. Obesity is a major risk factor globally and it is associated with an increased risk of severe vision loss due to IIH. There has been an increase in obesity prevalence in the Middle East countries mainly affecting the Gulf Council Countries (GCC), which parallels increased industrial development. This rise may be contributing to the increasing incidence of IIH in these countries. Other risk factors may also be contributing to IIH in Middle East countries and the differences and similarities to Western IIH merit further study. PMID:25859136

  11. Child neurology practice and neurological disorders in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Idro, Richard; Newton, Charles; Kiguli, Sarah; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina

    2010-04-01

    Neurological disorders, including neurodevelopmental disorders, have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the greatest threats to global public health. It is generally believed that these conditions are more prevalent in the developing than the developed world because of multiple known risk factors such as infections, malnutrition, and limited resources for obstetric and neonatal management. In East Africa, few investigations have been conducted to obtain data on the magnitude and description of neurological disorders among children, and the practice of child neurology is faced with challenges cutting across areas of health personnel, patient diagnosis, management, and rehabilitation. This article reviews the burden, types, and causes of neurological disorders in the East African region. The challenges and successes in the practice of child neurology and recommendations for the future are discussed.

  12. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. C.; Hall, S. A.; Ball, P.; Bird, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana. Previously proposed reconstruction models often contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate margin of Antarctica near the Riiser Larsen Sea. New satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones in the study area. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Information on crustal thickness along with the identification of fracture zones reveal the COBs that are located significantly closer to the coasts of Africa and Antarctica than previously recognized. Correlation of both fracture zone azimuths and the identified COBs over the conjugate margins suggest Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. Of several scenarios examined, the Beira High is most likely oceanic and may be a conjugate feature of the southern Astrid Ridge. An areal-balancing method that involves restoring the crust to a uniform pre-rift thickness has been used to perform the non-rigid reconstruction for both non-volcanic and volcanic margin with magmatic underplating. Based on the results, Africa underwent extension of 65-105 km while Antarctic crust was stretched by 90-190 km. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica underwent a counter-clockwise rotation with respect to Africa between 186-171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  13. In search of an oasis: Opportunity in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    VanderMeer, D.C.

    1996-03-01

    Across the Middle East, people contend with heat, dust, lack of rainfall, and a harsh geography. In this century, industrial development, political upheaval, and war have left a legacy of environmental and health problems. Scarce arable land is being lost to desertification. Fresh water is diverted, misused, and polluted with hazardous wastes, sewage, and agricultural and other chemicals. Coastal zones are polluted with oil, threatening pristine coral reefs, wild fowl, and fishing areas. Unprecedented urbanization and migration of traditionally rural peoples and resettlement of political refugees and foreign workers strain city services. Yet there is reason for optimism in the Middle East. Peace in the region is in sight, bringing an opportunity to stop the rapid environmental decline. Technology is available to assess the degradation, and the impact of environmental conditions on human health can be quantified.

  14. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

  15. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield; Funk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period

  16. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Roberts, J. Brent; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period.

  17. Active Faults and Seismic Sources of the Middle East Region: Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; EMME WP2 Team*

    2011-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). The EMME project covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project consists of three main modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic modules. The EMME project uses PSHA approach for earthquake hazard and the existing source models have been revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. The most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones is its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that permits continuous update, refinement, and analysis. An up-to-date earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been prepared and declustered by the WP1 team. EMME WP2 team has prepared a digital active fault map of the Middle East region in ArcGIS format. We have constructed a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. The EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a "Fault Section Database", which contains 36 entries for each fault section. The "Fault Section" concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far 6,991 Fault Sections have been defined and 83,402 km of faults are fully parameterized in the Middle East region. A separate "Paleo-Sites Database" includes information on the timing and amounts of fault

  18. Disrupting Illicit Small Arms Trafficking in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Disrupting Illicit Small Arms Trafficking in the Middle East 6. AUTHOR( S ) Neil N. Snyder 5...FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY

  19. Petroleum developments in Middle East countries in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries in 1979 totaled 7,779,619,000 bbl at an average rate of 21,314,024 b/d, up 0.4% from 1978. Principal increases were in Iraq, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, and Saudi Arabia. Significant new discoveries were made in Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Abu Dhabi. New areas were explored in Oman, Syria, offshore South Yemen, Dubai, and Qatar.

  20. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Hatch, G.C.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1982 totaled 4,499,464,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,162,915 BOPD), down 21.5% from 1981. Increases were in Iraq, Iran, and Oman. Significant decreases occurred in Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were reported in Oman, Syria, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

  1. Dispersal and colonisation, long and short chronologies: how continuous is the Early Pleistocene record for hominids outside East Africa?

    PubMed

    Dennell, Robin

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the evidence for hominids outside East Africa during the Early Pleistocene. Most attention has focused recently on the evidence for or against a late Pliocene dispersal, ca. 1.8 Ma., of hominids out of Africa into Asia and possibly southern Europe. Here, the focus is widened to include North Africa as well as southern Asia and Europe, as well as the evidence in these regions for hominids after their first putative appearance ca. 1.8 Ma. It suggests that overall there is very little evidence for hominids in most of these regions before the Middle Pleistocene. Consequently, it concludes that the colonising capabilities of Homo erectus may have been seriously over-rated, and that even if hominids did occupy parts of North Africa, southern Europe and southern Asia shortly after 2 Ma, there is little evidence of colonisation. Whilst further fieldwork will doubtless slowly fill many gaps in a poorly documented Lower Pleistocene hominid record, it appears premature to conclude that the appearance of hominids in North Africa, Europe and Asia was automatically followed by permanent settlement. Rather, current data are more consistent with the view that Lower Pleistocene hominid populations outside East Africa were often spatially and temporally discontinuous, that hominid expansion was strongly constrained by latitude, and that occupation of temperate latitudes north of latitude 40 degrees was largely confined to interglacial periods.

  2. Hantavirus Strains in East Africa Related to Western African Hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Těšíková, Jana; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2017-04-01

    Hantaviruses are RNA viruses primarily carried by rodents, soricomorphs, and bats. The data about the distribution and genetic diversity of these viruses are often limited, especially in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the majority of representatives were identified in western African localities, while only three hantaviruses have been reported in East Africa to date. In this study, a total of 1866 small mammals captured between 2009 and 2014 in various countries of Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Zambia, Mozambique, Kenya, and Tanzania) were molecularly screened for the presence of hantaviruses. Hantavirus RNA was detected in dried blood samples of the Cape pipistrelle bat (Neoromicia capensis) captured in Ethiopia and the African wood mouse (Hylomyscus endorobae) from Kenya. Phylogenetic analysis of partial genomic segments revealed that the Ethiopian sample represents a sister lineage of the Mouyassué virus (reported previously from the congeneric bat in Côte d'Ivoire), and the Kenyan sample is a sister lineage of the Sangassou virus (described from the same mouse genus in Guinea).

  3. Migration to the medieval Middle East with the crusades.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Piers D; Millard, Andrew R

    2009-11-01

    During the 12th and 13th centuries thousands of people moved from Europe to the Middle East to fight, undertake pilgrimage, or settle and make a new life. The aim of this research is to investigate two populations from the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem, by determining who was born in Europe and who came from the Middle East. Oxygen and strontium stable isotope analyses were conducted on the enamel of teeth from skeletal remains excavated from Crusader contexts. Twenty individuals from the coastal city of Caesarea (10 high status and 10 low status), and two local Near Eastern Christian farmers from the village of Parvum Gerinum (Tel Jezreel) were analyzed as a control sample. Results were compared with known geographic values for oxygen and strontium isotopes. The population of the city of Caesarea appears to have been dominated by European-born individuals (probably 19/20, but at least 13/20), with few locals. This was surprising as a much higher proportion of locals were expected. Both controls from the farming village of Parvum Gerinum had spent their childhood in the area of the village, which matches our understanding of limited mobility among poor Medieval farmers. This is the first time that stable isotope analysis has been applied to the study of the migration of peoples between Medieval Europe and the Middle East at the time of the crusades. In view of these findings, we must now rethink past estimations of population social structure in Levantine coastal Medieval cities during the Crusader period.

  4. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Hain, C. R.; Anderson, M. C.; Yilmaz, M. T.; Mecikalski, J.; Schultz, L.

    2012-08-01

    Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010-2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA) to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the consistency of

  5. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Hain, C. R.; Anderson, M. C.; Yilmaz, M. T.; Mecikalski, J.; Schultz, L.

    2012-04-01

    Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010-2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA) to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance algorithm, and physically-based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the consistency of

  6. Diasporic dreaming: return reproductive tourism to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-11-01

    This article attempts to capture the dynamics of return reproductive tourism to the Middle East, based on ethnographic research undertaken at four different Middle Eastern locales (Egypt, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates and Arab America). Across the Middle Eastern diaspora, which is now vast, due to the disruptions of war and political violence, infertile couples often dream of making a test-tube baby 'back home' for a variety of cultural, moral and psychological reasons. These reasons – including medical expatriotism, the language of medicine, co-religion and moral trustworthiness, donor phenotype, the comforts of home and discrimination – are rarely highlighted in the scholarly literature on cross-border reproductive care. Thus, further empirical investigation is needed in order to assess additional reasons for reproductive travel beyond Euro-America. Of particular concern are the needs of 'stranded' refugee populations, who are constrained from seeking assisted reproduction technology 'back home', but who may face economic constraints and cultural discrimination in host communities.

  7. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Luan C.; Hall, Stuart A.; Bird, Dale E.; Ball, Philip J.

    2016-06-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana and Pangea. Previous reconstruction models contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean-boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate Antarctic margin near the Riiser-Larsen Sea. Satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Crustal thicknesses together with fracture zone terminations reveal COBs that are significantly closer to the African and Antarctic coasts than previously recognized. Correlation of fracture zone azimuths and identified COBs suggests Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. An areal-balancing method has been used to restore the crust to a uniform prerift thickness so as to perform a nonrigid reconstruction for both nonvolcanic and volcanic margins. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Our results suggest Africa underwent extension of 60-120 km, while Antarctic crust was stretched by 105-180 km. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica moved away from Africa in a WNW-ESE direction during the period between 184 and 171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  8. Acheulean technological behaviour in the Middle Pleistocene landscape of Mieso (East-Central Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Mora, Rafael; Arroyo, Adrian; Benito-Calvo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    The Mieso valley is a new paleoanthropological sequence located in East-Central Ethiopia. It contains Middle and Upper Pleistocene deposits with fossil and lithic assemblages in stratified deposits. This paper introduces the Middle Pleistocene archaeological sequence, attributed to the late Acheulean. Low density clusters of artefacts suggest short-term use of the landscape by Acheulean hominins. In Mieso 31, one of the excavated assemblages, refit sets indicate fragmentation of the reduction sequences and enable study of the initial stages of biface manufacture. Mieso 7, also a stratified site, is primarily characterized by a small concentration of standardized cleavers, and portrays another dimension of Acheulean technology, that related to final stages of use and discard of large cutting tools. Available radiometric dates place the Mieso Acheulean around 212 ka (thousands of years) ago, which would make this sequence among the latest evidence of the Acheulean in East Africa, in a time span when the Middle Stone Age is already documented in the region.

  9. Probabilistic maize yield simulation over East Africa using ensemble seasonal climate forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, Geoffrey; Supit, Iwan; Hutjes, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal climate variability influences crop yields, especially in areas where rain fed agriculture is widely practiced such as in the East African region. Assuming that seasonal climate prediction skill would translate to similarly skillful prediction of impacts, an ensemble seasonal climate hindcast (ECMWF system4 EPS) for the period 1981 to 2010 at different initialization dates (lead months) before sowing is used to drive a crop simulation model: the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model, implemented for a single season Maize crop. The water-limited yield predictions were assessed against reference yields produced by the same crop model forced by the WATCH Forcing Data ERA-Interim (WFDEI) at grid point level. We focus on the main sowing dates of June/July (Northern region), March (Equatorial East Africa) and November (Southern region). Deviation of yields from the mean over the study period is used to indicate regions in which probabilistic yield forecasts would be useful while the Relative Operating Curve Skill Score (ROCSS) indicates prediction skill of above normal, near normal and below normal yield prediction. Equatorial regions of East Africa and coastal Kenya with sowing date in March show a mean deviation of ≥ 500 Kg/ha. Here probabilistic yield forecasts can potentially be useful as opposed to the northern and southern regions with less deviation. The high deviation in this region may also be due to the existence of more than one cropping season corresponding to the bi-modal rainfall regime since the model only simulates a single season. A positive ROCSS over a large extent of the equatorial region show predictability skill of all the tercile forecasts simulated by forecasts initialized at the start of sowing date (March i.e. lead 0 forecasts) and no predictability at longer lead months. Over Ethiopia in the northern region of East Africa, November harvests with a sowing date of June show predictability of the upper, lower and middle terciles at lead-0

  10. Remote sensing of geobotanical trends in East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Timothy A.; Evans, Carla S.; Heirtzler, James R.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial and phenological distribution of vegetation was examined in a remote sensing geobotanical study of the East Africa Rift region. Six normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) scenes (February, June, and September of both 1984 and 1987) were used as a measure of vegetation presence. NOAA ETOPO-5 elevation and geographic coordinate data were coregistered with the multitemporal NDVI images. Univariate and multivariate statistics indicate that the NDVI values are significantly associated with elevation, latitude, and longitude. This supports the concept of quantifiable, regional gradients that affect large-scale geobotanical studies. A quadratic regression line was fitted to the NDVI, elevation, latitude, and longitudinal data. In this way a regional trend, as affected by elevation, was determined. The deviation of the actual data from this regional trend was displayed as an image, and shows the local climatic and geological influences.

  11. Oil jobs have big impact on heavily populated Middle East.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-09-01

    Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market.

  12. Middle and later Pleistocene hominins in Africa and Southwest Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rightmire, G. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 700,000 years ago, Homo erectus in Africa was giving way to populations with larger brains accompanied by structural adjustments to the vault, cranial base, and face. Such early Middle Pleistocene hominins were not anatomically modern. Their skulls display strong supraorbital tori above projecting faces, flattened frontals, and less parietal expansion than is the case for Homo sapiens. Postcranial remains seem also to have archaic features. Subsequently, some groups evolved advanced skeletal morphology, and by ca. 200,000 years ago, individuals more similar to recent humans are present in the African record. These fossils are associated with Middle Stone Age lithic assemblages and, in some cases, Acheulean tools. Crania from Herto in Ethiopia carry defleshing cutmarks and superficial scoring that may be indicative of mortuary practices. Despite these signs of behavioral innovation, neither the Herto hominins, nor others from Late Pleistocene sites such as Klasies River in southern Africa and Skhūl/Qafzeh in Israel, can be matched in living populations. Skulls are quite robust, and it is only after ≈35,000 years ago that people with more gracile, fully modern morphology make their appearance. Not surprisingly, many questions concerning this evolutionary history have been raised. Attention has centered on systematics of the mid-Pleistocene hominins, their paleobiology, and the timing of dispersals that spread H. sapiens out of Africa and across the Old World. In this report, I discuss structural changes characterizing the skulls from different time periods, possible regional differences in morphology, and the bearing of this evidence on recognizing distinct species. PMID:19581595

  13. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Mark O; Ashley, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  14. A Spring Forward for Hominin Evolution in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Mark O.; Ashley, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa. PMID:25207544

  15. Retinoblastoma major review with updates on Middle East management protocols

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ihab Saad

    2012-01-01

    Many advances in the field of management of retinoblastoma emerged in the past few years. Patterns of presentation of retinoblastoma in the Middle East region differ from Western community. The use of enucleation as a radical method of eradicating advanced disease is not easily accepted by patient’s family. We still do see stage E, failed or resistant retinoblastoma and advanced extraocular disease ensues as a result of delayed enucleation decision. In this review, we discuss updates in management of retinoblastoma with its implication on patients in our part of the world. Identifying clinical and high risk characteristics is important prognostically and are discussed for further management of retinoblastoma cases. PMID:23960988

  16. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  17. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed.

  18. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  19. Noncommunicable Diseases In East Africa: Assessing The Gaps In Care And Identifying Opportunities For Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Siddharthan, Trishul; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Yonga, Gerald; Mutungi, Gerald N.; Rabin, Tracy L.; List, Justin M.; Kishore, Sandeep P.; Schwartz, Jeremy I.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of some noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in East Africa is beginning to match that in high-income countries. Though the epidemiologic, demographic, and nutritional transitions are well under way in low-income countries, investment and attention in these countries remain focused largely on communicable diseases. We discuss existing infrastructure in communicable disease management as well as linkages between noncommunicable and communicable diseases in East Africa. We describe gaps in NCD management within the health systems in East Africa. We also discuss deficiencies in addressing NCDs from basic science research and medical training to health service delivery, public health initiatives and access to essential medications in East Africa. Finally, we highlight the role of collaboration among East African governments and civil society in addressing NCDs and advocate for a robust primary healthcare system that focuses on the social determinants of health. PMID:26355052

  20. The Southeast Anatolian Project and Middle East Water: Implications for NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Struggle for Water and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East ( Oxford University Press , 1994) and Natasha Beschorner, Adelphi Paper 273 Water and...1992), 73. 17 Daniel Hillel, Rivers of Eden: The Struggle for Water and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East ( Oxford University Press , 1994), 103...Quest for Peace in the Middle East ( Oxford University Press , 1994), 107. 23 Natasha Beschorner, Adelphi Paper 273 Water and Instability in the

  1. [Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): bats or dromedary, which of them is responsible?].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    2014-05-01

    In 2012 a new viral emergent human disease appeared in the Middle East. This entity was named MERS for' Middle East respiratory syndrome'. By January 9, 2014, the disease had already struck 178 persons of whom 75 died from respiratory failure and diarrhoea. As the new disease was very similar to the deadly SARS (2002-2003) and since it was provoked by a Betacoronavirus, chiroptera were first suspected to be at the origin of this infection. Morever, recent studies performed in Saudi Arabia showed that one individual of the bat Taphozous perforatus harbored a short nucleotide segment identical to the homologous segment present in the viral strain isolated from the index-case of the epidemic. In addition, many strains of Betacoronavirus more or less related to those responsible for the MERS disease in man have been isolated from bats in Africa, Asia and Europe. However, another hypothesis was simultaneously proposed incriminating dromedary (Camelus dromedarius L.) as a likely actor in the transmission to human beings of the disease.We then reviewed data relative to other viral zoonosis in which dromedary was possibly implicated. This led to the provisional conclusion that this large mammal might play a role in the dissemination of the MERS-COV, the etiologic agent of the disease. This is based on epidemiological data and results of several serological surveys in animals.

  2. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: A new enigma?

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Nawfal R

    2010-01-01

    The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/105) to low in Israel (12.5/105) and very low in Egypt (3.4/105). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

  3. Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Weiss, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and water availability in the Middle East are important in understanding human adaptive capacities in the face of long-term environmental changes. The key role of water availability for sedentary and nomad populations in these arid to semiarid landscapes is understood, but the millennium-scale influence of hydrologic instability on vegetation dynamics, human occupation, and historic land use are unknown, which has led to a stochastic view of population responses and adaptive capacities to precipitation anomalies. Within the time-frame of the last two global climate events, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, we report hydrologic instability reconstructed from pollen-derived climate proxies recovered near Tell Leilan, at the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur Plains of northeastern Syria, at the heart of ancient northern Mesopotamia. By coupling climate proxies with archaeological-historical data and a pollen-based record of agriculture, this integrative study suggests that variability in precipitation is a key factor on crop yields, productivity, and economic systems. It may also have been one of the main parameters controlling human settlement and population migrations at the century to millennial timescales in the arid to semiarid areas of the Middle East. An abrupt shift to drier conditions at ca. AD 1400 is contemporaneous with a change from sedentary village life to regional desertion and nomadization (sheep/camel pastoralists) during the preindustrial era in formerly Ottoman realms, and thereby adds climate change to the multiple causes for Ottoman Empire “decline.” PMID:22355126

  4. Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mia; Mazur, Steven; Ork, Britini L.; Postnikova, Elena; Hensley, Lisa E.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Reed; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to evaluate samples from MERS-CoV infected animals are more easily and efficiently completed at BSL-2 or lower containment. In order to complete experimental work at BSL-2, demonstration or proof of inactivation is required before removal of specimens from biocontainment laboratories. In the studies presented here, we evaluated typical means of inactivating viruses prior to handling specimens at a lower biocontainment level. We found that Trizol, AVL buffer and gamma irradiation were effective at inactivating MERS-CoV, that formaldehyde-based solutions required at least 30 minutes of contact time in a cell culture system while a mixture of methanol and acetone required 60 minutes to inactivate MERS-CoV. Together, these data provide a foundation for safely inactivating MERS-CoV, and potentially other coronaviruses, prior to removal from biocontainment facilities. PMID:26190637

  5. Oil and gas development in Middle East in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.; Phillips, C.B.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1987 totaled an estimated 4,500,500,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,330,137 b/d), up slightly from the revised 1986 total of 4,478,972,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic had significant increases; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had significant decreases. Production was established for the first time in People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. New fields went on production in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and Syria, and significant oil discoveries were reported in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. The level of exploration increased in 1987 with new concessions awarded in some countries, drilling and seismic activities on the increase, new regions in mature areas explored for the first time, and significant reserve additions reported in new and old permits. The Iraq-Iran war still had a negative impact in some regions of the Middle East, particularly in and around the Gulf. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Weiss, Harvey

    2012-03-06

    Climate change and water availability in the Middle East are important in understanding human adaptive capacities in the face of long-term environmental changes. The key role of water availability for sedentary and nomad populations in these arid to semiarid landscapes is understood, but the millennium-scale influence of hydrologic instability on vegetation dynamics, human occupation, and historic land use are unknown, which has led to a stochastic view of population responses and adaptive capacities to precipitation anomalies. Within the time-frame of the last two global climate events, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, we report hydrologic instability reconstructed from pollen-derived climate proxies recovered near Tell Leilan, at the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur Plains of northeastern Syria, at the heart of ancient northern Mesopotamia. By coupling climate proxies with archaeological-historical data and a pollen-based record of agriculture, this integrative study suggests that variability in precipitation is a key factor on crop yields, productivity, and economic systems. It may also have been one of the main parameters controlling human settlement and population migrations at the century to millennial timescales in the arid to semiarid areas of the Middle East. An abrupt shift to drier conditions at ca. AD 1400 is contemporaneous with a change from sedentary village life to regional desertion and nomadization (sheep/camel pastoralists) during the preindustrial era in formerly Ottoman realms, and thereby adds climate change to the multiple causes for Ottoman Empire "decline."

  7. Broadband Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E M; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J

    2008-08-21

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths over a 45{sup o} x 40{sup o} region of the Middle East. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5-10 Hz. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz is found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f), an assumption that is often made.

  8. SESAME, a Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East Region

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Sarraf, R.H.; Attal, M.; Tavakoli, K.; Hashemi, H.; Hassanzadegan, H.; Elsisi, A.; Amro, A.; Foudeh, D.; Kalantari, B.; Aladwan, A.; Varnasery, S.; Al-Dmour, E.; Tarawneh, H.

    2003-08-26

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East / Mediterranean region. Most of the applications require hard x-rays up to 20 keV photons. SESAME will be a 2GeV 3rd Generation Ligth Source with an emittance of 17 nmrad and 13 places for the installation of insertion devices with a length around 3 meter. The circumference of the machine will be 120m. As injector the 800 MeVBooster Synchrotron will be used with small changes. Furthermore also the BESSY I quadrupoles and sextupoles can be used. In a later stage these new ones will be replaced in order to increase the length of the straight sections and to introduce mini beta sections for the reduction of the beam cross section. At SESAME around 35 % of the circumference can be used for the installation of insertion devices.

  9. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmueller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Abdelkader, Mohamed; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. By relating the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface wind, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle, we identify regions where these attributes are significantly correlated to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. The Fertile Crescent turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD trend over these countries. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trend and interannual variability can be attributed to the above mentioned dust cycle parameters, confirming that the AOD increase is predominantly driven by dust. In particular, the positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. This suggests that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change. Based on simulations using the ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry-climate model (EMAC), we interpret the correlations identified in the observational data in terms of causal relationships.

  10. The Earliest Hominid Migration out of Africa and Near East Colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, H.; Levi, S.; Porat, N.

    2001-12-01

    It is generally accepted that Central East Africa was the springboard for hominid evolution in the latest Miocene or Early Pliocene. However the timing and pathways of migrations from Africa to Eurasia are still debatable. The only certain land bridge and main route between Africa and Eurasia since the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene is the Levantine Corridor. This is evident in some of the most ancient remains of early hominids and tools outside Africa in the Middle East. The study of Lower Paleolithic sites in this region and in the neighboring area sheds some light on several potential migration and colonization events. The determination of ages of the prehistoric sites is crucial for any study of early human migration events, but it is also the most difficult data to recover. The typo-technological studies yield only relative age, and so do sequences of raised Pleistocene beaches, marine deposits, river terraces and paleo-lake formations. The scarcity of volcanic ash deposits excludes radiometric dating. Israel located at the Levantine Corridor yields a wealth of prehistoric findings and sites. We combine paleomagnetic and thermoluminescence measurements as dating tools. This new combination yields high quality, surprising results. Several preliminary paleomagnetic studies of lake deposits, cave deposits and soil sequences in well known sites in Israel such as the Erk-El Ahmar formation, and the Lower Paleolithic Tabun Cave in Mount Carmel, the Evron Quarry in northern Israel, and Rochama site in southern Israel. We conclude that the part of Erk-El-Ahmar Formation, which bears core-choppers and flakes, identified as typical Oldowan tools were deposited about 1.7-2.0 Ma. We found that the Rochama and Evron sites are located in soil sequences, several meters below the 0.78 Ma Brunhes-Matuyama boundary. Based on continuous soil accumulation rates and pedogenesis processes the age of these sites is about 1 Ma. This new data provides the first constraint for the 1

  11. A Spring Forward for Human Evolution in East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Ashley, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The current consensus is that humans evolved in Africa and then migrated in waves to other parts of the world starting as early as 2 Ma. The climate was both cooling and drying. One of the major unknowns connected with human survival in this climatically turbulent environment is the availability of resources, particularly water. A growing body of geological evidence shows an association between springs, stone tools and hominin fossils at a number of sites in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). The springs may have been vulnerable to climate variability, thus the role that groundwater availability may have played in human evolution and migration to other continents is not known. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the paleo-catchment of one such EARS site, Olduvai Gorge (3°S), we show how spring discharge was likely linked to climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100s to 1000 years. Our results show how groundwater would have provided 'drought proof' water supply and habitats during arid phases as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localized groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods. Thus, springs and associated wetlands may have been important factors in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during dispersal within and out of Africa. While further exploration is needed to test the geographical extent of groundwater use by early humans, we propose that groundwater flow systems produced in the EARS played a significant role in the evolution and dispersal of early humans.

  12. Holocene TEX86 temperature reconstructions from Lake Turkana, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present new high resolution Holocene lake surface temperature records from Lake Turkana, East Africa. These two TEX86 reconstructions, from the northern and southern basins of the lake, capture ~90 year resolution of climate patterns seen in this closed-basin system, as well as the thermal water dynamics between the two basins. The modern lake experiences surface temperatures in the northern basin ~1-3 °C warmer than the southern basin, due to upwelling in the southern basin induced by the predominant southerly winds. The paleotemperature records show parallel trends to this modern basinal temperature gradient, averaging ~1.5 °C warmer in the northern basin than the southern during the ~2000 years of record overlap (~450-2500 ybp). Some temperature intervals with coverage in both basins show strong agreement (i.e. ~2600-2000 Cal ybp), whereas increased wind-generated upwelling events may be responsible for periods that appear strongly antiphased (i.e. 2000-1600 Cal ybp) between basins. There does not appear to be any evidence of warming into the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, ~800-1200AD) or cooling at the start of the Little Ice Age (LIA, ~600 ybp). The southern basin temperature record indicates a substantial ~5 °C warming culminating in a thermal maximum ~5ka, immediately followed by ~3 °C cooling. This supports previous observations of an anomalously warm interval ~5ka documented in lake surface temperature records from Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. A similar Holocene thermal maximum ~5ka has also been described from the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia (3°11’N, 50°26’E) (Bard et al., 1997). The abundance of these records now point to this being the warmest or one of the warmest intervals in the Holocene in tropical East Africa and indicates this may be a widespread regional climate response. Although these temperature trends appear reasonable, overall TEX86 temperatures for Lake Turkana are considerably lower than modern surface water temperatures

  13. An overview of the transboundary aquifers in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Tamiru Alemayehu

    2010-11-01

    A transboundary aquifer is a body of groundwater intersected by two or more countries with the potential threat of dispute over a shared groundwater resource. A large portion of the population in East Africa relies on surface water resources for day-to-day activities; in turn, this is dependent on episodic rainfall. Surface water in the region is vulnerable to pollution and potential climate change. Consequently, frequent conflict over the water use is a regular event in the region. This paper examines the transboundary aquifers and their significance for water supply in the six adjacent Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti). Analysis of available literature and short field visits to accessible areas were undertaken in order to examine the geology, hydrogeological dynamics, and water use. The geology of the transboundary aquifers is mainly represented by Precambrian basement, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Cenozoic volcanics and recent alluvial deposits. Taking into consideration the topographic setting and water circulation, the Ethiopian highlands are the major sources of recharge to the transboundary aquifers of the adjacent countries. The surface runoff drains through 11 major rivers into the neighbouring countries. The groundwater contained in the transboundary aquifers is yet to receive attention by the various countries, but the future trend is towards exploiting the resources to alleviate water shortages in the region. It is hoped that the systematic development of these groundwater resources would strengthen cooperation in this conflict-dominated region.

  14. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  15. CRUSTAL TECTONICS AND SEISMICITY OF THE MIDDLE EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalib, H. A.; Gritto, R.; Sibol, M. S.; Herrmann, R. B.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Caron, P. F.; Wagner, R. A.; Ali, B. S.; Ali, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Arabian plate describes a geological entity and a dynamic system that has been in continuous interaction with the African plate to the west and south and the Eurasian plate to the north and east. The western and southern boundaries are distinguished by see floor spreading along the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea and transform faulting along the Dead Sea, whereas the northern and eastern boundaries are portrayed by compressional suture zones under thrusting the Turkish and Iranian plateaus. Despite this favorable juxtaposition of continental land masses and the plethora of national seismic networks in every country of the Middle East, the majority of published research on the Arabian plate and surrounding tectonic blocks still depends primarily on global seismographic stations and occasional local networks. Since 2005, we deployed a number of seismic stations, and more recently a five elements array, in close proximity to the northeastern boundary of the Arabian plate. The primary objective of the effort is to better understand the regional seismicity and seismotectonics of the Arabian plate and surrounding regions. To date over a terabyte of high quality 100 sps continuous three-component broadband data have been collected and being analyzed to derive models representative of the greater Middle East tectonic setting. This goal is, in part, achieved by estimating local and regional seismic velocity models using receiver function and surface wave dispersion analyses, and by using these models to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. The resulting events distribution reveals a distinct picture of the interaction between the seismicity and tectonics of the region. The highest seismicity rate seems to be confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases again in the Bandar Abbas region. Spatial distribution of the events and stations provide thorough

  16. International trends in health science librarianship part 14: East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda).

    PubMed

    Gathoni, Nasra; Kamau, Nancy; Nannozi, Judith; Singirankabo, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    This is the 14th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. This is the second of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda). The next feature column will investigate trends in West Africa. JM.

  17. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled in July, 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 1,950 books, journal articles, and unpublished manuscripts dealing with rural development in Africa generally and in central and east Africa specifically. General entries appear under the following headings: agriculture; economic affairs; bibliography; law; economic and technical…

  18. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Karl J.; Korch, George; O’Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J.; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  19. First Middle East Aircraft Parabolic Flights for ISU Participant Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Frischauf, Norbert; Cohen, Dan; Foster, Matthew; Spannagel, Ruven; Szeszko, Adam; Laufer, Rene

    2017-02-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights are widely used throughout the world to create microgravity environment for scientific and technology research, experiment rehearsal for space missions, and for astronaut training before space flights. As part of the Space Studies Program 2016 of the International Space University summer session at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, a series of aircraft parabolic flights were organized with a glider in support of departmental activities on `Artificial and Micro-gravity' within the Space Sciences Department. Five flights were organized with manoeuvres including several parabolas with 5 to 6 s of weightlessness, bank turns with acceleration up to 2 g and disorientation inducing manoeuvres. Four demonstration experiments and two experiments proposed by SSP16 participants were performed during the flights by on board operators. This paper reports on the microgravity experiments conducted during these parabolic flights, the first conducted in the Middle East for science and pedagogical experiments.

  20. Middle East respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Rahul; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-02-01

    The recent emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, a close relative of the Severe Acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, both of which caused a lethal respiratory infection in humans, reinforces the need for further understanding of coronavirus pathogenesis and the host immune response. These viruses have evolved diverse strategies to evade and block host immune responses, facilitating infection and transmission. Pathogenesis following infection with these viruses is characterized by a marked delay in the induction of Type I interferon (IFN I) and, subsequently, by a poor adaptive immune response. Therapies that expedite IFN I induction as well as interventions that antagonize immunoevasive virus proteins are thus promising candidates for immune modulation.

  1. Trafficking and contract migrant workers in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Jureidini, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses a number of issues regarding the extent to which trafficking may be applied to migrant domestic workers who enter under the kafala system of sponsorship in the Middle East. Migrant domestic workers are the most numerous of those mentioned in reports on trafficking for labour exploitation in the region. The discussion seeks to determine whether "trafficking" can be ex post facto, rather than ex ante? In other words, can the label of trafficking be attributed only after the worker has arrived in the receiving country and is victimized according to the principles of trafficking protocols? In addition, must there be a proven intent to traffic by agents, or can employers who harm and/or exploit them be considered as traffickers alone? Should the harm done to workers on arrival at their place of work be classified (and assisted) as victims of trafficking, or as exploited workers?

  2. Middle East respiratory syndrome: obstacles and prospects for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Papaneri, Amy B.; Johnson, Reed F.; Wada, Jiro; Bollinger, Laura; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) highlights the need to engineer new methods for expediting vaccine development against emerging diseases. However, several obstacles prevent pursuit of a licensable MERS vaccine. First, the lack of a suitable animal model for MERS complicates in vivo testing of candidate vaccines. Second, due to the low number of MERS cases, pharmaceutical companies have little incentive to pursue MERS vaccine production as the costs of clinical trials are high. In addition, the timeline from bench research to approved vaccine use is 10 years or longer. Using novel methods and cost-saving strategies, genetically engineered vaccines can be produced quickly and cost-effectively. Along with progress in MERS animal model development, these obstacles can be circumvented or at least mitigated. PMID:25864502

  3. High altitude wind resource in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya B.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a first identification of areas favorable to Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) Systems deployment in the Middle East and illustrates their diurnal and seasonal characteristics. Optimal heights of AWE system deployment are computed. The AWE literature has conventionally used a top-down approach where AWE potentials are estimated as a fraction of wind power density. This study takes the bottom-up approach where the regional AWE potentials are estimated using realistic machine specification with assumptions upon deployment conditions. The annual energy production per capita illustrates the potential of AWE systems in fulfilling electricity needs at the current level for several countries in the region. Our estimate also compares favorably to the near-surface wind power potential using identical data source from a previous study. In addition, the non-monotonicity in the vertical profile is examined for areas with potential LLJ influences, where behaviors in wind speed and direction similar to that of inertial oscillations are identified.

  4. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: current knowledge and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Malik, M; Elkholy, A A; Khan, W; Hassounah, S; Abubakar, A; Minh, N Tran; Mala, P

    2016-10-02

    A literature review of publically available information was undertaken to summarize current understanding and gaps in knowledge about Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including its origin, transmission, effective control measures and management. Major databases were searched and relevant published papers and reports during 2012-2015 were reviewed. Of the 2520 publications initially retrieved, 164 were deemed relevant. The collected results suggest that much remains to be discovered about MERS-CoV. Improved surveillance, epidemiological research and development of new therapies and vaccines are important, and the momentum of recent gains in terms of better understanding of disease patterns should be maintained to enable the global community to answer the remaining questions about this disease.

  5. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmüller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. We relate the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface winds to identify regions where these attributes are directly related to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. Regarding precipitation and soil moisture, a relatively small area in and surrounding Iraq turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD over these countries. Regarding surface wind speed, the African Red Sea coastal area is relevant for the Saudi Arabian AOD. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trends and interannual variability can be attributed to soil moisture, precipitation and surface winds, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle. Our results confirm the dust driven AOD trends and variability, supported by a decreasing MODIS-derived Ångström exponent and a decreasing AERONET-derived fine mode fraction that accompany the AOD increase over Saudi Arabia. The positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. As a lower soil moisture translates into enhanced dust emissions, it is not needed to assume growing anthropogenic aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions to explain the observations. Instead, our results suggest that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change.

  6. A review of treatment modalities for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yin; Fisher, Dale

    2016-12-01

    The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a focus of international attention since its identification in 2012. Epidemiologically it is characterized by sporadic community cases, which are amplified by hospital-based outbreaks. Healthcare facilities in 27 countries from most continents have experienced imported cases, with the most significant outbreak involving 186 cases in Korea. The mortality internationally is 36% and guidance for clinical management has yet to be developed. Most facilities and healthcare providers outside of the Middle East receiving patients have no or little experience in the clinical management of MERS. When a case does occur there is likely little time for a critical appraisal of the literature and putative pharmacological options. We identified published literature on the management of both MERS-CoV and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) through searches of PubMed and WHO and the US CDC websites up to 30 April 2016. A total of 101 publications were retrieved for critical appraisal. Most published literature on therapeutics for MERS are in vitro experiments, animal studies and case reports. Current treatment options for MERS can be categorized as: immunotherapy with virus-specific antibodies in convalescent plasma; polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies produced in vitro or in genetically modified animals; and antiviral agents. The use of any therapeutics in MERS-CoV remains investigational. The therapeutic agents with potential benefits and warranting further investigation include convalescent plasma, interferon-β/ribavirin combination therapy and lopinavir. Corticosteroids, ribavirin monotherapy and mycophenolic acid likely have toxicities that exceed potential benefits.

  7. Exportations of Symptomatic Cases of MERS-CoV Infection to Countries outside the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Justin J.; Jewett, Amy; Gambhir, Manoj; Cohen, Nicole J.; Haber, Yoni; Pesik, Nicki; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, an outbreak of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was detected in the Arabian Peninsula. Modeling can produce estimates of the expected annual number of symptomatic cases of MERS-CoV infection exported and the likelihood of exportation from source countries in the Middle East to countries outside the region. PMID:27358972

  8. Exportations of Symptomatic Cases of MERS-CoV Infection to Countries outside the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Carias, Cristina; O'Hagan, Justin J; Jewett, Amy; Gambhir, Manoj; Cohen, Nicole J; Haber, Yoni; Pesik, Nicki; Swerdlow, David L

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, an outbreak of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was detected in the Arabian Peninsula. Modeling can produce estimates of the expected annual number of symptomatic cases of MERS-CoV infection exported and the likelihood of exportation from source countries in the Middle East to countries outside the region.

  9. Forecast and Validation of the Rift Valley fever outbreak in East Africa: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The instantaneous occurrence of El Nino / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm events and anomalous warming of the equatorial western Indian Ocean (WIO) are associated with elevated and widespread rainfall over East Africa. Such, sustained, heavy rainfall in East is associated with the emerg...

  10. Smart Boards to Chalkboards: Professional Development for Early Childhood Teachers in Rural East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching strategies of early childhood development teachers in rural East Africa. Teams of early childhood educators from the United States presented professional development conferences for East African Early Childhood Development teachers during the summers of 2007 and 2008. The conferences introduced…

  11. Geology and petroleum resources of central and east-central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum provinces of central and east-central Africa include the Somali basin, the Ethiopian plateau and rift belt, and the central African rift basins. The western shelf on the Somali basin in the horn of Africa contains a sedimentary cover 1000-10,000 m (3000-3500 ft) thick of Mesozoic and Tertiary marine and continental clastic, carbonate, and evaporite deposits with good reservoir and potentially adequate source rock properties. To date, no commercial oil or gas discoveries have been made. The Ethiopian plateau and rift belt is a high-risk area with minimum potential for commercial petroleum because the Neogene rifting origin of the province has resulted in high geothermal gradients, extensive volcanism, and inadequate marine deposits and petroleum source rocks. The central Africa interior basins are continental craton-rifted depressions of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age containing as much as 4000 m (13,000 ft) or more of fluvial and lacustrine clastic beds, which inter-tongue with nearshore marine clastic and carbonate beds in the western basins. Since the mid-1970s, approximately 13 oil discoveries have been made in the Upper Nile, Doba-Doseo, and Chad basins. These basins produce from fluvial and lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, sourced by lacustrine organic shale beds of Cretaceous age. The Benue trough is a rifted depression of middle Cretaceous age adjoined on the southwest by the prolific Niger Delta petroleum province. The trough is filled with 6000 m (20,000 ft) or more of clastic and carbonate marine and continental rocks of late Early Cretaceous and early Cenozoic age. Very few exploratory wells have been drilled, and no commercial discoveries have been made although good reservoir and source rocks are present.

  12. Recurring middle Pleistocene outburst floods in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Froese, D.G.; Smith, D.G.; Westgate, J.A.; Ager, T.A.; Preece, S.J.; Sandhu, A.; Enkin, R.J.; Weber, F.

    2003-01-01

    Recurring glacial outburst floods from the Yukon-Tanana Upland are inferred from sediments exposed along the Yukon River near the mouth of Charley River in east-central Alaska. Deposits range from imbricate gravel and granules indicating flow locally extending up the Yukon valley, to more distal sediments consisting of at least 10 couplets of planar sands, granules, and climbing ripples with up-valley paleocurrent indicators overlain by massive silt. An interglacial organic silt, occurring within the sequence, indicates at least two flood events are associated with an earlier glaciation, and at least three flood events are associated with a later glaciation which postdates the organic silt. A minimum age for the floods is provided by a glass fission track age of 560,000 ?? 80,000 yr on the GI tephra, which occurs 8 m above the flood beds. A maximum age of 780,000 yr for the floods is based on normal magnetic polarity of the sediments. These age constraints allow us to correlate the flood events to the early-middle Pleistocene. And further, the outburst floods indicate extensive glaciation of the Yukon-Tanana Upland during the early-middle Pleistocene, likely representing the most extensive Pleistocene glaciation of the area. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reconciling Past and Future Rainfall Trends over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowell, Dave; Booth, Ben; Nicholson, Sharon; Good, Peter

    2016-04-01

    droughts, and that the response to CO2 forcing over East Africa is not substantially non-linear (Hypotheses E and F). Further work should therefore focus on improving the modelling of aerosol impacts on regional rainfall changes, on providing a well-considered 'expert judgement' of the reliability of the model's projections for the coming century, and better understanding the relevant natural variability.

  14. Analysis of satellite precipitation over East Africa during last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Elsa; Wenhaji Ndomeni, Claudine; Merino, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Daily accumulated precipitation time series from satellite retrieval algorithms (e.g., ARC2 and TAMSAT) are exploited to extract the spatial and temporal variability of East Africa (EA - 5°S-20°N, 28°E-52°E) precipitation during last decades (1983-2013). The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to precipitation time series to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in particular for October-November-December referred to as the short rain season. Moreover, the connection among EA's precipitation, sea surface temperature, and soil moisture is analyzed through the correlation with the dominant EOF modes of variability. Preliminary results concern the first two EOF's modes for the ARC2 data set. EOF1 is characterized by an inter-annual variability and a positive correlation between precipitation and El Niño, positive Indian Ocean Dipole mode, and soil moisture, while EOF2 shows a dipole structure of spatial variability associated with a longer scale temporal variability. This second dominant mode is mostly linked to sea surface temperature variations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Further analyses are carried out by computing the time series of the joint CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI, http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/index.shtml), i.e. RX1day, RX5day, CDD, CDD, CWD, SDII, PRCPTOT, R10, R20. The purpose is to identify the occurrenes of extreme events (droughts and floods) and extract precipitation temporal variation by trend analysis (Mann-Kendall technique). Results for the ARC2 data set demonstrate the existence of a dipole spatial pattern in the linear trend of the time series of PRCPTOT (annual precipitation considering days with a rain rate > 1 mm) and SDII (average precipitation on wet days over a year). A negative trend is mainly present over West Ethiopia and Sudan, whereas a positive trend is exhibited over East Ethiopia and Somalia. CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and

  15. Understanding the nature of mantle upwelling beneath East-Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James; Goes, Saskia; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, Mike; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rumpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham

    2014-05-01

    The concept of hot upwelling material - otherwise known as mantle plumes - has long been accepted as a possible mechanism to explain hotspots occurring at Earth's surface and it is recognized as a way of removing heat from the deep Earth. Nevertheless, this theory remains controversial since no one has definitively imaged a plume and over the last decades several other potential mechanisms that do not require a deep mantle source have been invoked to explain this phenomenon, for example small-scale convection at rifted margins, meteorite impacts or lithospheric delamination. One of the best locations to study the potential connection between hotspot volcanism at the surface and deep mantle plumes on land is the East African Rift (EAR). We image seismic velocity structure of the mantle below EAR with higher resolution than has been available to date by including seismic data recorded by stations from many regional networks ranging from Saudi Arabia to Tanzania. We use relative travel-time tomography to produce P- velocity models from the surface down into the lower mantle incorporating 9250 ray-paths in our model from 495 events and 402 stations. We add smaller earthquakes (4.5 < mb < 5.5) from poorly sampled regions in order to have a more uniform data coverage. The tomographic results allow us to image structures of ~ 100-km length scales to ~ 1000 km depth beneath the northern East-Africa rift (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Yemen) with good resolution also in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle. Our observations provide evidence that the shallow mantle slow seismic velocities continue trough the transition zone and into the lower mantle. In particular, the relatively slow velocity anomaly beneath the Afar Depression extends up to depths of at least 1000 km depth while another low-velocity anomaly beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift seems to be present in the upper mantle only. These features in the lower mantle are isolated with a diameter of about 400 km

  16. Reconciling Past and Future Rainfall Trends over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, B.; Rowell, D.; Nicholson, S. E.; Good, P.

    2014-12-01

    that the response to CO2 forcing over East Africa is not substantially non-linear (Hypotheses E and F). Further work should therefore focus on improving the modelling of aerosol impacts on regional rainfall changes and on providing a well-considered 'expert judgement' of the reliability of the model's projections for the coming century.

  17. The Menengai Tuff: A 36 ka widespread tephra and its chronological relevance to Late Pleistocene human evolution in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, Nick; Brown, Francis H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Binetti, Katie M.; Faith, J. Tyler; Ferraro, Joseph V.; Gathogo, Patrick N.; Richardson, Jonathan L.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-11-01

    The East African Rift preserves the world's richest Middle and Late Pleistocene (∼780-12 ka) geological, archaeological and paleontological archives relevant to the emergence of Homo sapiens. This region also provides unparalleled chronological control for many important sites through tephrochronology, the dating and correlation of volcanic ashes as widespread isochronous markers in the geological record. There are many well-characterized Pliocene-Early Pleistocene tephras that are widespread across East Africa. A comparable framework is lacking for the Middle and Late Pleistocene; a period characterized by spatially and temporally complex patterns of climate change, as well as the emergence of modern Homo sapiens and the dispersal of this species across and out of Africa. Unraveling relationships among these spatial and temporally complex phenomena requires a precise chronology. To this end we report the Menengai Tuff, a widespread volcanic ash produced by the large-scale caldera-forming eruption in Kenya and 40Ar/39Ar dated to 35.62 ± 0.26 ka. Geochemical characterization of 565 glass shards from 36 samples by wavelength-dispersive electron probe microanalysis show the Menengai Tuff was deposited over >115,000 km2 and is found in the Baringo, Chalbi, Elmenteita, Nakuru, Olorgesailie, Turkana, and Victoria basins, all of which preserve rich Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives. Correlation and dating of the Menengai Tuff demonstrate that it is the most widespread tephra and largest eruption currently known from the Late Pleistocene of East Africa. As such, it is a valuable marker in establishing a Late Pleistocene chronology for paleoclimatic, archeological, and paleontological records relevant to the study of human evolution.

  18. Distal tephras of the eastern Lake Victoria basin, equatorial East Africa: correlations, chronology and a context for early modern humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, Nick; Tryon, Christian A.; Faith, J. Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J.; Beverly, Emily J.; Li, Bo; Jacobs, Zenobia

    2015-08-01

    The tephrostratigraphic framework for Pliocene and Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological sites in East Africa has been well established through nearly 50 years of research, but a similarly comprehensive framework is lacking for the Middle and particularly the Late Pleistocene. We provide the first detailed regional record of Late Pleistocene tephra deposits associated with artifacts or fossils from the Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. Correlations of Late Pleistocene distal tephra deposits from the Wasiriya beds on Rusinga Island, the Waware beds on Mfangano Island and deposits near Karungu, mainland Kenya, are based on field stratigraphy coupled with 916 electron microprobe analyses of eleven major and minor element oxides from 50 samples. At least eight distinct distal tephra deposits are distinguished, four of which are found at multiple localities spanning >60 km over an approximately north to south transect. New optically stimulated luminescence dates help to constrain the Late Pleistocene depositional ages of these deposits. Our correlation and characterization of volcaniclastic deposits expand and refine the current stratigraphy of the eastern Lake Victoria basin. This provides the basis for relating fossil- and artifact-bearing sediments and a framework for ongoing geological, archaeological and paleontological studies of Late Pleistocene East Africa, a crucial time period for human evolution and dispersal within and out of Africa.

  19. Complex Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Disease in a Culturally Diverse Region: Phylogeography of Rabies Virus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Daniel L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Marston, Denise A.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Goharrriz, Hooman; Wise, Emma; Breed, Andrew C.; Saturday, Greg; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Zilahi, Erika; Al-Kobaisi, Muhannad F.; Nowotny, Norbert; Mueller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination. PMID:25811659

  20. Middle East and North Africa: A Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Harry N.; And Others

    Designed essentially for librarians in undergraduate colleges in the United States, this bibliography is arranged both on a topical/subject and country by country basis. In the general section, the reader may find the bibliographies of bibliographies, reference works, journals, and specific works which treat geography, history, government and…

  1. Fish Hoek Middle School: Issues of Education Reform in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Darryn

    Education in South Africa has mirrored the inequality and socio-political upheaval that has marked that country's history since the official establishment of apartheid in 1948. This paper provides a brief summary of some of the main issues impacting education in South Africa, a description of Fish Hoek Middle School just south of Capetown, an…

  2. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): animal to human interaction

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Ali S.; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel enzootic betacoronavirus that was first described in September 2012. The clinical spectrum of MERS-CoV infection in humans ranges from an asymptomatic or mild respiratory illness to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure; overall mortality is around 35.7%. Bats harbour several betacoronaviruses that are closely related to MERS-CoV but more research is needed to establish the relationship between bats and MERS-CoV. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies is very high in dromedary camels in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV RNA and viable virus have been isolated from dromedary camels, including some with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, near-identical strains of MERS-CoV have been isolated from epidemiologically linked humans and camels, confirming inter-transmission, most probably from camels to humans. Though inter-human spread within health care settings is responsible for the majority of reported MERS-CoV cases, the virus is incapable at present of causing sustained human-to-human transmission. Clusters can be readily controlled with implementation of appropriate infection control procedures. Phylogenetic and sequencing data strongly suggest that MERS-CoV originated from bat ancestors after undergoing a recombination event in the spike protein, possibly in dromedary camels in Africa, before its exportation to the Arabian Peninsula along the camel trading routes. MERS-CoV serosurveys are needed to investigate possible unrecognized human infections in Africa. Amongst the important measures to control MERS-CoV spread are strict regulation of camel movement, regular herd screening and isolation of infected camels, use of personal protective equipment by camel handlers and enforcing rules banning all consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and urine. PMID:26924345

  3. 76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of... response costs concerning the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray... Site name East Calloway County ] Middle School Mercury Spill Site by one of the following methods:...

  4. The Influence of European Pollution on Ozone in the Near East and Northern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, B. N.; West, J. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average greater than 120 micrograms per cubic meters or approximately 60 ppbv) in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000) in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  5. Diagnosing Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nguena, Marie B.; van den Tweel, Jan G.; Makupa, William; Hu, Victor H.; Weiss, Helen A.; Gichuhi, Stephen; Burton, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    compared with benign lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of IVCM for distinguishing OSSN from benign conjunctival lesions were 38.5% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusions In East Africa, conjunctival pathology is relatively common and can present significant diagnostic challenges for the clinician. In this study, neither clinical examination nor IVCM was found to reliably distinguish OSSN from benign conjunctival pathology because of an overlap in the features of these groups. Therefore, IVCM cannot currently replace histopathology, and management decisions should continue to rely on careful clinical assessment supported by histopathology as indicated. PMID:24321141

  6. A Revised Holocene History of Lake Kivu, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, J. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Hecky, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The great lakes of the East African Rift valley are a vast chain of lakes formed in a region of active tectonics. These large, deep lakes are relatively old and many (e.g. Tanganyika, Malawi, and Turkana) have greatly influenced our understanding of terrestrial, tropical East African paleoclimate. Lake Kivu (max depth, 485m) sits at the heart of these rift lakes, north of Lake Tanganyika between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda (roughly 250 km west of Lake Victoria). At over 1,400 meters in elevation, this 2,060 km2 mesotrophic lake has a complex stratification regime imposed by hydrothermal springs and deep waters supersaturated at STP in CO2 and CH4 gasses. The active Virunga Volcanoes to the north of the lake supply heated, high-salinity waters below 280 meters water depth maintaining the modern crenogenic meromixis. Based on detailed studies of diatom assemblages and bulk sedimentology, previous workers have suggested this hydrothermal activity began roughly 5,000 years BP. Unfortunately, dating and stratigraphic correlations of these original cores from the 1970 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's expedition have been problematic. Here we offer an improved chronology and new carbonate analyses from cores recovered in 2012 and 2013. Our AMS radiocarbon ages come from six terrigeneous macrofossils spanning the last 9,100 years (cal BP). These ages suggest a rather high sedimentation rate on the order of 70cm/kyr, and hence, our 8 m-long core provides us with a high-resolution lake history for the past 10,000 years. Most notable over the past 5,000 years in the lake history is the repeated onset and cessation of carbonate deposition, punctuated by organic-rich intervals. Earlier studies of the Woods Hole cores placed the onset of carbonate deposition at ca. 11,000 years BP suggesting changes in lake hydrology (i.e. closed to open), while the abrupt cessation of carbonate was dated at ca. 5,000 years BP and attributed to the beginning of

  7. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacob; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-06-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak.

  8. Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; van den Brand, Judith M.A.; Widagdo, W.; Muñoz, Marta; Raj, Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Solanes, David; Cordón, Ivan; Bensaid, Albert; Haagmans, Bart L.

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential reservoirs, we inoculated MERS-CoV into llamas, pigs, sheep, and horses and collected nasal and rectal swab samples at various times. The presence of MERS-CoV in the nose of pigs and llamas was confirmed by PCR, titration of infectious virus, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization; seroconversion was detected in animals of both species. Conversely, in sheep and horses, virus-specific antibodies did not develop and no evidence of viral replication in the upper respiratory tract was found. These results prove the susceptibility of llamas and pigs to MERS-CoV infection. Thus, the possibility of MERS-CoV circulation in animals other than dromedaries, such as llamas and pigs, is not negligible. PMID:27901465

  9. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Tokajian, S

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial pathogen that is distributed worldwide and represents an increasing problem, both in hospitals and in the community. Global transmission of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has been the subject of many studies. Determining the incidence of colonization with community-acquired MRSA in hospitalized patients and outpatients has been the aim of several studies conducted in the Middle East (western Asia). The local epidemiology within countries in this region is changing, owing to the introduction of new strains with the intercontinental exchange of several clones. Sequence type 80-MRSA-IV is one common clone detected in different countries within the region showing country-based differences, and hence more likely to form clonal lineages. MRSA is endemic in this region, and the burden and the difficulty in detecting imported strains are increasing. This is also increasing the risk of domestic and global transmission. To counter the threat associated with the high incidence of MRSA carriage and infections, systematic surveillance of both hospital and community isolates is required, along with appropriate measures designed to limit their spread. Additionally, antibiotic stewardship is needed to contain the further development of the observed resistance and to help in preserving antibiotics as precious therapeutic resources. It is critical for countries in this region to establish both national and international initiatives to develop better measurements designed to limit and control the spread of infections. Finally, more sequence-based studies are needed to better understand the pathogenicity and epidemiology of these important pathogens.

  10. Acute myocarditis associated with novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Alhogbani, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MeRS-CoV) has been identified as a cause of pneumonia; however, it has not been reported as a cause of acute myocarditis. A 60-year-old man presented with pneumonia and congestive heart failure. On the first day of admission, he was found to have an elevated troponin-l level and severe global left ventricular systolic dysfunction on echo-cardiography. The serum creatinine level was found mildly elevated. Chest radiography revealed in the lower lung fields accentuated bronchovascular lung markings and multiple small patchy opacities. Laboratory tests were negative for viruses known to cause myocarditis. Sputum sample was positive for MeRS-CoV. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance revealed evidence of acute myocarditis. the patient had all criteria specified by the international Consensus Group on CMR in Myocarditis that make a clinical suspicion for acute myocarditis. this was the first case that demonstrated that MeRS-CoV may cause acute myocarditis and acute-onset heart failure.

  11. Climate, not conflict, explains extreme Middle East dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolari, Anthony J.; Li, Dan; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Katul, Gabriel G.; Assouline, Shmuel

    2016-11-01

    The recent dust storm in the Middle East (Sepember 2015) was publicized in the media as a sign of an impending ‘Dust Bowl.’ Its severity, demonstrated by extreme aerosol optical depth in the atmosphere in the 99th percentile compared to historical data, was attributed to the ongoing regional conflict. However, surface meteorological and remote sensing data, as well as regional climate model simulations, support an alternative hypothesis: the historically unprecedented aridity played a more prominent role, as evidenced by unusual climatic and meteorological conditions prior to and during the storm. Remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index demonstrates that vegetation cover was high in 2015 relative to the prior drought and conflict periods, suggesting that agricultural activity was not diminished during that year, thus negating the media narrative. Instead, meteorological simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model show that the storm was associated with a cyclone and ‘Shamal’ winds, typical for dust storm generation in this region, that were immediately followed by an unusual wind reversal at low levels that spread dust west to the Mediterranean Coast. These unusual meteorological conditions were aided by a significant reduction in the critical shear stress due to extreme dry and hot conditions, thereby enhancing dust availability for erosion during this storm. Concluding, unusual aridity, combined with unique synoptic weather patterns, enhanced dust emission and westward long-range transport across the region, thus generating the extreme storm.

  12. SESAME -- A light source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2012-02-01

    Developed under UNESCO and modelled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research centre in construction in Jordan, enabling world-class research while promoting peace through scientific cooperation. Its centerpiece, a new 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Electron Storage Ring (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance, 12 places for insertion devices), will provide intense light from infra-red to hard X-rays. The Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey), provides the annual budget. Concrete shielding is complete, and a staff of 21 is installing the refurbished 0.8 GeV BESS Y I injector system, a gift from Germany. The facility can serve 25 simultaneous experiments. Beamline equipment has been provided by Daresbury (UK), the Helmholtz Assoc. (Germany), the Swiss Light Source, LURE (France), the Univ. of Liverpool, Elettra (Italy) and US labs. Jordan has contributed 3.3M, in addition to a building and land. The EU has contributed 4.8M. Commitments confirmed by Members look set to provide most of 35M needed to complete construction of the ring and 3 beamlines. A training program has been underway since 2000. See www.sesame.org.jo

  13. The Middle East. Domestic sufficiently of fossil fuel resources

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, John A.; Kessinger, Samuel E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we’ve compared energy production and consumption across the broader Middle East, paying special attention to three different countries; Saudi Arabia, one of the world’s largest oil producers (second in the CIA World Factbook ranking of crude oil producing countries), with a growing population in the mid-range (47th in the world, according to the CIA World Factbook, and fifth among the nations in this region), a large GDP and GDP per capita (15th in the world, second in this region in GDP, and 21st in GDP per capita in the world, just behind the US at 19th); Qatar, the world’s fourth largest producer of natural gas, with a small native population (and a relatively large foreign labor contingent) that is very wealthy (with the world’s highest GDP per capita, more than twice that of the US); and Egypt, the most populous nation in the region (with the world’s 16th largest population), but relatively poor (with a GDP per capita of about a fifth that of the US and a twelfth that of Qatar); Egypt is a significant energy producer – 29th in the world in crude oil production and 17th in natural gas production – but production has stalled or declined in recent years, and domestic consumption has overtaken production.

  14. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  15. The state of mobile health in the developing world and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Ababtain, Arwa F; Almulhim, Deana A; Househ, Mowafa S

    2013-01-01

    The rapid expansion and development of mobile technology have advanced an area called mobile health (mHealth), which is expected to improve healthcare delivery and increase the efficacy of healthcare services. This paper provides an overview of mHealthuse in the developing world with a specific focus on the Middle East. Different search engines and databases were used to search for Mobile Health (mHealth) literature on the developing world and the Middle East, in September 2012. The results show that there is a growing demand within the developing world and the Middle East for the use of mobile technologies that focus on information gathering and sharing, accessibility and reach, and public health. The future of mHealth in the developing world and the Middle East is also discussed.

  16. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-3 157.4630. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-4 157.4631. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-4 157.4631. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-3 157.4630. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 75 FR 15686 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  1. 75 FR 18783 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  2. Animal models of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Munster, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second time that a new, highly pathogenic coronavirus has emerged in the human population in the 21st century. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of animal models of MERS-CoV infection. Commonly used laboratory animal species such as Syrian hamsters, mice and ferrets are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, due to differences in the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The initially developed animal models comprise two nonhuman primate species, the rhesus macaque and the common marmoset. Rhesus macaques develop a mild to moderate respiratory disease upon inoculation, reminiscent of milder MERS cases, whereas marmosets develop a moderate to severe respiratory disease, recapitulating the severe disease observed in some patients. Dromedary camels, considered to be the reservoir for MERS-CoV, develop a mild upper respiratory tract infection with abundant viral shedding. Although normal mice are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, expression of the human DPP4 (hDPP4) overcomes the lack of susceptibility. Transgenic hDPP4 mice develop severe and lethal respiratory disease upon inoculation with MERS-CoV. These hDPP4 transgenic mice are potentially the ideal first line animal model for efficacy testing of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures. Further characterization of identified countermeasures would ideally be performed in the common marmoset model, due to the more severe disease outcome. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:26192750

  3. Genomics and zoonotic infections: Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wernery, U; Lau, S K P; Woo, P C Y

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the discovery of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 suggests that another SARS-like epidemic is occurring. Unlike the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, which rapidly disappeared in less than one year, MERS has persisted for over three years. More than 1,600 cases of MERS have been reported worldwide, and the disease carries a worryingly high fatality rate of >30%. A total of 182 MERS-CoV genomes have been sequenced, including 94 from humans and 88 from dromedary camels. The 182 genomes all share >99% identity, indicating minimal variation among MERS-CoV genomes. MERS-CoV is a lineage C Betacoronavirus (ßCoV). MERS-CoV genomes can be roughly divided into two clades: clade A, which contains only a few strains, and clade B, to which most strains belong. In contrast to ORF1ab and structural proteins, the putative proteins encoded by ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, ORF5 and ORF8b in the MERS-CoV genome do not share homology with any known host or virus protein, other than those of its closely related lineage C ßCoVs. Human and dromedary viral genomes have intermingled, indicating that multiple camel-to-human transmission events have occurred. The multiple origins of MERS-CoV suggest that the virus has been resident in dromedaries for many years. This is consistent with the detection of anti-MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels as early as the 1980s.

  4. Healthcare reform in the Middle East and the USA.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa Z

    2017-01-01

    Mustafa Z Younis speaks to Laura Dormer, Commissioning Editor: Dr Mustafa Z Younis is an internationally recognized scholar and was a member of the Executive Committee of the International Society for Research of Healthcare Financial Management. Dr Younis has authored and published over 200 articles, abstracts and presentations in refereed journals and meetings, and has presented at national and international conferences. Dr Younis has administrative experience as Senior Adviser for the President at Zirve University, Turkey and as Chair of the Department of Health Policy and Management at Florida International University (FL, USA) where he led the accreditation efforts for the Healthcare Management Program. Dr Younis has a history of playing visible roles on the editorial boards of journals as Chief Editor, Guest Editor and Editorial board member of leading journals such as Journal of International Medical Research, Journal of Health Care Finance, Inquiry, Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management. Dr Younis is a frequent speaker for both academic and professional audiences. His talks often feature his latest research and work in progress as well as cross-industry trends and strategy implications. He has provided workshops and presentation for wide organizations. His research and findings applied to for-profit, non-profit settings, and government. Dr Younis has consulted with several organizations on healthcare finance, and economics. Dr Younis is often invited to speak about the challenges in the healthcare industry and other related topics to health economics, finance, and research. He has presented topics such as, healthcare reform, ownership structure, profitability, unit cost, payment system and efficiency in management, at a variety of forums and conferences in Europe, Asia and Middle East.

  5. Roles and Effects of Media in the Middle East and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    with a description of its salient characteristics. Because this monograph concerns media, one major characteristic relates to literacy rates . 6...The Middle East Media Context Table 1, below, indicates that the Middle East literacy rate is generally very low. Literacy rates range from a low of...40 percent in Mauritania and Iraq to 80 percent in most of the Gulf States, and into the 90s in Jordan. Meanwhile, the literacy rate is 97 percent in

  6. The politics of assessment: water and sanitation MDGs in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Zawahri, Neda; Sowers, Jeannie; Weinthal, Erika

    2011-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is generally considered to be making adequate progress towards meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which calls for halving the proportion of the population with inadequate access to drinking water and sanitation. Progress towards achieving Target 10 is evaluated by the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), run by UNICEF and WHO. This article shows that the assessment methodologies employed by the JMP significantly overstate coverage rates in the drinking water and sanitation sectors, by overlooking and ‘not counting’ problems of access, affordability, quality of service and pollution. The authors show that states in MENA often fail to provide safe drinking water and adequate sanitation services, particularly in densely populated informal settlements, and that many centralized water and sanitation infrastructures contribute to water pollution and contamination. Despite the glaring gap between the MDG statistics and the evidence available from national and local reports, exclusionary political regimes in the region have had few incentives to adopt more accurate assessments and improve the quality of service. While international organizations have proposed some reforms, they too lack incentives to employ adequate measures that gauge access, quality and affordability of drinking water and sanitation services.

  7. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-20

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis RAND issue papers explore...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  8. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-10

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis Afghanistan and its...Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  9. Disillusionment with Higher Education in the Middle East and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    University graduates in the Middle East and the United States of America are disillusioned with their higher education degrees. Youth expect to be well employed upon graduation and to improve their social status. Employment has been guaranteed from the earliest university certificates granted in Middle Eastern yeshivas, Houses of Learning, and…

  10. A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in East Africa these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but...

  11. Investigating Students' Behavioural Intention to Adopt and Use Mobile Learning in Higher Education in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raisamo, Roope

    2014-01-01

    Recent penetration of mobile technologies and its services in East Africa has provided a new platform for institutions to widen access to education through mobile learning. Mobile technologies provide learners with flexibility and ubiquity to learn anytime and anywhere via wireless Internet. However, far too little research has been conducted to…

  12. Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…

  13. Lessons from Mount Kilimanjaro: Schooling, Community, and Gender in East Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    This book presents an ethnographic study of a school and community in East Africa. It focuses on the role school plays in the development of the children's identity and relationships to their parents and community, and in the development of the region. At issue here are the competing influences of Western modernity and the cultural traditions of…

  14. Annotated list of Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) from the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania and new Tettigoniidae species from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2013-12-21

    A list of the Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) of the East Usambara Mountains is presented and 16 new species are described from East Africa. A total number of 29 Tettigoniidae species is recorded for the East Usambara Mountains. New species are described from the Shimba Hills in Kenya, coastal Tanzania from the Kazimzumbwi forest reserve, Mt Kilimanjaro, the East and West Usambara and Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania, namely in Conocephalinae Afroagraecia pwania n. sp., Afroagraecia shimbaensis n. sp., Afroanthracites discolor n. sp., Afroanthracites jagoi n. sp. and Afroanthracites viridis n. sp., in Meconematinae Afrophisis flagellata n. sp., Afrophisis kisarawe n. sp., Afrophisis mazumbaiensis n. sp. and Afrophisis pseudoflagellata n. sp., in Hexacentrinae Aerotegmina megaloptera n. sp., in Mecopodinae Apteroscirtus cristatus n. sp., and A. planidorsatus n. sp., in Phaneropterinae Gelotopoia amabilis n. sp., and in Pseudophyllinae Cymatomerella pardopunctata n. sp. and Cymatomera viridimaculata n. sp. Seven species are endemic to the East Usambara Mountains which are 25% of the recorded forest-bound bush crickets. The Tettigoniidae fauna is compared between the East Usambara Mountains and Mt Kilimanjaro and mechanisms of speciation discussed in Orthoptera for the area. New Tettigoniidae records are given for Mt Kilimanjaro (Oxyecous apertus Ragge, Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge and Eurycorypha conclusa Hemp).

  15. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  16. Traditional Music of East Africa: Experiencing "Ngoma" in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ngoma is present throughout Eastern and Southern Africa. Ngoma refers to the tradition of expression via music, drumming, dance, and storytelling. History, values, education, and even identity can be transmitted between generations. This article traces the experiences of a music teacher from the United States traveling and studying…

  17. Crustal Structure of the Middle East from Regional Seismic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, Roland; Sibol, Matthew; Caron, Pierre; Ghalib, Hafidh; Chen, Youlin

    2010-05-01

    We present results of crustal studies obtained with seismic data from the Northern Iraq Seismic Network (NISN). NISN has operated ten broadband stations in north-eastern Iraq since late 2005. This network was supplemented by the five-element broadband Iraq Seismic Array (KSIRS) in 2007. More recently, the former Iraq Seismic Network (ISN), destroyed during the war with Iran, was reestablished with the deployment of six broadband stations throughout Iraq. The aim of the present study is to derive models of the local and regional crustal structure of the Middle East, including Eastern Turkey, Iraq and Iran. To achieve this goal, we derive crustal velocity models using receiver function, surface wave and body wave analyses. These refined velocity models will eventually be used to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. Our analysis of preliminary hypocenter locations produced a clearer picture of the seismicity associated with the tectonics of the region. The largest seismicity rate is confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases in the Bandar Abbas region again. Additionally, the rift zones in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are clearly demarked by high seismicity rates. Surface wave velocity analysis resulted in a clear demarcation of the tectonic features in the region. The Arabian shield, Zagros thrust zone and the Red Sea are apparent through distinct velocity distributions separating them from each other. Furthermore, the shear wave velocity of the crust in North Iraq appears to be 10% higher than that of the Iranian plateau. The velocity anomaly of the Zagros mountains appears to be present into the upper mantle beyond the resolving limit of our model. Analysis of waveform data for obstructed pathways indicates clear propagation paths from the west or south-west across the Arabian shield as well as from the north and east into NISN. Phases

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in east Africa: challenges and possibilities for prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Mhalu, F S; Lyamuya, E

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency infection and AIDS are a major recent microbial infection in east Africa with serious health and socioeconomic impacts in the region. At present HIV infection and AIDS account for more than 50% of adult medical admissions into some of the national and provincial hospitals as well as for 10-15% of paediatric admissions. AIDS is also at present the commonest cause of death among those aged 15-45 years. Tuberculosis, a closely associated disease to HIV infection, has increased more than three fold in some countries in the region. The prevalence of HIV infection currently ranges from 10-30% among adults in urban areas and from less than 1% to 25% in adults in rural areas; since this prevalence is still rising, the full impact of the AIDS problem in east Africa is yet to be realised. This is different from the situation in many developed countries where AIDS is no longer a priority health issue and where peak prevalences of the infection have been reached. The differences in HIV prevalences between east Africa and developed countries are due to poverty, ignorance, high prevalence of other STDs and associated cultural and traditional practices which prevail and facilitate HIV transmission in the region. While more than 80% of HIV infection in east Africa is transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, 5-15% of cases are perinatally transmitted and the remaining cases are transmitted through blood and blood products. While a lot of scientific advances have been made in immunopathology of AIDS, diagnostics and in social behavioural studies, we are still a long way towards getting curative therapy and or effective preventive vaccines. Recent discovery that use of zidovudine can significantly reduce perinatal HIV transmission is an additional breakthrough. While knowledge and tools for preventing HIV transmission are available in the world, prospects for AIDS control in east Africa appear gloomy unless major efforts are made in the reduction of

  19. The Hydroclimate of East Africa: Seasonal cycle, Decadal Variability, and Human-induced Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchang

    The hydroclimate of East Africa shows distinctive variabilities on seasonal to decadal time scales and poses a great challenge to climatologists attempting to project its response to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Increased frequency and intensity of droughts over East Africa in recent decades raise the question of whether the drying trend will continue into the future. To address this question, we first examine the decadal variability of the East African rainfall during March--May (MAM, the major rainy season in East Africa) and assess how well a series of models simulate the observed features. Observational results show that the drying trend during MAM is associated with decadal natural variability of sea surface temperature (SST) variations over the Pacific Ocean. The multimodel mean of the SST-forced, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) AMIP experiment models reproduces both the climatological annual cycle and the drying trend in recent decades. The fully coupled models from the CMIP5 historical experiment, however, have systematic errors in simulating the East African rainfall annual cycle by underestimating the MAM rainfall while overestimating the October--December (OND, the second rainy season in East Africa) rainfall. The multimodel mean of the historical coupled runs of the MAM rainfall anomalies, which is the best estimate of the radiatively-forced change, shows a weak wetting trend associated with anthropogenic forcing. However, the SST anomaly pattern associated with the MAM rainfall has large discrepancies with the observations. The errors in simulating the East African hydroclimate with coupled models raise questions about how reliable model projections of future East African climate are. This motivates a fundamental study of why East African climate is the way it is and why coupled models get it wrong. East African hydroclimate is characterized by a dry annual mean climatology compared to other deep tropical

  20. Plate tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D P; Davies, D; Molnar, P

    1970-04-18

    The relative motion between the plates on each side of the East African Rift Valley can be obtained from the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The calculated direction of relative motion agrees well with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the equator.

  1. Human Resource Education in the Middle East Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirani, Khalil M.; Hamie, Christine Silva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of human resource development (HRD) education in Middle Eastern countries. In particular, the authors discuss the current state of HRD education, country readiness and challenges that hinder HRD progress in Middle Eastern countries. They argue that HRD programs need to prepare young…

  2. Teaching about the Middle East: Challenges and Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Cyrisse

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Petzen began working as a part-time outreach coordinator at Harvard University's Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES) a week before September 11, 2001. She was finishing her dissertation in Middle Eastern studies, specializing in the Ottoman Empire and Arab history, and thought it would be a good job to have while she completed her…

  3. Analysis of dust samples from the Middle East using high-density resequencing micro-array RPM-TEI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leski, T. A.; Gregory, M. J.; Malanoski, A. P.; Smith, J. P.; Glaven, R. H.; Wang, Z.; Stenger, D. A.; Lin, B.

    2010-04-01

    A previously developed resequencing microarray, "Tropical and Emerging Infections (RPM-TEI v.1.0 chip)", designed to identify and discriminate between tropical diseases and other potential biothreat agents, their near-neighbor species, and/or potential confounders, was used to characterize the microbes present in the silt/clay fraction of surface soils and airborne dust collected from the Middle East. Local populations and U.S. military personnel deployed to the Middle East are regularly subjected to high levels of airborne desert dust containing a significant fraction of inhalable particles and some portion require clinical aid. Not all of the clinical symptoms can be directly attributed to the physical action of material in the human respiratory tract. To better understand the potential health effects of the airborne dust, the composition of the microbial communities associated with surface soil and/or airborne dust (air filter) samples from 19 different sites in Iraq and Kuwait was identified using RPM-TEI v.1.0. Results indicated that several microorganisms including a class of rapidly growing Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Brucella, Clostridium and Coxiella burnetti, were present in the samples. The presence of these organisms in the surface soils and the inhalable fraction of airborne dust analyzed may pose a human health risk and warrants further investigation. Better understanding of the factors influencing the composition of these microbial communities is important to address questions related to human health and is critical to achieving Force Health Protection for the Warfighter operating in the Middle East, Afghanistan, North Africa and other arid regions.

  4. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse.

  5. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region

    PubMed Central

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse. PMID:24829628

  6. Obesity Researches Over the Past 24 years: A Scientometrics Study in Middle East Countries

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers call for updated valid evidences to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of obesity. We quantify the trends of obesity/overweight researches outputs of Middle East countries. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, with the most coverage in health and biomedicine disciplines for all related obesity/overweight publications, from 1990 to 2013. These scientometrics analysis assessed the trends of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers in Middle East countries. We also provided Information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the field of obesity/overweight. Results: Over 24-year period, the number of obesity/overweight publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. Globally, during 1990–2013, 415,126 papers have been published, from them, 3.56% were affiliated to Middle East countries. Iran with 26.27%, compare with other countries in the regions, after Turkey (47.94%) and Israel (35.25%), had the third position. Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in research outputs, more efforts required for promotion of collaborative partnerships. Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These findings also could be used for future complementary analysis. PMID:26015861

  7. Usefulness of ECMWF system-4 ensemble seasonal climate forecasts for East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, Geoffrey; Franssen, Wietse; Supit, Iwan; Omondi, Philip; Hutjes, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates whether European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) system-4 seasonal forecasts can potentially be used as input for impact analysis over East Africa. To be of any use, these forecasts should have skill. We used the 15-member ensemble runs and tested potential forecast skill of precipitation (tp), near surface air temperature (tas) and surface downwelling shortwave radiation (rsds) for future use in impact models. Probabilistic measures verified the ECMWF ensemble forecasts against the WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data (WFDEI) climatology for the period 1981-2010. The Ranked Probability Skill Score (RPSS) assesses the overall forecast skill, whereas the Relative Operating Curve Skill Score (ROCSS) analyses skill of the forecasted tercile at both grid cell and over sub-regions with homogeneous rainfall characteristics. The results show that predictability of the three variables varies with season, location and forecast month (lead-time) before start of the seasons. Quantile-quantile bias correction clears biases in the raw forecasts but does not improve probabilistic skills. The October-December (OND) tp forecasts show skill over a larger area up to lead-time of three months compared to the March-May (MAM) and June-August (JJA) seasons. Temperature forecasts are skillful up to a minimum three months lead-time in all seasons, while the rsds is less skillful. ROCSS analyses indicate high skill in simulation of upper- and lower-tercile forecasts compared to simulation of the middle-terciles. Upper- and lower-tercile precipitation forecasts are 20-80% better than climatology over a larger area at 0-3 month lead-time; tas forecasts are 40-100% better at shorter lead-times while rsds forecasts are less skillful in all seasons. The forecast system captures manifestations of strong El Niño and La Niña years in terms of precipitation but the skill scores are region dependent.

  8. Demographics-Based Analytical Framework for the Assessment of Security and Regime Stability: The Case of the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    result of increased participation of women in the Middle East labour markets.37 Already, women are playing a significant role in the economies of some...growing labour pool. The size of both the security apparatus and the public sector in the Middle East is already disproportionately large to the... dissatisfaction and grievance among the youth cohort in the Middle East, it is also perhaps the most attractive to this group. Paradoxically, the Islamist message

  9. Analog models of convergence and divergence: perspectives of the tectonics of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mart, Yossi

    2010-05-01

    propagate continuously like wedge. However, where the deviation exceeds 150, the rifting takes place in two stages. At first a series of structural basins develops along an axial zone with no continuous boundary fault. Then the basins expand in their axial direction and, in time, interconect to form a rift with boundary faults that determine the down-thrown rift from its elevated margins. When these structures were welded into a mountain chain, it would be very complicated to determine the low friction from the high friction subduction, the temporal transition from subduction to collision, and the penetration of a spreading ridge into a tectonic convergence zone. The Middle East offers a unique view into the structural development of the continental lithosphere as it takes place. References: Bellahsen, N., Faccenna, C., Funiciello, F., Daniel J. M., Jolivet, L., 2003. Why did Arabia separate from Africa? Insights from 3-D laboratory experiments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 216, 365-381. Mart, Y. and Dauteuil, O., 2000. Analogue experiments of propagation of oblique rifts. Tectonophysics, 316: 121-132. Mart, Y., Aharonov, E., Mulugeta, G., Ryan, W.B.F., Tentler, T., Goren, L., 2005. Analog modeling of the initiation of subduction. Geophys. J. Int., 160, 1081-1091.

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on the Climate Extremes of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. Tufan; Collu, Kamil; Deler, F. Busra; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    The Middle East is one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. Because of the importance of the region and its vulnerability to global climate change, the studies including the investigation of projected changes in the climate of the Middle East play a crucial role in order to struggle with the negative effects of climate change. This research points out the relationship between the climate change and climate extremes indices in the Middle East and it investigates the changes in the number of extreme events as described by the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). As part of the study, the regional climate model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) is run to obtain future projection data. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  11. Community Palliative Care in Turkey: A Collaborative Promoter to a New Concept in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Hacıkamiloglu, Ezgi; Utku, Ezgi Simsek; Cukurova, Zafer; Keskinkilic, Bekir; Topcu, Ibrahim; Gultekin, Murat; Silbermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East has been struggling with basic issues of cancer care, and in specific, palliative care, at the primary health care level in the communities. The Middle East Cancer Consortium designated this issue as the highest priority of its activities in the region. Following basic and advanced courses and national and international workshops, local governments recognized the essentiality of developing palliative care services in their respective countries. As the result of these training activities, in 2010, the Ministry of Health in Turkey initiated a novel program whereby population-based and home-based palliative care teams were developed throughout the country, including peripheral regions in the countries where appropriate care was not available. This initiative led to a dramatic increase in the number of cancer patients receiving palliative care at their homes. The Turkish initiative can serve as a model to other countries in the Middle East and beyond it.

  12. Making future taxonomy of Niphargus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Niphargidae) in the Middle East easier: DELTA database of Middle East species with description of four new species from Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Rineh, Somayeh; Sari, Alireza; Fišer, Cene

    2015-09-23

    Four new species from the amphipod genus Niphargus are described, namely N. borisi sp. nov., N. bisitunicus sp. nov., N. darvishi sp. nov. and N. sharifi sp. nov. All four species of this predominantly subterranean genus were collected from springs in the Western region of Iran (Zagros region), which is the eastern borderline of the genus range. The species are morphologically diagnosed, described and illustrated. With these newly described species, the total number of Niphargus species in the Middle East reaches twenty-three. In order to facilitate the identification of Niphargus species in the region and to make future taxonomy of the genus easier, we have compiled a database in DEscription Language for TAxonomy (DELTA) using 23 diagnostic traits for these 23 species and subspecies identified in the Middle East. The database is available on the web as supplementary material whereas the dichotomous identification key automatically generated from the database for routine use is provided as a part of the paper.

  13. Seismic Attenuation Studies in the Middle East and Southern Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in which tectonic activity has occurred since the Mesozoic era. These include the East African rift zone (the most prominent feature on the Q map...affected by process occurring during the spreading of the Red Sea. Low Q’s in the Siberian craton lie in a region that was deformed during the Mesozoic

  14. Beyond the desertification narrative: a framework for agricultural drought in semi-arid East Africa.

    PubMed

    Slegers, Monique F W; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2008-07-01

    In the 20th century, much research was done on desertification. Desertification developed into a complex and vague construct that means land degradation under specific conditions. Projects focusing on land degradation in semiarid East Africa have met with limited success because farmers prioritize drought as the major productivity-reducing problem. Yet studies on long-term rainfall trends have not confirmed that droughts are more frequent. In this article, we combine drought and land degradation effects into an Agricultural Drought Framework, which departs from the farmers' prioritization of drought and accommodates scientists' concern for land degradation. It includes meteorological drought, soil water drought, and soil nutrient drought. The framework increases insight into how different land degradation processes influence the vulnerability of land and farmers to drought. A focus on increased rainwater use efficiency will address both problems of land degradation and drought, thereby improving productivity and food security in semiarid East Africa.

  15. Characterisation of mineral dust emission in the Middle EAST using the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennen, M.; Shahgedanova, M.; White, K.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Spinning Enhanced Visual and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on-board Meteosat's second generation satellite (MSG), mineral dust emissions from the Middle East were observed at a high temporal and spatial resolution between the years 2006 and 2013. This research provides a subjective derivation of mineral dust source locations in the Middle East using the thermal infrared Dust RGB product. Focusing on the brightness temperature difference around 10.8 µm channel and their spectral contrast with clear sky conditions, the Dust RGB product has been recognised as a major asset in detecting dust. While the product has already been used to map dust emissions in Sahara and south Africa, this research is the first to map dust emissions in the Middle East using SEVIRI, one of the dustiest regions in the world second only to the Sahara Desert. For every dust storm activation within the Middle East, the point of first emission is derived from visual inspection of each 15 minute image, these points were then recorded in a dust source climatology (DSC) database, along with time and direction of dust movement. To take account of potential errors inherent in this subjective detection method, a degree of confidence is associated with each data point with relevance to time of day (which has a strong effect on ability to detect dust in these products) and weather conditions, in particular presence of clouds. These results are compared with an automated retrieval using Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements form the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS); which, due to its sun-synchronous orbit allows a measurement of dust in the atmosphere once a day. Differences in the spatial distribution of SEVIRI dust sources and MODIS inferred dust source regions can be explained by inherent transport bias in the latter's low sampling rate and prevailing wind conditions. This database will provide an important tool in further understanding dust emission processes in the region

  16. Critical care medicine for emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome: Which point to be considered?

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2015-09-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a new emerging respiratory tract infection. This coronavirus infection is firstly reported from the Middle East, and it becomes threat for the global public health at present due to its existence in a remote area such as USA and Korea. The concern on the management of the patients is very important. Since most of the patients can develop severe respiratory illness and critical care management is needed, the issue on critical care for MERS is the topic to be discussed in critical medicine.

  17. Food and water security scenarios for East Africa over next 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Broad areas of East Africa face chronic water and agricultural insecurity. Over the last decade, the region has experienced frequent drought events leading to food security emergencies and even famine in Somalia in 2011. The impact of these drought events, associated with recent declines in rainfall during major growing seasons, has been particularly severe due to the high vulnerability of subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods, rapid population growth, and the limited availability of resources for agricultural development and climate change adaptation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity that brings together international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and food security information in Africa and other regions of the developing world. To assist USAID with planning agricultural development strategies over the next ten years in East Africa, FEWS NET is partnering with climate scientists and adaptation specialists at regional institutions to study and assess future changes in precipitation and temperature in light of global climate change, natural climate variability, and their related impacts on agricultural and water security in the region. The overarching objective of this study is to provide future scenarios of food and water security (as estimated by trends in soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff) for East Africa. We do so by following two approaches: Constructed Analogs and the Composite Delta Method. In the first approach we downscaled climate projections (precipitation and temperature projections) of long-term Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) experiments over (a) historical (1850-2005) and (b) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (2006-2030) periods. Current climate is characterized by two ENSO modes, the intensity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the strength

  18. Access to orphan drugs in the Middle East: Challenge and perspective

    PubMed Central

    Almalki, Ziyad S.; Alahmari, Abdullah K.; Guo, Jeff J.; Kelton, Christina M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary An orphan drug is a drug developed specifically to treat a rare medical condition. With a combined population of less than 400 million, about 2.8 million patients are estimated to be suffering from a rare disease in the Middle East. Some disorders such as hemoglobinopathy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, autosomal recessive syndromes, and several metabolic disorders have a presence throughout the Middle East. In order to promote the treatment of these diseases, Middle Eastern governments need to facilitate education and training of healthcare personnel; develop and execute a method for obtaining and paying for orphan drugs; and, finally, provide tax, marketing, and other incentives to domestic and international firms to develop drugs specifically for the diseases of most importance to Middle Eastern patients. PMID:25343087

  19. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  20. Vegetation Change in East Africa Under the Influence of Tectonic Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fer, I.; Tietjen, B.; Jeltsch, F.; Trauth, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Today, when we look at the tropical latitudes all around the world, we see rainforests more or less everywhere, except the easternmost parts of tropical East Africa. Why do the environmental conditions elsewhere in the tropics support the rainforest biomes but not in East Africa? The suggested explanation for this is the progressive tectonic uplift of the region. The uplift of eastern African topography, together with the changes in Earth's orbital forcing, resulted in the aridification of the region over the past 10 million years. It follows that there must have been rainforest environments in tropical East Africa before the uplift began and there is evidence to support this claim. Then, it raises the questions about how extensive these forests were, when and under which environmental conditions they started to fragment and grasslands took over. To address these questions we ran a dynamic vegetation model under experimental scenarios with varying precipitation, temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration values. Our results show that even an increase of rainfall by 100% with respect to present-day conditions is not enough by itself for sustaining forest biomes at the easternmost parts of tropical East Africa. Within the range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations estimated for the late Miocene (9 Ma) [250-320 ppmv], decrease in temperature must also accompany the increase in rainfall to support the woody vegetation. Although an increase in arboreal cover at the expense of herbaceous vegetation could clearly be simulated all over the region, a continuous forest cover was only established at the south of the equator which fragmented with the decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures in the region.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of four East Africa Geologic Provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Four geologic provinces along the east coast of Africa recently were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 27.6 billion barrels of oil, 441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 13.77 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  2. Skill Assessment of National Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts for Seasonal Drought Prediction in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Hoell, A.; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, C. C.; Robertson, F. R.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. As recently as 2011, part of this region underwent one of the worst famine events in its history. Timely and skillful drought forecasts at a seasonal scale for this region can inform better water and agro-pastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts. However, seasonal drought prediction in this region faces several challenges including lack of skillful seasonal rainfall forecasts. The National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME); a state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system is potentially a promising tool for drought prediction in this region. The NMME incorporates climate forecasts from 6+ fully coupled dynamical models resulting in 100+ forecasts ensemble members. Recent studies have indicated that in general NMME offers improvement over forecasts from any of the individual model. However, thus far the skill of NMME for forecasting rainfall in a vulnerable region like East Africa has largely been unexplored. In this presentation we report findings of a comprehensive analysis that examines the strength and weakness of NMME in forecasting rainfall at seasonal scale in East Africa for all three of the prominent seasons of the region. (i.e. March-April-May, July-August-September, and October-November-December). Additionally we describe a hybrid approach that combines statistical method with NMME forecasts to improve rainfall forecast skill in the region when raw NMME forecasts skill is lacking. This approach uses constructed analog method to improve NMME's March-April-May rainfall forecast skill in East Africa.

  3. Aedes (Stegomyia) Bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), The Yellow Fever Virus Vector in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    J. Med. Entomol. Vol. 23, no. 2: 196-200 31 March 1986 AEDES (STEGOLMYIA) BROMELIAE (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE), THE YELLOW FEVER VIRUS VECTOR IN EAST...lilii, and Ae. bromeliae). The species from which Mahaffy, Had- dow, and others isolated yellow fever virus , and which is the most common and...and western Africa but is less prevalent than Ae. bromeliae, and no females have been recorded as biting man. Literature refer- ences to Ae

  4. Seasonal drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Greg; Funk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    In East Africa, agriculture is mostly rainfed and hence sensitive to interannual rainfall variability, and the increasing food and water demands of a growing population place further stresses on the water resources of this region. Skillful seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform timely water and agricultural management decisions, support the proper allocation of the region's water resources, and help mitigate socio-economic losses. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal drought forecast system that is being used for providing seasonal outlooks of agricultural drought in East Africa. We present a test case of the evaluation and applicability of this system for March-April-May growing season over equatorial East Africa (latitude 20 south to 80 North and 360 E to 460E) that encompasses one of the most food insecure and climatically and socio-economically vulnerable regions in East Africa. This region experienced famine as recently as in 2011. The system described here combines advanced satellite and re-analysis as well as station-based long term and real-time observations (e.g. NASA's TRMM, Infra-red remote sensing, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system (NCEP's Climate Forecast System Verison-2) and large scale land surface models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity, NASA's Land Information System) to provide forecasts of seasonal rainfall, soil moisture and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) throughout the season - with an emphasis on times when water is the most critical: start of season/planting and the mid-season/crop reproductive phase. Based on the hindcast assessment of this system, we demonstrate the value of this approach to the US Agency for International Development (USAID)'s efforts to mitigate future losses of lives and economic losses by allowing a proactive approach of drought management that includes early warning and timely action.

  5. East Africa seminar and workshop of remote sensing of natural resources and environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    Report on total program covering East Africa Seminar and Workshop on remote sensing of natural resources and the environment held in Nairobi, Kenya, March 21 April 3, 1974, attended by participants from 10 English-speaking African nations. Appendices are included for Seminar proceedings, workshop lectures and outlines, field trip reports and critiques by participants, and reports on potential applications of an operational earth resources satellite for the participating countries.

  6. STS-55 Earth observation of Lake Natron, Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Lake Natron in Tansania, in the 35-mile-wide East African Rift Valley. This lake is surrounded by sodium carbonate volcanoes. Through erosion, these salts of volcanic origin are transported into the rift valley lakes. The various shades of bright red reflecting from the lake result from the water chemistry and biotic blooms. The white spots in the lakebed are drying soda salts. The depth and circulation of the water in the southern end of the lake cause it to appear dark blue rather than bright red. In the repeated photographs of this lake from orbit, we have seen the extent and intensity of its colors fluctuate seasonally. In this photograph, the biotic activity appears to be at a peak. Such a large extent of red-colored water was not present in the photos taken from STS-56, just a few days before (04-10-93).

  7. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  8. Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of East Africa. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in East Africa owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in East Africa during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.

  9. Middle East Studies Teacher Training Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    This guide presents a teacher training program in Middle Eastern studies and procedures for program implementation. Details concerning program announcement, participant selection, and travel accommodations are included. Participants attended an orientation and registration workshop and an intensive academic workshop before flying to Egypt for the…

  10. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries.

    PubMed

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F; Al-Hazmi, Ali M; Warsy, Arjumand S

    2011-11-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries.

  11. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A. F.; Al-Hazmi, Ali M.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2011-01-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  12. The "Repoliticization" of Islam in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Robert W.; Abell, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Islamic fundamentalist groups are demanding political power and posing stiff changes to Middle Eastern regimes. The attainment of political independence, modernization, the incorporation of millions of newcomers as active participants in the political process, and the inability to deal effectively with Israel have contributed to conditions…

  13. Four-year study of Middle East and Sahara dust intrusions in terms of particle lidar ratio: Observations with lidar and sun/sky photometer over Limassol, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisantzi, Argyro; Elisavet Mamouri, Rodanthi; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Ansmann, Albert

    2015-04-01

    The remote sensing station of the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) at Limassol (34.7oN, 33oE, 50m above sea level a.s.l.) is located in the southeast part of the Mediterranean (150km south of Turkey and 250km west of Syria) and dust aerosol components from Sahara and Middle East deserts comprise the major sources of dust layers in the study area. The CUT station is equipped with a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidar and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun/sky photometer. The combined database of four years (2010 -2013) of observations was used to compare extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios) for dust from Middle East and Sahara deserts. For the first time, a long-term lidar study on the lidar ratio of Middle East desert dust is presented. The results are compared with respective findings for Saharan dust outbreaks. The Limassol lidar station at the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean Sea is unique because it is the only site of the EARLINET which is influenced by a statistically significant number (5-7) of Middle East dust outbreaks each year as well as by numerous Saharan dust outbreaks (>10 per year). For this analysis we considered 17 major dust outbreaks from the Middle East and 32 dust outbreaks from North Africa. Simultaneous EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations were conducted at Limassol almost day by day over the four year period from April 2010 to December 2013. The quality of the retrieval is checked within a case study by comparing the results with respective Raman lidar solutions for particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio. The applied combined lidar/photometer retrievals corroborate recent findings regarding the difference between Middle East and Saharan desert dust lidar ratios. We found values from 44-65 sr with a mean value of 52.7 sr for Saharan dust and from 35-46 sr with a mean value of 41.1 sr for Middle East dust. The presented data analysis, however, also demonstrates the

  14. Automated inter-station phase velocity measurements across the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawy, Amr; Weidle, Christian; Christiano, Luigia; Soomro, Riaz; Lebedev, Sergi; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the lithosphere in northeastern Africa, eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East is highly variable. It ranges from young oceanic lithosphere in the Red Sea to what is considered the oldest oceanic lithosphere on Earth in the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya, and from highly deformed continental lithosphere at the east-Mediterranean margins to more stable continental lithosphere of Phanerozoic origin and to cratonic lithosphere beneath the Arabian Peninsula. Details of the lithospheric structure are, however, poorly known. Surface waves are ideally suited for studies of the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by surface wave tomography. Using regional to teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about its seismic structure by examining phase velocities as a function of frequency. A newly developed algorithm for automated inter-station phase velocity measurements (Soomro et al. 2016) is applied here to obtain both Rayleigh and Love fundamental mode phase velocities. We utilize a database consisting of more than 3800 regional and teleseismic earthquakes recorded by more than 1850 broadband seismic stations within the area, provided by the European Integrated Data Archive (WebDc/EIDA) and IRIS. Moreover, for the first time, data from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), recorded by up to 25 broad band seismic stations, is also included in the analysis. For each station pair approximately located on the same great circle path, the recorded waveforms are cross correlated and the dispersion curves of fundamental modes are calculated from the phase of the weighted cross correlation functions. Path average dispersion curves are obtained by averaging the smooth parts of single-event dispersion curves. Parameters tests and preliminary results of automatically measured phase velocities are

  15. An evaluation of GRACE groundwater estimates over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanteza, J.; Thomas, B. F.; de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The East African (EA) region, comprised of five countries (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi), is among those regions characterized as vulnerable to water stress. The region's freshwater resources, both surface and groundwater, are impacted due to increased pressure from changes in climate and human activities. Better management approaches are required to ensure that these pressures do not significantly impact water availability and accessibility. However, the lack of adequate ground-based observation networks to monitor freshwater resources - especially groundwater (the major source of freshwater in EA), limits effective management of the available water resources. In this study, we explore the potential of using remotely sensed data to monitor freshwater resources over EA. The study uses data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite to estimate groundwater storage variations over EA during the last decade. The satellite's performance in accurately observing changes in groundwater storage is examined by evaluating the GRACE groundwater estimates against spatially interpolated in-situ groundwater observations using goodness of fit criteria including linear regression coefficient, coefficient of determination and root mean square errors. The results demonstrate that GRACE performs well in observing the behavior of groundwater storage. These results can be useful in improving land surface model simulations - a basis for better decision making in water resources management in the region.

  16. Persistence of Rift Valley fever virus in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gachohi, J.; Hansen, F.; Bett, B.; Kitala, P.

    2012-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv) is a mosquito-borne pathogen of livestock, wildlife and humans that causes severe outbreaks in intervals of several years. One of the open questions is how the virus persists between outbreaks. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based simulation model of the RVFv transmission dynamics to investigate this question. The model, is based on livestock and mosquito population dynamics. Spatial aspects are explicitly represented by a set of grid cells that represent mosquito breeding sites. A grid cell measures 500 by 500m and the model considers a grid of 100 by 100 grid cells; the model thus operates on the regional scale of 2500km2. Livestock herds move between grid cells, and provide connectivity between the cells. The model is used to explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of RVFv persistence in absence of a wildlife reservoir in an east African semi-arid context. Specifically, the model assesses the importance of local virus persistence in mosquito breeding sites relative to global virus persistence mitigated by movement of hosts. Local persistence is determined by the length of time the virus remains in a mosquito breeding site once introduced. In the model, this is a function of the number of mosquitoes that emerge infected and their lifespan. Global persistence is determined by the level of connectivity between isolated grid cells. Our work gives insights into the ecological and epidemiological conditions under which RVFv persists. The implication for disease surveillance and management are discussed.

  17. Enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance of travelers from the Middle East to England.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Helen Lucy; Zhao, Hongxin; Green, Helen K; Boddington, Nicola L; Carvalho, Carlos F A; Osman, Husam K; Sadler, Carol; Zambon, Maria; Bermingham, Alison; Pebody, Richard G

    2014-09-01

    During the first year of enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance in England, 77 persons traveling from the Middle East had acute respiratory illness and were tested for the virus. Infection was confirmed in 2 travelers with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2 of their contacts. Patients with less severe manifestations tested negative.

  18. News from the Middle East in Five U.S. Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the Middle East news items covered by four newspapers and one television network revealed that the coverage was concentrated mostly on Israel, Egypt, and Iran; that most items were presented in a neutral fashion; and that more items were treated positively than negatively. (GT)

  19. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  20. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  1. A Matter of Perspective: Teaching International Relations in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author looks at several popular international relations textbooks in light of his experience teaching students in the Middle East. He finds that, for their many strengths, most of the books lack some key features that would make them more useful for students abroad.

  2. Dissemination of carbapenemases producing Gram negative bacteria in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi bialvaei, Abed; Samadi kafil, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo, Hamed; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria, that hydolyze most β-lactams, including carbapenems, are a major concern of public health system worldwide, particularly in the Middle East area. Since the plasmids harboring resistance genes could be spread across other bacterial populations, detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms has become more problematic. These organisms produce different types of enzymes including the most prevalent types including KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Carbapenemase producers are mostly identified among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. This study reviewed almost all papers, which conducted in the Middle East. In order to decrease the spread of resistance, the regional cooperation has been emphasized by the Middle East countries. The highest resistance, which is mediated by KPC has been observed in Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia and Jordan followed by NDM in Pakistan and OXA in Turkey and Pakistan. It is important to mention that the spread of these types have been reported sporadically in the other countries of this area. This review described the widespread carbapenemases in the Middle East area, which have been identified in an alarming rate. PMID:26719779

  3. A Song for Humanistic Education: Pedagogy and Politics in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: If we take as a given the desirability of an education that promotes principles of respect, pluralism, rational critical inquiry, compassion, innovation, and excellence, then humanistic pedagogies should be paramount to that educational vision. Yet humanistic education in the Middle East has been on the demise in past decades…

  4. Escaping from Sunday School: Teaching "The Middle East" in the Setting of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The article argues that, in the teaching of religion at undergraduate level, many students approach understanding the historical or contemporary Middle East in ways that are coloured by what they think is biblical knowledge or basic Christian beliefs. This is less noticeable for students in disciplines such as history or politics. Many history or…

  5. The Middle East Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This book contains blank outline maps of the continent/region, tables and graphics depicting the size, population, resources and water, commodities , trade, cities, languages, religions, industry, energy, food and agriculture, demographic statistics, aspects of the national economies, and aspects of the national governments of the Middle East.…

  6. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  7. Seeing Other Sides: Nongame Simulations and Alternative Perspectives of Middle East Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylouny, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Simple role-play simulations can not only demonstrate the dynamics of a conflict but also create awareness of multiple perspectives even among populations relatively set in their opinions. To teach my student population of military officers, I utilize simple, nongame simulations of multisided Middle East conflicts that not only facilitate learning…

  8. The American Role in Education in the Middle East: Ideology and Experiment, 1920-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ment, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In a significant 1925 essay, "Western Education in Moslem Lands", Paul Monroe addressed the emerging cultural and political forces faced by American educators in the Middle East. Monroe was widely recognised at the time as editor of the Cyclopedia of Education and director of the International Institute of Teachers College, Columbia…

  9. Middle East Security Issues: In the Shadow of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    states to acquire nuclear weapons. In 1987, for example, Qadhafi s ta ted that “we should be l ike the Chi- nese—poor and r id ing donkeys ...UK). Dr. Ibrahim A. Karawan is the associate director of the Middle East Center a t the Univers i ty of Utah and a member of the faculty

  10. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  11. Strategic Requirements for the Army to the Year 2000. Volume V. Middle East and Southwest Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1981. 13. Hanna Batata , "Some Observations in the Social Roots of Syria’s Ruling... Batata , Hanna. "Some Observations in the Social Roots of Syria’s -Ruling Military Group and the Causes for its Dominance," Middle East Journal

  12. Modern Tools of Propaganda: Television Treatments of National Anthems in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    Because of the close proximity of countries in the Middle East, broadcast signals freely cross national boundaries, bringing not always friendly endemic populations into contact with each other through radio and television programming--a fact that has not been lost on the governments which fund broadcasting facilities. National anthems are…

  13. Acute middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wernery, Ulrich; Corman, Victor M; Wong, Emily Y M; Tsang, Alan K L; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K P; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Drosten, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother-calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.

  14. TeachMideast: An Educational Initiative of the Middle East Policy Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzen, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity wherein she uses the first Arab Human Development Report to examine not only the levels and measures of development in the Arab countries of the Middle East, but also to examine the act of measuring itself. The goal of the Arab Human Development Report is to measure "development in all its…

  15. At the Crossroads of the World: Women of the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret S.; Pervez, Nadia; Katz, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    The authors offer a brief introduction to the history of women of the Middle East, with a focus on three major religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Schools are paying increased attention to teaching world history, but they are giving too little attention to incorporating women as part of world history. One of the major dividing lines…

  16. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives,…

  17. Launching of an American Medical College in the Middle East: "Educational Challenges in a Multicultural Environment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajjar, David P.; Gotto, Antonio M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The graduation of the first class of medical students in May 2008 from the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q), Cornell University's branch campus in the Middle East, was the first time that an M.D. degree from an American university was awarded abroad. It marked a milestone in American higher education. The establishment of WCMC-Q is…

  18. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  19. Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Jos; Beirle, Steffen; Hörmann, Christoph; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century. PMID:26601240

  20. Fibrous calcite from the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation (east Tennessee)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.J.; Walker, K.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Fibrous calcite from buildups, which occur near the top of the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation, were examined from two localities near Knoxville, TN (Alcoa Highway and Deanne Quarry). Buildups at these localities were deposited under open-marine conditions, slightly down-slope from the platform edge. Fibrous calcite (mainly radiaxial fibrous) occur most commonly as cements in mainly stromatactis structures present in bioherms and intergranular porosity in beds that flank bioherms. Fibrous calcite is interpreted to have been precipitated in a marine setting. Fibrous calcite is uniformly turbid or banded with interlayered turbid and clearer cement. Fibrous calcite most commonly shows patchy or blotchy dull-non-luminescence under cathodoluminescence. Bands of uniformly non-luminescent and relatively bright luminescent calcite are present. [delta][sup 13]C compositions of fibrous calcite vary little (0.6 to 1.0%) but [delta][sup 18]O values are highly variable ([minus]4.8 to [minus]7.1%). Post-marine cement consists of ferroan and non-ferroan, dull luminescent equant calcite ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]8.6 to [minus]11.5) and is interpreted as precipitated in a deep meteoric or burial setting. Depleted [delta][sup 18]O compositions of fibrous calcite reflect addition of post-depositional calcite during stabilization. Most enriched [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O fibrous calcite composition are similar to enriched values from other Middle Ordovician southern Appalachian buildups (other localities of Holston (TN) and Effna (VA) formations) ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]3.9 to [minus]4.8) and may reflect fibrous calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with Middle Ordovician sea water.

  1. Diabetes research in Middle East countries; a scientometrics study from 1990 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peykari, Niloofar; Djalalinia, Shirin; Kasaeian, Amir; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Hasannia, Tahereh; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes burden is a serious warning for urgent action plan across the world. Knowledge production in this context could provide evidences for more efficient interventions. Aimed to that, we quantify the trend of diabetes research outputs of Middle East countries focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, and international collaboration. Materials and Methods: This scientometrics study was performed based on the systematic analysis through three international databases; ISI, PubMed, and Scopus from 1990 to 2012. International collaboration of Middle East countries and citations was analyzed based on Scopus. Diabetes’ publications in Iran specifically were assessed, and frequent used terms were mapped by VOSviewer software. Results: Over 23-year period, the number of diabetes publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. The number of articles on diabetes in ISI, PubMed, and Scopus were respectively; 13,994, 11,336, and 20,707. Turkey, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt have devoted the five top competition positions. In addition, Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Iran in all databases stands on third position and produced 12.7% of diabetes publications within region. Regarding diabetes researches, the frequent used terms in Iranian articles were “effect,” “woman,” and “metabolic syndrome.” Conclusion: Ascending trend of diabetes research outputs in Middle East countries is appreciated but encouraging to strategic planning for maintaining this trend, and more collaboration between researchers is needed to regional health promotion. PMID:26109972

  2. Middle Stone Age bedding construction and settlement patterns at Sibudu, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Lyn; Sievers, Christine; Bamford, Marion; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Miller, Christopher

    2011-12-09

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) is associated with early behavioral innovations, expansions of modern humans within and out of Africa, and occasional population bottlenecks. Several innovations in the MSA are seen in an archaeological sequence in the rock shelter Sibudu (South Africa). At ~77,000 years ago, people constructed plant bedding from sedges and other monocotyledons topped with aromatic leaves containing insecticidal and larvicidal chemicals. Beginning at ~73,000 years ago, bedding was burned, presumably for site maintenance. By ~58,000 years ago, bedding construction, burning, and other forms of site use and maintenance intensified, suggesting that settlement strategies changed. Behavioral differences between ~77,000 and 58,000 years ago may coincide with population fluctuations in Africa.

  3. Genetic evidence for complexity in ethnic differentiation and history in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Poloni, Estella S; Naciri, Yamama; Bucho, Rute; Niba, Régine; Kervaire, Barbara; Excoffier, Laurent; Langaney, André; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2009-11-01

    The Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan language families come into contact in Western Ethiopia. Ethnic diversity is particularly high in the South, where the Nilo-Saharan Nyangatom and the Afro-Asiatic Daasanach dwell. Despite their linguistic differentiation, both populations rely on a similar agripastoralist mode of subsistence. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA extracted from Nyangatom and Daasanach archival sera revealed high levels of diversity, with most sequences belonging to the L haplogroups, the basal branches of the mitochondrial phylogeny. However, in sharp contrast with other Ethiopian populations, only 5% of the Nyangatom and Daasanach sequences belong to haplogroups M and N. The Nyangatom and Daasanach were found to be significantly differentiated, while each of them displays close affinities with some Tanzanian populations. The strong genetic structure found over East Africa was neither associated with geography nor with language, a result confirmed by the analysis of 6711 HVS-I sequences of 136 populations mainly from Africa. Processes of migration, language shift and group absorption are documented by linguists and ethnographers for the Nyangatom and Daasanach, thus pointing to the probably transient and plastic nature of these ethnic groups. These processes, associated with periods of isolation, could explain the high diversity and strong genetic structure found in East Africa.

  4. Connecting Science and Stakeholders for Improved Drought and Crop Productivity Assessments in East Africa: Early Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S. L.; Macharia, D.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is the 'backbone' of the economies in East Africa and is dominated by smallholder farms that are mainly rain-fed and highly vulnerable to climate change, variability, and drought. However the region lacks access to developed, reliable, and effective data and analysis to guide planning for agriculture and drought mitigation. Advances in remote sensing technologies and associated tools enable the collection and quantitative analysis of observations over large geographic regions. As such, data from remote sensing platforms have become a critical tool in developed countries for climate adaptation, water resources management, drought planning and mitigation, and agriculture. Yet barriers remain in Africa due to cost (even as costs decline), issues of sustainability, and lack of capacity and expertise. A shift must be facilitated at the policy maker and practitioner level to adopt or incorporate remote sensing observations and analysis to make better, more informed decisions for drought and agricultural management and planning. Based on an on-going NASA-USAID SERVIR East Africa Drought and Crop Productivity project, recent experience is presented to illustrate best practices and lessons learned in transitioning NASA Earth Science research results to decision making in Kenya through capacity building.

  5. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ∼17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (∼100 ka) and Kisaaka (∼50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ∼7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (∼4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  6. Impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; Worden, John R.; Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Henze, Daven K.

    2016-05-01

    Significant progress has been made in identifying the influence of different processes and emissions on the summertime enhancements of free tropospheric ozone (O3) at northern midlatitude regions. However, the exact contribution of regional emissions, chemical and transport processes to these summertime enhancements is still not well quantified. Here we focus on quantifying the influence of regional emissions on the summertime O3 enhancements over the Middle East, using updated reactive nitrogen (NOx) emissions. We then use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model with these updated NOx emissions to show that the global total contribution of lightning NOx on middle free tropospheric O3 over the Middle East is about 2 times larger than that from global anthropogenic sources. The summertime middle free tropospheric O3 enhancement is primarily due to Asian NOx emissions, with approximately equivalent contributions from Asian anthropogenic activities and lightning. In the Middle Eastern lower free troposphere, lightning NOx from Europe and North America and anthropogenic NOx from Middle Eastern local emissions are the primary sources of O3. This work highlights the critical role of lightning NOx on northern midlatitude free tropospheric O3 and the important effect of the Asian summer monsoon on the export of Asian pollutants.

  7. Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa.

    PubMed

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Beard, K Christopher; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Soe, Aung Naing; Sein, Chit; Lazzari, Vincent; Marivaux, Laurent; Marandat, Bernard; Swe, Myat; Rugbumrung, Mana; Lwin, Thit; Valentin, Xavier; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-26

    Reconstructing the origin and early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) is a current focus of paleoprimatology. Although earlier hypotheses frequently supported an African origin for anthropoids, recent discoveries of older and phylogenetically more basal fossils in China and Myanmar indicate that the group originated in Asia. Given the Oligocene-Recent history of African anthropoids, the colonization of Africa by early anthropoids hailing from Asia was a decisive event in primate evolution. However, the fossil record has so far failed to constrain the nature and timing of this pivotal event. Here we describe a fossil primate from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, Afrasia djijidae gen. et sp. nov., that is remarkably similar to, yet dentally more primitive than, the roughly contemporaneous North African anthropoid Afrotarsius. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Afrasia and Afrotarsius are sister taxa within a basal anthropoid clade designated as the infraorder Eosimiiformes. Current knowledge of eosimiiform relationships and their distribution through space and time suggests that members of this clade dispersed from Asia to Africa sometime during the middle Eocene, shortly before their first appearance in the African fossil record. Crown anthropoids and their nearest fossil relatives do not appear to be specially related to Afrotarsius, suggesting one or more additional episodes of dispersal from Asia to Africa. Hystricognathous rodents, anthracotheres, and possibly other Asian mammal groups seem to have colonized Africa at roughly the same time or shortly after anthropoids gained their first toehold there.

  8. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  9. Middle East: Iran isn't missed much

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A concerted effort to further develop productive capacity is evident in most Middle Eastern Countries, through exploration, field development, and secondary recovery. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Abu Dhabi all plan expanded petroleum industry programs in 1980. Oil production in Saudi Arabia through the first one-half of 1980 averaged 9.5 million bpd, and the Saudis are proceeding with the large-scale associated gas utilization and industrialization program. Iraq's near-term interest is in development of the Majnoon Discovery. Abu Dhabi is continuing efforts to complete development of a giant offshore field and finalize an onshore/offshore associated gas utilization facility. Only Iran and Kuwait are expected to be relatively inactive in petroleum programs during the remainder of 1980. Individual country reports are presented for Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, Kuwait, the Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, South Yemen, and Yemen Arab Republic.

  10. Sunspots, El Niño, and the levels of Lake Victoria, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stager, J. Curt; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Conway, Declan; Verburg, Piet; Mason, Peter J.

    2007-08-01

    An association of high sunspot numbers with rises in the level of Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the focus of many investigations and vigorous debate during the last century. In this paper, we show that peaks in the ~11-year sunspot cycle were accompanied by Victoria level maxima throughout the 20th century, due to the occurrence of positive rainfall anomalies ~1 year before solar maxima. Similar patterns also occurred in at least five other East African lakes, which indicates that these sunspot-rainfall relationships were broadly regional in scale. Although irradiance fluctuations associated with the sunspot cycle are weak, their effects on tropical rainfall could be amplified through interactions with sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation systems, including ENSO. If this Sun-rainfall relationship persists in the future, then sunspot cycles can be used for long-term prediction of precipitation anomalies and associated outbreaks of insect-borne disease in much of East Africa. In that case, unusually wet rainy seasons and Rift Valley Fever epidemics should occur a year or so before the next solar maximum, which is expected to occur in 2011-2012 AD.

  11. Change in land water storage in the East Africa region inferred from GRACE and altimetry data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.

    2008-12-01

    Drought can be regarded as one of the most damaging of natural disasters in human, environmental, and economic terms. It occurs as a result of extremes in climate that are driven by natural variability but may be exacerbated or dampened by anthropogenic influences. In East Africa rainfall exhibits a great spatial and temporal variability. Such events have impact on the water budget of this region. But water use and more generally anthropogenic forcing also affect regional hydrology. In this study, we investigate water storage change (surface and ground) using in synergy satellite radar altimetry, GRACE satellite gravity and other data to quantify recent change in surface waters and total land storage in East Africa over the recent years. Water levels of most East African lakes display significant decrease since the strong ENSO event of 1997- 1998. GRACE data available since 2002 also show decrease in total water storage over this region. The volume of water stored within lakes and reservoirs is a sensitive proxy for precipitation and may be used to study the combined impact of climate change and water-resource management. We also combine GRACE, altimetry and precipitation data sets to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal and interannual hydrological balance of this area and its link with the western Indian Ocean thermal change

  12. Agricultural nematology in East and Southern Africa: problems, management strategies and stakeholder linkages.

    PubMed

    Talwana, Herbert; Sibanda, Zibusiso; Wanjohi, Waceke; Kimenju, Wangai; Luambano-Nyoni, Nessie; Massawe, Cornel; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Davies, Keith G; Hunt, David J; Sikora, Richard A; Coyne, Danny L; Gowen, Simon R; Kerry, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    By 2050, Africa's population is projected to exceed 2 billion. Africa will have to increase food production more than 50% in the coming 50 years to meet the nutritional requirements of its growing population. Nowhere is the need to increase agricultural productivity more pertinent than in much of Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is currently static or declining. Optimal pest management will be essential, because intensification of any system creates heightened selection pressures for pests. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their damage potential are intertwined with intensified systems and can be an indicator of unsustainable practices. As soil pests, nematodes are commonly overlooked or misdiagnosed, particularly where appropriate expertise and knowledge transfer systems are meager or inadequately funded. Nematode damage to roots results in less efficient root systems that are less able to access nutrients and water, which can produce symptoms typical of water or nutrient deficiency, leading to misdiagnosis of the underlying cause. Damage in subsistence agriculture is exacerbated by growing crops on degraded soils and in areas of low water retention where strong root growth is vital. This review focuses on the current knowledge of economically important nematode pests affecting key crops, nematode control methods and the research and development needs for sustainable management, stakeholder involvement and capacity building in the context of crop security in East and Southern Africa, especially Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe.

  13. Community-based carbon sequestration in East Africa: Linking science and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultman, N. E.

    2004-12-01

    International agreements on climate change have set the stage for an expanding market for greenhouse gas emissions reduction credits. Projects that can generate credits for trading are diverse, but one of the more controversial types involve biological carbon sequestration. For several reasons, most of the activity on these "sinks" projects has been in Latin America and Southeast Asia. Yet people in sub-saharan Africa could benefit from properly implemented projects. This poster will discuss estimates of the potential and risks of such projects in East Africa, and will describe in detail a case study located in central Tanzania and now part of the World Bank's BioCarbon Fund portfolio. Understanding climate variability and risk can effectively link international agreements on climate change, local realities of individual projects, and the characteristics of targeted ecosystems.

  14. Dominant Middle East oil reserves critically important to world supply

    SciTech Connect

    Riva, J.P. Jr. . Congressional Research Service)

    1991-09-23

    This paper reports that the location production, and transportation of the 60 million bbl of oil consumed in the world each day is of vital importance to relations between nations, as well as to their economic wellbeing. Oil has frequently been a decisive factor in the determination of foreign policy. The war in the Persian Gulf, while a dramatic example of the critical importance of oil, is just the latest of a long line of oil-influenced diplomatic/military incidents, which may be expected to continue. Assuming that the world's remaining oil was evenly distributed and demand did not grow, if exploration and development proceeded as efficiently as they have in the U.S., world oil production could be sustained at around current levels to about the middle of the next century. It then would begin a long decline in response to a depleting resource base. However, the world's remaining oil is very unevenly distributed. It is located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, mostly in the Persian Gulf, and much is controlled by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Scientific resource assessments indicate that about half of the world's remaining conventionally recoverable crude oil resource occurs in the Persian Gulf area. In terms of proved reserves (known recoverable oil), the Persian Gulf portion increase to almost two-thirds.

  15. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

  16. Seasonal Drought Prediction in East Africa: Can National Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, Christopher; Robertson, F. R.; Hoell, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. As recently as in 2011 part of this region underwent one of the worst famine events in its history. Timely and skillful drought forecasts at seasonal scale for this region can inform better water and agro-pastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts. However seasonal drought prediction in this region faces several challenges. Lack of skillful seasonal rainfall forecasts; the focus of this presentation, is one of those major challenges. In the past few decades, major strides have been taken towards improvement of seasonal scale dynamical climate forecasts. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) is one such state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system. The NMME incorporates climate forecasts from 6+ fully coupled dynamical models resulting in 100+ ensemble member forecasts. Recent studies have indicated that in general NMME offers improvement over forecasts from any single model. However thus far the skill of NMME for forecasting rainfall in a vulnerable region like the East Africa has been unexplored. In this presentation we report findings of a comprehensive analysis that examines the strength and weakness of NMME in forecasting rainfall at seasonal scale in East Africa for all three of the prominent seasons for the region. (i.e. March-April-May, July-August-September and October-November- December). Simultaneously we also describe hybrid approaches; that combine statistical approaches with NMME forecasts; to improve rainfall forecast skill in the region when raw NMME forecasts lack in skill.

  17. Seasonal Drought Prediction in East Africa: Can National Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, Christopher; Robertson, F. R.; Hoell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. As recently as in 2011 part of this region underwent one of the worst famine events in its history. Timely and skillful drought forecasts at seasonal scale for this region can inform better water and agro-pastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts. However seasonal drought prediction in this region faces several challenges. Lack of skillful seasonal rainfall forecasts; the focus of this presentation, is one of those major challenges. In the past few decades, major strides have been taken towards improvement of seasonal scale dynamical climate forecasts. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) is one such state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system. The NMME incorporates climate forecasts from 6+ fully coupled dynamical models resulting in 100+ ensemble member forecasts. Recent studies have indicated that in general NMME offers improvement over forecasts from any single model. However thus far the skill of NMME for forecasting rainfall in a vulnerable region like the East Africa has been unexplored. In this presentation we report findings of a comprehensive analysis that examines the strength and weakness of NMME in forecasting rainfall at seasonal scale in East Africa for all three of the prominent seasons for the region. (i.e. March-April-May, July-August-September and October-November- December). Simultaneously we also describe hybrid approaches; that combine statistical approaches with NMME forecasts; to improve rainfall forecast skill in the region when raw NMME forecasts lack in skill.

  18. Current kinematics and dynamics of Africa and the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, D. S.; Flesch, L. M.; Calais, E.; Ghosh, A.

    2014-06-01

    Although the East African Rift System (EARS) is an archetype continental rift, the forces driving its evolution remain debated. Some contend buoyancy forces arising from gravitational potential energy (GPE) gradients within the lithosphere drive rifting. Others argue for a major role of the diverging mantle flow associated with the African Superplume. Here we quantify the forces driving present-day continental rifting in East Africa by (1) solving the depth averaged 3-D force balance equations for 3-D deviatoric stress associated with GPE, (2) inverting for a stress field boundary condition that we interpret as originating from large-scale mantle tractions, (3) calculating dynamic velocities due to lithospheric buoyancy forces, lateral viscosity variations, and velocity boundary conditions, and (4) calculating dynamic velocities that result from the stress response of horizontal mantle tractions acting on a viscous lithosphere in Africa and surroundings. We find deviatoric stress associated with lithospheric GPE gradients are ˜8-20 MPa in EARS, and the minimum deviatoric stress resulting from basal shear is ˜1.6 MPa along the EARS. Our dynamic velocity calculations confirm that a force contribution from GPE gradients alone is sufficient to drive Nubia-Somalia divergence and that additional forcing from horizontal mantle tractions overestimates surface kinematics. Stresses from GPE gradients appear sufficient to sustain present-day rifting in East Africa; however, they are lower than the vertically integrated strength of the lithosphere along most of the EARS. This indicates additional processes are required to initiate rupture of continental lithosphere, but once it is initiated, lithospheric buoyancy forces are enough to maintain rifting.

  19. Human mandibular incisors from the late Middle Pleistocene locality of Hoedjiespunt 1, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stynder, D D; Moggi-Cecchi, J; Berger, L R; Parkington, J E

    2001-11-01

    The Hoedjiespunt 1 locality is an archaeological and palaeontological site located on the Hoedjiespunt Peninsula at Saldanha Bay, South Africa. In 1996 two human teeth, a left central mandibular incisor and a left lateral mandibular incisor, were discovered during excavations in the late Middle Pleistocene palaeontological layers. These teeth are described and are found to belong to a single subadult individual. Despite their developmental stage, these incisors already display early signs of wear. Their crown diameters are larger than modern and archaeological African comparative material and are most closely comparable with crown diameters of an early Middle Pleistocene and late Middle Pleistocene dental sample from Africa, Europe and Asia. In the light of this metrical evidence, data on two previously excavated maxillary molars, most probably belonging to the same individual, were re-examined. It was found that the Hoedjiespunt 1 hominid possessed dental metrical features (large anterior teeth and small molars) comparable with other African and European hominids referred to the Middle Pleistocene.

  20. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  1. Fluoride in groundwater in selected villages in Eritrea (North East Africa).

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Viswanatham, K S; Kahsai, Fikremariam; Fisahatsion, Abraham; Asmellash, Micheal

    2002-04-01

    A study was undertaken to estimate fluoride content in the groundwater in certain parts of rural Eritrea. North-East Africa, along the River Anseba. Standard procedure was adopted for fluoride detection. Results indicate elevated concentration of fluoride in groundwater. The highest concentration was found to be 3.73 mg L(-1), well above the safety level for consumption. Geological basis for the high concentration of high fluoride has been established; it is presumed to be the pegmatite intrusion hosted by a granitic batholith. Extensive dental fluorosis has been observed in the population exposed to drinking water of high fluoride content.

  2. Climatology of summer Shamal wind in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Notaro, Michael; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Garay, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Eastern Shamal is a strong north-northwesterly wind, capable of lifting dust from the Tigris-Euphrates basin and transporting it to the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula. The present study explores the poorly understood spatial and temporal variability of summer Shamal on the diurnal, seasonal, and interannual time scales, along with its influence on dust storm activity and sensitivity to global patterns of sea surface temperature using a comprehensive set of observational data. Statistics of the summer Shamal season are quantified for the first time, including its onset, termination, duration, and the occurrence of distinct break periods. Based on a multistation criteria, the mean onset and termination of the Shamal season occur on 30 May ± 16 days (1 standard deviation) and 16 August ± 22 days, respectively. Anomalously early (late) onset and termination of the Shamal season are typically associated with La Niña (El Niño) conditions, which favor (inhibit) the development of the Iranian heat low in spring and inhibit (favor) its persistence into late summer. Dust source regions in the Tigris-Euphrates basin and Kuwait, as well as southeastward dust transport during the summer Shamal, which cannot be detected by satellite aerosol products alone, are identified, for the first time, from the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer plume motion vector products and confirmed by surface observations and lidar data. A close interrelationship has been revealed among summertime dust activity across the eastern Arabian Peninsula, frequency of Shamal days, and duration of the Shamal season on the interannual time scales.

  3. Origins of the Iberomaurusian in NW Africa: new AMS radiocarbon dating of the Middle and Later Stone Age deposits at Taforalt Cave, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Barton, R N E; Bouzouggar, A; Hogue, J T; Lee, S; Collcutt, S N; Ditchfield, P

    2013-09-01

    Recent genetic studies based on the distribution of mtDNA of haplogroup U6 have led to subtly different theories regarding the arrival of modern human populations in North Africa. One proposes that groups of the proto-U6 lineage spread from the Near East to North Africa around 40-45 ka (thousands of years ago), followed by some degree of regional continuity. Another envisages a westward human migration from the Near East, followed by further demographic expansion at ∼22 ka centred on the Maghreb and associated with a microlithic bladelet culture known as the Iberomaurusian. In evaluating these theories, we report on the results of new work on the Middle (MSA) and Later Stone (LSA) Age deposits at Taforalt Cave in Morocco. We present 54 AMS radiocarbon dates on bone and charcoals from a sequence of late MSA and LSA occupation levels of the cave. Using Bayesian modelling we show that an MSA non-Levallois flake industry was present until ∼24.5 ka Cal BP (calibrated years before present), followed by a gap in occupation and the subsequent appearance of an LSA Iberomaurusian industry from at least 21,160 Cal BP. The new dating offers fresh light on theories of continuity versus replacement of populations as presented by the genetic evidence. We examine the implications of these data for interpreting the first appearance of the LSA in the Maghreb and providing comparisons with other dated early blade and bladelet industries in North Africa.

  4. Seismic Hazard Assessment of Middle East Region: Based on the Example to Georgia (Preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Akkar, S.; Askan, A.; Varazanashvili, O.; Adamia, S.; Chkhitunidze, M.

    2012-12-01

    The country of Georgia is located between Russia and Turkey. The main morphological units of Georgia are the mountain ranges of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus separated by the Black Sea-Rioni and Kura (Mtkvari)-South Caspian intermountain troughs. Recent geodynamics of Georgia and adjacent territories of the Black Sea-Caspian Sea region, as a whole, are determined by its position between the still-converging Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. That caused moderate seismicity in the region. However, the risk resulting from these earthquakes is considerably high, as recent events during the last two decades have shown. Seismic hazard and risk assessment is a major research topic in various recent international and national projects. Despite the current efforts, estimation of regional seismic hazard assessment remains as a major problem. Georgia is one of the partners of ongoing regional project EMME (Earthquake Model for Middle East region). The main objective of EMME is calculation of Earthquake hazard uniformly with heights standards. One approach used in the project is the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment PSHA. In this study, we present the preliminary results of PSHA for Georgia in this project attempting to improve gaps especially in such steps as: determination of seismic sources; selection or derivation of ground motion prediction equations models; estimation of maximum magnitude Mmax. Seismic sources (SS) were obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. Finely new SS have been developed for Georgia and adjacent region. Each zone was defined with the following parameters: the magnitude-frequency parameters, maximum magnitude, and depth distribution as well as modern dynamical characteristics widely used for complex processes. As the ground motion dataset is absolutely insufficient by itself to derive a ground motion prediction model for Georgia, two approaches were taken in defining ground motions. First

  5. Palaeohydrological corridors for hominin dispersals in the Middle East ∼250-70,000 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breeze, Paul S.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Drake, Nick A.; White, Tom S.; Jennings, Richard P.; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    The timing and extent of palaeoenvironmental connections between northeast Africa, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula during the Middle and Late Pleistocene are critical to debates surrounding dispersals of hominins, including movements of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Although there is evidence that synchronous episodes of climatic amelioration during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene may have allowed connections to form between northern Africa and western Asia, a number of palaeoclimate models indicate the continued existence of an arid barrier between northern Arabia and the Levant. Here we evaluate the palaeoenvironmental setting for hominin dispersals between, and within, northeast Africa and southwest Asia during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-5 using reconstructions of surface freshwater availability as an environmental proxy. We use remotely sensed data to map palaeohydrological features (lakes, wetlands and rivers) across the presently hyper-arid areas of northern Arabia and surrounding regions, integrating these results with palaeoclimate models, palaeoenvironmental proxy data and absolute dating to determine when these features were active. Our analyses suggest limited potential for dispersals during MIS 7 and 6, but indicate the formation of a palaeohydrological corridor (the 'Tabuk Corridor') between the Levant and the Arabian interior during the MIS 6-5e glacial-interglacial transition and during MIS 5e. A recurrence of this corridor, following a slightly different route, also occurred during MIS 5a. These palaeohydrological and terrestrial data can be used to establish when proposed routes for hominin dispersals became viable. Furthermore, the distribution of Arabian archaeological sites with affinities to Levantine assemblages, some of which are associated with Homo sapiens fossils, and the relative density of Middle Palaeolithic assemblages within the Tabuk Corridor, are consistent with it being utilised for dispersals at various times.

  6. Comment on "Recent developments of the Middle East catalog" by Zare et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa Mousavi, S.

    2017-01-01

    In a study by Zare et al. (2014), a new earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been developed consisting of historical, early, and modern instrumental events recorded between 1250 B.C. and 2006. This valuable effort was undertaken under the framework of the global earthquake model (GEM) and the earthquake model of the Middle East (EMME) projects. The final goal was to establish a unified catalog of seismicity by incorporating regional and international data to be used for homogeneous estimate of seismic hazards in the region (Erdik et al. 2012). However, observations show that magnitude of completeness (Mc) is not temporally and spatially homogeneous throughout the catalog. My goal in this commentary is to provide more insights on this important characteristic of the catalog and some suggestions on selection of homogeneous parts of the catalog. This can further aid users in using the catalog for different purposes.

  7. Consensus recommendation for meningococcal disease prevention in children and adolescents in the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Shibl, Atef; Tufenkeji, Haysam; Khalil, Mohamed; Memish, Ziad

    2012-03-01

    Facing the availability of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo®, Menactra® and others pending for license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries of the Middle East region met at a "Meningococcal Leadership Forum" (MLF), which took place in May 2010 in Dubai. The participants of the conference discussed the importance of introducing the concept of conjugate vaccines - especially for children and adolescents - and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision makers with their expertise. In experts' opinion, conjugate vaccines are the best choice for the prevention of meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y. As quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines are registered and available in the Middle East region, they should replace plain polysaccharide vaccines and be integrated in pediatric and adolescent vaccination schedules, including infant vaccination concomitantly with basic EPI vaccines when licensed.

  8. Propagation of Regional Phases and Their Codas in Southern Asia and the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    be as high as a thousand or more. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Attenuation, Rayleigh waves, Q, Middle East i 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION | OF REPORT...stable continental regions where shear-wave Q may be as high as a thousand or more. These low values may indicate that fluids reside in faults...years, high -quality data and increasing numbers of favorably located, modern, digital stations have enabled seismologists to apply tomographic

  9. Lithospheric Models of the Middle East to Improve Seismic Source Parameter Determination/Event Location Accuracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    structure of Saudi Arabia through data collection from broadband stations. Figure 2. (Left) Map of Arabian Plate showing major tectonic ...State Award Nos. DE-AC52-07NA27344/24.2.3.2 and DOS_SIAA-11-AVC/NMA-1 ABSTRACT The Middle East is a tectonically complex and seismically...active region. The ability to accurately locate earthquakes and other seismic events in this region is complicated by tectonics , the uneven

  10. The Emergence of China in the Middle East (Strategic Forum, Number 271, December 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Chinese outbound tourism , but it is also indicative of Chinese travelers’ interests in the Middle East. Lo- cal tourism industries in countries such as...that used to take up to 4 months. For non–oil-producing countries whose economies rely heavily on the tourism industry , Chinese visitors repre- sent a...Moreover, the Iranian government even allowed Chinese fighter jets to travel through its airspace to join the drills. The Chinese arms industry has

  11. Workshop on arms control and security in the Middle East II summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Middle East peace process is now moving more rapidly than ever before. Many actors in the region have displayed a newfound willingness to adopt innovative approaches to resolving persistent conflicts. The end of the Cold War, the accord signed between Israel and the PLO in September 1993, and other recent hopeful developments in the bilateral and multilateral talks have opened the door to real progress in regional security and arms control. The door may quickly shut, however, if promising signs are not translated into concrete, practical, and verifiable agreements. To complement the ongoing negotiations and help sustain the momentum of the Middle East peace process, the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC) and the Institute of International Relations, co-sponsored a Workshop on Arms Control and Security in the Middle East in Delphi, Greece, in January 1994. Participants in the Delphi workshop were current and former government officials, veteran arms control negotiators, military officers, and leading nongovernmental specialists on arms control and regional security issues from Arab states, Israel, the United States, Europe, and Russia. To facilitate frank discussions and the free exchange of ideas, the conference was held in a private, informal setting, and all discussions at the meeting were off the record. The workshop gave Arab and Israeli participants an opportunity to draw upon the expertise that American, European, and Russian experts have gained through research and development efforts and negotiations between and within governments on arms control issues. At the same time, Arab and Israeli experts voiced their ideas, perspectives, and concerns to each other and to the participants from outside the Middle East. This report summarizes the main points of agreement and the major areas of controversy that came to the fore at the Delphi conference.

  12. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Nasser, Wissam; Abou Abbas, Linda; Elias, Elias; Leveque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000-2013) was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m(3), PM10 = 20 μg/m(3)). We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases.

  13. AN EXAMINATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FLOW OF CRUDE OIL, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE MIDDLE EAST,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    crude oil transportation, its technology, worldwide pattern, and future. It gives special emphasis to the movement of crude oil between the Middle East and Western Europe because of the critical supply-and-demand relationships existing between the two regions; further, it underscores the growth of both the crude oil tanker and crude oil pipelines, and the effect that this growth will have on the future patterns of crude oil flow. And it notes that the interest of the Soviet Union in

  14. Obesity and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in Middle East and UAE

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub, Bassam H.; Al Hariri, Hassan; Al Zaabi, Ashraf; Vats, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A pandemic of obesity is sweeping all across the globe and the Middle East region also does not remain untouched by this prevailing pandemic. In fact, as per WHO report, Kuwait has the second highest obesity prevalence followed closely by other Middle East (ME) countries, namely, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Apart from direct medical, psychological, and quality of life related adverse effects of obesity, many indirect medical comorbidities, namely, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and metabolic syndrome, imposes a significant health burden on the individual and community with consequent morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the very high prevalence of obesity, undiagnosed sleep apnea, and other obesity related disorders with discussion of the contributing factors specific to the region including the fair insight into the current status of sleep medicine services in Middle East and UAE despite huge number of patients having undiagnosed sleep disorders. We will also suggest to control this epidemic of obesity and OSA so that the corrective measure could be taken at health ministry level to help people of this region to fight against obesity and related disorders, primarily OSA. PMID:28070158

  15. Curriculum guide for research ethics workshops for countries in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Henry; Ahmed, Babiker; Ajeilet, Samar; Al-Fadil, Sumaia; Al-Amad, Suhail; El-Dessouky, Hadir; El-Gendy, Ibrahim; El-Guindi, Mohamed; El-Nimeiri, Mustafa; Muzaffar, Rana; Saleh, Azza

    2010-08-01

    To help ensure the ethical conduct of research, many have recommended educational efforts in research ethics to investigators and members of research ethics committees (RECs). One type of education activity involves multi-day workshops in research ethics. To be effective, such workshops should contain the appropriate content and teaching techniques geared towards the learning styles of the targeted audiences. To ensure consistency in content and quality, we describe the development of a curriculum guide, core competencies and associated learning objectives and activities to help educators organize research ethics workshops in their respective institutions. The curriculum guide is divided into modular units to enable planners to develop workshops of different lengths and choose content materials that match the needs, abilities, and prior experiences of the target audiences. The content material in the curriculum guide is relevant for audiences in the Middle East, because individuals from the Middle East who participated in a Certificate Program in research ethics selected and developed the training materials (e.g., articles, PowerPoint slides, case studies, protocols). Also, many of the activities incorporate active-learning methods, consisting of group work activities analyzing case studies and reviewing protocols. The development of such a workshop training curriculum guide represents a sustainable educational resource to enhance research ethics capacity in the Middle East.

  16. Game theory, international law, and future environmental cooperation in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.

    1998-12-31

    Through the use of game theory, this article explores some of the principal factors influencing the emergence and maintenance of international cooperation in order to develop legal guidelines for establishing an effective environmental mechanism in the Middle East. As this article shows, game theory concepts and models provide a valuable tool for analyzing the phenomenon of cooperation, enabling international lawyers to shape legal norms which will enhance the prospects for environmental cooperation in the Middle East. Part 2 of this article sets for the basic concepts and models of game theory and its relationship to modern international relations theory. Part 3 presents a game theoretical analysis of two major environmental settings in the Middle East: marine pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba and water contamination of the Mountain Aquifer. It then suggests some legal mechanisms to enhance the likelihood of cooperation in these settings. Part 4 concludes the article by exploring the options nd limits of combining game theory and international law as an instrument to improve the prospects of cooperation. The article ultimately states that this combination offers scholars and policy-makers important insights into better legal mechanisms for long-term international cooperation.

  17. The Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and Inadequacies in the Middle East and Approaches to Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hwalla, Nahla; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha Salem; Radwan, Hadia; Alfawaz, Hanan Abdullah; Fouda, Mona A.; Al-Daghri, Nasser Mohammed; Zaghloul, Sahar; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on the availability of more recent data, this review is primarily focused on countries that are in advanced nutrition transition. Prominent deficits in folate, iron, and vitamin D are noted among children/adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and the elderly. Reports indicate that food fortification in the region is sporadic and ineffective, and the use of dietary supplements is low. Nutrition monitoring in the region is limited, and gaps in relevant information present challenges for implementing new policies and approaches to address the problem. Government-sponsored initiatives are necessary to assess current dietary intakes/patterns, support nutrition education, and to reduce food insecurity, especially among vulnerable population groups. Public–private partnerships should be considered in targeting micronutrient fortification programs and supplementation recommendations as approaches to help alleviate the burden of micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies in the Middle East. PMID:28273802

  18. Iwo Eleru's place among Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene populations of North and East Africa.

    PubMed

    Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2014-10-01

    The Iwo Eleru site in Nigeria preserves the only terminal Pleistocene fossil from tropical West Africa. The peoples of this region contributed to significant population movements throughout the continent during the Holocene. As such, characterizing the phenotype of Late Pleistocene West African populations is critical for disentangling the evolutionary signatures of a highly complex African population history and structure. Previous research approached the calvaria's morphology from a paleoanthropological perspective, noting its mosaic of archaic and modern neurocranial features and distinctiveness from Pleistocene fossil taxa and contemporary modern human samples. In this paper, I compare Iwo Eleru with contemporary Late Pleistocene Africans and also consider the specimen's affinities with Holocene populations of the central and western Sahara, Nile Valley, and East Africa. Craniometric data were recorded for 22 neurocranial dimensions and subjected to principal components analysis and Mahalanobis distance estimation. Multidimensional scaling of distances indicated that Iwo Eleru fell outside the observed range of variation of other terminal Pleistocene supra-equatorial African populations, confirming previous results that documented its divergence from Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Europeans, and modern Africans. The calvaria was also distinct from Holocene Saharan, Nile Valley, and East African populations, which suggests limited West African input into the Sahara during the African Humid Period. Results presented here bolster previous research that suggested Iwo Eleru's anatomy reflected either admixture with archaic humans or the long-term survival of populations with more archaic neurocranial anatomy until the end of the Pleistocene.

  19. Assessment of prediction and predictability of short rains over equatorial East Africa using a multi-model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaga, T. K.; Kucharski, F.; Tsidu, G. Mengistu; Yang, Hongwei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the performance of dynamical seasonal forecast systems is evaluated for the prediction of short rain anomalies over equatorial East Africa. The evaluation is based on observational datasets and the Asia-Pacific Climate Center (APCC) Ocean-Atmosphere coupled multi-model ensemble (MME) retrospective forecasts (hindcasts). These forecast systems have different hindcast periods; here, we have selected common years from 1982 to 2005. The ensembles of individual models and their MME mean are evaluated. Hindcasts initialized on the 1st of August from each year alone are considered, as these are the most relevant to short rain predictions. The coupled climate model ensemble reproduces the spatial distribution of mean September-October-November (SON) rainfall and seasonal climate variations over equatorial East Africa with further improvement in MME mean. Individual coupled models and MME mean also show statistically significant skill in forecasting sea surface temperatures anomalies (SSTAs) over the western and eastern parts of the equatorial Indian Ocean, giving significant correlation at 99 % confidence level for Indian Ocean dipole (IOD). Moreover, five out of ten coupled models and MME mean show statistically significant skill in predicting equatorial East Africa short rains. The fidelity of hindcasts is further measured by anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and four models as well as MME mean show significant skill over East Africa. It is shown that the reproduction of the observed variability in the East African region is mainly due to a realistic relationship of East African rainfall with the Indian Ocean dipole. Overall, the skill of the dynamical models is attributed to the fact that slowly evolving SSTs are the primary source of predictability and to the fact that coupled climate models produce skillful predictions of SON SST anomalies over the tropical Indian Ocean. This information opens the possibility of using readily available seasonal

  20. Building Capacity for Production of Gridded Precipitation Products in the East Africa Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.; Galu, G.; Magadzire, T.; Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Peterson, P.; Landsfeld, M. F.; White, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) participates in the Group on Earth Observations' Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) activity in a number of ways. Recently, important progress has been made in meeting the need for improved precipitation data sets in East Africa. This has been done through capacity building activities with national meteorological and hydrological services (NMHS) in the region, carried out in partnership with the IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Center (ICPAC), and with support from the WMO Office for Eastern and Southern Africa. Through a series of regional gatherings and individual country workshops, scientists from the NMHS have been introduced to the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall data set and the GeoCLIM software tool. The CHIRPS data set was developed by USGS and the University of California, Santa Barbara, by blending NOAA geostationary thermal infrared imagery with station observations, using robust geostatistical methods. The core data set consists of pentadal (5-daily) accumulations from 1981-2014 at 0.05 degree spatial resolution, between +/- 50 degrees latitude. The GeoCLIM software can operate on the CHIRPS to map the Standardized Precipitation Index, trends, anomalies, isohyets, and other types of spatio-temporal features. It can also produce new gridded rainfall data sets by geostatistical blending of station observations with existing rainfall grids. NMHS scientists have applied this latter capability to produce best-available national and regional gridded rainfall time-series for 1981-2014 for the East Africa Community (EAC). These data are a fundamental resource for the USAID-EAC climate change adaptation project known by the acronym PREPARED. They incorporate a larger and more complete collection of station observations than ever before. Further work is ongoing at the NMHS to take advantage of the data management capabilities of GeoCLIM, and incorporate

  1. Reconstructing the origin and dispersal patterns of village chickens across East Africa: insights from autosomal markers.

    PubMed

    Mwacharo, J M; Nomura, K; Hanada, H; Han, J L; Amano, T; Hanotte, O

    2013-05-01

    Unravelling the genetic history of any livestock species is central to understanding the origin, development and expansion of agricultural societies and economies. Domestic village chickens are widespread in Africa. Their close association with, and reliance on, humans for long-range dispersal makes the species an important biological marker in tracking cultural and trading contacts between human societies and civilizations across time. Archaezoological and linguistic evidence suggest a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species on the continent, with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop analysis revealing the presence of five distinct haplogroups in East African village chickens. It supports the importance of the region in understanding the history of the species and indirectly of human interactions. Here, through a detailed analysis of 30 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 657 village chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan), we identify three distinct autosomal gene pools (I, II and III). Gene pool I is predominantly found in Ethiopia and Sudan, while II and III occur in both Kenya and Uganda. A gradient of admixture for gene pools II and III between the Kenyan coast and Uganda's hinterland (P = 0.001) is observed, while gene pool I is clearly separated from the other two. We propose that these three gene pools represent genetic signatures of separate events in the history of the continent that relate to the arrival and dispersal of village chickens and humans across the region. Our results provide new insights on the history of chicken husbandry which has been shaped by terrestrial and maritime contacts between ancient and modern civilizations in Asia and East Africa.

  2. [Sociocultural aspects of albinism in Sub-Saharan Africa: mutilations and ritual murders committed in east Africa (Burundi and Tanzania)].

    PubMed

    Aquaron, R; Djatou, M; Kamdem, L

    2009-10-01

    This report presents an overview of the many sociocultural prejudices confronting albinos and their parents in Sub-Saharan Africa at each stage of life (infancy, adolescence, and adulthood). The birth of an albino child to two black parents has always been an enigma for African peoples. French-speaking and English-speaking populations in Central, East and South African countries have invented numerous myths to account for this event. Albinos are believed to possess good and evil magical powers. On the white magic side, some organs are believed to confer luck, health, and prosperity. For this reason albinos in Tanzania and Burundi are still in 2008 prey to ritual murders and mutilations to obtain various body parts such as arms, legs, and genitals for preparation of amulets. This barbaric and iniquitous practice has been severely condemned by authorities in both countries as well as by the European Parliament. To end these atrocities disseminating accurate medical information explaining the genetic basis of albinism will be necessary to eliminate ignorance and superstition.

  3. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  4. The effect of the extract of the miswak (chewing sticks) used in Jordan and the Middle East on oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Al lafi, T; Ababneh, H

    1995-06-01

    Chewing sticks are commonly used in Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in particular, and the Middle East, Asia, and Africa in general, in addition to many other areas for oral hygiene, religious and social purposes. Recently, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recommended and encouraged the use of these sticks as an effective tool for oral hygiene. The antibacterial activity of one of these sticks has been tested against some oral aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Three methods of antibacterial activity were carried out: streaked plate method, ditch plate method, and tube dilution test for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). It was found that the extract of these sticks had a drastic effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 69 mg/100 cc, while a variable effect on other bacterial species was noted. It is concluded that using chewing sticks twice a day on a regular basis may reduce the incidence of gingivitis and possibly dental caries. Apart from their antibacterial activity which may help control the formation and activity of dental plaque, they can be used effectively as a natural toothbrush for teeth cleaning. Such sticks are effective, inexpensive, common, available, and contain many medical properties.

  5. Seismic Analysis of Magmatism in the Galapagos Archipelago and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepp, Gabrielle

    Magmatism and deformation are consequences of fundamental processes shaping Earth's ˜150 km-thick continental and <125 km-thick oceanic plates. Earthquake seismology encompasses many methods to detect compositional and thermal boundaries from Earth's surface to the dynamic mantle driving plate tectonics. This work uses three different seismic methods to probe magma migration and storage and tectonism in two intraplate hotspot provinces: the Galapagos and East Africa. First, seismic body-wave tomography is used to image magma within oceanic crust of the largest Galapagos volcano, Sierra Negra. A laterally large, low-velocity region with many smaller, high-magnitude velocity anomalies is imaged at 8--15.5 km depths. No sharp seismic velocity increase is imaged within the resolvable depths, indicating that the thickened crust is at least 16 km deep. The second study involves a spectral analysis of earthquakes induced by the intrusion of thin sheets of magma rising beneath the Afar rift, East Africa. Earthquakes have varying spectral content, some with unusually large amplitude low-frequency content and enhanced surface waves. The analysis showed no clear boundaries between spectral types, suggesting that they are all primarily the result of brittle failure. Deep dike segments (tops > 3 km) induce only high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes, while shallower dike segments induce the full range of spectral types. This suggests that low-frequency content is a result of shallow hypocenters, with path and site effects, surface ruptures, and dike fluid interactions all possible secondary causes. In the final study, shear-wave splitting analysis of teleseismic body-wave phases is conducted to evaluate strain and crack fabrics at the base of the continental plate as a consequence of magmatism, mantle flow, and plate stretching in the Western rift, East Africa. On average, fast directions are northeast, consistent with geodynamic models of mantle flow from the African

  6. Human-Dromedary Camel Interactions and the Risk of Acquiring Zoonotic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gossner, C; Danielson, N; Gervelmeyer, A; Berthe, F; Faye, B; Kaasik Aaslav, K; Adlhoch, C; Zeller, H; Penttinen, P; Coulombier, D

    2016-02-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases without documented contact with another human MERS-CoV case make up 61% (517/853) of all reported cases. These primary cases are of particular interest for understanding the source(s) and route(s) of transmission and for designing long-term disease control measures. Dromedary camels are the only animal species for which there is convincing evidence that it is a host species for MERS-CoV and hence a potential source of human infections. However, only a small proportion of the primary cases have reported contact with camels. Other possible sources and vehicles of infection include food-borne transmission through consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and raw meat, medicinal use of camel urine and zoonotic transmission from other species. There are critical knowledge gaps around this new disease which can only be closed through traditional field epidemiological investigations and studies designed to test hypothesis regarding sources of infection and risk factors for disease. Since the 1960s, there has been a radical change in dromedary camel farming practices in the Arabian Peninsula with an intensification of the production and a concentration of the production around cities. It is possible that the recent intensification of camel herding in the Arabian Peninsula has increased the virus' reproductive number and attack rate in camel herds while the 'urbanization' of camel herding increased the frequency of zoonotic 'spillover' infections from camels to humans. It is reasonable to assume, although difficult to measure, that the sensitivity of public health surveillance to detect previously unknown diseases is lower in East Africa than in Saudi Arabia and that sporadic human cases may have gone undetected there.

  7. Interprofessional education in the Arabic-speaking Middle East: Perspectives of pharmacy academics.

    PubMed

    El-Awaisi, Alla; Saffouh El Hajj, Maguy; Joseph, Sundari; Diack, Lesley

    2016-11-01

    The current status of interprofessional education (IPE) in Arabic Middle Eastern countries is largely unexamined and there is a need to assess IPE and collaborative practice in these countries. As faculty attitudes towards IPE are believed to be one of the main factors that affect the successful integration of IPE into the different healthcare curricula, this article aims to explore the attitudes and views of pharmacy academics in Arabic-speaking Middle Eastern countries towards IPE and collaborative practice. The findings from this article are part of a larger study investigating pharmacy's perspectives of IPE and collaborative practice in Qatar and the Middle East. An online survey which included three validated scales was used to gather information from pharmacy academics at 89 pharmacy schools in 14 countries. The response rate was 107 out of 334 (32%) and the majority of the respondents were from Jordan, Qatar, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. Statistical analysis was completed descriptively as well as inferentially using a series of independent t-tests. Overall pharmacy academics had positive attitudes towards IPE. The majority of the respondents, 90.8% (n = 99), perceived IPE to be important. Age, likelihood to engage in IPE, and years of IPE experience were the factors that were related to faculty members' attitudes towards IPE. Highly perceived barriers for implementing IPE included cultural challenges for each profession, scheduling common courses, and activities in addition to limited resources. The study findings indicated that pharmacy academics in the Middle East are ready to pursue IPE. These results can serve as impetus for implementing IPE in Middle Eastern countries.

  8. Multi-environment selection of small sieve snap beans reduces production constraints in East Africa and subtropical regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, and heat stress lower the yield and quality of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in East Africa. Four snap bean breeding lines previously selected for broad-spectrum rust resistance (involving Ur-4 and Ur-11 rust genes) and heat tolerance followin...

  9. A Call to Learning Focus in East Africa: Uwezo's Measurement of Learning in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugo, John Kabutha; Ruto, Sara Jerop; Nakabugo, Mary Goretti; Mgalla, Zaida

    2015-01-01

    From the late 1990s, education in East Africa started to be appraised on the basis of enrolment. The universalisation of primary education that started in Uganda in 1997--and peaked in Tanzania in 2002, as well as in Kenya in 2003--was politicised as the epitome of education reform. Yet, alternative voices called for consideration of improving…

  10. Randomized Impact Evaluation of Education Interventions: Experiences and Lessons from a Reading to Learn Intervention in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Abuya, Benta; Oketch, Moses; Admassu, Kassahun; Mutisya, Maurice; Musyoka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences and lessons learnt during the design and implementation of the randomized impact evaluation (IE) of a reading to learn (RtL) intervention in early primary grades. The study was to assess the impact of RtL on literacy and numeracy among pupils in low-performing districts in East Africa. The intervention was…

  11. Khat in East Africa: taking women into or out of sex work?

    PubMed

    Beckerleg, Susan

    2008-07-01

    Women's drug use is often associated with sex work as a means of raising money for consumption. Similarly, in Kenya and Uganda, journalists, the general public and aid agencies associate female consumption of the stimulant drug, khat (Catha edulis), as pulling women into prostitution. In contrast to Yemen and Ethiopia, these views are expressed by people living in areas where there are no rituals or traditions of female khat consumption. This paper presents data from a study carried out in Kenya and Uganda in 2004 and 2005 that documents that the majority of women engaging in khat chewing are not sex workers. Frequently, however, women who retail khat are often assumed by men to be sexually immoral. The role of women in the retail and wholesale khat trade is examined. The stigma attached to selling khat is linked to the overall situation of independent women in East Africa and the place of commercial sex in urban life.

  12. Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Mbua, Emma; Kirera, Francis M.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Grine, Frederick E.; Leakey, Meave G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Uno, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    The East African hominin Paranthropus boisei was characterized by a suite of craniodental features that have been widely interpreted as adaptations to a diet that consisted of hard objects that required powerful peak masticatory loads. These morphological adaptations represent the culmination of an evolutionary trend that began in earlier taxa such as Australopithecus afarensis, and presumably facilitated utilization of open habitats in the Plio-Pleistocene. Here, we use stable isotopes to show that P. boisei had a diet that was dominated by C4 biomass such as grasses or sedges. Its diet included more C4 biomass than any other hominin studied to date, including its congener Paranthropus robustus from South Africa. These results, coupled with recent evidence from dental microwear, may indicate that the remarkable craniodental morphology of this taxon represents an adaptation for processing large quantities of low-quality vegetation rather than hard objects. PMID:21536914

  13. Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Mbua, Emma; Kirera, Francis M; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Grine, Frederick E; Leakey, Meave G; Sponheimer, Matt; Uno, Kevin T

    2011-06-07

    The East African hominin Paranthropus boisei was characterized by a suite of craniodental features that have been widely interpreted as adaptations to a diet that consisted of hard objects that required powerful peak masticatory loads. These morphological adaptations represent the culmination of an evolutionary trend that began in earlier taxa such as Australopithecus afarensis, and presumably facilitated utilization of open habitats in the Plio-Pleistocene. Here, we use stable isotopes to show that P. boisei had a diet that was dominated by C(4) biomass such as grasses or sedges. Its diet included more C(4) biomass than any other hominin studied to date, including its congener Paranthropus robustus from South Africa. These results, coupled with recent evidence from dental microwear, may indicate that the remarkable craniodental morphology of this taxon represents an adaptation for processing large quantities of low-quality vegetation rather than hard objects.

  14. Investigating the terrestrial-atmospheric water balance for the Tana River basin, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerandi, Noah; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The fully coupled atmospheric-hydrological WRF-Hydro modeling system is applied to the Tana River basin (TRB) in East Africa for the period 2011-2014 in order to analyze the terrestrial-atmospheric water balance components and their feedback mechanisms. The outputs from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF stand-alone model. The study area encompasses the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km²) in the upper TRB. Our model set up consists of two domains at 25 km and 5 km horizontal resolution covering East Africa and the study area, respectively. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at a 500 m horizontal grid resolution. The simulated monthly precipitation over the subcatchment compared with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data gives an overall correlation coefficient of 0.8/0.7 for fully coupled/stand-alone model and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.5 mm/day for both models for the entire simulation period. Overall the models yield more annual total precipitation compared to TRMM. The two models are drier during the March, April, May (MAM) season and wetter during the October, November, December (OND) season. Compared to observation stations, both modeling systems provide a correlation coefficient of 0.6 for precipitation. The simulated and observed discharges at the Tana Rukanga gauge, located in the subcatchment, exhibit a correlation coefficient of 0.5 at daily resolution. The WRF-Hydro also overestimates the cumulated discharge (2011-2014) by about 50 %. The analysis of the atmospheric water balance in both WRF and WRF-Hydro simulation reveals a positive moisture divergence during the MAM and OND rainy seasons. Precipitation recycling and efficiency measures derived from the atmospheric water budget are also investigated.

  15. Cropland land surface phenology and seasonality in East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Most people in East Africa depend on rainfed agriculture. Rainfall in the region has been decreasing recently and is highly variable in space and time leading to high food insecurity. A comprehensive understanding of the regional cropland dynamics is therefore needed. Land surface phenology and land surface seasonality have important roles in monitoring cropland dynamics in a region with sparse coverage of in situ climatic and biophysical observations. However, commonly used optical satellite data are often degraded by cloud cover, aerosols, and dust and they are restricted to daytime observations. Here we used near-daily passive microwave (PM) data at 25 km spatial resolution from a series of microwave radiometers—AMSR-E, FengYun3B/MWRI, AMSR2—to study cropland dynamics for 2003-2013 in three important grain production areas of East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan. PM data can be collected through clouds and at night. Based on Google Earth imagery, we identified several cropland areas corresponding to PM grid cells. Rainfall from TRMM and atmospheric water vapor (V) from PM data displayed temporal patterns that were unimodal in Ethiopia and South Sudan, but bimodal in Tanzania. We fitted convex quadratic models to link growing season increments of V and vegetation optical depth (VOD) to accumulated V (AV). The models yielded high coefficients of determination (r2 ≥0.8) and phenometrics calculated from the parameter coefficients. Peak rainfall lagged peak V, but preceded peak VOD. Growing degree-days (GDD), calculated from the PM air temperature data, displayed a weaker bimodal seasonality in which the lowest values occurred during the peak rainy season, due to the cooling effect of latent heat flux and coupled with higher reflection of insolation by the cloud deck. V as a function of GDD displays quasi-periodic behavior. Drier sites in the region displayed larger (smaller) intra-annual dynamic range of V (GDD) compared to the moister sites.

  16. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  17. Challenges with routine data sources for PMTCT programme monitoring in East Africa: insights from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Michael, Denna; Reniers, Georges; Urassa, Mark; Njau, Prosper; Kajoka, Deborah; Lema, Levina; Zaba, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Routinely collected clinic data have the potential to provide much needed information on the uptake of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, and to measure HIV prevalence in pregnant women. This article describes the methodological challenges associated with using such data, based on the experiences of researchers and programme implementers in Tanzania and drawing from other examples from East Africa. PMTCT data are routinely collected in maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in East Africa using paper-based registers corresponding to distinct services within the PMTCT service continuum. This format has inherent limitations with respect to maintaining and accurately recording unique identifiers that can link patients across the different clinics (antenatal, delivery, child), and also poses challenges when compiling aggregate data. Recent improvements to recording systems include assigning unique identifiers to HIV-positive pregnant women in MCH clinics, although this should ideally be extended to all pregnant women, and recording mother and infant identifiers alongside each other in registers. The use of 'health passports', as in Malawi, which maintains the same antenatal clinic identifier over time, also holds promise. Routine data hold tremendous potential for clinic-level patient management, surveillance, and evaluating PMTCT/MCH programmes. Linking clinic data to community research datasets can also provide population-level estimates of coverage with PMTCT services, currently a problematic but vital statistic for monitoring programme performance and negotiating donor funding. Enhancements to indexing and recording of routine PMTCT/MCH data are needed if we are to capitalise on this rich data source.

  18. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  19. Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity in the Middle East: Experience and Challenges of a Fogarty-Sponsored Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Henry; Edwards, Hillary; Shamoo, Adil; Matar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    we describe the research ethics capacity needs of the countries from the Middle East region. Against this background, we relate the experience of an international training program focused on providing long-term training in research ethics to individuals from low- and middle-income countries in the Middle East area. We describe our pedagogical approach to training, program changes to address challenges faced, and accomplishments of trainees. Many former trainees developed research ethics curricula in their home institutions, established or enhanced their institutions’ research ethics committees, provided leadership to national research ethics systems, and conducted research in research ethics. Based on our analysis, we make recommendations for how trainees can further address current regional research ethics needs in the Middle East and conduct future research. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384515

  20. Enhancing research ethics capacity in the Middle East: experience and challenges of a Fogarty-sponsored training program.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Henry; Edwards, Hillary; Shamoo, Adil; Matar, Amal

    2013-12-01

    We describe the research ethics capacity needs of the countries from the Middle East region. Against this background, we relate the experience of an international training program focused on providing long-term training in research ethics to individuals from low and middle-income countries in the Middle East area. We describe our pedagogical approach to training, program changes to address challenges faced, and accomplishments of trainees. Many former trainees developed research ethics curricula in their home institutions, established or enhanced their institutions' research ethics committees, provided leadership to national research ethics systems, and conducted research in research ethics. Based on our analysis, we make recommendations for how trainees can further address current regional research ethics needs in the Middle East and conduct future research. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program.

  1. Water and Land Limitations to Future Agricultural Production in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. A. M.; Wimmer, F.; Schaldach, R.

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Middle East use a large fraction of their scarce water resources to produce cash crops, such as fruit and vegetables, for international markets. At the same time, these countries import large amounts of staple crops, such as cereals, required to meet the nutritional demand of their populations. This makes food security in the Middle East heavily dependent on world market prices for staple crops. Under these preconditions, increasing food demand due to population growth, urban expansion on fertile farmlands, and detrimental effects of a changing climate on the production of agricultural commodities present major challenges to countries in the Middle East that try to improve food security by increasing their self-sufficiency rate of staple crops.We applied the spatio-temporal land-use change model LandSHIFT.JR to simulate how an expansion of urban areas may affect the production of agricultural commodities in Jordan. We furthermore evaluated how climate change and changes in socio-economic conditions may influence crop production. The focus of our analysis was on potential future irrigated and rainfed production (crop yield and area demand) of fruit, vegetables, and cereals. Our simulation results show that the expansion of urban areas and the resulting displacement of agricultural areas does result in a slight decrease in crop yields. This leads to almost no additional irrigation water requirements due to the relocation of agricultural areas, i.e. there is the same amount of "crop per drop". However, taking into account projected changes in socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a large volume of water would be required for cereal production in order to safeguard current self-sufficiency rates for staple crops. Irrigation water requirements are expected to double until 2025 and to triple until 2050. Irrigated crop yields are projected to decrease by about 25%, whereas there is no decrease in rainfed crop yields to be expected.

  2. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-04-15

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  3. Mineral deposit formation in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins of north-east Africa: the contribution of weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germann, Klaus; Schwarz, Torsten; Wipki, Mario

    1994-12-01

    The intra- and epicontinental basins in north-east Africa (Egypt, Sudan) bear ample evidence of weathering processes repeatedly having contributed to the formation of mineral deposits throughout the Phanerozoic. The relict primary weathering mantle of Pan-African basement rocks consists of kaolinitic saprolite, laterite (in places bauxitic) and iron oxide crust. On the continent, the reaccumulation of eroded weathering-derived clay minerals (mainly kaolinite) occurred predominantly in fluvio-lacustrine environments, and floodplain and coastal plain deposits. Iron oxides, delivered from ferricretes, accumulated as oolitic ironstones in continental and marine sediments. Elements leached from weathering profiles accumulated in continental basins forming silcrete and alunite or in the marine environment contributing to the formation of attapulgite/saprolite and phosphorites. The Early Paleozoic Tawiga bauxitic laterite of northern Sudan gives a unique testimony of high latitude lateritic weathering under global greenhouse conditions. It formed in close spatial and temporal vicinity to the Late Ordovician glaciation in north Africa. The record of weathering products is essentially complete for the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary. From the continental sources in the south to the marine sinks in the north, an almost complete line of lateritic and laterite-derived deposits of bauxitic kaolin, kaolin, iron oxides and phosphates is well documented.

  4. From Denis Burkitt to Dar es Salaam. What happened next in East Africa?--Tanzania's story.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Trish; Kaijage, Jane

    2012-03-01

    East Africa was at the forefront of early achievements and discoveries in paediatric oncology thanks to Denis Burkitt's seminal work. Although these successes have been built upon and continued elsewhere, they were sadly not sustained in sub-Saharan Africa for a variety of reasons. In recent years however this situation is slowly changing in countries across the continent. Tanzania is one such African country. Until very recently, survival rates of 5-10% for all children's cancers were expected. However, change has been brought about thanks to the combined efforts and commitments of the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, non-governmental organizations--such as The International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research, and Children in Crossfire-- and the participation of the private sector. Services are rapidly developing and outcomes are continuing to improve with 1-year survival rates of approximately 60% achieved. Efforts to maintain this early progress are concentrated around providing high quality local subspecialty medical training and continued local ownership of the programme.

  5. Projected Changes in Precipitation Variability and Distribution Due to Land Cover Change in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. J.; Lofgren, B. M.; Andresen, J. A.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Olson, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Climate-Land Interactions Project (CLIP) is studying climate impacts coupled to land use/land cover (LULC) change in East Africa. Accompanying dramatic shifts in population distribution and economic drivers in eastern Africa are changes in global climate forcings; e.g. the melting of Kilimanjaro's glaciers, shifts in the Indian Ocean Dipole periodicity, and greater drought frequency. These socioeconomic factors can alter the surface energy balance, thereby influencing climate, and climate shifts can in turn influence patterns and practices in agriculture that will affect LULC. Here we present preliminary results from regional climate model simulations under current (2000-2010) and future (2040-2050) climate conditions driven by boundary conditions from NCAR's CCSM model (using scenario A1B), with land cover prognosed by a land transformation model. Prognosed land cover is driven by projected socioeconomic forces ranging from urban migration to agricultural expansion into marginal lands. We first simulate only future (2040-2050) land cover with current (2000-2010) boundary conditions, then current land cover with future CCSM boundary conditions, then finally both future and cover and boundary conditions. In this way, we will be able to observe effects solely from land cover change, effects solely from climate change, and the synergistic effects of both combined.

  6. Indian Ocean Climate event brings floods to East Africa's lakes and the Sudd Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, Charon; Murtugudde, Ragu; Allan, Tony

    During an El Niño, the expected rainfall increase over most of the Lake Victoria catchment area is ˜15-25%. However, due to anomalous warming of the western equatorial Indian Ocean during 1997, strong convection developed over parts of the Horn and eastern Africa. This resulted in a much larger 20-160% precipitation excess during the “short rainy” season. Satellite radar altimetry data reveals that not only did Lake Victoria rise by ˜1.7 m, but that the rainfall event similarly affected lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Turkana. In addition, the seasonal level minima of the Sudd marshes and Lakes T'ana and Nasser continue to increase. Such a rainfall event will have severe, long-term consequences for the natural surface flows and storages along the White Nile. Based on the hydrological impacts of the historic 1961 East Africa event, we can expect the current high levels of Lake Victoria to be maintained for the remainder of this decade. In addition, we anticipate a major expansion of the permanent swamp regions of the Sudd marshes over the forthcoming seasons. Blue Nile flows, further enhanced by the above-average 1998 rainfall season, can also be expected to remain high, at least until early 1999.

  7. mtDNA variation in East Africa unravels the history of Afro-Asiatic groups.

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Castrì, Loredana; Sarno, Stefania; Useli, Antonella; Cioffi, Manuela; Sazzini, Marco; Garagnani, Paolo; De Fanti, Sara; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2013-03-01

    East Africa (EA) has witnessed pivotal steps in the history of human evolution. Due to its high environmental and cultural variability, and to the long-term human presence there, the genetic structure of modern EA populations is one of the most complicated puzzles in human diversity worldwide. Similarly, the widespread Afro-Asiatic (AA) linguistic phylum reaches its highest levels of internal differentiation in EA. To disentangle this complex ethno-linguistic pattern, we studied mtDNA variability in 1,671 individuals (452 of which were newly typed) from 30 EA populations and compared our data with those from 40 populations (2970 individuals) from Central and Northern Africa and the Levant, affiliated to the AA phylum. The genetic structure of the studied populations--explored using spatial Principal Component Analysis and Model-based clustering--turned out to be composed of four clusters, each with different geographic distribution and/or linguistic affiliation, and signaling different population events in the history of the region. One cluster is widespread in Ethiopia, where it is associated with different AA-speaking populations, and shows shared ancestry with Semitic-speaking groups from Yemen and Egypt and AA-Chadic-speaking groups from Central Africa. Two clusters included populations from Southern Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Despite high and recent gene-flow (Bantu, Nilo-Saharan pastoralists), one of them is associated with a more ancient AA-Cushitic stratum. Most North-African and Levantine populations (AA-Berber, AA-Semitic) were grouped in a fourth and more differentiated cluster. We therefore conclude that EA genetic variability, although heavily influenced by migration processes, conserves traces of more ancient strata.

  8. Bacillary Angiomatosis Masquerading as Kaposi’s Sarcoma in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Forrestel, A. K.; Naujokas, A.; Martin, J. N.; Maurer, T. A.; McCalmont, T. H.; Laker-Opwonya, M. O.; Mulyowa, G.; Busakhala, N.; Amerson, Erin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a rare manifestation of infection caused by Bartonella species, which leads to vasoproliferative lesions of skin and other organs. Bacillary angiomatosis affects individuals with advanced HIV disease or other immunocompromised individuals. In sub-Saharan Africa, despite the high prevalence of HIV infection and documentation of the causative Bartonella species in humans, mammalian hosts, and arthropod vectors, BA has only rarely been described. Methods Three adult patients from Uganda and Kenya with deep purple dome-shaped papules or nodules of the skin underwent punch biopsies for histopathologic diagnosis. The biopsies of all 3 patients were sent to a local pathologist as well as to a dermatopathologist at the University of California, San Francisco. Results All 3 patients were clinically suspected to have Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), and local pathologists had interpreted the lesions as KS in 2 of the cases and nonspecific inflammation in the third. Histologic examination by dermatopathologists in the United States revealed nodular dermal proliferations of irregular capillaries lined by spindled to epithelioid endothelial cells. The surrounding stroma contained a mixed inflammatory infiltrate with lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Extracellular deposits of pale amphophilic granular material were noted in the surrounding stroma. A Warthin-Starry stain highlighted clumps of bacilli, confirming the diagnosis of BA. Conclusions These 3 cases, to our knowledge, are the first reports of BA in East Africa in the biomedical literature. Each had been originally incorrectly diagnosed as KS. We speculate BA is underdiagnosed and underreported in resource-poor regions, such as sub- Saharan Africa, that have high endemic rates of HIV infection. PMID:24718378

  9. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Delivering Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Kupke, Alexandra; Song, Fei; Jany, Sylvia; Fux, Robert; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schmidt, Jörg; Becker, Christin; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease in humans. We tested a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein by immunizing BALB/c mice with either intramuscular or subcutaneous regimens. In all cases, MVA-MERS-S induced MERS-CoV-specific CD8(+) T cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Vaccinated mice were protected against MERS-CoV challenge infection after transduction with the human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor. This MERS-CoV infection model demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the candidate vaccine.

  10. Evaluation of multispectral middle infrared aircraft images for lithologic mapping the East Tintic Mountains, Utah( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, A.B.; Rowan, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Six channels of moultispectral middle infrared (8 to 14 micrometres) aircraft scanner data were acquired over the East Tintic mining district, Utah. The digital image data were computer processed to create a color-composite image based on principal component transformations. When combined with a visible and near infrared color-composite image from a previous flight, with limited field checking, it is possible to discriminate quartzite, carbonate rocks, quartz latitic and quartz monzonitic rocks, latitic and monzonitic rocks, silicified altered rocks, argillized altered rocks, and vegetation. -from Authors

  11. Some new trends in Mediterranean labour migration: the Middle East connection.

    PubMed

    Seccombe, I J; Lawless, R J

    1985-03-01

    Changes in international labor migration in the Mediterranean region since the European economic recession of the early 1970s are examined. The authors note that labor migration to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East has increased and that this migration has differed from the previous movements to Europe, in that the migrants involved have been employed by contractors from their countries of origin or by other foreign companies. The probable future decline of this migration as infrastructure projects are completed is discussed, and the consequences are examined.

  12. Virtual communities? The Middle East revolutions at the Guardian forum: Comment Is Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawski, B.; Abell, P.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the possibility of virtual community formation in an online social network under a rapid increase of activity of members and newcomers. The evolution is studied of the activity of online users at the Guardian - Comment Is Free forum - covering topics related to the Middle East turmoil during the period of 1st of January 2010 to the 28th of March 2011. Despite a threefold upsurge of forum users and the formation of a giant component, the main network characteristics, i.e. degree and weight distribution and clustering coefficient, remained almost unchanged.

  13. International palliative care: Middle East experience as a model for global palliative care.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Ramzi R; Charalambous, Haris A; Baider, Lea; Silbermann, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Care for elderly people with life-limiting illness cannot be delivered primarily by geriatricians or palliative care practitioners. The role of these clinicians is to help carers become adept in palliative care medicine. In a culture in which family ties run deep, the offer of palliative care from an outsider may be met with suspicion. The family bond in the Middle East is strong, but the emotional response to terminal illness may push families to request futile treatments, and physicians to comply. When palliative care is well developed and well understood, it provides a viable alternative to such extreme terminal measures.

  14. NMR assignments of the macro domain from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The newly emerging human pathogen, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of non-structural protein 3. Intense research has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other derivatives, but it still remains intangible about their exact function. In this study we report the preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the MERS-CoV macro domain. The near complete NMR assignments of MERS-CoV macro domain provide the basis for subsequent structural and biochemical investigation in the context of protein function.

  15. Two Mutations Were Critical for Bat-to-Human Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Chang; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Shi, Zhengli; Baric, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmitted from bats to humans, we compared the virus surface spikes of MERS-CoV and a related bat coronavirus, HKU4. Although HKU4 spike cannot mediate viral entry into human cells, two mutations enabled it to do so by allowing it to be activated by human proteases. These mutations are present in MERS-CoV spike, explaining why MERS-CoV infects human cells. These mutations therefore played critical roles in the bat-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV, either directly or through intermediate hosts. PMID:26063432

  16. High Prevalence of Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus in Young Dromedary Camels in Jordan.

    PubMed

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Hijazeen, Zaidoun S K; Holloway, Peter; Al Omari, Bilal; McDowell, Chester; Adney, Danielle; Talafha, Hani A; Guitian, Javier; Steel, John; Amarin, Nadim; Tibbo, Markos; Abu-Basha, Ehab; Al-Majali, Ahmad M; Munster, Vincent J; Richt, Juergen A

    2017-02-01

    Prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was determined in 45 dromedary camels from two geographically separated herds in Jordan. Virus shedding was only detected in swabs obtained from the respiratory tract and primarily observed in camels younger than 3 years. MERS-CoV seroprevalence increased with age of camels. Bovine and sheep sera were seronegative. Phylogenetic analysis of partial S2 clustered the Jordanian MERS-CoV strains with contemporary MERS-CoV strains associated with nosocomial outbreaks.

  17. Reinvestigating Three Paleo Lake Records in the Middle East using new Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, J. M.; Stott, L. D.; Buenning, N. H.; Yoshimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present a reinterpretation of three oxygen isotope records from three Middle Eastern Lakes (Zeribar, Van and Eski Acigo). These lake isotope records were interpreted previously to document changes in the precipitation-to-evaporation ratio (Eski and Van) and varying seasonality of precipitation over the lake (Zeribar). These differing interpretations are a consequence of inadequate constraints on atmospheric dynamics that influence isotopic variability in the water cycle of the Middle East. We present new isotope-enabled atmospheric model results that provide a more comprehensive view of each of the potential influences that affected these lake records. Currently the Middle East exhibits a highly seasonal precipitation cycle with the bulk of the rainfall occurring during the winter months. The yearly isotopic composition of rainfall exhibits a seasonal cycle as well with decreased values during the winter and higher isotopic values in both fall and spring. We conducted two model simulations with the Isotope-incorporated Global Spectral Model (IsoGSM): 1) with present-day conditions and 2) with mid-Holocene conditions. For the mid-Holocene simulations changes were made to the surface forcing, orbital parameters and greenhouse gas concentrations. These results show that the annual averaged oxygen isotopes in precipitation 6000 years ago were depleted on the order of 1 to 3‰ compared to present day. The model results are consistent with the published lake core records. However, the shift in isotopic composition of precipitation results from the combined influences of orbital changes, the changes in green house gases and surface forcings. We have evaluated the relative contribution of each of the forcings and present a re-interpretation of the Middle Eastern lake records.

  18. A 17-My-old whale constrains onset of uplift and climate change in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Wichura, Henry; Jacobs, Louis L; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J; Manthi, Fredrick K; Winkler, Dale A; Strecker, Manfred R; Clemens, Matthew

    2015-03-31

    Timing and magnitude of surface uplift are key to understanding the impact of crustal deformation and topographic growth on atmospheric circulation, environmental conditions, and surface processes. Uplift of the East African Plateau is linked to mantle processes, but paleoaltimetry data are too scarce to constrain plateau evolution and subsequent vertical motions associated with rifting. Here, we assess the paleotopographic implications of a beaked whale fossil (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region of Kenya found 740 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean at an elevation of 620 m. The specimen is ∼ 17 My old and represents the oldest derived beaked whale known, consistent with molecular estimates of the emergence of modern strap-toothed whales (Mesoplodon). The whale traveled from the Indian Ocean inland along an eastward-directed drainage system controlled by the Cretaceous Anza Graben and was stranded slightly above sea level. Surface uplift from near sea level coincides with paleoclimatic change from a humid environment to highly variable and much drier conditions, which altered biotic communities and drove evolution in east Africa, including that of primates.

  19. A 17-My-old whale constrains onset of uplift and climate change in east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichura, Henry; Jacobs, Louis L.; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J.; Manthi, Fredrick K.; Winkler, Dale A.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Clemens, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Timing and magnitude of surface uplift are key to understanding the impact of crustal deformation and topographic growth on atmospheric circulation, environmental conditions, and surface processes. Uplift of the East African Plateau is linked to mantle processes, but paleoaltimetry data are too scarce to constrain plateau evolution and subsequent vertical motions associated with rifting. Here, we assess the paleotopographic implications of a beaked whale fossil (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region of Kenya found 740 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean at an elevation of 620 m. The specimen is ∼17 My old and represents the oldest derived beaked whale known, consistent with molecular estimates of the emergence of modern strap-toothed whales (Mesoplodon). The whale traveled from the Indian Ocean inland along an eastward-directed drainage system controlled by the Cretaceous Anza Graben and was stranded slightly above sea level. Surface uplift from near sea level coincides with paleoclimatic change from a humid environment to highly variable and much drier conditions, which altered biotic communities and drove evolution in east Africa, including that of primates.

  20. A 17-My-old whale constrains onset of uplift and climate change in east Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wichura, Henry; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J.; Manthi, Fredrick K.; Winkler, Dale A.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Clemens, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Timing and magnitude of surface uplift are key to understanding the impact of crustal deformation and topographic growth on atmospheric circulation, environmental conditions, and surface processes. Uplift of the East African Plateau is linked to mantle processes, but paleoaltimetry data are too scarce to constrain plateau evolution and subsequent vertical motions associated with rifting. Here, we assess the paleotopographic implications of a beaked whale fossil (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region of Kenya found 740 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean at an elevation of 620 m. The specimen is ∼17 My old and represents the oldest derived beaked whale known, consistent with molecular estimates of the emergence of modern strap-toothed whales (Mesoplodon). The whale traveled from the Indian Ocean inland along an eastward-directed drainage system controlled by the Cretaceous Anza Graben and was stranded slightly above sea level. Surface uplift from near sea level coincides with paleoclimatic change from a humid environment to highly variable and much drier conditions, which altered biotic communities and drove evolution in east Africa, including that of primates. PMID:25775586

  1. Temperature and hydrologic variability of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental temperature change and hydrologic variability. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth temperature, was used to reconstruct surface water temperatures from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific δ13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in temperature and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria temperatures show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated temperatures and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). Temperatures abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine

  2. 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) nosocomial outbreak in South Korea: insights from modeling.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Since the emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, more than 1,300 laboratory confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infections have been reported in Asia, North Africa, and Europe by July 2015. The recent MERS-CoV nosocomial outbreak in South Korea quickly became the second largest such outbreak with 186 total cases and 36 deaths in a little more than one month, second only to Saudi Arabia in country-specific number of reported cases. Methods. We use a simple mathematical model, the Richards model, to trace the temporal course of the South Korea MERS-CoV outbreak. We pinpoint its outbreak turning point and its transmissibility via basic reproduction number R 0 in order to ascertain the occurrence of this nosocomial outbreak and how it was quickly brought under control. Results. The estimated outbreak turning point of ti = 23.3 days (95% CI [22.6-24.0]), or 23-24 days after the onset date of the index case on May 11, pinpoints June 3-4 as the time of the turning point or the peak incidence for this outbreak by onset date. R 0 is estimated to range between 7.0 and 19.3. Discussion and Conclusion. The turning point of the South Korea MERS-CoV outbreak occurred around May 27-29, when control measures were quickly implemented after laboratory confirmation of the first cluster of nosocomial infections by the index patient. Furthermore, transmissibility of MERS-CoV in the South Korea outbreak was significantly higher than those reported from past MERS-CoV outbreaks in the Middle East, which is attributable to the nosocomial nature of this outbreak. Our estimate of R 0 for the South Korea MERS-CoV nosocomial outbreak further highlights the importance and the risk involved in cluster infections and superspreading events in crowded settings such as hospitals. Similar to the 2003 SARS epidemic, outbreaks of infectious diseases with low community transmissibility like MERS-CoV could still occur initially with large clusters of nosocomial

  3. Pleistocene soil development and paleoenvironmental dynamics in East Africa: a multidisciplinary study of the Homo-bearing Aalat succession, Dandiero Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Mercatante, Giuseppe; Donato, Paola; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Carnevale, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Oms, Oriol; Papini, Mauro; Pavia, Marco; Sani, Federico; Rook, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Pleistocene environmental changes in East Africa, largely documented by deep marine or lacustrine records correlated with inland high-resolution, Homo-bearing stratigraphic successions, have been so far interpreted as a major cause of faunal dispersal and human evolution. However, only few studies focused on reconstruction of paleoenvironmental dynamics from continental successions, given the usually poor continuity and extension of stratigraphic records. In this work we report on a multidisciplinary study of the Early to Middle Pleistocene sedimentary fill of the Dandiero Basin (Eritrean Danakil), a morpho-tectonic depression in the East African Rift System, which represents the only continental stratigraphy including human remains of Homo erectus/ergaster and abundant fossil vertebrates in the northernmost sector of this region. Sedimentological, pedological, volcanological and paleontological investigations were performed on the Aalat section, located in the northern part of the Dandiero Basin, as tools for an integrated reconstruction of the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition in East Africa. This section is almost 300 m thick and records repeated shifts from fluvial to deltaic and lacustrine depositional environments, as a response to local tectonic activity and climate changes. Sedimentary facies distribution and paleocurrent data show that sedimentation was controlled by a NS-trending axial drainage. Some tephra layers were identified both at the bottom and the top of the section, whereas two main fossiliferous layers were detected in its lower part. Terrestrial vertebrate faunas include a typical Early to Middle Pleistocene East African mammalian assemblage, where taxa characterized by strong water dependence prevail. Also the ichthyofauna is consistent with the shallow water fluvio-lacustrine paleobiotopes. High-quality paleomagnetic analyses, integrated with radiometric dating and vertebrate paleontology, allowed to substantiate the chronological

  4. Landscape feedbacks, Climate Change, and Food Production Risk in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N.; Pijanowski, B.; Lofgren, B.; Alagarswamy, G.

    2008-12-01

    Land Cover/ Land Use Change (LCLUC) and climate change due to elevated levels of greenhouse gases (GHG) both exert strong influence over agricultural production in developing countries. In addition, LCLUC is a first-order climate forcing capable of mitigating or exacerbating GHG effects on climate. LCLUC and GHG forcings that alter climate may then in turn influence agricultural systems, thereby creating a feedback to LCLUC. These human-land-climate interactions are complex- particularly in heterogeneous landscapes like East Africa- where subsistence farming and highly variable growing season conditions are excellent for investigating the nature and magnitude of these interactions. Here we present results of a sensitivity test exploring these feedbacks in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi. First, we assess the impacts of "aggressive" agricultural expansion and generally warmer, wetter boundary conditions due to large increases in GHG for 2050-2059 using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). These results are contrasted to simulations conducted for 2000- 2009 conditions. Second, we examine simulated changes in agricultural yield using the process-based crop model CERES-Maize; we use maize as a proxy for all East African agricultural productivity. These simulated yields are imported into the Land Transformation Model (LTM), which, informed by socioeconomic constraints, develops a new projection of land cover under the new yield conditions. Third, by comparing the original "aggressive" landscape with the new yield-feedback landscape, we show areas exhibiting sensitivity to LCLUC under elevated GHG conditions. Although this is a mere sensitivity test, we can identify areas prone to potential food production disturbances. These sensitive areas, while unlikely to see climate and landscape changes this dramatic, can serve as "canaries in the coal mine" for predicting larger changes in East African food production. Additionally, we discuss key

  5. A Progressively Wetter Climate in Southern East Africa Over the Past 1.3 Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Contreras, S.; Brown, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a 1.3 million year record of hydroclimate in the basin of Lake Malawi, the second deepest lake in Africa, located at ~10 - 15ºS latitude in the East African Rift Valley. The lake is ~550 km long, has a maximum depth of 706 m, and is presently anoxic below ~200 m. While the lake is an open basin today with outflow through the Shire River at its southern end, the surface of Lake Malawi has dropped well below the elevation of its outlet on several occasions in its past. We examined a 380 m sediment sequence taken from a water depth of 590 m, from Cores MAL05-1B and MAL05-1C of the Lake Malawi Drilling Project. Sediment samples were analyzed for the carbon isotopic composition of the C29 - C33 n-alkanes derived from fossil leaf waxes, which primarily reflect the relative abundance of C3 (mostly trees and shrubs) and C4 (mostly grass) vegetation, i.e., relatively humid or arid conditions, respectively, in the lake basin. The δ13Cwax record portrays a transition from a highly variable and predominantly arid climate prior to 900 ka to a progressively more humid environment after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, dominated by 100 ky cycles consisting of warm, wet interglacial periods alternating with relatively cool, dry glacial periods. This shift towards more humid conditions in the Lake Malawi basin contrasts with the well-documented progression towards a more arid environment in North Africa over the same period, as reflected in the carbon isotopic record of soil carbonates and in dust records from marine sediment recovered from the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Aden. Aridification in the Horn of Africa has been attributed to a cooling of the Indian Ocean. Model results suggest that this would be accompanied by a weakening of a localized Walker circulation over the Indian Ocean, less ascending air over the western Indian Ocean and coastal Africa, and more precipitation in the Rift Valley.

  6. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: transmission, virology and therapeutic targeting to aid in outbreak control

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Batool, Maria; Shah, Masaud; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes high fever, cough, acute respiratory tract infection and multiorgan dysfunction that may eventually lead to the death of the infected individuals. MERS-CoV is thought to be transmitted to humans through dromedary camels. The occurrence of the virus was first reported in the Middle East and it subsequently spread to several parts of the world. Since 2012, about 1368 infections, including ~487 deaths, have been reported worldwide. Notably, the recent human-to-human ‘superspreading' of MERS-CoV in hospitals in South Korea has raised a major global health concern. The fatality rate in MERS-CoV infection is four times higher compared with that of the closely related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Currently, no drug has been clinically approved to control MERS-CoV infection. In this study, we highlight the potential drug targets that can be used to develop anti-MERS-CoV therapeutics. PMID:26315600

  7. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.S.S. )

    1994-07-11

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

  8. Middle East measurements of concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles for coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendersky, Sergey; Kopeika, Norman S.; Blaunstein, Natan S.

    2005-10-01

    Recently, an extension of the Navy Aerosol Model (NAM) was proposed based on analysis of an extensive series of measurements at the Irish Atlantic Coast and at the French Mediterranean Coast. We confirm the relevance of that work for the distant eastern Meditteranean and extend several coefficients of that coastal model, proposed by Piazzola et al. for the Meditteranean Coast (a form of the Navy Aerosol Model), to midland Middle East coastal environments. This analysis is based on data collected at three different Middle East coastal areas: the Negev Desert (Eilat) Red Sea Coast, the Sea of Galilee (Tiberias) Coast, and the Mediterranean (Haifa) Coast. Aerosol size distributions are compared with those obtained through measurements carried out over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean Coasts, and Mediterranean, and Baltic Seas Coasts. An analysis of these different results allows better understanding of the similarities and differences between different coastal lake, sea, and open ocean zones. It is shown that in the coastal regions in Israel, compared to open ocean and other sea zones, larger differences in aerosol particle concentration are observed. The aerosol particle concentrations and their dependences on wind speed for these coastal zones are analyzed and discussed. We propose to classify the aerosol distribution models to either: 1. a coastal model with marine aerosol domination; 2. a coastal model with continental aerosol domination (referred to as midland coast in this work); or 3. a coastal model with balanced marine and continental conditions.

  9. Impacts of The Future Changes in Extreme Events on Migration in The Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Nazan; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards are defined as extreme events that threat people, their homes and their neighborhoods. They damage housing, food production system and other infrastructures. The frequency of natural hazards namely drought, floods can influence the residential decision-making and can cause substantial residential mobility by affecting relatively greater numbers of people in the region. Developing countries are more vulnerable to the impacts of natural hazards. Therefore, environmental migration can be associated with natural hazards especially in the developing countries. Limited water resources and demographic dynamics of the Middle East make the region one of the most affected domains from the impacts of natural hazards. In this study, we consider the relationship between migration as a demographic process and the frequency of natural hazards in the Middle East for the period of 2020 - 2045 with respect to 1980 - 2005 by performing the projection according to the scenario of IPCC, namely RCP8.5 through the RegCM4.4 and combining them with an econometric analysis. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  10. Super-giant oil fields and future prospects in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, L.; Johnston, D.

    1995-06-01

    Upper Jurassic carbonates, Lower Cretaceous sands, Lower Cretaceous carbonates and Tertiary carbonates of the Middle East contain more than 50% of the worlds oil. Our area of interest covers SE Turkey and Syria in the north to the borders of Yemen and Oman in the south, and from the Red Sea across Saudi Arabia, the Emirates and the Arabian/Persian Gulf to Iran in the East. There are over 80 fields in this region with over 1 billion barrels of recoverable reserves. Yet only around 30,000 wells have been drilled in this territory. Regional structure and stratigraphy are discussed within the context of three major plays in the region as well as a new play in the Permo-Carboniferous. Numerous opportunities are available and countries such as Iraq and Iran may one day open their doors more to the industry than is presently the case. The dramatic petroleum geology of the region will stamp its influence on the nature of business and opportunities for years to come. While fiscal systems here already offer some of the toughest terms in the world, future deals in the more prolific areas will be even tougher. But, the economies of Middle Eastern scale will provide some of the great mega-opportunities of future international exploration.

  11. The pursuit of longevity - the bringer of peace to the middle East.

    PubMed

    Stambler, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common apprehensions regarding the aging population, this work aims to argue, on both deontological and utilitarian moral grounds, that any increase in general life-expectancy will be beneficial for the Middle East, countering the common fears associated with this increase. A set of ethical arguments concerning increasing longevity is presented, from both the deontological and utilitarian perspective. A wide selection of economic, psychological, demographic and epidemiological literature and databases is analyzed to determine common correlates of extended longevity. On the deontological grounds, the value of extended longevity is derived from the value of life preservation, regardless of its term. On the utilitarian grounds, the value of extended longevity is demonstrated by its correlation with further human values, such as education level and intellectual activity, economic prosperity, equality, solidarity and peacefulness. With the common apprehensions of stagnation and scarcity due to life extension found wanting, the pursuit of longevity by the population can be seen as a cross-cultural and cross-generational good. Though the current study mainly refers to sources and data relevant to the Middle East, a similar pro-longevity argument can be also made for other cultural contexts. In view of its numerous benefits, normatively, the goal of longevity should be set clearly and openly by the society, and actively pursued, or at least discussed, in academia, the political system and broader public.

  12. Diabetes-related tuberculosis in the Middle East: an urgent need for regional research

    PubMed Central

    Alkabab, Yosra M.; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Heysell, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Diabetes mellitus (DM) triples the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease, complicates TB treatment, and increases the risk of a poor TB outcome. As DM prevalence is increasing across the Middle East, this review was performed to identify regional gaps in knowledge and research priorities for DM/TB. Methods Online databases were searched for studies published from Middle East countries on DM and TB and the studies summarized based on topic and major findings. Studies included had a principle hypothesis related to both diseases, or described TB patients with individual data on DM. Results Fifty-nine studies from 10 countries met search criteria. No published studies were found from Lebanon, Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Cyprus, or the United Arab Emirates. DM prevalence among TB patients was high, but varied considerably across studies. The vast majority of studies were not specifically designed to compare DM/TB and non-DM/TB patients, but many suggested worse treatment outcomes for DM/TB, in accordance with reports from other regions. Conclusions Opportunity exists for the regional study of bidirectional screening, management strategies for both DM and TB diseases, and whether such efforts could take place through the integration of services. PMID:26409203

  13. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Sayers, Z.; Schopper, H.; Winick, H.; Al-Dmour, E.

    2004-05-12

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference {approx}125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

  14. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody reactors among camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005.

    PubMed

    Alexandersen, S; Kobinger, G P; Soule, G; Wernery, U

    2014-04-01

    We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000-2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS-CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS-CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS-CoV at the human-animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population.

  15. Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka.

    PubMed

    Lane, Christine S; Chorn, Ben T; Johnson, Thomas C

    2013-05-14

    The most explosive volcanic event of the Quaternary was the eruption of Mt. Toba, Sumatra, 75,000 y ago, which produced voluminous ash deposits found across much of the Indian Ocean, Indian Peninsula, and South China Sea. A major climatic downturn observed within the Greenland ice cores has been attributed to the cooling effects of the ash and aerosols ejected during the eruption of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT). These events coincided roughly with a hypothesized human genetic bottleneck, when the number of our species in Africa may have been reduced to near extinction. Some have speculated that the demise of early modern humans at that time was due in part to a dramatic climate shift triggered by the supereruption. Others have argued that environmental conditions would not have been so severe to have such an impact on our ancestors, and furthermore, that modern humans may have already expanded beyond Africa by this time. We report an observation of the YTT in Africa, recovered as a cryptotephra layer in Lake Malawi sediments, >7,000 km west of the source volcano. The YTT isochron provides an accurate and precise age estimate for the Lake Malawi paleoclimate record, which revises the chronology of past climatic events in East Africa. The YTT in Lake Malawi is not accompanied by a major change in sediment composition or evidence for substantial temperature change, implying that the eruption did not significantly impact the climate of East Africa and was not the cause of a human genetic bottleneck at that time.

  16. Didactyl Tracks of Paravian Theropods (Maniraptora) from the ?Middle Jurassic of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mudroch, Alexander; Richter, Ute; Joger, Ulrich; Kosma, Ralf; Idé, Oumarou; Maga, Abdoulaye

    2011-01-01

    Background A new dinosaur tracksite from ?Middle Jurassic sediments of the Irhazer Group on the plains of Agadez (Rep. Niger, northwest Africa) revealed extraordinarily well preserved didactyl tracks of a digitigrade bipedal trackmaker. The distinct morphology of the pes imprints indicates a theropod trackmaker from a paravian maniraptoran closely related to birds. Methodology/Principal Findings The early age and the morphological traits of the tracks allow for description of the new ichnotaxon Paravipus didactyloides. A total of 120 tracks are assigned to 5 individual trackways. The ‘medium-sized’ tracks with an average footprint length of 27.5 cm and footprint width of 23.1 cm are deeply imprinted into the track bearing sandstone. Conclusions/Significance A comparison with other didactyl tracks gives new insights into the foot morphology of advanced maniraptoran theropods and contributes to knowledge of their evolutionary history. The new ichnotaxon takes an important position in the ichnological fossil record of Gondwana and the mid-Jurassic biota worldwide, because it is among the earliest known records of paravian maniraptorans and of didactyl theropod tracks from Africa. PMID:21339816

  17. Revolutionising engineering education in the Middle East region to promote earthquake-disaster mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-09-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  18. Repetitive dengue outbreaks in East Africa: A proposed phased mitigation approach may reduce its impact.

    PubMed

    Baba, Marycelin; Villinger, Jandouwe; Masiga, Daniel K

    2016-05-01

    Dengue outbreaks have persistently occurred in eastern African countries for several decades. We assessed each outbreak to identify risk factors and propose a framework for prevention and impact mitigation. Seven out of ten countries in eastern Africa and three islands in the Indian Ocean have experienced dengue outbreaks between 1823 and 2014. Major risk factors associated with past dengue outbreaks include climate, virus and vector genetics and human practices. Appropriate use of dengue diagnostic tools and their interpretation are necessary for both outbreak investigations and sero-epidemiological studies. Serosurvey findings during inter-epidemic periods have not been adequately utilised to prevent re-occurrence of dengue outbreaks. Local weather variables may be used to predict dengue outbreaks, while entomological surveillance can complement other disease-mitigation efforts during outbreaks and identify risk-prone areas during inter-epidemic periods. The limitations of past dengue outbreak responses and the enormous socio-economic impacts of the disease on human health are highlighted. Its repeated occurrence in East Africa refutes previous observations that susceptibility may depend on race. Alternate hypotheses on heterotypic protection among flaviviruses may not be applied to all ecologies. Prevention and mitigation of severe dengue outbreaks should necessarily consider the diverse factors associated with their occurrence. Implementation of phased dengue mitigation activities can enforce timely and judicious use of scarce resources, promote environmental sanitation, and drive behavioural change, hygienic practices and community-based vector control. Understanding dengue epidemiology and clinical symptoms, as determined by its evolution, are significant to preventing future dengue epidemics.

  19. HIV/AIDS among pastoralists and refugees in north-east Africa: a neglected problem.

    PubMed

    Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kassa, Afework; Alwan, Fathia; Kloos, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The eight member states (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda) of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) have the largest proportions of cross-border mobile pastoralists and refugees in Africa. Although all IGAD countries have had national HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmes since the late 1980s, the IGAD Regional HIV & AIDS Partnership Program was (IRAPP) established in 2007 to mitigate the challenges of HIV among neglected pastoral and refugee communities. This article assesses vulnerability of pastoralists and refugee communities to HIV and interventions targeting these groups in the IGAD countries. Outcomes from this study may serve as a baseline for further research and to improve interventions. Published articles were accessed through web searches using PubMed and Google Scholar engines and unpublished documents were collected manually. The search terms were HIV risk behaviour, vulnerability, HIV prevalence and interventions, under the headings pastoralists, refugees, IGAD and north-east Africa for the period 2001-2014. Of the 214 documents reviewed, 78 met the inclusion criteria and were included. Most HIV/AIDS related studies focusing of pastoral communities in IGAD countries were found to be limited in scope and coverage but reveal precarious situations. Sero-prevalence among various pastoral populations ranged from 1% to 21% in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda and from 1% to 5% among refugees in Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. Socioeconomic, cultural, logistic, infrastructure and programmatic factors were found to contribute to continuing vulnerability to HIV. Interventions need to be further contextualised to the needs of those impoverished populations and integrated into national HIV/AIDS programmes. HIV/AIDS remains a major public health concern among the pastoral and refugee communities of IGAD countries. This calls for IGAD to collaborate with national and international partners in

  20. Peace in the Middle East: How It Will Impact the New World Order and the American Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    interests between the East and the West. Security and stability of the world has emerged as a very important element of the new world order. Since...anything happening in any part of the world affects and gets affected by what happens in the other parts of the world , achieving peace and stability in the...Middle East is important for the peace and stability of the world . Since the US is considered the leader of the new world system, the protection of