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Sample records for africa nerica cultivars

  1. New Rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivars exhibit different levels of post-attachment resistance against the parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica.

    PubMed

    Cissoko, Mamadou; Boisnard, Arnaud; Rodenburg, Jonne; Press, Malcolm C; Scholes, Julie D

    2011-12-01

    Striga hermonthica and S. asiatica are root parasitic weeds that infect the major cereal crops of sub-Saharan Africa causing severe losses in yield. The interspecific upland NEw RICe for Africa (NERICA) cultivars are popular amongst subsistence farmers, but little is known about their post-attachment resistance against Striga. Here, we evaluate the post-attachment resistance levels of the NERICA cultivars and their parents against ecotypes of S. hermonthica and S.asiatica, characterize the phenotype of the resistance mechanisms and determine the effect of Striga on host biomass. Some NERICA cultivars showed good broad-spectrum resistance against several Striga ecotypes, whereas others showed intermediate resistance or were very susceptible. The phenotype of a resistant interaction was often characterized by an inability of the parasite to penetrate the endodermis. Moreover, some parasites formed only a few connections to the host xylem, grew slowly and remained small. The most resistant NERICA cultivars were least damaged by Striga, although even a small number of parasites caused a reduction in above-ground host biomass. The elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of the resistance mechanisms and tolerance would allow the development of cultivars with multiple, durable resistance for use in farmers' fields.

  2. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R.; Midega, Charles A.O.; Onyuka, Enos A.; Scholes, Julie D.

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha−1 were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha−1 with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas. PMID:26089591

  3. Host status of commercial mango cultivars to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Grové, T; De Beer, M S; Joubert, P H

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the host status of commercially cultivated mango fruit, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa. T. leucotreta was monitored with parapheromone traps in mango orchards in Limpopo and Mpumalanga from 2007 to 2010. Fruit were inspected for the presence of T leucotreta eggs in mango orchards. Mango fruit of the cultivars 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent', 'Keitt', and 'Sensation' were artificially infested with T. leucotreta eggs on the tree to determine if the larvae were able to develop in fruit. Mature fruit of these cultivars were harvested and were then exposed to T leucotreta eggs and the larval development monitored. Before harvest, fruit were inspected for natural infestations and a packhouse survey was conducted during the 2009-2010 season to determine if any infested fruit were present. T. leucotreta was present in all mango orchards where monitoring was done with traps but no eggs were found on the fruit, which suggests the presence of antixenosis. Development occurred in mature harvested fruit of all cultivars that had been exposed to T. leucotreta eggs. Depending on the cultivar, between 0 and 5.05% of immature fruit on the tree supported development and demonstrate antibiosis. No naturally infested fruit were found in the orchards or during the packhouse survey. Mango in South Africa is not a natural host for T. leucotreta. Mature mango fruit is an acceptable host for T. leucotreta larval development under artificial conditions. The latex plays an important role in the resistance mechanism of mango fruit to T. leucotreta.

  4. Physiological and biochemical characterization of NERICA-L-44: a novel source of heat tolerance at the vegetative and reproductive stages in rice.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Jha, Jyoti; Pal, Madan; Shah, Divya; Lawas, Lovely M F; Khetarpal, Sangeetha; Jagadish, Krishna S V

    2015-08-01

    The predicted increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme heat spikes under future climate can reduce rice yields significantly. Rice sensitivity to high temperatures during the reproductive stage is well documented while the same during the vegetative stage is more speculative. Hence, to identify and characterize novel heat-tolerant donors for both the vegetative and reproductive stages, 71 rice accessions, including approximately 75% New Rice for Africa (NERICAs), were phenotyped across field experiments during summer seasons in Delhi, India, and in a controlled environment study at International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. NERICA-L-44 (NL-44) recorded high seedling survival (52%) and superior growth and greater reproductive success exposed to 42.2°C (sd ± 2.3) under field conditions. NL-44 and the heat-tolerant check N22 consistently displayed lower membrane damage and higher antioxidant enzymes activity across leaves and spikelets. NL-44 recorded 50-60% spikelet fertility, while N22 recorded 67-79% under controlled environment temperature of 38°C (sd±1.17), although both had about 87% fertility under extremely hot field conditions. N22 and NL-44, exposed to heat stress (38°C), had similar pollen germination percent and number of pollen tubes reaching the ovary. NL-44 maintained low hydrogen peroxide production and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) with high photosynthesis while N22 avoided photosystem II damage through high NPQ under high-temperature stress. NL-44 with its reproductive stage resilience to extreme heat stress, better antioxidant scavenging ability in both vegetative tissue and spikelets and superior yield and grain quality is identified as a novel donor for increasing heat tolerance at both the vegetative and reproductive stages in rice.

  5. Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans; Njiru, Joshua; Nguu, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Herve; Tripathi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintenance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere). Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14–22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be instrumental to transfer

  6. Improving salt tolerance of lowland rice cultivar 'Rassi' through marker-aided backcross breeding in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bimpong, Isaac Kofi; Manneh, Baboucarr; Sock, Mamadou; Diaw, Faty; Amoah, Nana Kofi Abaka; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Gregorio, Glenn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Wopereis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress affects about 25% of the 4.4 million ha of irrigated and lowland systems for rice cultivation in West Africa (WA). A major quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosome 1 (Saltol) that enhances tolerance to salt stress at the vegetative stage has enabled the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) to develop salt-tolerant rice cultivar(s) in WA. We used 3 cycles of backcrossing with selection based on DNA markers and field-testing using 'FL478' as tolerant donor and the widely grown 'Rassi' as recurrent parent. In the BC3F2 stage, salt-tolerant lines with over 80% Rassi alleles except in the region around Saltol segment were selected. 429 introgression lines (Saltol-ILs) were identified as tolerant at vegetative stage, of which 116 were field-tested for four seasons at the reproductive stage. Sixteen Saltol-ILs had less yield loss (3-26% relative to control trials), and 8 Saltol-ILs showed high yield potential under stress and non-stress conditions. The 16 Saltol-ILs had been included for further African-wide testing prior to release in 6 WA countries. MAS reduced the time for germplasm improvement from at least 7 to about 4 years. Our objective is to combine different genes/QTLs conferring tolerance to stresses under one genetic background using MAS. PMID:26566846

  7. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  8. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  9. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofts, Marylee

    1986-01-01

    Reviews myths, misconceptions, and unintentional biases about Africa in United States K-12 social studies textbooks. Summarizes common topics and recommends additions. Provides the names, addresses and phone numbers of 10 university-based African Studies centers. Concludes that improvements to textbooks must continue. (JDH)

  10. Switchgrass cultivar

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Yanqi; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2012-10-02

    A new cultivar of switchgrass `Cimarron` (SL93 2001-1) having increased biomass yield is provided. The switchgrass comprises all the morphological and physiological properties of the cultivar grown from a seed deposited under American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) No. PTA-10116. The invention also provides seeds, progeny, parts and methods of use of Cimarron, such as for the production of biofuels.

  11. Switchgrass cultivar EG1102

    DOEpatents

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-20

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1102 is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1102, to the plants of switchgrass EG1102, to plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1102 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. The invention also relates to methods for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1102, to methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1102 with another switchgrass cultivar.

  12. Switchgrass cultivar EG1101

    DOEpatents

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-27

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1101 is disclosed. Also disclosed are seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1101, plants of switchgrass EG1101, plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1101 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. Methods are also described for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. Switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1101, methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods are described herein. Hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1101 with another switchgrass cultivar are also described.

  13. Hop Cultivars and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

  14. Cultivar evaluation for hoop house grown onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oklahoma onions are produced for the fresh market using a combination of short and intermediate day cultivars. Recently developed hoop house transplant production techniques enable local production of cultivars not available as transplants elsewhere. Several new intermediate cultivars have product...

  15. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  ...

  16. Viticultural Performance of Red and White Wine Grape Cultivars in Southwestern Idaho, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matching germplasm to site location is a fundamental viticultural practice to enhance yield and fruit quality. A diverse collection of red and white-skinned winegrape cultivars from established production regions in Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and South Africa were ev...

  17. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (<2.2 Striga plants per pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8-5.7 and 8.7-16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be endowed

  18. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G.; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (<2.2 Striga plants per pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8–5.7 and 8.7–16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be

  19. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome SNP analysis of nine date palm cultivars reveals plastid heteroplasmy and close phylogenetic relationships among cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Jamal S M; Arasappan, Dhivya; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Abo-Aba, Salah; Bafeel, Sameera; Zari, Talal A; Edris, Sherif; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Atef, Ahmed; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; El-Domyati, Fotoh M; Jansen, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Date palm is a very important crop in western Asia and northern Africa, and it is the oldest domesticated fruit tree with archaeological records dating back 5000 years. The huge economic value of this crop has generated considerable interest in breeding programs to enhance production of dates. One of the major limitations of these efforts is the uncertainty regarding the number of date palm cultivars, which are currently based on fruit shape, size, color, and taste. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences were utilized to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of date palms to evaluate the efficacy of this approach for molecular characterization of cultivars. Mitochondrial and plastid genomes of nine Saudi Arabian cultivars were sequenced. For each species about 60 million 100 bp paired-end reads were generated from total genomic DNA using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. For each cultivar, sequences were aligned separately to the published date palm plastid and mitochondrial reference genomes, and SNPs were identified. The results identified cultivar-specific SNPs for eight of the nine cultivars. Two previous SNP analyses of mitochondrial and plastid genomes identified substantial intra-cultivar ( = intra-varietal) polymorphisms in organellar genomes but these studies did not properly take into account the fact that nearly half of the plastid genome has been integrated into the mitochondrial genome. Filtering all sequencing reads that mapped to both organellar genomes nearly eliminated mitochondrial heteroplasmy but all plastid SNPs remained heteroplasmic. This investigation provides valuable insights into how to deal with interorganellar DNA transfer in performing SNP analyses from total genomic DNA. The results confirm recent suggestions that plastid heteroplasmy is much more common than previously thought. Finally, low levels of sequence variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes argue for using nuclear SNPs for molecular

  20. West Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa     View Larger Image ... the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the ...

  1. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters     ... and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ...

  2. A genome-wide survey of date palm cultivars supports two independent domestication events in Phoenix dactylifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is a key fruit crop in many arid regions of the world. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors and sizes growing mainly from the west of North Africa to India. However, the origin o...

  3. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  4. Chilling requirement of Ribes cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hamlyn G.; Gordon, Sandra L.; Brennan, Rex M.

    2015-01-01

    It is usually thought that adequate winter chill is required for the full flowering of many temperate woody species. This paper investigates the sensitivity of blackcurrant bud burst and flowering to natural weather fluctuations in a temperate maritime climate, and compares a range of chill models that have been proposed for assessing the accumulation of winter chill. Bud break for four contrasting cultivars are compared in an exceptionally cold and in a mild winter in Eastern Scotland. The results confirm the importance of chilling at temperatures lower than 0°C and demonstrate that no single chilling function applies equally to all blackcurrant cultivars. There is a pressing need for further model development to take into account the relationship between chilling temperatures and warming temperatures occurring both during and after the chill accumulation period. PMID:25610448

  5. A Genome-Wide Survey of Date Palm Cultivars Supports Two Major Subpopulations in Phoenix dactylifera

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Lisa S.; Seidel, Michael A.; George, Binu; Mathew, Sweety; Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Torres, Maria F.; Al-Dous, Eman K.; Al-Azwani, Eman K.; Diboun, Ilhem; Krueger, Robert R.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Suhre, Karsten; Malek, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of North Africa to India. The origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. We conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar samples from across the date palm–growing regions, including four Phoenix species as the outgroup. Here, for the first time, we generate genome-wide genotyping data for 13,000–65,000 SNPs in a diverse set of date palm fruit and leaf samples. Our analysis provides the first genome-wide evidence confirming recent findings that the date palm cultivars segregate into two main regions of shared genetic background from North Africa and the Arabian Gulf. We identify genomic regions with high densities of geographically segregating SNPs and also observe higher levels of allele fixation on the recently described X-chromosome than on the autosomes. Our results fit a model with two centers of earliest cultivation including date palms autochthonous to North Africa. These results adjust our understanding of human agriculture history and will provide the foundation for more directed functional studies and a better understanding of genetic diversity in date palm. PMID:25957276

  6. A Genome-Wide Survey of Date Palm Cultivars Supports Two Major Subpopulations in Phoenix dactylifera.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Lisa S; Seidel, Michael A; George, Binu; Mathew, Sweety; Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Torres, Maria F; Al-Dous, Eman K; Al-Azwani, Eman K; Diboun, Ilhem; Krueger, Robert R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Suhre, Karsten; Malek, Joel A

    2015-07-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of North Africa to India. The origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. We conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar samples from across the date palm-growing regions, including four Phoenix species as the outgroup. Here, for the first time, we generate genome-wide genotyping data for 13,000-65,000 SNPs in a diverse set of date palm fruit and leaf samples. Our analysis provides the first genome-wide evidence confirming recent findings that the date palm cultivars segregate into two main regions of shared genetic background from North Africa and the Arabian Gulf. We identify genomic regions with high densities of geographically segregating SNPs and also observe higher levels of allele fixation on the recently described X-chromosome than on the autosomes. Our results fit a model with two centers of earliest cultivation including date palms autochthonous to North Africa. These results adjust our understanding of human agriculture history and will provide the foundation for more directed functional studies and a better understanding of genetic diversity in date palm. PMID:25957276

  7. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  8. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    PubMed

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties.

  9. Circumventing Apomixis in Poa Cultivar Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poa represents one of the world’s most highly regarded cool-season grasses for both turf and forage. The genus is highly variable, with approximately 500 species worldwide, several being indigenous to the United States. Cultivar uniformity is a rigorous component of Poa cultivar registration that ...

  10. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  11. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  12. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-12-17

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.

  13. Head blight of wheat in South Africa is associated with numerous Fusarium species and chemotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields during 2008 and...

  14. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  15. Cadmium accumulation in different pakchoi cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Ting-qiang; Han, Xuan; Ding, Zhe-li; Yang, Xiao-e; Jin, Ye-fei

    2012-06-01

    The selection and breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) is a practicable and cost-effective approach to minimize the influx of heavy metal to the human food chain. In this study, both pot-culture and field experiments were conducted to identify and screen out cadmium pollution-safe cultivars (Cd-PSCs) from 50 pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) cultivars for food safety. When treated with 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg Cd, most of the pakchoi cultivars (>70%) showed greater or similar shoot biomass when compared with the control. This result indicates that pakchoi has a considerable tolerance to soil Cd stress. Cd concentrations in the shoot varied significantly (P<0.05) between cultivars: in two Cd treatments (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg), the average values were 0.074 and 0.175 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), respectively. Cd concentrations in the shoots of 14 pakchoi cultivars were lower than 0.05 mg/kg FW. In pot-culture experiments, both enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of six pakchoi cultivars were lower than 1.0. The field studies further confirmed that the Hangzhouyoudonger, Aijiaoheiye 333, and Zaoshenghuajing cultivars are Cd-PSCs, and are therefore suitable for growth in low Cd-contaminated soils (≤1.2 mg/kg) without any risk to food safety.

  16. Cadmium accumulation in different pakchoi cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Ting-qiang; Han, Xuan; Ding, Zhe-li; Yang, Xiao-e; Jin, Ye-fei

    2012-06-01

    The selection and breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) is a practicable and cost-effective approach to minimize the influx of heavy metal to the human food chain. In this study, both pot-culture and field experiments were conducted to identify and screen out cadmium pollution-safe cultivars (Cd-PSCs) from 50 pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) cultivars for food safety. When treated with 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg Cd, most of the pakchoi cultivars (>70%) showed greater or similar shoot biomass when compared with the control. This result indicates that pakchoi has a considerable tolerance to soil Cd stress. Cd concentrations in the shoot varied significantly (P<0.05) between cultivars: in two Cd treatments (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg), the average values were 0.074 and 0.175 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), respectively. Cd concentrations in the shoots of 14 pakchoi cultivars were lower than 0.05 mg/kg FW. In pot-culture experiments, both enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of six pakchoi cultivars were lower than 1.0. The field studies further confirmed that the Hangzhouyoudonger, Aijiaoheiye 333, and Zaoshenghuajing cultivars are Cd-PSCs, and are therefore suitable for growth in low Cd-contaminated soils (≤1.2 mg/kg) without any risk to food safety. PMID:22661212

  17. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  18. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-01-01

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan. PMID:26634465

  19. Cultivar variations in cadmium and lead accumulation and distribution among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitao; Liang, Lichen; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution in agricultural soil in China has received public concern. The concept of low-accumulation cultivars (LACs) was proposed to minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain. Variations in Cd and Pb accumulation, distribution, and tolerance among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were studied in a hydroponic experiment to preliminary identify LACs of Cd or Pb for further field experiments. Of the 30 wheat cultivars tested, 27 and 26 wheat cultivars showed no effect of the Cd/Pb treatments on the shoot and root biomass, respectively. The results showed that the tested wheat cultivars had considerable tolerance to Cd and Pb toxicity. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in shoot Cd concentration were observed among the tested wheat cultivars under treatments Cd1.0 and Cd1.0Pb15, ranging from 0.91 to 6.74 and from 0.87 to 5.96, with the mean of 3.83 and 2.94 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in shoot Pb concentration were also observed among the tested wheat cultivars under treatments Pb15 and Cd1.0Pb15, ranging from 22.18 to 94.03 and from 18.30 to 76.88, with the mean of 50.38 and 41.20 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Low accumulation and internal distribution may both affect the cultivar differences in Cd and Pb accumulation in wheat shoots. Overall, wheat cultivars LF-13, LF-16, and LF-21 had lower Cd-accumulating abilities in their shoots. Wheat cultivars LF-13, LF-23, LF-26, and LF-27 showed low Pb accumulation characteristics in their shoots. An antagonistic interaction occurred between Cd and Pb in accumulation in wheat roots and shoots, which will be further studied in field experiments.

  20. RAPD discrimination of Agaricus bisporus mushroom cultivars.

    PubMed

    Moore, A J; Challen, M P; Warner, P J; Elliott, T J

    2001-06-01

    Cultivars of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus are difficult to differentiate, which has made strain protection problematic for this crop species. We have used RAPDs to discriminate between 26 strains of A. bisporus, 24 of which were commercial cultivars, and to characterise the genetic relatedness of these strains. Using 20 primers, 211 RAPD markers were identified and used in hierarchical cluster, patristic distance and parsimony analyses. All strains could be differentiated using the aggregated primer data. Although no one primer could differentiate all 26 strains, several individual primers yielded unique fingerprints for a variety of strains. The greatest differences (up to 28% variation) were observed in comparisons with or between two wild collections of A. bisporus. Quondam cultivars, commercial brown and off-white varieties proved more variable than the widely grown 'hybrid' types. Of the 15 hybrid varieties analysed, only one differed substantially (20% or more variable). The patristic and parsimony analyses both demonstrated the gross similarity of the hybrids, many of which appear to be essentially derived varieties from two original hybrid cultivars. RAPD analyses can assist mushroom strain identification and could play a role in the protection of novel cultivars. PMID:11525623

  1. Geospatial association of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy and highly cyanogenic cassava cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to cyanide from cassava foods is present in communities where ataxic polyneuropathy is endemic. Ataxic polyneuropathy is endemic in coastal parts of southwest and southeast Nigeria, and coastal Newala, south India, but it has been reported in epidemic or endemic forms from Africa, Asia, or Caribbean. This study was done to determine if cyanogenicity of cassava cultivars is higher in lowland than highland areas, and if areas of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy colocalize with areas of highest cyanogenicity of cassava. Methods Roots of cassava cultivars were collected from 150 farmers in 32 of 37 administrative areas in Nigeria. Global positioning system was used to determine the location of the roots. Roots were assayed for concentrations of cyanogens. Thin Plate Spline regression was used to produce the contour map of cyanogenicity of the study area. Contour maps of altitude of the endemic areas were produced. Relationship of cyanogenicity of cassava cultivars and altitude, and of locations of areas of high cyanogenicity and areas of endemicity were determined. Results Geometrical mean (95% CI) cyanogen concentration was 182 (142–233) mg HCN eq/kg dry wt for cassava cultivars in areas ≤ 25 m above sea level, but 54 (43–66) mg HCN eq/kg dry wt for areas > 375 m. Non-spatial linear regression of altitude on logarithm transformed concentrations of cyanogens showed highly significant association, (p < 0.0001). Contour map of concentrations of cyanogens in cassava cultivars in Nigeria showed four areas with average concentrations of cassava cyanogens > 250 mg HCN eq/kg dry wt, and one area of moderately high cyanogen concentration > 150 mg HCN eq/kg dry wt. The endemic areas colocalized with areas of highest cassava cyanogenicity in lowland areas close to the Atlantic Ocean. Conclusion This study shows strong geospatial association of areas of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy and areas of highest cyanogenicity of

  2. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  3. Africa's Geomosaic under Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Blij, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the transformation of Subsaharan Africa during the last 35 years. Contends that the domino effect hastened decolonization and increased polarization within South Africa. Argues that modernization is taking place only in South Africa's core and that the geopolitical framework appears stable but may collapse from within. (NL)

  4. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  5. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  6. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48 - Blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars is a listing of cultivars that have been released from around the world. List 48 reports on the releases for 24 crops from. The blackberry section gives a description of the origin, and the fruit and plant characteristics for the following cultivars: Amar...

  7. VitisGen: accelerating grape cultivar improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisGen is a multiple institute collaborative project funded by the USDA SCRI program, with a long term goal to accelerate grape cultivar improvement by using cutting-edge molecular marker technologies, rigorous centralized facilities to characterize traits, and molecular breeding expertise. The ge...

  8. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    PubMed

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  9. Digestibility and intake of upland switchgrass cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars with improved forage quality would fill a forage gap during summer when hot dry weather reduces production of cool-season forages on marginal lands of the Northeastern USA. In this study, we used feeding trials with sheep to determine the forage quality of...

  10. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  11. Developing disease resistance in CP-Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease resistance is an important selection criterion in the Canal Point (CP) Sugarcane Cultivar Development Program. Ratoon stunt (RSD, caused by Leifsonia xyli subsp. Xyli Evtsuhenko et al.), leaf scald (caused by Xanthomonas albilineans Ashby, Dowson), mosaic (caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus st...

  12. 'Gem': a new precocious, productive pear cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Gem’ is a new cultivar which combines excellent appearance, fruit quality and long storage potential with precocious and high yields. Fruit color is a light green when mature and frequently has a red blush on the sun-exposed side. It can be eaten immediately after harvest and after storage withou...

  13. Growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in the dry regions of eastern Kenya, due to its drought tolerance and high protein content; however, farmer’s yield is limiting. Ojwang et al. (HortTech Vol 26 (1), 2016) evaluated twelve pigeon pea cultivars for flowering, plant height, branches, pod length and yield...

  14. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  15. Switchgrass cultivars differentially affect soil carbon stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.; Jastrow, J. D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; De Graaff, M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage depends on the amount and quality of plant-derived carbon (C) inputs to soil, which is largely regulated by plant roots via the processes of root turnover and exudation. While we know that plant roots mediate SOC stabilization, we do not fully understand which root characteristics specifically promote soil C storage. With this study we asked whether roots with coarse root systems versus roots with finely branched root systems differentially affect soil C stabilization. In order to answer this question, we collected soil cores (4.8 cm diameter, to a depth of 30 cm) from directly over the crown of six switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars that differed in root architecture. Specifically, three cultivars had fibrous root systems (i.e. high specific root length) and three had coarse root systems (i.e. low specific root length). The cultivars (C4 species) were grown in a C3 grassland for four years, allowing us to use isotopic fractionation techniques to assess differences in soil C input and stabilization. The cores were divided into depth increments of 10 cm and the soils were sieved (2mm). Soil from each depth increment was dispersed by shaking for 16 hours in a NaHMP solution to isolate coarse particulate organic matter (C-POM), fine particulate organic matter (F-POM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. Samples of soil fractions across all depths were analyzed for C and N contents as well as δ13C signature. We found that the relative abundance of the different soil fractions and associated δ13C signatures differed significantly among cultivars. These results indicate that switchgrass cultivars can differentially impact soil carbon inputs and stabilization. We hypothesize that these differences may be driven by variability in root architectures.

  16. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Cho, M R; Kim, J Y; Song, C; Ko, J Y; Na, S Y; Yiem, M S

    1996-12-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm(3) soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the remaining 14 cultivars were susceptible. These results were similar to those obtained when the cultivars were subjected to field populations of the condition on a carnation farm.

  17. Variation in amylase activities in radish (Raphanus sativus) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masakazu; Ito, Fumio; Asai, Tatsuo; Kuboi, Toru

    2009-09-01

    The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family which shows amylolytic activity in the taproot. However, there is little information about differences in these amylolytic activities among radish cultivars. We analyzed the amylase activities and starch contents of 7 kinds of radish cultivars. The Koshin cultivar showed the highest amylase activity, with a level approximately 6 times higher than that of the Sobutori cultivar, which had the lowest. Cultivars with higher amylase activities showed higher starch contents. These results suggest that there are intraspecies variations in amylolytic activities in radishes, and positive correlations between amylase activity and starch content.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of two buffalograss cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engel. syn. Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus] is a United States native turfgrass species that requires less irrigation, fungicides and pesticides compared to more commonly used turfgrass species. In areas where water is limited, interest in this grass species for lawns is increasing. While several buffalograss cultivars have been developed through buffalograss breeding, the timeframe for new cultivar development is long and is limited by a lack of useful genetic resources. Two high throughput next-generation sequencing techniques were used to increase the genomic resources available for buffalograss. Results Total RNA was extracted and purified from leaf samples of two buffalograss cultivars. ‘378’ and ‘Prestige’ cDNA libraries were subjected to high throughput sequencing on the Illumina GA and Roche 454 Titanium FLX sequencing platforms. The 454 platform (3 samples) produced 1,300,885 reads and the Illumina platform (12 samples) generated approximately 332 million reads. The multiple k-mer technique for de novo assembly using Velvet and Oases was applied. A total of 121,288 contigs were assembled that were similar to previously reported Ensembl commelinid sequences. Original Illumina reads were also mapped to the high quality assembly to estimate expression levels of buffalograss transcripts. There were a total of 325 differentially expressed genes between the two buffalograss cultivars. A glycosyl transferase, serine threonine kinase, and nb-arc domain containing transcripts were among those differentially expressed between the two cultivars. These genes have been previously implicated in defense response pathways and may in part explain some of the performance differences between ‘Prestige’ and ‘378’. Conclusions To date, this is the first high throughput sequencing experiment conducted on buffalograss. In total, 121,288 high quality transcripts were assembled, significantly expanding

  19. Generation 2030/Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  20. Teaching about Francophone Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Mary; Timbo, Adama

    Lessons and resources for Social Studies and French courses are included in this document. The major goals of these materials are to help students (1) explore the history and geography of Francophone Africa, (2) examine French influences in contemporary Africa, (3) recognize and appreciate cultural differences and similarities in values and…

  1. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  2. Historical Capsule: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Briefly traces the history of South Africa from British acquisition in 1815 through the creation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Presents a chronicle of the year 1900 to show part of the European achievement in close-up. Lists accomplishments in literature, fine arts, science, technology, music, theater, and dance. (GEA)

  3. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  4. Analysis of the subtropical blackberry cultivar potential in jelly processing.

    PubMed

    Rios de Souza, Vanessa; Aparecida Pimenta Pereira, Patrícia; Carla Marques Pinheiro, Ana; Carlos de Oliveira Lima, Luiz; Pio, Rafael; Queiroz, Fabiana

    2014-09-01

    In Brazil, there are numerous blackberry cultivars under cultivation, however, only a few cultivars, such as the Guarani, are displayed/used for processing. In this context the aim of this work was to study the effects of different Brazilian blackberry cultivars (Guarani, Brazos, Comanche, Tupy, Cherokee, Caingangue, and Choctaw) on the physicochemical characteristics, texture profiles and the consumer acceptance of the resulting jelly to identify the potential use of these cultivars in the jelly industry. It is feasible to produce blackberry jellies with the Tupy, Comanche, Brazos, Guarani, and Choctaw cultivars because these jellies demonstrated good acceptability combined with good productivity. Consumers were shown to have a preference for a less adhesive, more acidic jelly. This study provides a useful insight about the Brazilian blackberry cultivar potential in jelly processing. PMID:25154800

  5. Characterization of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using machine vision.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, S; Balamurugan, P

    2013-10-15

    Machine vision or image analysis is an important tool in the study of morphology of any materials. This technique has been used successfully to differentiate the eleven oats cultivars based on morphological characters. The geometry of seeds was measured through image analyzer and the variation was observed and recorded. From the recorded data, the cluster analysis was carried out and it revealed that the cultivars could be grouped into two main clusters based on similarity in the measured parameters. Cultivar Sabzar, UPO 212, OL 9 and OL 88 formed one main cluster. The another main cluster includes cv. Kent, OS 6, UPO 94, HFO 114, OS 7, HJ 8 and JHO 822 with many sub clusters. Among the cultivars HJ 8 and JHO 822 has more similarity in all measured parameters than other cultivars. Thus morphological characterization through seed image analysis was found useful to discriminate the cultivars.

  6. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06–407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03–1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01–77 and LC 05–136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05–136, and YZ 05–51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26499905

  7. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26499905

  8. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-10-26

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

  9. Safe water for Africa (Africa-1000)

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, R.; Kashkari, C.

    1996-12-31

    Africa-1000 is a program to provide safe water to thousands of villages in Africa. It is a formidable effort and needs the support of the international scientific community. Science and technology is the only hope for a solution of the African crisis. There are vast areas in the Sub-Saharan Africa that have water under the ground but due to lack of electric power, the water cannot be pumped. Thus the land is dry and barren and people are starving. The African continent has abundant renewable energy in the form of solar and wind energy. The technologies are well developed and available in the developed countries. Therefore, the solution is as follows: dig and drill wells and boreholes to reach underground water; install standardized solar or wind driven pumps to bring water to the surface; train village technicians to operate, maintain and repair these energy systems; and replicate these installations in thousands of villages, thus establishing standard water and energy systems across Africa.

  10. Relationship of European Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) Cultivars to Asian Cultivars, Characterized Using AFLPs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty one persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) selections, including 17 Italian, 11 Spanish, 13 Japanese, six Korean, five Chinese, one Israeli, and eight of unknown origin, were evaluated for genetic differences by AFLP analysis. Relationships among cultivars were evaluated by UPGMA clustering, Neigh...

  11. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  12. Lablab purpureus—A Crop Lost for Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Maggie R.; Venkatesha, S. C.; Angessa, Tefera Tolera; Ramme, Stefan; Pengelly, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, so-called ‘lost crops’ have been appraised in a number of reviews, among them Lablab purpureus in the context of African vegetable species. This crop cannot truly be considered ‘lost’ because worldwide more than 150 common names are applied to it. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this paper aims to put forward four theses, (i) Lablab is one of the most diverse domesticated legume species and has multiple uses. Although its largest agro-morphological diversity occurs in South Asia, its origin appears to be Africa. (ii) Crop improvement in South Asia is based on limited genetic diversity. (iii) The restricted research and development performed in Africa focuses either on improving forage or soil properties mostly through one popular cultivar, Rongai, while the available diversity of lablab in Africa might be under threat of genetic erosion. (iv) Lablab is better adapted to drought than common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), both of which have been preferred to lablab in African agricultural production systems. Lablab might offer comparable opportunities for African agriculture in the view of global change. Its wide potential for adaptation throughout eastern and southern Africa is shown with a GIS (geographic information systems) approach. PMID:20835399

  13. Genetic diversity in Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cultivars: implications for breeding and conservation.

    PubMed

    Wanjala, Bramwel W; Obonyo, Meshack; Wachira, Francis N; Muchugi, Alice; Mulaa, Margaret; Harvey, Jagger; Skilton, Robert A; Proud, Janice; Hanson, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Napier grass is an important forage crop for dairy production in the tropics; as such, its existing genetic diversity needs to be assessed for conservation. The current study assessed the genetic variation of Napier grass collections from selected regions in Eastern Africa and the International Livestock Research Institute Forage Germplasm-Ethiopia. The diversity of 281 cultivars was investigated using five selective amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and classical population genetic parameters analysed using various software. The number of bands generated was 216 with fragments per primer set ranging from 50 to 115. Mean percentage polymorphic loci was 63.40. Genetic diversity coefficients based on Nei's genetic diversity ranged from 0.0783 to 0.2142 and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.1293 to 0.3445. The Fst value obtained was moderately significant (Fst = 0.1688). Neighbour-joining analysis gave two distinct clusters which did not reflect geographical locations. Analysis of molecular variance showed all variance components to be highly significant (P < 0.001), indicating more variation within (91 %) than between populations (9 %). Results suggested moderate genetic differentiation among Napier grass populations sampled, which could imply a high germplasm exchange within the region. The AFLP markers used in this study efficiently discriminate among cultivars and could be useful in identification and germplasm conservation.

  14. Genetic diversity in Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cultivars: implications for breeding and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Wanjala, Bramwel W.; Obonyo, Meshack; Wachira, Francis N.; Muchugi, Alice; Mulaa, Margaret; Harvey, Jagger; Skilton, Robert A.; Proud, Janice; Hanson, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Napier grass is an important forage crop for dairy production in the tropics; as such, its existing genetic diversity needs to be assessed for conservation. The current study assessed the genetic variation of Napier grass collections from selected regions in Eastern Africa and the International Livestock Research Institute Forage Germplasm-Ethiopia. The diversity of 281 cultivars was investigated using five selective amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and classical population genetic parameters analysed using various software. The number of bands generated was 216 with fragments per primer set ranging from 50 to 115. Mean percentage polymorphic loci was 63.40. Genetic diversity coefficients based on Nei's genetic diversity ranged from 0.0783 to 0.2142 and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.1293 to 0.3445. The Fst value obtained was moderately significant (Fst = 0.1688). Neighbour-joining analysis gave two distinct clusters which did not reflect geographical locations. Analysis of molecular variance showed all variance components to be highly significant (P < 0.001), indicating more variation within (91 %) than between populations (9 %). Results suggested moderate genetic differentiation among Napier grass populations sampled, which could imply a high germplasm exchange within the region. The AFLP markers used in this study efficiently discriminate among cultivars and could be useful in identification and germplasm conservation. PMID:23671788

  15. Genetic diversity in Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cultivars: implications for breeding and conservation.

    PubMed

    Wanjala, Bramwel W; Obonyo, Meshack; Wachira, Francis N; Muchugi, Alice; Mulaa, Margaret; Harvey, Jagger; Skilton, Robert A; Proud, Janice; Hanson, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Napier grass is an important forage crop for dairy production in the tropics; as such, its existing genetic diversity needs to be assessed for conservation. The current study assessed the genetic variation of Napier grass collections from selected regions in Eastern Africa and the International Livestock Research Institute Forage Germplasm-Ethiopia. The diversity of 281 cultivars was investigated using five selective amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and classical population genetic parameters analysed using various software. The number of bands generated was 216 with fragments per primer set ranging from 50 to 115. Mean percentage polymorphic loci was 63.40. Genetic diversity coefficients based on Nei's genetic diversity ranged from 0.0783 to 0.2142 and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.1293 to 0.3445. The Fst value obtained was moderately significant (Fst = 0.1688). Neighbour-joining analysis gave two distinct clusters which did not reflect geographical locations. Analysis of molecular variance showed all variance components to be highly significant (P < 0.001), indicating more variation within (91 %) than between populations (9 %). Results suggested moderate genetic differentiation among Napier grass populations sampled, which could imply a high germplasm exchange within the region. The AFLP markers used in this study efficiently discriminate among cultivars and could be useful in identification and germplasm conservation. PMID:23671788

  16. Research Management in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benneh, George

    2002-01-01

    Examines research management, particularly within higher education institutions, in Africa including, research and current trends in knowledge production, institutional aspects, research funding, and good practice in research management. (EV)

  17. Women in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Manon

    1975-01-01

    The role and status of women in Africa has changed profoundly since the end of the colonial period. Many differences in women's status and role are based on geography, history, nationality, political and socioeconomic systems, culture, and religion. (JR)

  18. First report of a variant within wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) race TTKSF in South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven races have been described in the Ug99 lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (1). Variants of Ug99 previously recorded in South Africa are TTKSF, TTKSP and PTKST (2). In December 2010, severe stem rust infection was observed on the winter wheat cultivar Matlabas at Afrikaskop in the easte...

  19. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  20. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  1. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  2. Biological Relationship of Meloidogyne hapla Populations to Alfalfa Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G. D.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse and growth chamber studies were established to determine if there are pathological and physiological differences among Meloidogyne hapla populations from California (CA), Nevada (NV), Utah (UT), and Wyoming (WY) on alfalfa cultivars classified as resistant or susceptible to root-knot nematodes. In the greenhouse, plant survival was not consistent with resistance classifications. While all highly resistant Nevada Synthetic germplasm (Nev Syn XX) plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, two cultivars classified as moderately resistant ('Chief' and 'Kingstar') survived (P ≤ 0.05) inoculation with M. hapla populations better than did 'Lobo' cultivar, which is classified as resistant. Plant growth of Nev Syn XX was suppressed by only the CA population, whereas growth of the other alfalfa cultivars classified as M. hapla resistant or moderately resistant was suppressed by all nematode populations. Excluding Nev Syn XX, all alfalfa cultivars were severely galled and susceptible to all nematode populations. Except for Nev Syn XX, reproduction did not differ among the nematode populations on alfalfa cultivars. Nev Syn XX was not as favorable a host to CA as were the other cultivars; but, it was a good host (reproductive factor [Rf] = 37). Temperature affected plant resistance; the UT and WY populations were more pathogenic at 15-25 C, and CA was more pathogenic at 30 C. Nev Syn XX was susceptible to all nematode populations, except for CA, at only 30 C, and all other alfalfa cultivars were susceptible to all nematode populations at all temperatures. PMID:19277299

  3. Performance of Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx) Cultivars in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadines are grapes indigenous to the Southeastern United States, and they are highly prized for their unique fruity flavors. Factors including skin color, berry size, skin thickness, flower type, productivity, etc., vary among muscadine grape cultivars, making some cultivars more desirable for f...

  4. Vegetable cultivar descriptions for North America, List 27

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This list of the North American vegetable cultivars was developed using the database of cultivars registered with the American Seed Trade Association, as well as published descriptions from scientific journals, seed catalogs, and websites of seed companies. Assistant editors responsible for each cr...

  5. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and the rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program wa...

  6. Sequencing the Genome of the Heirloom Watermelon Cultivar Charleston Gray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the watermelon cultivar Charleston Gray, a major heirloom which has been used in breeding programs of many watermelon cultivars, was sequenced. Our strategy involved a hybrid approach using the Illumina and 454/Titanium next-generation sequencing technologies. For Illumina, shotgun g...

  7. Raspberry cultivars for the Pacific Northwest (PNW 655)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease issues, plant and fruit characteristics, yield potential, market uses, machine harvesting ability, and suitability for commercial or homeowner production for 46 summer and fall fruiting red raspberry cultivars are presented. This extension guide reviews many of the possible cultivars a c...

  8. Blueberry cultivars for the Pacific Northwest (PNW 656)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bush habit, berry characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for commercial or homeowner production for 41 highbush, rabbiteye and ornamental blueberry cultivars are presented. This extension guide reviews many of the possible cultivars a commercial grower or homeowner might grow. Standar...

  9. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  10. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. PMID:24406800

  11. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  12. Silicification in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars with different drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lux, Alexander; Luxová, Miroslava; Hattori, Taiichiro; Inanaga, Shinobu; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2002-05-01

    Sorghum belongs to a group of economically important, silicon accumulating plants. X-ray microanalysis coupled with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of fresh root endodermal and leaf epidermal samples confirms histological and cultivar specificity of silicification. In sorghum roots, silicon is accumulated mostly in endodermal cells. Specialized silica aggregates are formed predominantly in a single row in the form of wall outgrowths on the inner tangential endodermal walls. The density of silica aggregates per square mm of inner tangential endodermal cell wall is around 2700 and there is no significant difference in the cultivars with different content of silicon in roots. In the leaf epidermis, silicon deposits were present in the outer walls of all cells, with the highest concentration in specialized idioblasts termed 'silica cells'. These cells are dumb-bell shaped in sorghum. In both the root endodermis and leaf epidermis, silicification was higher in a drought tolerant cultivar Gadambalia compared with drought sensitive cultivar Tabat. Silicon content per dry mass was higher in leaves than in roots in both cultivars. The values for cv. Gadambalia in roots and leaves are 3.5 and 4.1% Si, respectively, and for cv. Tabat 2.2 and 3.3%. However, based on X-ray microanalysis the amount of Si deposited in endodermal cell walls in drought tolerant cultivar (unlike the drought susceptible cultivar) is higher than that deposited in the leaf epidermis. The high root endodermal silicification might be related to a higher drought resistance.

  13. In vitro microtuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sakha, B M; Bhatia, A K; Batra, V K; Chaudhary, V K; Batra, P; Khurana, S C

    2004-12-01

    Mechanism of microtuberization in three elite cultivars kufri badhsha (KB), kufri chandramukhi (KCM) and kufri jawahar (KJ) of potato was studied. Sprouts of all the three cultivars were used to obtain in vitro shoot cultures. MS medium supplemented with chlorocholine chloride was found to be most suitable for all the cultivars. Maximum tuberization was obtained under incubation conditions of continuous darkness at 20 degrees +/- 1 degrees C. The highest number of micro-tubers per plant basis was produced under continuous darkness and KCM recorded the highest yield of micro-tubers and was found significantly superior to KJ and KB.

  14. Tobacco in Africa.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco has been a common commodity in Africa for over three centuries. By 1993, some 500 000 tons of tobacco were being grown in 33 African countries, with only two countries exporting more than they import. Attempts to measure the current and potential impact of the tobacco business on health, society and the environment are still in their early stages, but the need for preventive action is already inescapably clear. Comprehensive control strategies are urgently required to prevent a major epidemic of tobacco-related disease in Africa. PMID:8820139

  15. Telecommunications and Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiplagat, B. A., Ed.; Werner, M. C. M., Ed.

    The Telecommunications Foundation of Africa (TFA) was created in 1992 out of a conviction that insufficient telecommunications in Africa are an impediment to economic growth, and that more resources could be mobilized to strengthen this sector. This volume was made by TFA for readers both inside and outside of Africa and the telecommunications…

  16. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  17. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  18. Cultivar variation in cotton photosynthetic performance under different temperature regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields are impacted by overall photosynthetic production. Factors that influence crop photosynthesis are the plants genetic makeup and the environmental conditions. This study investigated cultivar variation in photosynthesis when plants were grown in the field under...

  19. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Larsen, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars 'Birgitte × Böttermö', 'Fanal' and 'Tiki' were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133 µmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74%, 79% and 73%, respectively). 'Stevnsbaer Birgitte' (22%) and 'Stevnsbaer Viki' (22%) inhibited PGE2 production with a similar potency as the positive controls indomethacin and NS-398. Significant differences between cultivars in all bioactivity experiments indicated that selection of cultivars is important to obtain sour cherries with better potential health promoting effects. PMID:22294298

  20. Response of selected bermudagrass cultivars to bermudagrass stem maggot damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information regarding the susceptibility of currently grown bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] cultivars to the bermudagrass stem maggot (BSM; Atherigona reversura Villeneuve) could aid forage producers with the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies to manage this exo...

  1. Constituents of twig bark of pear cultivars (Pyrus species).

    PubMed

    Tomosaka, Hideyuki; Tamimoto, Hideaki; Tsukagoshi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Ooka, Hisako; Ota, Michiya

    2012-08-01

    Organic solvent extracts from fresh twig bark of Japanese pear cultivars (Pyrus serotina) Shinko and Nijisseiki, and European pear cultivar (P. communis) Le Lectier were obtained by maceration with n-hexane and EtOAc, and analyzed in GC-EIMS experiments. In these two Japanese cultivars, the lupeol, betulin, epifriedelinol, friedelin and arbutin contents of Nijisseiki were higher than those of Shinko. In the case of the lupane-type triterpenes, lupeol and betulin, the lupeol content of Japanese pears Shinko and Nijisseiki was higher than that of European pear Le Lectier. The betulin content of Le Lectier was higher than those of Shinko and Nijisseiki. Friedelane-type triterpenes, epifriedelinol and friedelin, were not detected in twig bark of Le Lectier. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the constituents of these three pear cultivars were observed.

  2. Blueberry estimated harvest from seven new cultivars: fruit and anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Jessica; Stevenson, David; Hedderley, Duncan

    2013-08-15

    This study compares the yields, weights and anthocyanin contents of fruit from a group of seven new cultivars released from the New Zealand blueberry breeding programme and selected for the longest possible combined harvest season. The measured factors were primarily influenced by cultivar, and seasonal variations had relatively minor effects. The late-ripening cultivars 'Velluto Blue' and 'Centra Blue' had the highest fruit yields, anthocyanin contents and estimated total anthocyanin harvestable from a given area. 'Blue Moon' and 'Sky Blue' had the largest fruit sizes. The early-ripening cultivars 'Blue Bayou', 'Blue Moon' and 'Sunset Blue' had the lowest anthocyanin contents. The yield, fruit size and total anthocyanin content results obtained from any single year were highly correlated with the average of the three years, which makes pursuing the evaluation for these traits from a single year and at an early stage of plant development a practical proposition. PMID:23561076

  3. Characterisation of mucilages extracted from seven Italian cultivars of flax.

    PubMed

    Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Bagnasco, Lucia; Benjakul, Soottawat; Lanteri, Silvia; Morelli, Carlo F; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosulich, M Elisabetta

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition, physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of mucilages, extracted from seven Italian flax cultivars, were evaluated. All samples were composed of neutral and acidic sugars, with a low protein content. From the NMR data, a rhamnogalacturonan backbone could be inferred as a common structural feature for all the mucilages, with some variations depending on the cultivar. All the suspensions showed a poor stability, which was consistent with a low zeta potential absolute value. The viscosity seemed to be positively correlated with the neutral sugars and negatively with the amount of proteins. Functional properties were dependent on the cultivar. The sensory analysis showed that most mucilages are tasteless. All these outcomes could support the use of flaxseed mucilages for industrial applications. In particular, Solal and Festival cultivars could be useful as thickeners, due to their high viscosity, while Natural, Valoal and Kaolin as emulsifiers for their good surface-active properties.

  4. Pythiosis in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rivierre, Christine; Laprie, Caroline; Guiard-Marigny, Olivier; Bergeaud, Patrick; Berthelemy, Madeleine

    2005-01-01

    We report the first case of pythiosis from Africa in an 8-month-old dog with a chronic and ulcerative cutaneous lesion. The etiologic agent belonged to the genus Pythium. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in a sister group to the other P. insidiosum strains. However, the isolate may belong to a new Pythium species. PMID:15757572

  5. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  6. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has, in…

  7. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  8. Out of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure with her students…

  9. Africa: Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)

  10. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  11. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  12. Trends Abroad: South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Douglas H.

    1970-01-01

    In South Africa today there is a complex structure of laws and regulations which impose a variety of restrictions on individual liberties including the freedom to publish and read literary material. The successive steps by which this state of affairs has been reached are briefly described. (NH)

  13. Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Documentation and Information, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This selected, annotated bibliography of information resources in English and/or French is divided into sections on books; documents and articles; UNESCO publications; reference works; and African periodicals. A list of institutions concerned with education in Africa is included, as well as educational documentation and information services in…

  14. AED in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the AED programs in Africa since 1975. Current AED Programs include: (1) HIV/AIDS Prevention and Impact…

  15. Neonatal surgery in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chirdan, Lohfa B; Ngiloi, Petronilla J; Elhalaby, Essam A

    2012-05-01

    The management of neonatal surgical problems continues to pose considerable challenges, particularly in low-resource settings. The burden of neonatal surgical diseases in Africa is not well documented. The characteristics of some neonatal surgical problems are highlighted. Late presentation coupled with poor understanding of the milieu interior of the neonates by incompetent health care providers and poorly equipped hospitals combine to give rise to the unacceptable high morbidity and mortality in most parts of Africa. Proper training of all staff involved in neonatal health care coupled with community awareness must be vigorously pursued by all stakeholders. Various governments throughout the continent of Africa, in conjunction with international donor agencies, must not only provide an adequate budget for health care services and improve infrastructures, but must also deliberately encourage and provide funding for neonatal surgical care and research across the continent. The well-established pediatric surgical training programs, particularly in North and South Africa, should hold the moral responsibility of training all possible numbers of young surgeons from other African countries that do not have any existing pediatric surgical training programs or those countries suffering from remarkable shortage of trained pediatric surgeons.

  16. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba Moyo); "Classroom Code-Switching…

  17. Literacy in Francophone Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokora, Pascal D.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in francophone Africa, where literacy is still a privilege, is reviewed in terms of the complex linguistic situation, effects of population change, concepts and definitions of literacy, promotion of literacy in adult nonformal settings (e.g., African language literacy materials, multilingual settings). (23 references) (LB)

  18. Short shrift for Africa.

    PubMed

    Collymore, Y

    1994-01-01

    The plan of action that emerged from the International Conference on Population and development (ICPD) held in Cairo in September 1994 did not directly address the major problems of pervasive poverty and dismal infant and maternal mortality rates in Africa. The Organization of African Unity met the week before ICPD to develop an integrated population and development strategy. The continent's population growth rate of 3% far exceeds that in most other developing countries; the maternal mortality rate is 640/100,000 live births vs. only 30 for industrialized countries. Its infant mortality rate is 114 deaths/1000 live births--double that of Western Europe. Africa's annual requirements under the Cairo plan for environmental, population, and development strategies would be $2.2-3 billion during 1995-2000. The estimated needs will grow to $4.3-5.6 billion by the year 2015. However, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and South Africa warned against these ambitious goals, preferring instead individual national targets. South Africa is compiling population data that indicate that the rate of growth is 2%/year with a current estimated population of 40 million. A population policy is being considered within the context of reconstruction and development. Namibia also faces a growing population that could compromise economic development. Some nongovernmental organizations have stated that the ICPD failed to confront unsafe abortions and reproductive health problems in an effort to appease the Vatican and Islamic countries. Women's reproductive and sexual rights have also been rejected by some Latin American and Islamic countries as alien to their laws and culture. Nevertheless, an agreement was reached on information and access to family planning services for teenagers and counseling on responsible sexual behavior. There were also charges from African delegates about diverting attention from the internecine conflicts in Africa that have resulted in

  19. Adaptability of soybean cultivars in different crop years.

    PubMed

    Soares, I O; Rezende, P M; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Zuffo, A M; Silva, K B; Gwinner, R

    2015-08-07

    Soybean is one of the main sources of foreign exchange credits for Brazil in the agricultural sector. There is increasing interest in growing this leguminous crop, especially in the southern region of Minas Gerais, due to its importance as an alternative for crop rotation with maize. In this respect, the study of the adaptability of new cultivars to the region is indispensable so as to obtain high yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 soybean cultivars for growing in the summer season in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crop years. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications and the treatments consisted of 38 cultivars. At the time of harvest, the following assessments were made: grain yield (kg/ha), height of the lowest pod (cm), plant height (cm), and lodging. The data were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance. The phenotypic mean values were clustered, adopting the Scott and Knott test. For simultaneous selection of multiple traits, the sum of rank index of Mulamba and Mock was adopted. The cultivar TMG 801 RR had the best yield performance; the cultivars Monsoy 8001, MGBR-46 (Conquista), and BRSMG 68 (Vencedora) also stood out. Considering simultaneous selection for grain yield, plant height, height of the lowest pod, and lodging, the cultivar TMG 801 RR is recommended for growing in the summer season in the southern region of Minas Gerais.

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Chu, Hyosub; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Lian, Sen; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-12-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170). De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing. PMID:26697395

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Chu, Hyosub; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Lian, Sen; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170). De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing. PMID:26697395

  2. Characterization of Anatolian traditional quince cultivars, based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, C; Mutaf, F; Demirtaş, İ; Öztürk, G; Pektaş, M; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses of 15 traditional quince (Cydonia oblonga) cultivars from Anatolian gene sources for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Three pear and two apple cultivars were used as references for SSR locus data analysis and to determine allele profiles between species. Eight SSR loci that were developed from apple and pear were used, and a total of 44 alleles were found among quince cultivars. The CH01F02 locus was found to have the highest identification probability, while the CH04E03 locus had the lowest identification probability. Analysis of similarity ratios between quince cultivars showed that the lowest similarity ratio was 18% (Eşme-Bardacık ± k), while the highest similarity ratio was 87% (Bursa-Osmancık ± k and Osmancık ± k-Viranyadevi). In the phylogenetic dendrogram, Eşme quince showed separate branching from other quince cultivars, and no synonymous accessions were found. These results suggest that SSR markers from pear and apple could be used to determine genetic variation among quince cultivars. These findings can be used to guide future quince breeding and management studies.

  3. Adaptability of soybean cultivars in different crop years.

    PubMed

    Soares, I O; Rezende, P M; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Zuffo, A M; Silva, K B; Gwinner, R

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is one of the main sources of foreign exchange credits for Brazil in the agricultural sector. There is increasing interest in growing this leguminous crop, especially in the southern region of Minas Gerais, due to its importance as an alternative for crop rotation with maize. In this respect, the study of the adaptability of new cultivars to the region is indispensable so as to obtain high yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 soybean cultivars for growing in the summer season in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crop years. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications and the treatments consisted of 38 cultivars. At the time of harvest, the following assessments were made: grain yield (kg/ha), height of the lowest pod (cm), plant height (cm), and lodging. The data were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance. The phenotypic mean values were clustered, adopting the Scott and Knott test. For simultaneous selection of multiple traits, the sum of rank index of Mulamba and Mock was adopted. The cultivar TMG 801 RR had the best yield performance; the cultivars Monsoy 8001, MGBR-46 (Conquista), and BRSMG 68 (Vencedora) also stood out. Considering simultaneous selection for grain yield, plant height, height of the lowest pod, and lodging, the cultivar TMG 801 RR is recommended for growing in the summer season in the southern region of Minas Gerais. PMID:26345831

  4. Morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant profile of noncommercial banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Anyasi, Tonna A; Jideani, Afam Io; Mchau, Godwin A

    2015-05-01

    Banana cultivars--Luvhele (MusaABB), Mabonde (MusaAAA), and Muomva-red (Musa balbisiana) --were characterized for morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties. All three cultivars varied significantly (P < 0.05) in their morphology, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids with no significant difference in their ash content. Individual cultivars showed variations in flour starch granule when observed using a scanning electron microscope. Characterization of cultivars for total polyphenols (TPs) and antioxidant activity upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric, and lactic acid shows that the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay of samples varied significantly as Muomva-red cultivar (1.02 ± 0.01 mg GA/g) expressed the highest DPPH activity at lactic acid concentration of 20 g/L. Total polyphenol content was also highest for Muomva-red [1091.76 ± 122.81 mg GAE/100 g (d.w.)]. The high amount of TPs present in these cultivars make them suitable source of bio-nutrients with great medicinal and health functions.

  5. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

  6. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  7. Identification of adult plant resistance to stripe rust in the wheat cultivar Cappelle-Desprez.

    PubMed

    Agenbag, G M; Pretorius, Z A; Boyd, L A; Bender, C M; Prins, R

    2012-06-01

    Following the appearance of stripe rust in South Africa in 1996, efforts have been made to identify new sources of durable resistance. The French cultivar Cappelle-Desprez has long been considered a source of durable, adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust. As Cappelle-Desprez contains the seedling resistance genes Yr3a and Yr4a, wheat lines were developed from which Yr3a and Yr4a had been removed, while selecting for Cappelle-Desprez derived APR effective against South African pathotypes of the stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Line Yr16DH70, adapted to South African wheat growing conditions, was selected and crossed to the stripe rust susceptible cultivar Palmiet to develop a segregating recombinant inbred line mapping population. A major effect QTL, QYr.ufs-2A was identified on the short arm of chromosome 2A derived from Cappelle-Desprez, along with three QTL of smaller effect, QYr.ufs-2D, QYr.ufs-5B and QYr.ufs-6D. QYr.ufs-2D was located within a region on the short arm of chromosome 2D believed to be the location of the stripe rust resistance gene Yr16. An additional minor effect QTL, QYr.ufs-4B, was identified in the cv. Palmiet. An examination of individual RILs carrying single or combinations of each QTL indicated significant resistance effects when QYr.ufs-2A was combined with the three minor QTL from Cappelle-Desprez, and between QYr.ufs-2D and QYr.ufs-5B.

  8. Internet Performance to Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    We report the first results ever for real-time Internet performance to Africa using the PingER methodology. Multiple monitoring hosts were used to enable comparisons with performance from different parts of the world. From these preliminary measurements, we have found that Internet packet losses to some African sites in recent months range from very poor to bad (> 12%), some getting better, others are holding steady or getting worse. This, together with the average monthly Round Trip Times, imply end-to-end maximum TCP throughputs that are order of magnitudes different between countries in the region. Africa is shown to be far from the Internet performance in industrialized nations due to the poor infrastructure in place today. These monitoring efforts can provide valuable information to analyze the relative rates of future improvement and today they help us to quantify the digital divide and can provide quantitative information to policy makers.

  9. This Is Africa.

    PubMed

    Verlo, April R; Bailey, Hugh H; Cook, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Military deployments will always result in exposure to health hazards other than those from combat operations. The occupational and environmental health and endemic disease health risks are greater to the Special Operations Forces (SOF) deployed to the challenging conditions in Africa than elsewhere in the world. SOF are deployed to locations that lack life support infrastructures that have become standard for most military deployments; instead, they rely on local resources to sustain operations. Particularly, SOF in Africa do not generally have access to advanced diagnostic or monitoring capabilities or to medical treatment in austere locations that lack environmental or public health regulation. The keys to managing potential adverse health effects lie in identifying and documenting the health hazards and exposures, characterizing the associated risks, and communicating the risks to commanders, deployed personnel, and operational planners.

  10. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    PubMed

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations. PMID:16721391

  11. Terrorism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  12. Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of the driest regions on Earth, the Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa (23.0N, 15.0E) lies adjacent to the Atlantic coast but the upwelling oceanic water causes a very stable rainless atmosphere. The few local inland rivers do not reach the sea but instead, appear as long indentations where they penetrate the dune fields and end as small dry lakes. The vast dune fields are the result of sands deposited over millions of years by the stream flow.

  13. Mozambique Coast, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The serene coastline of Mozambique (17.0S, 39.5E) Africa and the Indian Ocean offer some of the best beaches and recreational diving water in the world. Offshore reefs provide interesting coral formations that host a wide variety of marine life. Inland, the coastal savannas of this tropical nation are filled with a wide range of wildlife in some of the last animal refuges on the African continent.

  14. Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of the driest regions on Earth, the Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa (23.0N, 15.0E) lies adjacent to the Atlantic coast but upwelling oceanic water causes a very stable rainless atmosphere. The few local inland rivers do not reach the sea but instead appear as long indentations where rivers penetrate the dune fields and end as small dry lakes. The vast dune fields are the result of sands deposited over millions of years by the stream flow.

  15. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  16. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  17. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking. PMID:25477675

  18. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  19. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  20. Rabies in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, R; Barnard, B J; Meredith, C D; Bishop, G C; Brückner, G K; Foggin, C M; Hübschle, O J

    1993-12-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of rabies in Africa, believed to have followed the importation of an infected dog from England in 1892, occurred in the eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and was brought under control in 1894. An unconfirmed epidemic of rabies in dogs occurred in western Zambia in 1901. By the following year the disease had apparently spread along a major trade route, to cause an outbreak in Zimbabwe which engulfed most of the country before being eradicated in 1913. The existence of endemic rabies of viverrids (mongooses and genets) was confirmed in South Africa in 1928, and since then the viverrid disease has continued to occur widely on the interior plateau of the country with spill-over of infection to cattle and a variety of other animals. From about 1947 onwards, an invasive form of dog rabies spread from southern Zambia and/or Angola into Namibia, across northern and eastern Botswana into Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal by 1950, entered Mozambique in 1952, and spread from there to Swaziland in 1954. Dog rabies extended from southern Mozambique into Natal in 1961 to cause a major epidemic which was brought under control in 1968. The disease re-entered northern Natal from Mozambique in 1976 and since then dog rabies has proved difficult to control in the peri-urban settlements of Natal-KwaZulu. The disease spread from Natal to Lesotho in 1982, and into the Transkei region of the eastern Cape Province in 1987, to reach the Ciskei by 1990. The spread of the disease in dogs was followed by the emergence of rabies of jackals and cattle in central Namibia, northern Botswana, Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal. A unique outbreak of rabies in kudu antelope occurred in central Namibia from 1977 to 1985, apparently involving oral spread of infection between individuals. A few cases of rabies in the bat-eared fox were recognized each year in Namibia from 1967 onwards, and from the 1970s the occurrence of the disease in the fox has emerged as a

  1. Shoot biomass of turfgrass cultivars grown on composted waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Bruce R.; Kohorst, Sanford D.; Decker, Henry F.; Yaussy, Daniel

    1995-09-01

    Various cultivars of four cool-season grass types (tall fescue, fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass) were seeded in 0.34-liter plastic pots containing either composted sewage sludge [Com-Til2 (CT), Soil Magic2 (SM)] or composted yard mulch (YM). Plants were grown in the greenhouse for four weeks prior to measuring shoot biomass. White most tall fescue cultivars showed more shoot growth on YM, perennial ryegrass cultivars generally grew better on SM. Cultivars of fine fescue and bluegrass grew about the same on YM or SM, and slightly less on CT. With very few exceptions, shoot biomass of individual cultivars was greater on either YM or SM than it was on CT. Within individual grass types, Pennlawn (fine fescue), Pennant (perennial ryegrass), and Victa (Kentucky bluegrass) averaged consistently better growth on all three composted media. For tall fescue, Aquara, Rebel II, and Monarch performed best on YM, SM, and CT, respectively. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals did not occur in selective samples of shoot tissues collected from the grass types used.

  2. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics. PMID:19000610

  3. Morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant profile of noncommercial banana cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Anyasi, Tonna A; Jideani, Afam IO; Mchau, Godwin A

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars––Luvhele (MusaABB), Mabonde (MusaAAA), and Muomva-red (Musa balbisiana) ––were characterized for morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties. All three cultivars varied significantly (P < 0.05) in their morphology, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids with no significant difference in their ash content. Individual cultivars showed variations in flour starch granule when observed using a scanning electron microscope. Characterization of cultivars for total polyphenols (TPs) and antioxidant activity upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric, and lactic acid shows that the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay of samples varied significantly as Muomva-red cultivar (1.02 ± 0.01 mg GA/g) expressed the highest DPPH activity at lactic acid concentration of 20 g/L. Total polyphenol content was also highest for Muomva-red [1091.76 ± 122.81 mg GAE/100 g (d.w.)]. The high amount of TPs present in these cultivars make them suitable source of bio-nutrients with great medicinal and health functions. PMID:25987997

  4. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut. PMID:26593515

  5. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut.

  6. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics.

  7. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  8. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  9. Anti-nutritional factors in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera (Lam).

    PubMed

    Igwilo, I O; Ezeonu, F C; Ezekwesili-Ofili, J O; Igwilo, S N; Nsofor, C I; Abdulsalami, M S; Obi, E

    2014-01-01

    The evergreen plant, Moringa oleifera (Lam) has been known to have both medicinal and nutritional properties, thus its wide use in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia. The roots, in particular, have been reported to possess antibiotic, anti-tumour and anti-oxidative activities. This study therefore seeks to determine the levels of the anti-nutritional factors and other proximate analyses in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera which might be responsible for such activities. The concentrations of oxalates and phytates in the roots were determined using the methods of Munro and Bassir and Griffith and Thomas, respectively. The methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to estimate the amount of tannins, saponins and cyanogenic glycosides while the Technicon sequential Multi-sample amino acid analyzer (TSM) was used determine the amino acid concentration in the roots. Tannins (45 mg 100 g(-1)) and oxalates (17.08 mg 100 g(-1)) were present in the roots at higher levels while saponins (4.20mg 100 g(-1)), cyanogenic glycosides (2.72 mg 100 g(-1)) and phytates (0.07 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred at much lower levels. The roots contained (Mean +/- Standard Error of mean) %crude lipid (6.33 +/- 1.64), %crude proteins (5.02 +/- 1.52), %carbohydrates (76.75), %ash (4.97 +/- 0.53) and %moisture (6.93 +/- 0.58). The roots lacked the water-soluble vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine but contained ascorbic acid (48.13 mg 100 g(-1)) and niacin (5.83 mg 100 g(-1)). This study has shown that Moringa oleifera roots are rich in anti-nutritional factors and that is why they are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia and Americas for its medicinal importance.

  10. Effect of cadmium on three cultivars of soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.; Griggs, L.; Myles, E.L.

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metals in a plant`s environment can cause stress to the plant. This can be exhibited by an unfavorable reaction displayed by the plant. Cadmium is a heavy metal pollutant and potential toxin which can be found in the soil of many crops as a result of environmental pollution from mining, smelting, manufacturing, or atmospheric fallout or through the use of agricultural fertilizers. At high levels, cadmium can be toxic. However, plants have developed multiple mechanisms for tolerating the presence of heavy metals and for reducing their toxic effects. In our laboratory, we are trying to determine the mechanism of tolerance of cadmium in soybean (Glycine max) seedlings by performing comparative studies on a variety of soybean cultivars to identify either a nontolerant (sensitive) cultivar in which the plants die or exhibit a reduced growth in a particular cadmium concentration or to identify a tolerant (resistant) cultivar in which the plants show little or no reduction in growth rate. Four cultivars were used: Forrest; Hutcheson; Ware T9410; and 416981. The seedlings were exposed to 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 {mu}M of cadmium sulfate for 7 days using an in vitro system. At the end of the exposure period, measurements were taken, which included total weight, total length, root weight, root length, hypocotyl weight and hypocotyl length. Results from cultivars Hutcheson, Ware T9410 and 416981 indicated cadmium primarily depressed root length, with the greatest effect at 1.0 {mu}M, and to a lesser degree at 0.5 {mu}M. Hypocotyl length also was depressed, particularly at 1.0 {mu}M. This suggests that cadmium specifically affects the roots with a reduction in root growth, indicating possible accumulation. Also, our results indicated that the cultivar Forrest may be tolerant to cadmium.

  11. Genetic relationships analysis of olive cultivars grown in China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, M M; Cheng, Z Z; Su, G C; Wang, A Y; Chen, H P; Shan, Z; Yang, Z S; Huang, Q M

    2015-06-01

    The olive tree is an iconic tree of the Mediterranean, and is used extensively to produce high-quality olive oil. Although the China olive industry has just begun to be valued, there were also existed mislabeling and synonyms in introduced cultivars. The aim of this study was to analyze genetic similarities among olive cultivars in China using SSR and ISSR techniques. Thirty-two samples were collected from Xichang. Five of these cultivars were issued from a Chinese breeding program. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from young leaves and PCR was used to generate SSR and ISSR markers. A total of 107 polymorphic bands were detected on thirteen SSR loci, with an average of eight alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.785 (DCA03) to 0.990 (GAPU47), and the expected heterozygosity varied between 0.782 (DCA03) and 0.940 (GAPU103A). The discrimination power ranged from 0.57 to 0.83, while the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.768 (DCA03) to 0.934 (GAPU103A). Nine ISSR primers generated 85 reproducible bands of which 78 (91.8%) were polymorphic. Based on our data, genetic similarity between cultivars ranged from 0.57 to 0.83. Cluster analysis revealed that 32 cultivars were clustered into six groups, which supports similar morphology such as use, oil content and fruit weight but not similar geographical origins. Our data also allow the identification of unknown cultivars and cases of synonyms.

  12. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  13. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  14. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  15. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

  16. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Zika virus outside Africa.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Edward B

    2009-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.

  18. Immunology in Africa.

    PubMed

    Cose, Stephen; Bagaya, Bernard; Nerima, Barbara; Joloba, Moses; Kambugu, Andrew; Tweyongyere, Robert; Dunne, David W; Mbidde, Edward; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-12-01

    Africa is a continent with a large burden of both infectious and non-communicable diseases. If we are to move forward as a continent, we need to equip our growing cadre of exceptional young scientists with the skills needed to tackle the diseases endemic to this continent. For this, immunology is among the key disciplines. Africans should be empowered to study and understand the diseases that affect them, and to perform their cutting-edge research in their country of origin. This requires a multifaceted approach, with buy-in from funders, overseas partners and perhaps, most important of all, African governments themselves.

  19. Initiatives in Africa.

    PubMed

    Goliber, T J; Middleberg, M I

    1986-03-01

    Since the 1st oil crisis in 1973, the economies of sub-Saharan Africa have barely kept pace with their burgeoning populations. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa give birth more often than women in any other region of the world, with an average of more than 6.5 live births each. The region's natural increase average 2.5% a year in the 1960s, 2.7% in the 1970s, and in the mid-1980s, it is 3.1% per annum--a rate that will double the regions population in 22 years. National leaders in Sub-Saharan Africa were slow to consider population policy as a key component of the social and economic development effort. The neglect of population issues is reflected in the limited scope of public or private family planning programs in the sub-continent. Donor countries and institutions play an important role in developing the information base by providing technical training to government staff, supporting research, and disseminating information to a broad spectrum of political actors. Some examples of policy reconsiderations in Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Niger are given. These countries are starting to give active consideration to population policies to reduce fertility and high rates of population growth by expanding family planning services, raising the age of marriage, improving the status of women, providing family-life education, and incorporating economic incentives for smaller families into the provision of social services. The highly centralized nature of African governments dictates that the acquiescence of the governmental elite must be obtained before any policy can take hold. Overall, high population growth rates in combination with a stagnating social and economic development effort throughout the region have provided the catalyst for a new look at Sub-Saharan Africa population policy. The ability of African nations to implement policies that reduce fertility is more open to question; no African nation has as yet done so, and the socioeconomics factors contributing to high

  20. [Identification of Pummelo Cultivars Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Xun-lan; Yi, Shi-lai; He, Shao-lan; Lü, Qiang; Xie, Rang-jin; Zheng, Yong-qiang; Deng, Lie

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods for the identification of pummelo cultivars are usually time-consuming and costly, and are therefore inconvenient to be used in cases that a rapid identification is needed. This research was aimed at identifying different pummelo cultivars by hyperspectral imaging technology which can achieve a rapid and highly sensitive measurement. A total of 240 leaf samples, 60 for each of the four cultivars were investigated. Samples were divided into two groups such as calibration set (48 samples of each cultivar) and validation set (12 samples of each cultivar) by a Kennard-Stone-based algorithm. Hyperspectral images of both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of each leaf were obtained, and were segmented into a region of interest (ROI) using a simple threshold. Spectra of leaf samples were extracted from ROI. To remove the absolute noises of the spectra, only the date of spectral range 400~1000 nm was used for analysis. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and standard normal variable (SNV) were utilized for data preprocessing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract the best principal components, and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to extract the effective wavelengths. Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was used to obtain the discrimination model of the four different pummelo cultivars. To find out the optimal values of σ2 and γ which were important parameters in LS-SVM modeling, Grid-search technique and Cross-Validation were applied. The first 10 and 11 principal components were extracted by PCA for the hyperspectral data of adaxial surface and abaxial surface, respectively. There were 31 and 21 effective wavelengths selected by SPA based on the hyperspectral data of adaxial surface and abaxial surface, respectively. The best principal components and the effective wavelengths were used as inputs of LS-SVM models, and then the PCA-LS-SVM model and the SPA-LS-SVM model were built. The results showed that 99.46% and

  1. [Identification of Pummelo Cultivars Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Xun-lan; Yi, Shi-lai; He, Shao-lan; Lü, Qiang; Xie, Rang-jin; Zheng, Yong-qiang; Deng, Lie

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods for the identification of pummelo cultivars are usually time-consuming and costly, and are therefore inconvenient to be used in cases that a rapid identification is needed. This research was aimed at identifying different pummelo cultivars by hyperspectral imaging technology which can achieve a rapid and highly sensitive measurement. A total of 240 leaf samples, 60 for each of the four cultivars were investigated. Samples were divided into two groups such as calibration set (48 samples of each cultivar) and validation set (12 samples of each cultivar) by a Kennard-Stone-based algorithm. Hyperspectral images of both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of each leaf were obtained, and were segmented into a region of interest (ROI) using a simple threshold. Spectra of leaf samples were extracted from ROI. To remove the absolute noises of the spectra, only the date of spectral range 400~1000 nm was used for analysis. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and standard normal variable (SNV) were utilized for data preprocessing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract the best principal components, and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to extract the effective wavelengths. Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was used to obtain the discrimination model of the four different pummelo cultivars. To find out the optimal values of σ2 and γ which were important parameters in LS-SVM modeling, Grid-search technique and Cross-Validation were applied. The first 10 and 11 principal components were extracted by PCA for the hyperspectral data of adaxial surface and abaxial surface, respectively. There were 31 and 21 effective wavelengths selected by SPA based on the hyperspectral data of adaxial surface and abaxial surface, respectively. The best principal components and the effective wavelengths were used as inputs of LS-SVM models, and then the PCA-LS-SVM model and the SPA-LS-SVM model were built. The results showed that 99.46% and

  2. Cretaceous paleogeography of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Hulver, M.L.; Ziegler, A.M.; Rowley, D.B.; Sahagian, D.

    1986-05-01

    Five stage-length maps (Valanginian, Aptian, Cenomanian, Coniacian, and Maestrichtian) of Africa integrate topography/bathymetry, lithofacies, tectonics, and climatically sensitive sediments. These reconstructions differ from currently available maps in their level of detail and accuracy, and in that computer routines were developed to plot all aspects of the maps, including lithofacies patterns. Bathymetric contours were determined from community paleoecology and from thermal subsidence models of the newly opening Atlantic and Indian oceans. Topographic contours have been estimated from uplift models of rift shoulders, as well as from the erosion and sedimentation record of both the internal and marginal basins. The uplift of rift shoulders from Nigeria to Sudan is suggested by the extensive Nubian and equivalent sandstones across north Africa. This Benue-Ngaoundere-Abu Gabra rift system approximately paralleled the paleoequator, and its shoulders must have experienced the high rainfall normally associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In fact, these mountains would have served as a high level heat source, and would have pinned the ITCZ to their summits. Such a system tends to reduce seasonal excursions of the ITCZ, and may have influenced the high biological productivity represented by the oil source rocks of the Arabian peninsula. These sources also lie on the equator and could have resulted from a shelf incursion of the equatorial divergence zone, which is controlled by the ITCZ.

  3. Sensory Profiles and Seasonal Variation of Black Walnut Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Catherine; Koppel, Kadri; Reid, William

    2016-03-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a North American hardwood tree valued for producing nuts and wood. Black walnut cultivars were evaluated by a trained panel over 2 growing seasons to determine the seasonal variation in the sensory profile. Results showed that cultivars were significantly different on 3 appearance (skin color, nutmeat color, and kernel roughness), 1 aroma (black walnut ID), 5 flavor (black walnut ID, banana-like, piny, rancid, and overall nutty), and 2 texture attributes (surface roughness and hardness). These profiles were compared to results collected in 2011 to determine differences between growing seasons. Results showed 4 flavor attributes (black walnut ID, overall nutty, fruity-dark and rancid) had an interaction effect of year and cultivar, while 6 attributes (brown, caramelized, floral/fruity, piny, musty/dusty, and oily) showed a main effect of year. In general, flavor attributes had higher intensities in 2011 than in 2013. These results suggest that seasonal variation may influence flavor profile more than cultivar. Thus, using samples from only 1 growing season when testing agricultural products may not provide adequate information for the long term.

  4. Stem rust resistance in South African wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The appearance and anticipated spread of race TTKS (syn. Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici have renewed interest in breeding for durable resistance to stem rust of wheat. In an attempt to determine the current status of stem rust resistance, 67 South African (SA) bread wheat cultivars and l...

  5. Performance of Muscadine Grape Cultivars in South Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadines are grapes are indigenous to the Southeastern United States and are highly prized for their unique flavor for both fresh market fruit and for processing for juice, jelly, and wine. Skin color varies among muscadine grape cultivars from bronze to purple and berry also quality varies, maki...

  6. What is the state of public cultivar development?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed all land grant universities in 2013 and found that the number of cultivar development programs decreased by 31% over the past 20 years. This is an alarming trend that causes plant breeders to assess the need for continued public plant breeding. The strongest argument for continuation o...

  7. Characterization of stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar 'Gage'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat because of virulent race Ug99 (TTKSK). Many bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars grown in North America are susceptible to Ug99 or its derivative races ...

  8. Fiber elongation-dependent aquaporin expression in different cotton cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber length is an important component to measure cotton yield potential. Many research efforts have focused on development of cotton cultivars with higher fiber quality and yield potential. It is known that genetic diversity exists for fiber elongation. Understanding the genetic and molecular mecha...

  9. Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

  10. Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...

  11. United States kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) cultivar review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivar selection is an important aspect for successful commercial production of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Maximizing production and processing efficiency of a specific kenaf crop is dependent on production location and cultural aspects, and differences in yield components among kenaf cultiv...

  12. [New variety breeding of Dioscorea alata, cultivar "Wenshanyao No.1].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-gang; Jiang, Wu; Wei Yu-huang; Tao, Yu-huang

    2015-05-01

    To breed a new yam cultivar of Dioscorea alata, the different and excellent germplasm resources were investigated within artificially cultivated population and some superior individuals, with a higher yield and medicinal properties, were selected. Considering results of the yield and medicinal properties during 2006-2013 cropping season, strains and lines were established and selected. As a result, the yield of the new developed cultivar (Wenshanyao No. 1, WSY01-1) reached 2217. 0 kg per 667 m2 (fresh weight) and 348.3 kg per 667 m2 (dry weight), and increased 23.8% and 23.9% comparing with control cultivars (landraces). Comparing with control cultivars, the level of polysaccharide, allantoin, and dioscin increased 36.9%, 48.3%, 20.9%, and reached 12.2%, 1.30%, 579.7 µg · g(-1), respectively. This result showed that the systematic selection method can significantly improve yield and medicinal properties of D. alata, and the developed " Wenshanyao No. 1" exhibits wide spreading prospects. PMID:26323133

  13. Genetic and ploidy variability within six vegetatively propagated zoysiagrass cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zoysiagrass is used as a warm-season turfgrass for lawns, parks, and golfing surfaces in the warm-humid and transitional climatic regions of the United States. Zoysiagrass is an allotetraploid species (2n= 4x= 40) and some cultivars are known to easily self and cross-pollinate. Previous studies had ...

  14. Nutritive value response of forage chicory cultivars to phosphorus fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a productive plant that appears particularly well suited to improving summer yield of pastures in the USA. Poor palatability of some chicory cultivars in locations with low soil phosphorus fertility has been linked to high levels of sesquiterpene lactones, b...

  15. Cultivar Preference of Lambs Grazing Forage Chicory in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project compared grazing preferences of lambs between seven cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). This on-farm trial was conducted in central Ohio (40.53 degrees N, 82.46 degrees W, 1089 ft above sea level). The chicory was established by using conventional tillage in Bogart Silt...

  16. No Spray' Rose Cultivars for the Mid South

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty cultivars of roses, most having disease resistance claims associated with their descriptions in rose catalogs were planted in Tennessee. Plants were evaluated every two weeks from planting until frost for susceptibility to black spot and Cercospora leaf spot using the following scale: 0 = no ...

  17. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  18. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 47: Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  19. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  20. Susceptibility of highbush blueberry cultivars to Phytophthora root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  1. [New variety breeding of Dioscorea alata, cultivar "Wenshanyao No.1].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-gang; Jiang, Wu; Wei Yu-huang; Tao, Yu-huang

    2015-05-01

    To breed a new yam cultivar of Dioscorea alata, the different and excellent germplasm resources were investigated within artificially cultivated population and some superior individuals, with a higher yield and medicinal properties, were selected. Considering results of the yield and medicinal properties during 2006-2013 cropping season, strains and lines were established and selected. As a result, the yield of the new developed cultivar (Wenshanyao No. 1, WSY01-1) reached 2217. 0 kg per 667 m2 (fresh weight) and 348.3 kg per 667 m2 (dry weight), and increased 23.8% and 23.9% comparing with control cultivars (landraces). Comparing with control cultivars, the level of polysaccharide, allantoin, and dioscin increased 36.9%, 48.3%, 20.9%, and reached 12.2%, 1.30%, 579.7 µg · g(-1), respectively. This result showed that the systematic selection method can significantly improve yield and medicinal properties of D. alata, and the developed " Wenshanyao No. 1" exhibits wide spreading prospects.

  2. Supplemental irrigation and cultivar effects on potato tuber diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental irrigation can improve potato growth and tuber yield under deficit rainfall conditions, but may also impact potato tuber diseases. The comparative effects of irrigation on tuber disease incidence were quantified on four cultivars, in long-term potato cropping systems experiments. Surfac...

  3. The role of nitrogen-efficient cultivars in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Weisler, F; Behrens, T; Horst, W J

    2001-11-01

    To improve nitrogen (N) efficiency in agriculture, integrated N management strategies that take into consideration improved fertilizer, soil, and crop management practices are necessary. This paper reports results of field experiments in which maize (Zea mays L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars were compared with respect to their agronomic N efficiency (yield at a given N supply), N uptake efficiency (N accumulation at a given N supply), and N utilization efficiency (dry matter yield per unit N taken up by the plant). Under conditions of high N supply, significant differences among maize cultivars were found in shoot N uptake, soil nitrate depletion during the growing season, and the related losses of nitrate through leaching after the growing season. Experiments under conditions of reduced N supply indicated a considerable genotypic variation in reproductive yield formation of both maize and oilseed rape. High agronomic efficiency was achieved by a combination of high uptake and utilization efficiency (maize), or exclusively by high uptake efficiency (rape). N-efficient cultivars of both crops were characterized by maintenance of a relatively high N-uptake activity during the reproductive growth phase. In rape this trait was linked with leaf area and photosynthetic activity of leaves. We conclude that growing of N-efficient cultivars may serve as an important element of integrated nutrient management strategies in both low- and high-input agriculture. PMID:12805782

  4. The Florida Series of Hybrid Amaryllis: Five New Hippeastrum Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hippeastrum Herbert, amaryllis, has yielded popular large-flowered hybrids over a 200 year breeding history. The USDA breeding program, with goals of developing cultivars with heat resistance and novel floral phenotypes, has been ongoing for nearly 15 years. In this paper we announce the release a...

  5. Performance of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) cultivars in southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is native to China, where it has been cultivated for centuries. In its native China more than two thousand different persimmon cultivars exist. Persimmons are best suited in areas of moderate winters and relatively mild summers (USDA Hardiness Zones 7 to 10)....

  6. Quality Parameters of Six Cultivars of Blueberry Using Computer Vision

    PubMed Central

    Celis Cofré, Daniela; Silva, Patricia; Enrione, Javier; Osorio, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background. Blueberries are considered an important source of health benefits. This work studied six blueberry cultivars: “Duke,” “Brigitta”, “Elliott”, “Centurion”, “Star,” and “Jewel”, measuring quality parameters such as °Brix, pH, moisture content using standard techniques and shape, color, and fungal presence obtained by computer vision. The storage conditions were time (0–21 days), temperature (4 and 15°C), and relative humidity (75 and 90%). Results. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were detected between fresh cultivars in pH, °Brix, shape, and color. However, the main parameters which changed depending on storage conditions, increasing at higher temperature, were color (from blue to red) and fungal presence (from 0 to 15%), both detected using computer vision, which is important to determine a shelf life of 14 days for all cultivars. Similar behavior during storage was obtained for all cultivars. Conclusion. Computer vision proved to be a reliable and simple method to objectively determine blueberry decay during storage that can be used as an alternative approach to currently used subjective measurements. PMID:26904598

  7. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  8. Sensory Profiles and Seasonal Variation of Black Walnut Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Catherine; Koppel, Kadri; Reid, William

    2016-03-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a North American hardwood tree valued for producing nuts and wood. Black walnut cultivars were evaluated by a trained panel over 2 growing seasons to determine the seasonal variation in the sensory profile. Results showed that cultivars were significantly different on 3 appearance (skin color, nutmeat color, and kernel roughness), 1 aroma (black walnut ID), 5 flavor (black walnut ID, banana-like, piny, rancid, and overall nutty), and 2 texture attributes (surface roughness and hardness). These profiles were compared to results collected in 2011 to determine differences between growing seasons. Results showed 4 flavor attributes (black walnut ID, overall nutty, fruity-dark and rancid) had an interaction effect of year and cultivar, while 6 attributes (brown, caramelized, floral/fruity, piny, musty/dusty, and oily) showed a main effect of year. In general, flavor attributes had higher intensities in 2011 than in 2013. These results suggest that seasonal variation may influence flavor profile more than cultivar. Thus, using samples from only 1 growing season when testing agricultural products may not provide adequate information for the long term. PMID:26849318

  9. Polymorphism and expression of isoflavone synthase genes from soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Kyoung; Jang, Yun-Hee; Baek, Il-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Min Joo; Chung, Young-Soo; Chung, Jong-Il; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2005-02-28

    Isoflavones are synthesized by isoflavone synthases via the phenylpropanoid pathway in legumes. We have cloned two isoflavone synthase genes, IFS1 and IFS2, from a total of 18 soybean cultivars. The amino acid residues of the proteins that differed between cultivars were dispersed over the entire coding region. However, amino acid sequence variation did not occur in conserved domains such as the ERR triad region, except that one conserved amino acid was changed in the IFS2 protein of the GS12 cultivar (R374G) and the IFS1 proteins of the 99M06 and Soja99s65 cultivars (A109T, F105I). In three cultivars (99M06, 99M116, and Simheukpi), most of amino acid changes were such that the difference between the amino acid sequences of IFS1 and IFS2 was reduced. The expression profiles of three enzymes that convert naringenin to the isoflavone, genistein, chalcone isomerase (CHI), isoflavone synthase (IFS) and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were examined. In general, IFS mRNA was more abundant in etiolated seedlings than mature plants whereas the levels of CHI and F3H mRNAs were similar in the two stages. During seed development, IFS was expressed a little later than CHI and F3H but expression of these three genes was barely detectable, if at all, during later seed hardening. In addition, we found that the levels of CHI, F3H, and IFS mRNAs were under circadian control. We also showed that IFS was induced by wounding and by application of methyl jasmonate to etiolated soybean seedlings. PMID:15750342

  10. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  11. [Ultrasound in East Africa].

    PubMed

    Gysel, W

    2012-09-01

    Ultrasound is poorly established in East Africa because of missing finances and medical staff. The Foundation for medical know how transfer SmW installed in the last 3 years an ultrasound department in all District Hospitals in the South Province Mombasa in Kenya and was teaching the medical staff 2-3 times an year according the guidelines of SGUM and EFSUMB. The project is based on the idea that knowledge transfer is more efficient than money transfer. The project is supervised by public health studies. The first results show that non physicians are able to perform good quality ultrasound examinations. 75% of the obstetrical and 50% of the abdominal ultrasound examinations show therapy-relevant findings. Ultrasound is going to rise to the position of the most important imagine system in developing countries.

  12. [Nutrition in Africa].

    PubMed

    Ganzin, M

    1985-01-01

    A certain number of countries in Africa south of the Sahara are suffering from severe food shortages and famine which have called the attention of the international public opinion. A review of the situation clearly shows that, not only the availability of food depends upon agricultural production and its various conditioning factors (soil, climate, fertility, agricultural technology, storage facilities, etc.), but that such socio-economic factors as population, migration, supplies to urban centres, transport, unemployment, inflation and debt also have a strong influence. With some variations in intensity, these factors and conditions are the same everywhere. It may therefore be said at the present time that political disorders and a poor understanding of nutritional problems are more often than not responsible for tragic situations.

  13. Ebola in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  14. Needed: optics light in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, Akanihu

    2005-10-01

    Though Africa is known and in many quarters still referred to as the dark continent, should she still be in that state in this day and time in which we live? Data now travels at the speed of light and information reaches every nook and cranny of the earth, and I ask, can some of this not be directed towards Africa? More attention needs to be focused on educating Africa in the fields of photonics and optics to illuminate her because if mother earth has got to progress, no part of her or her children can and should be left behind.

  15. Content of carotenoids in roots of seventeen cultivars of Daucus carota L.

    PubMed

    Mech-Nowak, Aleksandra; Swiderski, Adam; Kruczek, Michał; Luczak, Irena; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the content of carotenoids in seventeen cultivars of carrots grown in Poland. Conventional orange cultivars with rarely grown were compared: white, yellow and purple with yellow core cultivars. To determine the content of carotenoids, extracts from lyophilized carrot roots were prepared and analyzed by spectrophotometric as well as HPLC methods with DAD detector. The highest content of carotenoids was found in cultivars: 'Korund F(1)' (48 mg/100g of fresh weight) and 'Salsa F(1)' (36 mg/100g of fresh weight). The antioxidant properties of selected cultivars were compared using the DPPH method.

  16. Clone identification in Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) cultivars using nuclear SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shuri; Matsumoto, Asako; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Katsuki, Toshio; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ishio, Shogo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gojobori, Takashi; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Numerous cultivars of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) are recognized, but in many cases they are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Therefore, we evaluated the clonal status of 215 designated cultivars using 17 SSR markers. More than half the cultivars were morphologically distinct and had unique genotypes. However, 22 cultivars were found to consist of multiple clones, which probably originate from the chance seedlings, suggesting that their unique characteristics have not been maintained through propagation by grafting alone. We also identified 23 groups consisting of two or more cultivars with identical genotypes. Most members of these groups were putatively synonymously related and morphologically identical. However, some of them were probably derived from bud sport mutants and had distinct morphologies. SSR marker analysis provided useful insights into the clonal status of the examined Japanese flowering cherry cultivars and proved to be a useful tool for cultivar characterization. PMID:23226085

  17. Clone identification in Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) cultivars using nuclear SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shuri; Matsumoto, Asako; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Katsuki, Toshio; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ishio, Shogo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gojobori, Takashi; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Numerous cultivars of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) are recognized, but in many cases they are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Therefore, we evaluated the clonal status of 215 designated cultivars using 17 SSR markers. More than half the cultivars were morphologically distinct and had unique genotypes. However, 22 cultivars were found to consist of multiple clones, which probably originate from the chance seedlings, suggesting that their unique characteristics have not been maintained through propagation by grafting alone. We also identified 23 groups consisting of two or more cultivars with identical genotypes. Most members of these groups were putatively synonymously related and morphologically identical. However, some of them were probably derived from bud sport mutants and had distinct morphologies. SSR marker analysis provided useful insights into the clonal status of the examined Japanese flowering cherry cultivars and proved to be a useful tool for cultivar characterization. PMID:23226085

  18. Evaluation of genetic diversity and pedigree within crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) cultivars using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity was estimated for 93 crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) cultivars (51 L. indica cultivars, 5 L. fauriei cultivars, and 37 interspecific hybrids) using 78 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR loci were highly variable among the cultivars, detecting an average of 6.6 alleles per l...

  19. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  20. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  1. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  2. Africa: Private Power's Next Frontier?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Reinier

    2006-10-15

    There might seem to be ample economic gloom and doom to support the old notion that much of Africa is a 'basket case' with no real hope of escaping from its sub-economic cellblock. But such a view may be misguided as we witness the creation of many of the building blocks for real, sustainable economic progress in much of Africa, including programs for serious expansions in electricity infrastructure. (author)

  3. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  4. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.

  5. Comparative exomics of Phalaris cultivars under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) is an economically important forage and bioenergy grass of the temperate regions of the world. Despite its economic importance, it is lacking in public genomic data. We explore comparative exomics of the grass cultivars in the context of response to salt exposure. The limited data set poses challenges to the computational pipeline. Methods As a prerequisite for the comparative study, we generate the Phalaris reference transcriptome sequence, one of the first steps in addressing the issue of paucity of processed genomic data in this species. In addition, the differential expression (DE) and active-but-stable genes for salt stress conditions were analyzed by a novel method that was experimentally verified on human RNA-seq data. For the comparative exomics, we focus on the DE and stable genic regions, with respect to salt stress, of the genome. Results and conclusions In our comparative study, we find that phylogeny of the DE and stable genic regions of the Phalaris cultivars are distinct. At the same time we find the phylogeny of the entire expressed reference transcriptome matches the phylogeny of only the stable genes. Thus the behavior of the different cultivars is distinguished by the salt stress response. This is also reflected in the genomic distinctions in the DE genic regions. These observations have important implications in the choice of cultivars, and their breeding, for bio-energy fuels. Further, we identified genes that are representative of DE under salt stress and could provide vital clues in our understanding of the stress handling mechanisms in general. PMID:25573273

  6. A 48 SNP set for grapevine cultivar identification

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rapid and consistent genotyping is an important requirement for cultivar identification in many crop species. Among them grapevine cultivars have been the subject of multiple studies given the large number of synonyms and homonyms generated during many centuries of vegetative multiplication and exchange. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been preferred until now because of their high level of polymorphism, their codominant nature and their high profile repeatability. However, the rapid application of partial or complete genome sequencing approaches is identifying thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that can be very useful for such purposes. Although SNP markers are bi-allelic, and therefore not as polymorphic as microsatellites, the high number of loci that can be multiplexed and the possibilities of automation as well as their highly repeatable results under any analytical procedure make them the future markers of choice for any type of genetic identification. Results We analyzed over 300 SNP in the genome of grapevine using a re-sequencing strategy in a selection of 11 genotypes. Among the identified polymorphisms, we selected 48 SNP spread across all grapevine chromosomes with allele frequencies balanced enough as to provide sufficient information content for genetic identification in grapevine allowing for good genotyping success rate. Marker stability was tested in repeated analyses of a selected group of cultivars obtained worldwide to demonstrate their usefulness in genetic identification. Conclusions We have selected a set of 48 stable SNP markers with a high discrimination power and a uniform genome distribution (2-3 markers/chromosome), which is proposed as a standard set for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genotyping. Any previous problems derived from microsatellite allele confusion between labs or the need to run reference cultivars to identify allele sizes disappear using this type of marker. Furthermore, because SNP

  7. The Impact of Switchgrass Cultivar Diversity on Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, A. C.; Jastrow, J. D.; SIX, J. W. U. A.; Morris, G.; De Graaff, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The search for new sources of sustainable energy has cast attention on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a potential biofuel crop. However, growing switchgrass in a high-input, low-diversity cropping system can have negative environmental consequences, such as enhanced nitrate (NO3) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Increasing plant diversity has been shown to promote plant production by increasing nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), which may lower fertilizer requirements in cropping systems. With this study we asked how increasing cultivar diversity of switchgrass impacts NUE. The study took place at Fermilab National Environmental Research Park in Batavia, IL. In 2013, we applied a 15N tracer label to switchgrass planted in monocultures and mixtures of 2-types, 4-types, and 6-types of cultivars. We harvested the aboveground biomass and collected soil cores after one growing season. Preliminary data showed that cultivars differed significantly in yield and in the total 15N content in aboveground biomass, but there are no differences in tissue 15N concentration. In addition, there appears to be no effect of diversity level on 15N contents or concentrations. We intend to use this aboveground and soil 15N data to calculate NUE. These results could suggest that choosing the cultivar that most efficiently takes up N and produces the most yield may be more important than increasing diversity to promote the efficacy of biofuel feedstock production. However, increasing diversity can have other positive ecological consequences and does not appear to have negative impacts on yield or the N cycle.

  8. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    PubMed

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Manioudaki, Maria; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd), a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, ‘Big Moose’ with large round fruits and ‘Munchkin’ with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882) and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883) sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively), which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for ‘Big Moose’ and ‘Munchkin’ were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses. PMID:26981408

  10. De novo transcriptome assembly of two different apricot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Chu, Hyosub; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-12-01

    Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) belonging to the Prunus species is a popular kind of stone fruit tree. Apricot is native to Armenia and is currently cultivated in many countries with climates adaptable for apricot growth. In general, fresh fruits as well as dried apricot are produced. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for apricot is very limited. In this study, we carried out de novo transcriptome assembly for two selected apricot cultivars referred to as Harcot and Ungarische Beste, which are commercially important apricot cultivars in the world, using next generation sequencing. We obtained a total of 9.31 GB and 8.88 GB raw data from Harcot and Ungarische Beste (NCBI accession numbers: SRX1186946 and SRX1186893), respectively. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 147,501 and 152,235 transcripts for Harcot and Ungarische Beste, respectively. Next, we identified 113,565 and 126,444 proteins from Harcot and Ungarische Beste using the TransDecoder program. We performed BLASTP against an NCBI non-redundant (nr) dataset to annotate identified proteins. Taken together, we provide transcriptomes of two different apricot cultivars by RNA-Seq.

  11. Screening Rice Cultivars for Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight.

    PubMed

    Fred, Agaba Kayihura; Kiswara, Gilang; Yi, Gihwan; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2016-05-28

    Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious threats to rice production. In this study, screening of rice for resistance to BLB was carried out at two different times and locations; that is, in a greenhouse during winter and in an open field during summer. The pathogenicity of Xoo race K1 was tested on 32 Korean rice cultivars. Inoculation was conducted at the maximum tillering stage, and the lesion length was measured after 14 days of inoculation. Five cultivars, Hanareum, Namcheon, Samgdeok, Samgang, and Yangjo, were found to be resistant in both the greenhouse and open-field screenings. Expression of the plant defense-related genes JAmyb, OsNPR1, OsPR1a, OsWRKY45, and OsPR10b was observed in resistant and susceptible cultivars by qRT-PCR. Among the five genes tested, only OsPR10b showed coherent expression with the phenotypes. Screening of resistance to Xoo in rice was more accurate when conducted in open fields in the summer cultivation period than in greenhouses in winter. The expression of plant defenserelated genes after bacterial inoculation could give another perspective in elucidating defense mechanisms by using both resistant and susceptible individuals.

  12. Genistein isoflavone glycoconjugates in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Abrankó, László; Nagy, Ádám; Szilvássy, Blanka; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Hegedűs, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The isoflavone genistein on the contrary to its well-established health-beneficial effects is not a major component of the Western diet, since soy consumption, considered as the main dietary source of genistein, in these populations is low. Genistein compounds in twelve commercial sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars grown in Hungary were studied. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-qToF-MS) was used for screening and confirmatory analyses. Genistin and genistein were found in 'Pipacs1', 'Kántorjánosi', 'Debreceni bőtermő' and 'Éva', which are native cultivars to Hungary. Genistein content of the latter three were in the range of 0.4-0.6, while in 'Pipacs1' in total 4.4 mg genistein compounds were measured expressed as aglycone equivalents per 100g of fresh fruit flesh. These cultivars may play important role as complementary genistein sources in the Western diet. Especially 'Pipacs 1', may be best utilised in functional food products. PMID:25053048

  13. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Manioudaki, Maria; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd), a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, 'Big Moose' with large round fruits and 'Munchkin' with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882) and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883) sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively), which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for 'Big Moose' and 'Munchkin' were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses. PMID:26981408

  14. Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liber, Zlatko; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Politeo, Olivera; Strikić, Frane; Kolak, Ivan; Milos, Mladen; Satovic, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-seven Ocimum basilicum cultivars were subjected to a chemical characterization of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a genetic characterization using the amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Since the same 27 accessions had previously been classified into six morphotypes, these analyses allowed us to make detailed comparisons of chemistry, genetics, and morphology. The chemical composition and morphology of the studied cultivars appeared to have a strong genetic component. The AFLP analysis revealed a distinction between the green and purple morphotypes. The green morphotypes predominantly utilized the terpene biosynthetic pathway, while most purple morphotypes primarily utilized the phenylpropene biosynthetic pathway. The GC/MS analysis led to identification of 87 volatiles. Among the 27 cultivars, five chemotypes were identified. A detailed characterization of the essential oil constituents indicated the existence of both specific combinations of compounds and 'private' compounds with the potential to be used in many aspects of human life. The established relationship between a genetic profile, chemical composition, and morphology represents an important step in future breeding programs and in the cultivation of this species.

  15. Nutritive value of a vegetable amaranth cultivar for growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Pond, W G; Lehmann, J W

    1989-11-01

    Current interest in amaranth as a food resource for humans and animals has been stimulated by activities in germplasm collection and testing in the U.S. Fifteen growing, intact male lambs weighing 18.7 kg were assigned randomly to three diets (five lambs/diet) for a 14-d growth trial followed immediately by an 8-d (4-d adjustment, 4-d collection) digestion and N balance trial to determine the utilization of the forage component (leaves and stems) of an African cultivar (Zimbabwe cultivar PI 482049, Amaranthus cruentus L.) All diets contained 40.95% ground corn, 8.0% soybean meal and 1.05% mineral-vitamin supplement plus either 50% ground alfalfa hay, 25% ground alfalfa hay plus 25% ground amaranth forage or 50% ground amaranth forage. Lambs had ad libitum access to feed during the growth trial and at 4% of BW daily during the digestion and N balance period. Replacement of half or all the alfalfa in the diet with amaranth had no effect on weight gain or feed utilization. Apparent digestibility of cell contents, NDF, ADF, cellulose, ADL, N and GE and percentage of absorbed N retained did not differ among the three diets. The amaranth vegetable cultivar Zimbabwe PI 482049 promoted weight gain and feed utilization equal to that obtained with alfalfa as the sole forage for growing lambs. Additional research is needed to evaluate further the potential role of forage/vegetable amaranth as an animal feed resource.

  16. Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liber, Zlatko; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Politeo, Olivera; Strikić, Frane; Kolak, Ivan; Milos, Mladen; Satovic, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-seven Ocimum basilicum cultivars were subjected to a chemical characterization of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a genetic characterization using the amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Since the same 27 accessions had previously been classified into six morphotypes, these analyses allowed us to make detailed comparisons of chemistry, genetics, and morphology. The chemical composition and morphology of the studied cultivars appeared to have a strong genetic component. The AFLP analysis revealed a distinction between the green and purple morphotypes. The green morphotypes predominantly utilized the terpene biosynthetic pathway, while most purple morphotypes primarily utilized the phenylpropene biosynthetic pathway. The GC/MS analysis led to identification of 87 volatiles. Among the 27 cultivars, five chemotypes were identified. A detailed characterization of the essential oil constituents indicated the existence of both specific combinations of compounds and 'private' compounds with the potential to be used in many aspects of human life. The established relationship between a genetic profile, chemical composition, and morphology represents an important step in future breeding programs and in the cultivation of this species. PMID:22083911

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Manioudaki, Maria; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd), a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, 'Big Moose' with large round fruits and 'Munchkin' with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882) and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883) sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively), which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for 'Big Moose' and 'Munchkin' were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  18. Polyphenol and glycoalkaloid contents in potato cultivars grown in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Deusser, Hannah; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Evers, Danièle

    2012-12-15

    The polyphenol (phenolic acids, flavanols and flavonols) and glycoalkaloid (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of potato tubers grown in Luxembourg were analyzed by UPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS separately in peel (approx. 2mm), outer (approx. 1cm) and inner flesh. Polyphenol contents decreased from the peel via the outer to the inner flesh and differed among the cultivars. The cultivars Vitelotte and Luminella had the highest polyphenol contents (5202 and 572 μg/g dry weight (DW) in the outer flesh), whereas Charlotte and Bintje had the lowest contents (19.5 and 48.0 μg/g DW). Chlorogenic acid and its isomers (neo- and cryptochlorogenic acid) were the major polyphenols. Glycoalkaloid contents were highest in the peel and lowest in the inner flesh, values in the flesh were below guideline limits in all cultivars. In conclusion, potatoes contribute to the daily intake of polyphenols and their consumption, thereby, may have positive effects on health.

  19. De novo transcriptome assembly of two different apricot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Chu, Hyosub; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-12-01

    Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) belonging to the Prunus species is a popular kind of stone fruit tree. Apricot is native to Armenia and is currently cultivated in many countries with climates adaptable for apricot growth. In general, fresh fruits as well as dried apricot are produced. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for apricot is very limited. In this study, we carried out de novo transcriptome assembly for two selected apricot cultivars referred to as Harcot and Ungarische Beste, which are commercially important apricot cultivars in the world, using next generation sequencing. We obtained a total of 9.31 GB and 8.88 GB raw data from Harcot and Ungarische Beste (NCBI accession numbers: SRX1186946 and SRX1186893), respectively. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 147,501 and 152,235 transcripts for Harcot and Ungarische Beste, respectively. Next, we identified 113,565 and 126,444 proteins from Harcot and Ungarische Beste using the TransDecoder program. We performed BLASTP against an NCBI non-redundant (nr) dataset to annotate identified proteins. Taken together, we provide transcriptomes of two different apricot cultivars by RNA-Seq. PMID:26697397

  20. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars.

    PubMed

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D ∞) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition.

  1. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D∞) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition. PMID:24936295

  2. Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. ) cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, S.

    1987-01-01

    Thiobencarb (S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate) was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of /sup 14/C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of /sup 14/C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized /sup 14/C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides.

  3. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  4. A Relative Resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Blake E; VanWeelden, Matthew T; Beuzelin, Julien M; Reagan, Thomas E; Way, Michael O; White, William H; Wilson, Lloyd T; Showler, Allan T

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane (hybrids of Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana and Texas. Resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in 51 commercial and experimental cultivars of sugarcane, energycane (hybrids of Saccharum spp.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and hybrids of Sorghum spp.] in four replicated small plot field experiments from 2009 to 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed to compare levels of susceptibility among cultivars based on the percentage of bored internodes and survival to adulthood. This index was able to separate cultivars into five resistance categories and provides a new method for comparing levels of resistance among cultivars. E. loftini pest pressure in 2009 was among the highest recorded with injury ranging from 55 to 88% bored internodes. Commercial sugarcane cultivar HoCP 85-845 was identified as resistant in three of four experiments, whereas HoCP 04-838 was identified as susceptible in all experiments. Of the five sugarcane cultivars in commercial production in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, only TCP 87-3388 was categorized as resistant. Of the cultivars with potential for bioenergy production, all of the energycane cultivars demonstrated higher levels of resistance than high-biomass and sweet sorghum cultivars. Continued evaluation of cultivar resistance to E. loftini is important to development of effective integrated pest management strategies for this pest. PMID:26470265

  5. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

    PubMed

    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  6. A Relative Resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Blake E; VanWeelden, Matthew T; Beuzelin, Julien M; Reagan, Thomas E; Way, Michael O; White, William H; Wilson, Lloyd T; Showler, Allan T

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane (hybrids of Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana and Texas. Resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in 51 commercial and experimental cultivars of sugarcane, energycane (hybrids of Saccharum spp.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and hybrids of Sorghum spp.] in four replicated small plot field experiments from 2009 to 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed to compare levels of susceptibility among cultivars based on the percentage of bored internodes and survival to adulthood. This index was able to separate cultivars into five resistance categories and provides a new method for comparing levels of resistance among cultivars. E. loftini pest pressure in 2009 was among the highest recorded with injury ranging from 55 to 88% bored internodes. Commercial sugarcane cultivar HoCP 85-845 was identified as resistant in three of four experiments, whereas HoCP 04-838 was identified as susceptible in all experiments. Of the five sugarcane cultivars in commercial production in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, only TCP 87-3388 was categorized as resistant. Of the cultivars with potential for bioenergy production, all of the energycane cultivars demonstrated higher levels of resistance than high-biomass and sweet sorghum cultivars. Continued evaluation of cultivar resistance to E. loftini is important to development of effective integrated pest management strategies for this pest.

  7. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  8. Flavor characteristic analysis of soymilk prepared by different soybean cultivars and establishment of evaluation method of soybean cultivars suitable for soymilk processing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodi; Li, Jingyan; Wang, Shuming; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, Lijuan; Han, Tianfu; Wang, Qianyu; Chang, Sam Kow-Ching; Guo, Shuntang

    2015-10-15

    Flavor is an essential quality characteristics of soymilk, which contains volatile compounds derived from fatty acids via enzymatic and thermal reactions. In this study, 67 kinds of soybean cultivars were selected, and correlation analysis was conducted between physicochemical indexes of these soybean cultivars and flavor characteristic indexes of soymilk. With clustering analysis, all the soybean cultivars could be classified into three classes, and according to the results of principal component analysis for each class of soymilk flavor characteristics, the soymilk of second class had relatively heavier beany and non-beany flavor, and the third class had weaker flavor. For soybean cultivars of which the soymilk characteristics were unknown, two discriminant functions could be used to predict flavor characteristics if the physicochemical indexes were known. Therefore, screening of soybean cultivars suitable for soymilk processing can be targeted for the flavor favored by consumers and an evaluation method established.

  9. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  10. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  11. "Been to Africa".

    PubMed

    Fiander, A; Hughes, D

    The main drawback for young doctors from developed countries working in Africa or other developing area, is the lack of supervision. Medical and nursing care standards are low, with poor facilities and infrastructure and the problems encountered are enormous. Attitudes and expectations will have to change and mistakes will inevitably occur. Additional frustrations are poor motivation of the local staff, lack of essential supplies and the doctor coming down with tropical diseases. However, much can be gained by this type of experience: basic skills will be improved and self-confidence gained in ones own judgement; technical abilities will grow because of limited resources and equipment, and the need to justify their use only when absolutely necessary. Management and administrative skills will also improve, and opportunities found for teaching and making little changes. The personal thanks and appreciation of the patients, despite their great poverty and their quiet suffering also adds to the experience. Valuable lessons can be learned from the nurses, both medically and culturally and they have been accepting and friendly. Planning for such an experience takes 1-2 years. It is hard to find suitable jobs and one should seek the advice of consultants or other experts with experience abroad. Organizations concerned with health in developing countries such as the Institute of Child Health, International Centre for Eye Health, Christian Medical Fellowship, are resources for obtaining positions. Placement may be with a missionary organization, nongovernmental organization, college program, or a hospital exchange. The best time is when the doctor has completed the specialist exams and has something specific to offer. A 2-year contract is a reasonable time period to plan for. Keeping up with the literature and some standard teaching tools are important and publishing the experiences gained will be valuable for others. Prepare for this by keeping records of work, including a

  12. Three futures for Africa.

    PubMed

    Bugnicourt, J

    1979-01-01

    Industrialization and the monetary economy have changed the relationship between society and nature that characterized majority of African cultures. Modernization is raping the environment, and impersonal and formal attitudes are on the rise. To determine what African life would be like by the year 2000, 3 scenarios are proposed, based upon the relationship of lifestyle to the African people's most pressing needs and aspirations, and the ways in which these can be satisfied: 1) the prolongation of present tendencies. This means the continued exploitation of African raw materials, concurrent increase of energy imports with growth rates, and modernization pattern following the European or American model. Environmental damage is dealt with by a limited policy, mainly in smart areas and big agglomerations, and in certain tourist spots. 2) distributing benefits of development--the dominant countries redistribute benefits of development (e.g., improved terms of trade for Africa); the African economy, however is still directed to the outside, even if it is partly managed by African managers. Intermediate lifestyles are fostered by the money economy, and the African masses aspire for imported models. 3) environmental development--African society no longer depends on the world market but instead tries to meet the basic needs of its people, with the environment as the permanent focal point of reference. This necessitates the adoption of a tough strategy and new options in use of technology, in consumption levels, in cultural models, and in distribution of activities between town and country. Currently, the future environment and life styles of the African people are being decided by various centres of decision-making--big powers, multinationals, governments, local interests--without their being aware of it. It is not unreasonable to expect that a great public debate on whether to conform or to imitate, or to be independent, may soon unfold to determine the aspirations of the

  13. Assessing climate change impacts on sorghum and millet yields in the Sudanian and Sahelian savannas of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, B.; Roudier, P.; Quirion, P.; Alhassane, A.; Muller, B.; Dingkuhn, M.; Ciais, P.; Guimberteau, M.; Traore, S.; Baron, C.

    2013-03-01

    Sub-Saharan West Africa is a vulnerable region where a better quantification and understanding of the impact of climate change on crop yields is urgently needed. Here, we have applied the process-based crop model SARRA-H calibrated and validated over multi-year field trials and surveys at eight contrasting sites in terms of climate and agricultural practices in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger. The model gives a reasonable correlation with observed yields of sorghum and millet under a range of cultivars and traditional crop management practices. We applied the model to more than 7000 simulations of yields of sorghum and millet for 35 stations across West Africa and under very different future climate conditions. We took into account 35 possible climate scenarios by combining precipitation anomalies from -20% to 20% and temperature anomalies from +0 to +6 °C. We found that most of the 35 scenarios (31/35) showed a negative impact on yields, up to -41% for +6 °C/ - 20% rainfall. Moreover, the potential future climate impacts on yields are very different from those recorded in the recent past. This is because of the increasingly adverse role of higher temperatures in reducing crop yields, irrespective of rainfall changes. When warming exceeds +2 °C, negative impacts caused by temperature rise cannot be counteracted by any rainfall change. The probability of a yield reduction appears to be greater in the Sudanian region (southern Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, northern Togo and Benin), because of an exacerbated sensitivity to temperature changes compared to the Sahelian region (Niger, Mali, northern parts of Senegal and Burkina Faso), where crop yields are more sensitive to rainfall change. Finally, our simulations show that the photoperiod-sensitive traditional cultivars of millet and sorghum used by local farmers for centuries seem more resilient to future climate conditions than modern cultivars bred for their high yield potential (-28% versus -40% for

  14. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2014-02-01

    The humanitarian crises caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought forecasts with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model precipitation forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for March-May and October-December rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the consensus forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF), which is the present operational product for precipitation forecast over East Africa. Complementing the original ECMWF precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  15. Climate change and maize yield in southern Africa: what can farm management do?

    PubMed

    Rurinda, Jairos; van Wijk, Mark T; Mapfumo, Paul; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Supit, Iwan; Giller, Ken E

    2015-12-01

    There is concern that food insecurity will increase in southern Africa due to climate change. We quantified the response of maize yield to projected climate change and to three key management options - planting date, fertilizer use and cultivar choice - using the crop simulation model, agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), at two contrasting sites in Zimbabwe. Three climate periods up to 2100 were selected to cover both near- and long-term climates. Future climate data under two radiative forcing scenarios were generated from five global circulation models. The temperature is projected to increase significantly in Zimbabwe by 2100 with no significant change in mean annual total rainfall. When planting before mid-December with a high fertilizer rate, the simulated average grain yield for all three maize cultivars declined by 13% for the periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069 and by 20% for 2070-2099 compared with the baseline climate, under low radiative forcing. Larger declines in yield of up to 32% were predicted for 2070-2099 with high radiative forcing. Despite differences in annual rainfall, similar trends in yield changes were observed for the two sites studied, Hwedza and Makoni. The yield response to delay in planting was nonlinear. Fertilizer increased yield significantly under both baseline and future climates. The response of maize to mineral nitrogen decreased with progressing climate change, implying a decrease in the optimal fertilizer rate in the future. Our results suggest that in the near future, improved crop and soil fertility management will remain important for enhanced maize yield. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, none of the farm management options tested in the study can avoid large yield losses in southern Africa due to climate change. There is a need to transform the current cropping systems of southern Africa to offset the negative impacts of climate change.

  16. Climate change and maize yield in southern Africa: what can farm management do?

    PubMed

    Rurinda, Jairos; van Wijk, Mark T; Mapfumo, Paul; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Supit, Iwan; Giller, Ken E

    2015-12-01

    There is concern that food insecurity will increase in southern Africa due to climate change. We quantified the response of maize yield to projected climate change and to three key management options - planting date, fertilizer use and cultivar choice - using the crop simulation model, agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), at two contrasting sites in Zimbabwe. Three climate periods up to 2100 were selected to cover both near- and long-term climates. Future climate data under two radiative forcing scenarios were generated from five global circulation models. The temperature is projected to increase significantly in Zimbabwe by 2100 with no significant change in mean annual total rainfall. When planting before mid-December with a high fertilizer rate, the simulated average grain yield for all three maize cultivars declined by 13% for the periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069 and by 20% for 2070-2099 compared with the baseline climate, under low radiative forcing. Larger declines in yield of up to 32% were predicted for 2070-2099 with high radiative forcing. Despite differences in annual rainfall, similar trends in yield changes were observed for the two sites studied, Hwedza and Makoni. The yield response to delay in planting was nonlinear. Fertilizer increased yield significantly under both baseline and future climates. The response of maize to mineral nitrogen decreased with progressing climate change, implying a decrease in the optimal fertilizer rate in the future. Our results suggest that in the near future, improved crop and soil fertility management will remain important for enhanced maize yield. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, none of the farm management options tested in the study can avoid large yield losses in southern Africa due to climate change. There is a need to transform the current cropping systems of southern Africa to offset the negative impacts of climate change. PMID:26251975

  17. Internal browning disorder of eight pear cultivars affected by bioactive constituents and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Koushesh Saba, Mahmoud; Moradi, Samira

    2016-08-15

    Internal browning (IB) is a disorder in pears that is frequently observed in some cultivars. The present research was carried out to study biochemical changes and IB disorder of pear fruit during storage and ripening. Eight pear cultivars harvested and stored at 1°C up to 90 days. IB incidence, some bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities were measured during storage. IB increased during storage time but the susceptibility of cultivars was different. The ascorbic acid (AA), antioxidant capacity (AC) and SOD activity decreased while POX activity increased during storage but the rate of changes were different in studied cultivars. Total phenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) average content varied among pear cultivars and the highest TP and TF were observed in 'Bakhi' cultivars during storage. Fruit IB had positive correlation with the PPO activity, but negative correlation with TP, AC and AA.

  18. Comparative antioxidant activity appraisal of traditional Sudanese kisra prepared from two sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zaroug, Marwa; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Yagi, Sakina

    2014-08-01

    The effect of fermentation and heating on the antioxidant activity of the fermented and fermented baked (kisra) dough prepared from two Sorghum cultivars (Tabat and Wad Ahmed) was evaluated. Kisra prepared from Tabat cultivar showed higher DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) than that of the Wad Ahmed cultivar. Baking improves the DPPH and FRAP of the kisra prepared from two cultivars. Baking caused a variable effect on the total phenol, tannins and flavonoids content across different periods of fermentation where an increase was mainly observed for samples subjected to longer periods of fermentation. A positive high correlation between the total phenol and antioxidant activity, using the DPPH and FRAP assays, was obtained for kisra prepared from both cultivars. The same observation was obtained for tannin content. In conclusion, fermentation and heating improve the antioxidant capacity of the sorghum grains from Tabat and Wad Ahmed cultivars.

  19. [Parasitism on medfly by Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in different guava cultivars].

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Beatriz A J; Walder, Júlio M M; Alvarenga, Clarice D

    2007-01-01

    The parasitism efficiency of the Braconidae wasp, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), was checked on four guava cultivars (Paluma, Sassaoca, Pedro Sato and Kumagai) infested with larvae of medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Five blocks of eight fruits, each with two fruits of each cultivar, were put inside C. capitata adult cages, during 2h for oviposition, and a week later, when the larvae inside guavas were developed, the fruits were exposed to parasitoids for 24h. The mean fruit weight, larvae mortality, number of pupae, percentage of medfly and parasitoid emergence were evaluated. There was not statistical difference among cultivars to weight, larvae mortality, number of pupae e emergence of medfly. The percentage of parasitism was higher in Pedro Sato cultivar (19.8%) compared with Kumagai cultivar (2.9%), but it was statistically similar to the other cultivars. PMID:17607457

  20. Understanding Cultivar-Specificity and Soil Determinants of the Cannabis Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Max E.; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hartsel, Josh; Kennedy, Suzanne J.; Gibbons, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding microbial partnerships with the medicinally and economically important crop Cannabis has the potential to affect agricultural practice by improving plant fitness and production yield. Furthermore, Cannabis presents an interesting model to explore plant-microbiome interactions as it produces numerous secondary metabolic compounds. Here we present the first description of the endorhiza-, rhizosphere-, and bulk soil-associated microbiome of five distinct Cannabis cultivars. Bacterial communities of the endorhiza showed significant cultivar-specificity. When controlling cultivar and soil type the microbial community structure was significantly different between plant cultivars, soil types, and between the endorhiza, rhizosphere and soil. The influence of soil type, plant cultivar and sample type differentiation on the microbial community structure provides support for a previously published two-tier selection model, whereby community composition across sample types is determined mainly by soil type, while community structure within endorhiza samples is determined mainly by host cultivar. PMID:24932479

  1. Tolerance to Hololaimus columbus in Glyphosate-Resistant, Transgenic Soybean Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Koenning, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic soybean cultivars, resistant to glyphosate herbicide in maturity groups V and VI, were evaluated for tolerance to the Columbia lance nematode, Hoplolaimus columbus, in field experiments conducted in 1998 and 1999. Treatment with 43 liter/ha of 1,3-dichloropropene was effective in suppressing H. columbus population densities in a split-plot design. Fumigation increased soybean yield, but a significant cultivar × fumigation interaction indicated variation in cultivar response to H. columbus. A tolerance index (yield of nontreated ÷ yield of treated × 100) was used to compare cultivar differences. Two cultivars in maturity group VI and one cultivar in maturity group V had a tolerance index greater than 90, indicating a high level of tolerance. PMID:19265958

  2. Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of European Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kiprovski, Biljana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Malencic, Djordje; Latkovic, Dragana

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate composition and content of phenolic compounds in seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars from Western, Central and Southeastern Europe grown in the Balkan area, and to compare them with cultivars from the Balkan. Mostly detected hydroxycinnamic acids in seeds of the investigated cultivars were caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives. More than ten different flavanols were detected in the investigated seeds, based on which all tested buckwheat cultivars were divided into two groups: those with high propelargonidins (epiafzelechin-epicatechin) and those with high procyanidins contents. 'Novosadska' had the highest level of phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavones and most of the flavonols. However, 'Bosna 1' and 'Bosna 2' were highlighted with the greatest rutin content (up to 46 times higher than in other cultivars). All buckwheat cultivars had quite high antioxidant capacity (more than 80% of neutralized radicals), yet, 'Novosadska', 'Godijevo', 'Spacinska 1' and 'Bamby' excelled.

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seven cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Negrin, Adam; Kennelly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of phenolic compounds of seven edible guava (Psidium guajava) cultivars that varied in colour from white to pink were examined. In the DPPH assay all four pink-pulp guavas (Barbie Pink, Homestead, Sardina 1, Sardina 2) included in the study showed higher activity than the white pulp cultivars (Yen 2 and Sayla) and less than the red pulp guava cultivar (Thai Maroon). In the ABTS(+) assay this trend was the same up to 20 min, but from 20 to 40 min Barbie Pink showed lower activity than the white guavas. Twenty-one compounds were characterised in the cultivars, and ten of them are reported for the first time in this fruit. Principle component analysis was performed to identify differences in chemistry among these cultivars. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of P. guajava vary significantly according to the cultivar and pulp colour.

  4. Internal browning disorder of eight pear cultivars affected by bioactive constituents and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Koushesh Saba, Mahmoud; Moradi, Samira

    2016-08-15

    Internal browning (IB) is a disorder in pears that is frequently observed in some cultivars. The present research was carried out to study biochemical changes and IB disorder of pear fruit during storage and ripening. Eight pear cultivars harvested and stored at 1°C up to 90 days. IB incidence, some bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities were measured during storage. IB increased during storage time but the susceptibility of cultivars was different. The ascorbic acid (AA), antioxidant capacity (AC) and SOD activity decreased while POX activity increased during storage but the rate of changes were different in studied cultivars. Total phenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) average content varied among pear cultivars and the highest TP and TF were observed in 'Bakhi' cultivars during storage. Fruit IB had positive correlation with the PPO activity, but negative correlation with TP, AC and AA. PMID:27006238

  5. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans N.; Njiru, Joshua M.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1–2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70–80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava. PMID:26113851

  6. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14.

    PubMed

    Nyaboga, Evans N; Njiru, Joshua M; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1-2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70-80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava.

  7. Tutorials for Africa: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/africa/index.html Tutorials for Africa To use the sharing features on ... of an interview with Makerere University medical students. Tutorials Malaria Diarrhea For tips and instructions on using ...

  8. Africa and the AIDS myth.

    PubMed

    Versi, A

    1990-04-01

    The recently released television documentary, "Monkey Business, AIDS: The African Story," has created controversy in Europe with its premise that AIDS did not originate in Africa. Although AIDS 1st appeared in New York in 1981 and was not recorded in Africa until 1983, researchers and the media have promoted the theory that AIDS came from Africa through human contact with the green monkey. Subsequent research forced the original champions of this "green monkey connection" theory to acknowledge that the AIDS virus and the green monkey virus are so dissimilar that they could not be historically linked. Then, the focus turned to the theory that a remote pygmy tribe had been endemically infected with the AIDS virus and carried the disease, by airplane, out of the country. This theory, too, was refuted by the failure to locate any HIV-positive pygmies in the Central African Republic. Still determined to prove that AIDS did not have an American or European origin, researchers reported that blood testing conducted in 1984 revealed 50-90% of Africans to be HIV-infected. Retesting with a more accurate procedure revealed the rate of infectivity to be only 0.02%; yet the media have continued to portray Africa as the source of the AIDS scourge. Moreover, it appears that AIDS cases are actually overreported from Africa--not underreported--due to confusion with conditions such as malnutrition and tropical diseases. To some, this relentless drive to vilify Africa reflects racism. Others believe that it represents an effort to cover up the possibility that the AIDS virus is man-made--a result of an accident in gene technology or microbiology.

  9. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  10. Can GM sorghum impact Africa?

    PubMed

    Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa.

  11. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  12. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    PubMed

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability. PMID:27173225

  13. Identification of grapevine rootstock cultivars using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Fan, X C; Chu, J Q; Liu, C H; Sun, X; Fang, J G

    2014-09-26

    Grapevine (Vitis) rootstock varieties or cultivars are used to confer resistance and tolerance to insect and disease pests, unfavorable soil conditions, and other environmental conditions to cultivars that are susceptible to these conditions but otherwise have desired properties. The need to genotype and thoroughly identify grapevine rootstock varieties in the grape industry has become increasingly critical as more and more varieties are bred or selected. Although DNA markers have advantageous applications in plant identification, markers developed from classic DNA fingerprint analysis methods are not practical for plant cultivar identification. The manual cultivar identification diagram (MCID), which was previously developed in our research group, has been shown to select DNA markers that are relatively more exploitable in identifications of genotyped plant individuals. Using this MCID strategy and expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers, we identified 22 grapevine rootstock cultivars of diverse origin. All cultivars were clearly separated by fingerprints of seven pairs of EST-SSR primers and the grapevine rootstock CID (V-R-CID) generated is both practical and referable for the identification of any grapevine rootstock cultivars studied here. Furthermore, fewer primers can be used to distinguish all cultivars using this approach since the fingerprint from each primer pair could be used several times once it is generated. This initial version of V-R-CID can be made more informative with the identification and incorporation of more cultivars, thus providing better service to the grape industry.

  14. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    PubMed

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability.

  15. Heat-tolerant rice cultivars retain grain appearance quality under free-air CO2 enrichment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat-tolerant rice cultivars have been developed as a countermeasure to poor grain appearance quality under high temperatures. Recent studies showed that elevated CO2 concentrations (E-[CO2]) also reduce grain quality. To determine whether heat-tolerant cultivars also tolerate E-[CO2], we conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with 12 rice cultivars differing in heat tolerance. Results The percentage of undamaged grains of five standard cultivars (Akitakomachi, Kinuhikari, Koshihikari, Matsuribare, Nipponbare) averaged 61.7% in the ambient [CO2] (AMB) plot and 51.7% in the FACE plot, whereas that of heat-tolerant cultivars (Eminokizuna, Wa2398, Kanto 257, Toyama 80, Mineharuka, Kanto 259, Saikai 290) averaged 73.5% in AMB and 71.3% in FACE. This resulted in a significant [CO2] by cultivar interaction. The percentage of white-base or white-back grains increased from 8.4% in AMB to 17.1% in FACE in the sensitive cultivars, but from only 2.1% in AMB to only 4.4% in FACE in the heat-tolerant cultivars. Conclusion Heat-tolerant cultivars retained their grain appearance quality at E-[CO2] under present air temperatures. Further improvements in appearance quality under present conditions will be needed to achieve improvements under E-[CO2], because E-[CO2] will likely lower the threshold temperature for heat stress. PMID:24920972

  16. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  17. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections provides…

  18. Theme: Education with Production in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ben; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes " A Bridge Too Far: Democracy, Development and Education in Rural South Africa (Parker); "Khuphuka: A Skills Training and Employment Programme in Durban, South Africa" (Comninos); "Reconstruction and Development Programme and Tertiary Institutions in South Africa"; and "Report on the First Session of the Seminar: Mafeking, September…

  19. Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of East Africa. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in East Africa owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in East Africa during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.

  20. Madagascar Adventure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  1. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…

  2. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Emmah; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Dutra, Emanuel; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Pappenberger, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF), which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  3. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  4. Basic space sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo, Richard S.

    Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this ``Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,'' Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

  5. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  6. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  7. NeuroAIDS in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2013-01-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region. PMID:20500018

  8. Christian Higher Education in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…

  9. Africa in Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekiros, Astair; Wiley, Marylee

    Based on an examination of 50 general social studies textbooks, the report discusses the most frequently found biases, misconceptions, omissions, inaccuracies, and misrepresentations. Criteria for judging the textbooks include: readable and suitable materials; accurate and current content; presentation of Africa as a diverse continent; open…

  10. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  11. Narrative Cartoons. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  12. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Reiner Jr., Robert C.; Battle, Katherine E.; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J.; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  13. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  14. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance.

  15. Suppression of Meloidogyne chitwoodi with Sudangrass Cultivars as Green Manure

    PubMed Central

    Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Ingham, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1 reproduced on Piper sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), 332 (sudangrass hybrid), and P855F and P877F (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids), but failed to reproduce efficiently on Trudan 8, Trudex 9 (sudangrass hybrids), and Sordan 79, SS-222, and Bravo II (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids). Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2 behaved similarly and reproduced more efficiently on Piper, P855F, and P877F than on Trudan 8, Trudex 9, or Sordan 79. The mean reproductive factor for M. chitwoodi races on the poorer hosts ranged from <0.1 to 0.9 under greenhouse and field conditions. Meloidogyne hapla failed to reproduce on any of the cultivars tested. In the laboratory, leaves of each cultivar chopped and incorporated as green manure reduced the M. chitwoodi population in infested soil more than unamended or wheat green manure treatments. Trudan 8, although limited to the zone of incorporation, protected this zone from colonization of upward migrating second stage juveniles (J2) for up to 6 weeks. Leaves of Trudan 8 but not roots were effective against M. chitwoodi, and J2 appeared to be more sensitive than egg masses. Trudan 8 and Sordan 79 as green manure reduced M. chitwoodi in bucket microplots under field conditions. PMID:19279773

  16. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  17. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon.

    PubMed

    Chai, Min; Zhu, Xiaopei; Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as 'trap crops' for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids 'Sorbonne', Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids 'Ceb Dazzle', and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) 'L. formolongo') to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced "suicidal germination" of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil. PMID:26565398

  18. Preliminary evaluation of daylily cultivars for rust resistance in a landscaping setting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large, established landscape collection of 575 newer cultivars was evaluated for daylily rust which had not been sprayed with fungicides to prevent infection during 2013. The warm, damp summer of 2013 was ideal for spread of daylily rust. A total of 119 of the 575 cultivars received a median ratin...

  19. Cultivar and nitrogen fertilizer rate affect yield and nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimizing nitrogen (N) management and using cultivars with high N use efficiency (NUE) are of great importance for durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) producers in irrigated desert production systems. Field experiments with six durum wheat cultivars (Ocotillo, Orita, Kronos, Havasu, Duraking, and Toppe...

  20. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999-NE-183 regional project planting: III. Fruit sensory characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sensory qualities of a new apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivar are central to its consumer acceptance. This study examined the crispness, juiciness, sweetness, acidity, flavor, attractiveness and commercial desirability of 23 new cultivars and breeding selections at nine locations across t...

  1. Unraveling the broad resistance in Common Bean cultivar Mexico 235 to Uromyces appendiculatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mesoamerican common bean cultivar Mexico 235 (M235) is known to have a broad spectrum of resistance to the hypervirulent bean rust pathogen (Uromyces appendiculatus). This cultivar is resistant to 83 of 94 races of the rust pathogen maintained in Beltsville, MD. These 83 races overcome nine of t...

  2. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 33 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  3. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 30 experimental cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with...

  4. Historical use of cultivars as parents in Florida and Louisiana sugarcane breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum L. spp. hybrids) growers depend on breeding programs for new, high-yielding cultivars that have resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, so breeders continually seek out widely adapted, high yielding germplasm to be used as parents for their programs. Cultivars are sometimes u...

  5. Assessment of genetic diversity among 16 promising cultivars of ginger using cytological and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sanghamitra; Naik, Pradeep K; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Mukherjee, Arup K; Panda, Pratap C; Das, Premananda

    2005-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an economically important plant, valued all over the world. The existing variation among 16 promising cultivars as observed through differential rhizome yield (181.9 to 477.3 g) was proved to have a genetic basis using different genetic markers such as karyotype, 4C nuclear DNA content and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The karyotypic analysis revealed a differential distribution of A, B, C, D and E type of chromosomes among different cultivars as represented by different karyotype formulas. A significant variation of 4C DNA content was recorded in ginger at an intraspecific level with values ranging from 17.1 to 24.3 pg. RAPD analysis revealed a differential polymorphism of DNA showing a number of polymorphic bands ranging from 26 to 70 among 16 cultivars. The RAPD primers OPC02, OPA02, OPD20 and OPN06 showing strong resolving power were able to distinguish all 16 cultivars. The extent of genetic diversity among these cultivars was computed through parameters of gene diversity, sum of allele numbers per locus and Shannon's information indices. Cluster analysis, Nei's genetic similarity and genetic distances, distribution of cultivars into special distance classes and principal coordinate analysis and the analysis of molecular variance suggested a conspicuous genetic diversity among different cultivars studied. The genetic variation thus detected among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs.

  6. Postulation and mapping of seedling stripe rust resistance genes in Ethiopian bread wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. In Ethiopia, grain yield loss in wheat cultivars ranges from 30 to 69%. The use of resistant cultivars is the most economical and environmentally friendly method of controlling ...

  7. Comparative analysis of Phytophthora infestans induced gene expression in potato cultivars with different levels of resistance.

    PubMed

    Ros, B; Thümmler, F; Wenzel, G

    2005-11-01

    Differential gene expression was analyzed after infection with Phytophthora infestans in six potato cultivars with different levels of resistance to late blight. To verify the infection of the potato leaflets, the amount of phytopathogen mRNA within the plant material was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of 182 genes selected from two subtracted cDNA libraries was studied with cDNA array hybridization using RNA from non-infected and infected potato leaflets. Gene up- and down-regulation were clearly detectable in all cultivars 72 h post inoculation. Gene expression patterns in susceptible cultivars differed from those in potato varieties with a higher level of resistance. In general, a stronger gene induction was observed in the susceptible cultivars compared to the moderately to highly resistant potato varieties. Five genes with the highest homology to stress and/or defence-related genes were induced specifically in the susceptible cultivars. Four genes responded to pathogen attack independently of the level of resistance of the cultivar used, and three genes were repressed in infected tissue of most cultivars. Even in the absence of P. infestans infection, six genes showed higher expression levels in the somewhat resistant cultivars Bettina and Matilda. Possible reasons for the different levels of gene expression are discussed.

  8. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  9. Lesser-known European wine grape cultivars in southwestern Idaho: cold hardiness, berry maturity and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cold tolerance, phenology, yield and fruit maturity of lesser-known red and white-skinned wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera, L.) of European origin were compared to that of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ over two growing seasons in southwestern Idaho. Variability among cultivars was detec...

  10. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  11. Seasonal methane and nitrous oxide emissions of several rice cultivars in direct-seeded systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding cultivar effects on field greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems is needed to improve the accuracy of predictive models used for estimating GHG emissions and determine to what extent choice of cultivar may have on GHG mitigation. We compared methane (CH4) and...

  12. Host Suitability in Soybean Cultivars for the Reniform Nematode, 2000 Tests

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, R. T.; Rakes, L.; Jackson, L. E.; Gbur, E. E.; Dombek, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    In greenhouse pot experiments during summer 2000, 118 soybean cultivars were tested to determine their suitability as hosts for the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. The cultivars included 115 new entries into the Arkansas and Mississippi soybean variety testing programs and three entries submitted by an extension nematologist from Texas. Also included in the tests were the R. reniformis-resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, the susceptible cultivar Braxton, and fallow R. reniformis-infested soil that served as controls. Total number of eggs and nematodes extracted from both the soil and roots from each pot and reproductive indices (Pf/Pi) were calculated for each cultivar. The ratio of the Pf/Pi of each cultivar to the Pf/Pi of Forrest (RF), and the log ratio[log10 (RF + 1)], are reported. Cultivars with reproductive indices that were greater than the reproductive index on Forrest were considered to be suitable hosts for R. reniformis. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton or other susceptible crops to help control the reniform nematode. PMID:19265895

  13. Cotton fiber cell wall development for three cultivars: an Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy examination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An examination of FT-IR vibrational band development in spectra of cotton fiber at different developmental dates (18 – 40 days post-anthesis; DPA) will be presented in this talk. Results from three cotton cultivars will be presented. Two of the cultivars are nearly identical genetic lines, which ha...

  14. Evaluation of verticillium wilt resistance in commercial cultivars and advanced breeding lines of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, is one of the most destructive diseases in cotton (Gossypium spp.). The most efficient and cost-effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant cotton cultivars. Most commercial cultivars and elite breeding lines are de...

  15. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  16. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  17. Characterization of Libyan olive, olea europaea L., cultivars using morpholigical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) consumption and production are important socially and economically in Libya. Olive cultivars that are adapted to local conditions produce olives that have high quality and quantities of oil. Many of the important Libyan olive cultivars were included in this research. One goa...

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity among 16 promising cultivars of ginger using cytological and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sanghamitra; Naik, Pradeep K; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Mukherjee, Arup K; Panda, Pratap C; Das, Premananda

    2005-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an economically important plant, valued all over the world. The existing variation among 16 promising cultivars as observed through differential rhizome yield (181.9 to 477.3 g) was proved to have a genetic basis using different genetic markers such as karyotype, 4C nuclear DNA content and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The karyotypic analysis revealed a differential distribution of A, B, C, D and E type of chromosomes among different cultivars as represented by different karyotype formulas. A significant variation of 4C DNA content was recorded in ginger at an intraspecific level with values ranging from 17.1 to 24.3 pg. RAPD analysis revealed a differential polymorphism of DNA showing a number of polymorphic bands ranging from 26 to 70 among 16 cultivars. The RAPD primers OPC02, OPA02, OPD20 and OPN06 showing strong resolving power were able to distinguish all 16 cultivars. The extent of genetic diversity among these cultivars was computed through parameters of gene diversity, sum of allele numbers per locus and Shannon's information indices. Cluster analysis, Nei's genetic similarity and genetic distances, distribution of cultivars into special distance classes and principal coordinate analysis and the analysis of molecular variance suggested a conspicuous genetic diversity among different cultivars studied. The genetic variation thus detected among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. PMID:16047412

  19. Freeze Tolerance of Nine Zoysiagrass Cultivars Using Natural Cold Acclimation and Freeze Chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) cultivars is an important attribute throughout the biogeographical transition zone, thus the inability to withstand freezing temperatures may limit the use of these cultivars. The objective of this research was to determine the freeze tolerance (LT50) of...

  20. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 28 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  1. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 32 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  2. Effects of Seed Cryopreservation and Priming on Germination in Several Cultivars of Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Benito, M E; Iriondo, J M; Pita, J M; Pérez-García, F

    1995-01-01

    Seed germination of seven celery cultivars was studied after storage in liquid nitrogen for 1 or 30 d. Cryopreservation was also carried out on pelleted and primed seeds. None of the treatments applied reduced germination percentages. T(50) (time for germination to reach 50%) significantly decreased in Florida, Utah and Istar cultivars when priming, alone or in combination with cryopreservation, was used.

  3. Effect of nitrogen rate and the environment on physicochemical properties of selected high amylose rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker haplotypes for the Waxy and alk genes are associated with amylose content and gelatinization temperature, respectively, and are used by breeders to develop rice cultivars that have physicochemical properties desired by the parboiling and canning industries. Cultivars that provide cons...

  4. Effects of seasonal variation on sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Marisa L; Kendall, Patricia A; Stone, Martha B; Stonaker, Frank H; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2010-04-01

    Butterhead, crisphead, green leaf, red leaf, and romaine types of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are all commonly available in U.S. markets. Sensory properties of lettuce may vary in response to environmental factors that often fluctuate widely throughout the growing season. Bitterness is generally thought to increase in lettuce grown at higher temperatures and may be related to phenolic content. This study evaluated sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars harvested early, midway, and late in the growing season and investigated possible correlations with environmental temperature and light intensity indexes. Thirty panelists rated bitterness, appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of "Crisp and Green" (green leaf), "Crispino" (crisphead), "Green Forest" (romaine), "Lochness" (butterhead), and "Vulcan" (red leaf) lettuce. There was considerable variation in sensory ratings among the 5 cultivars (P < 0.005) but few differences within cultivars across the growing season. The crisphead cultivar, Crispino, received higher scores (P < 0.01) for flavor, texture, and overall acceptability and was rated less bitter (P < 0.05) than other cultivars. Total phenolic content varied significantly (P < 0.001) among cultivars with the red leaf cultivar, Vulcan, exhibiting the highest levels. There was no correlation between bitterness and total phenolic content or environmental factors. Differences among lettuce cultivars appear to have a larger impact on sensory and phenolic profiles than environmental variation during the growing season.

  5. Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildew in legacy cultivars of lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), the most popular leafy vegetable, are susceptible to downy mildew disease caused by Bremia lactucae. Cultivars Iceberg and Grand Rapids that were released in 18th and 19th century, respectively, have high levels of quantitative resistance to downy milde...

  6. Sensory evaluation, physicochemical properties and aroma-active profiles in a diverse collection of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huan; Chen, Jianle; Chen, Shiguo; Xia, Qile; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to differentiate the flavor (taste and odor) profiles of 11 Chinese bayberry cultivars (Myrica rubra). The physicochemical analysis for taste indicated the bayberry cultivars were quite different in soluble sugars, organic acids, color, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar in bayberry fruit. Principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical properties indicated bayberries could be divided into 5 groups, and the Bi qi cultivar contained the highest brix/acid ratio demonstrating the sweetest taste. PCA of aroma-active profile for odor (analyzed by SPME-GC-MS-O) indicated bayberries could be divided into 3 groups: α-pinene ("pine" odor) for group 1 (four cultivars), β-caryophyllene and isocaryophyllene ("woody" odor) for group 2 (six cultivars), and ethyl acetate ("overripe" odor) for group 3 (one cultivar). Our research on the physicochemical and active-aroma of 11 bayberry cultivars will help to select suitable cultivars to increase consumer satisfaction. PMID:27374545

  7. Discrimination of olive oils and fruits into cultivars and maturity stages based on phenolic and volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Kalua, Curtis M; Allen, Malcolm S; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D

    2005-10-01

    Olive oil and fruit samples from six cultivars sampled at four different maturity stages were discriminated into cultivars and maturity stages. The variables-volatile and phenolic compounds-that significantly (p < 0.01) discriminated cultivars and maturity stage groups were identified. Separation by stepwise linear discriminant analysis revealed that Manzanilla olive cultivar was separated from cultivars Leccino, Barnea, Mission, Corregiola, and Paragon, whereas cultivars Corregiola and Paragon formed a cluster. The volatile compounds hexanol, hexanal, and 1-penten-3-ol were responsible for the discrimination of cultivars. All maturity stages were discriminated, with the separation of early stages attributed to oil phenolic compounds, tyrosol and oleuropein derivatives, whereas the volatile compounds (E)-2-hexenal, hexanol, 1-penten-3-ol, and (Z)-2-penten-3-ol characterized the separation of all maturity stages and in particular the late stages. Hexanol and 1-penten-3-ol characterized the separation of both cultivars and maturity stages. PMID:16190670

  8. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Omer, Elsayed A; Hammouda, Faiza M; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-02-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  9. Analysis of different European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars: authentication, phenotypic features, and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Mazzeo, Maria F; Minasi, Paola; Peluso, Angela; De Luca, Antonio; Piccirillo, Pasquale; Siciliano, Rosa A; Carbone, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Hazelnuts exhibit functional properties due to their content in fatty acids and phenolic compounds that could positively affect human health. The food industry requires precise traits for morphological, chemical, and physical kernel features so that some cultivars could be more suitable for specific industrial processing. In this study, agronomical and morphological features of 29 hazelnut cultivars were evaluated and a detailed structural characterization of kernel polyphenols was performed, confirming the presence of protocatechuic acid, flavan-3-ols such as catechin, procyanidin B2, six procyanidin oligomers, flavonols, and one dihydrochalcone in all the analyzed cultivars. In addition, an innovative methodology based on the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of peptide/protein components extracted from kernels was developed for the authentication of the most valuable cultivars. The proposed method is rapid, simple, and reliable and holds the potential to be applied in quality control processes. These results could be useful in hazelnut cultivar evaluation and choice for growers, breeders, and food industry.

  10. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    PubMed

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing. PMID:23957419

  11. Determination of acrylamide in local and commercial cultivar of potatoes from biological farm.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, Nadia; Focardi, Silvia; Guarnieri, Massimo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido

    2013-02-15

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the characterization of parameters influencing formation of acrylamide in fried potatoes, from biological cultivation. The formation of acrylamide was investigated in relation to frying in biological extra virgin olive oil and commercial seed oil. Three different cultivars (Rossa di Colfiorito, Quarantina bianca genovese and Kennebec) were chosen. Asparagine, glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were determined in potato slice before frying, while acrylamide content was analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS in the slices fried in seed and extra virgin olive oil. The Kennebec cultivar showed differences in its potential for acrylamide formation, which was primarily related to its relatively high asparagine and reducing sugars contents, respect the other local cultivars (particulary Quarantina). Values of acrylamide below detection limit (LOD) were found in Quarantina bianca genovese cultivar samples fried in extra virgin olive oil and peanuts seed oil and higher in peanuts seed oil fried potatoes of Kennebec cultivar.

  12. Determination of acrylamide in local and commercial cultivar of potatoes from biological farm.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, Nadia; Focardi, Silvia; Guarnieri, Massimo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido

    2013-02-15

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the characterization of parameters influencing formation of acrylamide in fried potatoes, from biological cultivation. The formation of acrylamide was investigated in relation to frying in biological extra virgin olive oil and commercial seed oil. Three different cultivars (Rossa di Colfiorito, Quarantina bianca genovese and Kennebec) were chosen. Asparagine, glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were determined in potato slice before frying, while acrylamide content was analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS in the slices fried in seed and extra virgin olive oil. The Kennebec cultivar showed differences in its potential for acrylamide formation, which was primarily related to its relatively high asparagine and reducing sugars contents, respect the other local cultivars (particulary Quarantina). Values of acrylamide below detection limit (LOD) were found in Quarantina bianca genovese cultivar samples fried in extra virgin olive oil and peanuts seed oil and higher in peanuts seed oil fried potatoes of Kennebec cultivar. PMID:23194544

  13. Effect of Azotobacter chroococcum application on quantity and quality forage of rapeseed cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, S; Iran Nejad, H; Shirani Rad, A H; Abbas Akbari, G; Amiry, R; Modarres Sanavy, S A M

    2007-09-15

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of Azotobacter chroococcum (Azotobacter) application on quality and quantity forage of the rapeseed cultivars (RGS 003, Hyolla 401 and Hyolla 330) and the possibility of cultivation the rapeseed forage in summer. The experimental design was spilt plot laid out in randomized complete block with three replications. Different levels of Azotobacter (zero and one kg hal) and cultivars were randomized to main plot and sub plot units, respectively. Results showed that Azotobacter significantly affected on all quantity traits except plant height. There were significant differences among cultivars for dry matter, biomass, sub branch number, plant height and forage glucosinolate concentration. Therefore Azotobacter can be considered as growth promoting for rapeseed in the future studies. Also, RGS003 cultivar was better than other cultivars when Azotobacter was applied.

  14. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

    2011-04-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  15. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Gözlekçi, Şadiye; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Özgen, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  16. Comparative analysis of gluten proteins in three durum wheat cultivars by a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Marianna; Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Palermo, Carmen; Agriesti, Francesca; Centonze, Diego; Flagella, Zina

    2013-03-20

    The gluten protein composition and expression level influence dough properties and are cultivar and environment dependent. To broaden the knowledge of the durum wheat gluten proteome, three cultivars were compared in two different growing seasons by a proteomic approach. Cultivar-specific and differentially expressed spots in the two years were identified by mass spectrometry. Significant differences were observed among the cultivars: Ofanto showed the lowest protein spot volumes in the high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) <35,000 regions and the highest in the LMW 48,000-35,000 region, Latino the lowest in the LMW 48,000-35,000 region, and Simeto an intermediate expression level in both LMW regions. In the warmer year the up-regulation of HMW glutenins, α-gliadins, and a globulin 3 protein and the down-expression of LMW glutenins and γ-gliadins were observed. Among the cultivars, Simeto showed the highest stability across the environments.

  17. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Water Dynamics in Different Ginger Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-01-20

    Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.

  18. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    PubMed

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing.

  19. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country’s most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu’s maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species. PMID:26488600

  20. SSR marker-based DNA fingerprinting and cultivar identification of olives (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Ercisli, Sezai; Ipek, Ahmet; Barut, Erdogan

    2011-10-01

    Four well-known commercial olive cultivars (Domat, Edremit, Gemlik, and Memecik) and six local cultivars (Ziraat, Isrange, Tuz, Patos, Yag, and Marantelli) from northeastern Turkey were analyzed for genetic diversity and relationships using seven SSR primers (DCA-4, DCA-09, DCA-11, DCA-16, DCA-17, GAPU-89, UDO-14). The number of markers ranged from 3 (DCA-04 and DCA-17) to 6 (DCA-11, DCA-16, GAPU-89), with an average of 4.57 alleles per primer. UPGMA cluster analysis based on a simple matching similarity matrix grouped cultivars into two main clusters. Three pairs of cultivars (Ziraat and Gemlik, Isrange and Tuz, and Patos and Yag) were thought to be different cultivars although they produced identical SSR profiles. The results indicate the efficiency of SSR markers for evaluation of genetic diversity in olives and identification of misnamed individuals of the same genotype.

  1. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    PubMed

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  2. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  3. The atmospheric circulation over West Africa and equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy Peter

    2000-11-01

    The atmospheric circulation over West Africa and equatorial Africa is examined with two objectives in mind. The first goal is to determine the features of the circulation that distinguish a wet spell from a dry spell. The second is to examine how these differences affect the African Easterly Waves that traverse the region. The study utilizes the new NCEP reanalysis product. This new data set is compared with other sources of data and evaluated for West Africa. The mean annual cycle (1958-97) of the basic state and the easterly disturbances were examined using 40 years of NCEP reanalysis data. The results suggest that there is a seasonal dependence in the dominant shear instability mechanism. This seasonal shift in the instability mechanism may produce a similar seasonal change in the structure of the African Easterly Waves. Composites of atmospheric fields for four wet years (1958-61) were compared to those of four dry years (1982-85). Important differences were noted in the wind, temperature, and humidity fields. In particular, wet years were characterized by a stronger monsoonal flow, a stronger Tropical Easterly Jet, and a more northerly African Easterly Jet. Similarly, differences in the AEWs between wet and dry years were examined. It was found that the wave season in wet years tended to be longer, more active, and composed of stronger waves. In addition, the wave structure exhibited a greater seasonal dependence in wet years.

  4. Genetic Relationships of Aglaonema Species and Cultivars Inferred from AFLP Markers

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JIANJUN; DEVANAND, PACHANOOR S.; NORMAN, DAVID J.; HENNY, RICHARD J.; CHAO, CHIH‐CHENG T.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Aglaonema is an important ornamental foliage plant genus, but genetic relationships among its species and cultivars have not been reported. This study analysed genetic relatedness of 54 cultivars derived from nine species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. • Methods Initially, 48 EcoRI + 2/MseI + 3 primer set combinations were screened, from which six primer sets that showed clear scoreable and highly polymorphic fragments were selected and used for AFLP reactions. AFLP fragments were scored and entered into a binary data matrix as discrete variables. Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity was calculated for all pair‐wise comparisons among the 54 cultivars, and a dendrogram was constructed by the unweighted pair‐group method using the arithmetic average (UPGMA). • Key Results The number of AFLP fragments generated per primer set ranged from 59 to 112 with fragment sizes varying from 50 to 565 bp. A total of 449 AFLP fragments was detected, of which 314 were polymorphic (70 %). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their AFLP fingerprints. The 54 cultivars were divided into seven clusters; cultivars within each cluster generally share similar morphological characteristics. Cluster I contains 35 cultivars, most of them are interspecific hybrids developed mainly from A. commutatum, A. crispum or A. nitidum. However, Jaccard’s similarity coefficients among these hybrids are 0·84 or higher, suggesting that these popular hybrid cultivars are genetically much closer than previously thought. This genetic similarity may imply that A. nitidum and A. crispum are likely progenitors of A. commutatum. • Conclusions Results of this study demonstrate the efficiency and ease of using AFLP markers for investigating genetic relationships of ornamental foliage plants, a group usually propagated vegetatively. The AFLP markers developed will help future Aglaonema cultivar identification, germplasm conservation and

  5. Achene Structure, Development and Lipid Accumulation in Sunflower Cultivars Differing in Oil Content at Maturity

    PubMed Central

    MANTESE, ANITA I.; MEDAN, DIEGO; HALL, ANTONIO J.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sunflower cultivars exhibit a wide range of oil content in the mature achene, but the relationship between this and the dynamics of oil deposition in the achene during grain filling is not known. Information on the progress, during the whole achene growth period, of the formation of oil bodies in the components of the achene and its relationship with variations in final oil content is also lacking. • Methods The biomass dynamics of achene components (pericarp, embryo, oil) in three cultivars of very different final oil concentration (30–56 % oil) were studied. In parallel, anatomical sections were used to follow the formation of oil and protein bodies in the embryo, and to observe pericarp anatomy. • Key Results In all cultivars, oil bodies were first observed in the embryo 6–7 daa after anthesis (daa). The per-cell number of oil bodies increased rapidly from 10–12 daa until 25–30 daa. Oil bodies were absent from the outer cell layers of young fruit and from mature pericarps. In mature embryos, the proportion of cell cross-sectional area occupied by protein bodies increased with decreasing embryo oil concentration. The sclerenchymatic layer of the mature pericarp decreased in thickness and number of cell layers from the low-oil cultivar to the high-oil cultivar. Different patterns of oil accumulation in the embryo across cultivars were also found, leading to variations in ripe embryo oil concentration. In the high-oil cultivar, the end of oil deposition coincided with cessation of embryo growth, while in the other two cultivars oil ceased to accumulate before the embryo achieved maximum weight. • Conclusions Cultivar differences in mature achene oil concentration reflect variations in pericarp proportion and thickness and mature embryo oil concentration. Cultivar differences in protein body proportion and embryo and oil mass dynamics during achene growth underlie variations in embryo oil concentration. PMID:16675608

  6. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S M; de Boer, Albertus H

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+) homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+) levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+) concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+) shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+) accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+) points to a role of stem Na(+) accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+) accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+) transport to the leaves.

  7. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  8. Allelic divergence and cultivar-specific SSR alleles revealed by capillary electrophoresis using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electrophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 each...

  9. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  10. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  11. Mansonella perstans filariasis in Africa.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Paul E; Onapa, Ambrose W; Asio, Santa Maria

    2011-09-01

    Mansonella perstans is a vector-borne human filarial nematode, transmitted by tiny blood-sucking flies (biting midges). It is widespread in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and also occurs in parts of Central and South America. Despite the commonness of this parasite very few studies have been carried out on its epidemiology and on the morbidity resulting from it, and only few thorough drug trials have been conducted to look for effective and suitable drugs and drug regimens for treatment and control. Here, we review currently available knowledge on M. perstans infections in Africa, including documented aspects of biology, vectors, transmission, diagnosis, epidemiology, morbidity and treatment. It is concluded that there is an urgent need for more research on this widespread but greatly neglected infection in order to properly assess its public health significance and as a background for identifying and recommending optimal means and strategies for treatment and control. PMID:20152790

  12. Who really cares for Africa?

    PubMed

    Stamps, T J

    1993-01-01

    The destiny of all the peoples in the world is today, more than ever before in recorded history, linked closely together. This is why the traditional political, economic and social divisions that were created to promote self-interest at the expense of others can no longer be tolerated. The author gives some examples of the obstacles to progress in Africa and other developing countries, and calls for a truly new world order based on justice and equity.

  13. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  14. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2013-08-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in the East African region have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with adequate lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts and drought indices, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), promises to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The October-December rain season has higher skill that the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF) which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extend and intensity of the drought event.

  15. Spreading Astronomy Education Through Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baki, P.

    2006-08-01

    Although Astronomy has been an important vehicle for effectively passing a wide range of scientific knowledge, teaching the basic skills of scientific reasoning, and for communicating the excitement of science to the public, its inclusion in the teaching curricula of most institutions of higher learning in Africa is rare. This is partly due to the fact that astronomy appears to be only good at fascinating people but not providing paid jobs. It is also due to the lack of trained instructors, teaching materials, and a clear vision of the role of astronomy and basic space science within the broader context of education in the physical and applied sciences. In this paper we survey some of the problems bedeviling the spread of astronomy in Africa and discuss some interdisciplinary traditional weather indicators. These indicators have been used over the years to monitor the appearance of constellations. For example, orions are closely intertwined with cultures of some ethnic African societies and could be incorporated in the standard astronomy curriculum as away of making the subject more `home grown' and to be able to reach out to the wider populace in popularizing astronomy and basic sciences. We also discuss some of the other measures that ought to be taken to effectively create an enabling environment for sustainable teaching and spread of astronomy through Africa.

  16. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Characterization of carotenoid high-producing Capsicum annuum cultivars selected for paprika production.

    PubMed

    Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Costa-García, Joaquín; Mínguez-Mosquera, Maria Isabel

    2002-09-25

    Twelve selected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars, bred for mechanical harvesting (grouped ripeness) and adaptation to different cultivation cycles (short to long), have been characterized by their carotenoid pigment content and composition with the aim of producing high-quality paprika. A detailed analysis of the carotenogenesis was performed throughout the ripening process, but with special emphasis on the ripe stage, with the aim of selecting the best cultivar for paprika production. The MA1 cultivar (with grouped ripeness and very short cultivation cycle) showed the highest carotenoid content (12697.58 mg/kg dwt), followed by DN5 and RN2 cultivars with 11086.88 and 10393.29 mg/kg dwt, respectively. Most of the cultivars (MA3, RN1, LR2, LR7, DN3, DR6, Datler, and Mulato) showed a total carotenoid content in the range of 7000-9700 mg/kg dwt. In general, chlorophyll-retaining character was related to high carotenoid content (cultivars DN3, DN5, MA3, Mulato, RN1, and RN2). The general trend of the cultivation cycle was that the shorter the cycle, the higher the total carotenoid content (as exemplified by the cultivar MA1). The lowest total carotenoid content was found for the RR1 cultivar (4856.77 mg/kg dwt), which showed the longest cultivation cycle. Carotenogenic capacity of the cultivars has been discussed relative to total carotenoid content and the R/Y and Caps/Zeax ratios, the main quality traits for breeding cultivars for production of high-quality paprika. The cultivar MA1, with the highest total carotenoid content, high R/Y (2.11) ratio, and highest Caps/Zeax (9.85) ratio, was found to be the most suitable cultivar for paprika production in terms of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis capacity. Moreover, this cultivar has a short cultivation cycle and grouped ripeness, which are both important characteristics for a proper application of mechanical harvesting. The potential improvement of other varieties is also discussed.

  18. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat. PMID:26803815

  19. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  20. Determination of stilbenes in hop pellets from different cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jerkovic, Vesna; Callemien, Delphine; Collin, Sonia

    2005-05-18

    About 30% of the polyphenols in wort and beer derive from hop, but little is yet known about their nutritional impact. The recent discovery of trans-resveratrol and piceid isomers in hop opens new doors to understanding beer health benefits. In the present work, resveratrol was quantified by HPLC-APCI-MS/MS in pellets from 9 different cultivars. Concentrations ranging from 4 to 9 mg/kg trans-piceid, from 2 to 6 mg/kg cis-piceid, and up to 1 mg/kg trans-resveratrol were detected. As previously shown for total polyphenols and flavonoids, the lower the alpha-acid content, the higher the total stilbene content. PMID:15884861

  1. Influence of cultivar and processing on cherry (Prunus avium) allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Primavesi, L; Brenna, O V; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Pastorello, E A

    2006-12-27

    Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate food allergic event that affects lips, mouth, and pharynx, is often triggered by fruits and vegetables, and may be associated with pollinosis. Here, we report on the allergenic pattern of different varieties of cherry (Prunus avium) and results obtained by applying several technological processes to the selected varieties. Whole cherries were submitted to chemical peeling, thermal treatment, and syruping processes, and the relative protein extracts were analyzed by in vitro (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis) and in vivo tests (skin prick test). Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that there was no marked difference among cherry cultivars. Chemical peeling successfully removed Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) responsible for oral allergy syndrome in patients without pollinosis, leading to the industrial production of cherry hypoallergenic derivatives. Furthermore, the syruping process removed almost all allergenic proteins to whom patients with pollinosis are responsive. In vivo tests confirmed electrophoretic results.

  2. Differntial cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in sixteen tobacco cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, B.B.; Brennan, E. )

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to most agronomic plants, tobacco accumulates a greater proportion of cadmium (Cd) in its foliage than in any other plant part when it is exposed to Cd-contaminated soil or sand. Because tobacco leaves are marketed as a commercial product, this pattern of partitioning is highly undesirable from the standpoint of human toxicity. Recognizing that Cd uptake and translocation is under genetic control, the authors evaluated the distribution of cadmium in 16 tobacco cultivars to determine whether a genotype could be selected that minimizes the accumulation of Cd in the leaf. In order to assess the impact of low levels of cadmium that might originate from superphosphate, fertilizers, sludge, or contaminated rain on plant growth, several growth parameters of Cd-treated and untreated tobacco plants were compared. The results of these studies are presented.

  3. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  4. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  5. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  6. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as ‘trap crops’ for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’, Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids ‘Ceb Dazzle’, and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) ‘L. formolongo’) to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced “suicidal germination” of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil. PMID:26565398

  7. Comparative analysis of polygalacturonase in the fruit of strawberry cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H C; Li, G; Zhao, X; Li, L J

    2015-10-19

    The role of polygalacturonase (PG) in the development, ripening, and softening of fruit from two strawberry cultivars with different flesh firmness and softening characteristics was compared. Changes in PG activity and gene expression during development, ripening and softening were measured. The PG genes from each cultivar were cloned and analyzed, and were classified with other PG genes using phylogenetic analysis. In Toyonoka fruit, PG activity increased gradually, reaching a peak during the pink stage, and remained at this level during post-harvest softening. Changes in PG gene expression were consistent with PG activity in these softer fruits. In the firmer Sweet Charlie fruits, PG activity was detected during the initial development stage, reaching a peak at the white stage, thereafter decreasing gradually with ripening and remaining at this lower level throughout softening. Changes in PG gene expression and PG activity were not consistent in these fruit. For both Toyonoka and Sweet Charlie PG genes (FaTPG and FaSCPG, respectively), the open reading frame was 1218 bp, encoding 405 amino acids. Five different nucleotide sites were observed between the two sequences, leading to two amino acid sequence mutations. FaTPG, FaSCPG, and PG genes from the Fragaria vesca genome were classified into three clades using phylogenetic analysis. The clade containing PG genes involved in fruit softening had functional similarity but there were no functional differences between FaTPG and FaSCPG. Differences in PG activity, gene sequence, and gene expression may have led to different roles of PG during ripening and softening in strawberries with different textures.

  8. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  9. [Epidemic characteristics and security implications of Africa schistosomiasis on people who go to Africa].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Yang, Ya; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2015-08-01

    With the economic globalization, and the economic and trade cooperation and cultural communication between China and African countries, more and more Chinese people go to Africa for work or travel. However, there is a quick increase of imported schistosomiasis patients who return from Africa. This paper analyzes the security implications of epidemic characteristics of Africa schistosomiasis on the people who go to Africa, and put forward several suggestions to help them to prevent from schistosomiasis. PMID:26767275

  10. [Epidemic characteristics and security implications of Africa schistosomiasis on people who go to Africa].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Yang, Ya; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2015-08-01

    With the economic globalization, and the economic and trade cooperation and cultural communication between China and African countries, more and more Chinese people go to Africa for work or travel. However, there is a quick increase of imported schistosomiasis patients who return from Africa. This paper analyzes the security implications of epidemic characteristics of Africa schistosomiasis on the people who go to Africa, and put forward several suggestions to help them to prevent from schistosomiasis.

  11. Quality assessment of 178 cultivars of plum regarding phenolic, anthocyanin and sugar content.

    PubMed

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Moehring, Jens; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In this study assessment of total phenolic, individual anthocyanin and total sugar content (TSC) of wide range of plum cultivars was done in order to select cultivars with high health benefiting compounds for potential breeding purposes. Total phenolics varied between 38.45 and 841.50mg GAE 100g(-1) FW. Cyaniding-3-rutinoside, cyaniding-3- glucoside and its equivalents were identified in anthocyanin measurement by HPLC with different ranges. TSC differed between 9.63 and 29.47%. Besides, evaluation of the effect of cultivar and year on phenolic content of 23 randomly selected cultivars over two following years (2013 & 2014) showed significant effect of both factors on phenolic content of plum cultivars. Overall, cultivars "Cacaks Spaete" which had high amount of total phenolics with stability over time, as well as "Hohenheim breed 4894" as a cultivar which contained high amounts of total phenolics, anthocyanins and TSC were selected for further breeding purposes to provide high nutritional quality plum to consumers.

  12. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  13. Striped Cucumber Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Aggregation in Response to Cultivar and Flowering.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey; Hoffmann, Michael P; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] is a specialist pest of cucurbits throughout its range in the United States and Canada. Improved integrated pest management options are needed across the pest's range, especially on organic farms where there are few effective controls. Trap cropping in cucurbits is an option, but there are significant challenges to the technique. Because cucurbit flowers are highly attractive to the beetles, four field experiments tested whether cultivar and phenology interact to preferentially aggregate beetles. The first experiment tested the hypothesis that cucurbit flowers were more attractive to striped cucumber beetles than was foliage. The second experiment tested whether there were differences in beetle aggregation between two relatively attractive cultivars. The third and fourth experiments were factorial designs with two plant cultivars and two levels of flowering to specifically test for an interaction of cultivar and flowering. Results indicated that flowers were more attractive than foliage, beetle aggregation was affected by plant cultivar, and that there was an interaction of cultivar with flowering. We conclude that a single cultivar may be sufficient to serve as a generic trap crop to protect a wide variety of cucurbits. PMID:26313184

  14. Identification of low inorganic and total grain arsenic rice cultivars from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Islam, M Rafiqul; Deacon, Claire M; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Stroud, Jacqueline L; McGrath, Steve P; Islam, Shofiqul; Jahiruddin, M; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-08-01

    For the world's population, rice consumption is a major source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold class 1 carcinogen. Reducing the amount of total and inorganic As within the rice grain would reduce the exposure risk. In this study, grain As was measured in 76 cultivars consisting of Bangladeshi landraces, improved Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) cultivars, and parents of permanent mapping populations grown in two field sites in Bangladesh, Faridpur and Sonargaon, irrigated with As-contaminated tubewell water. Grain As ranged from 0.16 to 0.74 mg kg(-1) at Faridpur and from 0.07 to 0.28 mg kg(-1) at Sonargaon. Highly significant cultivar differences were detected and a significant correlation (r = 0.802) in the grain As between the two field sites was observed, indicating stable genetic differences in As accumulation. The cultivars with the highest concentration of grain As were the Bangladeshi landraces. Landraces with red bran had significantly more grain As than the cultivars with brown bran. The percent of inorganic As decreased linearly with increasing total As, but genetic variation within this trend was identified. A number of local cultivars with low grain As were identified. Some tropical japonica cultivars with low grain As have the potential to be used in breeding programs and genetic studies aiming to identify genes which decrease grain As. PMID:19731720

  15. Tumor promoters in commercial indoor-plant cultivars of the Euphorbiaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Vogg, G; Mattes, E; Polack, A; Sandermann, H

    1999-01-01

    Certain decorative indoor-plant cultivars are derived from toxic wild plant species. Native members of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge) contain highly irritating and tumor-promoting diterpene esters. Plant breeders and gardeners are constantly searching for less toxic cultivars of the popular Euphorbiaceae indoor plants. In this investigation, 22 commercial cultivars of Euphorbiaceae indoor plants were examined for tumor promoter contents by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cultivars of E. milii (E. lomii hybrids), and in particular E. leuconeura, contained ingenol derivatives, whereas cultivars of E. pulcherrima and Codiaeum variegatum were devoid of these compounds. Tumor-promoting activity was assessed by induction of a luciferase reporter gene, which was placed under the control of an Epstein-Barr virus early antigen promoter. The response was closely correlated with ingenol ester content; the latex of the two E. leuconeura cultivars tested gave the strongest response. The HPLC and bioassay methods used in this study provide a basis for the development of nontoxic indoor-plant cultivars and perhaps for consumer-oriented labeling. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10464076

  16. Genetic Relationships Among Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Native to Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Bakir, Melike; Ulas, Mehmet; Sakar, Zeynep Mujde

    2016-08-01

    Olive is a widely cultivated, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and economically important fruit species used as both olive oil and table olive consumption. In Turkey, more than 50 olive cultivars have been authorized for commercial plantations, representing the developmental base for the olive industry. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic relationships among the most widely grown 27 olive cultivars in Turkey, using microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers. Nine well-known foreign olive cultivars from different countries are also included in the study to compare the Turkish cultivars. To determine genetic relationship and diversity, 10 SSR loci (DCA3, DCA9, DCA15, DCA18, UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO24, UDO28) were used. Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the UPGMA method for cluster analysis were performed using the software NTSYSpc. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranging from 4 (UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, DCA15) to 12 (DCA9) presenting high polymorphism. There were no identical cultivars. High similarity was shown by cultivars Maviand Adana topağı (0.754). The most genetically divergent cultivars, Domat-Meski (0.240) and Domat-NizipYağlık (0.245), were also identified.

  17. Determination of genetic relationships between evergreen azalea cultivars in China using AFLP markers*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong; Liao, Jin; Xia, Yi-ping; Teng, Yuan-wen

    2013-01-01

    Evergreen azaleas are among the most important ornamental shrubs in China. Today, there are probably over 300 cultivars preserved in different nurseries, but with little information available on the cultivar itself or relationships between cultivars. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were employed to determine the genetic relationships between evergreen azalea cultivars in China. One hundred and thirty genotypes collected from gardens and nurseries, including cultivars classified in the groups East, West, Hairy, and Summer, unknown cultivars, and close species, were analyzed using three primer pairs. A total of 408 polymorphic fragments were generated by AFLP reactions with an average of 136 fragments per primer pair. The average values of expected heterozygosity and Shannon’s information index were 0.3395 and 0.5153, respectively. Genetic similarities were generated based on Dice coefficients, used to construct a neighbor joining tree, and bootstrapped for 100 replicates in Treecon V1.3b. Principal coordinate analysis (PCO) was performed based on Dice distances using NTSYS-pc software. The AFLP technique was useful for analyzing genetic diversity in evergreen azaleas. Cluster analysis revealed that cultivars in the West and Summer groups were quite distinct from other groups in the four-group classification system and that the East and Hairy groups should be redefined. PMID:23549847

  18. Chemometric discrimination of genetically modified Coffea arabica cultivars using spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ivanira; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2013-03-30

    Multivariate statistical design and principal component analysis (PCA) applied to RP-HPLC-DAD and FTIR spectroscopic data were performed to investigate the fingerprints of four coffee cultivars, traditional red bourbon and three genetically modified cultivars. The design and response surface results showed that extraction dependence on solvent composition of one of the genetically modified cultivars, IAPAR 59, was very similar to that found for the red bourbon standard. PCA of the FTIR spectra obtained from all the simplex centroid design mixtures indicated that the 1:1 binary ethanol-dichloromethane solution resulted in the best separation of the four cultivars. The IPR 108 cultivar has more intense vibrational bands in the 3200-3,600 cm(-1) and 1100-1,600 cm(-1) regions indicating higher acid and fat levels than those of the other cultivars. The UV absorptions close to 275 nm of the RP-HPLC-DAD spectra are correlated with the strengths of the infrared absorptions between 3400 and 3,460 cm(-1) and can be explained by varying caffeine concentrations in the four cultivars. PMID:23598243

  19. Host Suitability of Soybean Cultivars and Breeding Lines to Reniform Nematode in Tests Conducted in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, R. T.; Shipe, E. R.; Rakes, L.; JACKSON, L. E.; Gbur, E. E.; Dombek, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    Reproduction of reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis on 139 soybean lines was evaluated in a greenhouse in the summer of 2001. Cultivars and lines (119 total) were new in the Arkansas and Mississippi Soybean Testing Programs, and an additional 20 were submitted by C. Overstreet, Louisiana State Extension Nematologist. A second test of 32 breeding lines and 2 cultivars from the Clemson University soybean breeding program was performed at the same time under the same conditions. Controls were the resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, susceptible Braxton, and fallow infested soil. Five treatment replications were planted in sandy loam soil infested with 1,744 eggs and vermiform reniform nematodes, grown for 10 weeks in 10 cm-diam.- pots. Total reniform nematodes extracted from soil and roots was determined, and a reproductive factor (final population (Pf)/ initial inoculum level (Pi)) was calculated for each genotype. Reproduction on each genotype was compared to the reproduction on the resistant cultivar Forrest (RF), and the log ratio [log₁₀(RF + 1) is reported. Cultivars with reproduction not significantly different from Forrest (log ratio) were not suitable hosts, whereas those with greater reproductive indices were considered suitable hosts. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton or other susceptible crops to help control the reniform nematode and to select useful breeding lines as parent material for future development of reniform nematode resistant cultivars and lines. PMID:19265960

  20. Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Soybean Cultivars under Different Continuous Cropping Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants. PMID:23977368

  1. Striped Cucumber Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Aggregation in Response to Cultivar and Flowering.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey; Hoffmann, Michael P; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] is a specialist pest of cucurbits throughout its range in the United States and Canada. Improved integrated pest management options are needed across the pest's range, especially on organic farms where there are few effective controls. Trap cropping in cucurbits is an option, but there are significant challenges to the technique. Because cucurbit flowers are highly attractive to the beetles, four field experiments tested whether cultivar and phenology interact to preferentially aggregate beetles. The first experiment tested the hypothesis that cucurbit flowers were more attractive to striped cucumber beetles than was foliage. The second experiment tested whether there were differences in beetle aggregation between two relatively attractive cultivars. The third and fourth experiments were factorial designs with two plant cultivars and two levels of flowering to specifically test for an interaction of cultivar and flowering. Results indicated that flowers were more attractive than foliage, beetle aggregation was affected by plant cultivar, and that there was an interaction of cultivar with flowering. We conclude that a single cultivar may be sufficient to serve as a generic trap crop to protect a wide variety of cucurbits.

  2. Pathotype Classification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Isolates Using Clubroot-Resistant Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Gyung Ja

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams’ hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races. However, when these isolates were inoculated onto clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars of Chinese cabbage, several isolates led to different disease responses even though the isolates have been assigned to the same race by the Williams’ host responses. Based on the pathogenicity results, the 12 field isolates were reclassified into four different groups: pathotype 1 (GN1, GN2, GS, JS, and HS), 2 (DJ and KS), 3 (HN1, PC, and YC), and 4 (HN2 and SS). In addition, the CR cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan exhibited distinguishable disease responses to the P. brassicae isolates, suggesting that the 22 cultivars used in this study, including the non-CR cultivars, are classified into four different host groups based on their disease resistance. Combining these findings, the four differential hosts of Chinese cabbage and four pathotype groups of P. brassicae might provide an efficient screening system for resistant cultivars and a new foundation of breeding strategies for CR Chinese cabbage. PMID:27721692

  3. Phenolic Components and Antioxidant Activity of Wood Extracts from 10 Main Spanish Olive Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Salido, Sofía; Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Adams, Robert P; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2015-07-29

    The chemical composition and radical-scavenging activity of wood samples from 10 main Spanish olive cultivars were studied. The wood samples were collected during the pruning works from trees growing under the same agronomical and environmental conditions. The 10 ethyl acetate extracts were submitted to HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis to determine the phenolic constituents. Seventeen compounds were identified (10 secoiridoids, 3 lignans, 2 phenol alcohols, 1 iridoid, and 1 flavonoid) by comparison with authentic samples. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences were found among olive cultivars. The lignan (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside was the major compound in all olive cultivars, except in cultivars 'Farga' and 'Picual'. The multivariate analysis of all data revealed three sets of cultivars with similar compositions. Cultivars 'Gordal sevillana' and 'Picual' had the most distinct chemical profiles. With regard to the radical-scavenging activity, cultivar 'Picual', with oleuropein as the major phenolic, showed the highest activity (91.4 versus 18.6-32.7%). PMID:26154988

  4. Cell wall alterations in the leaves of fusariosis-resistant and susceptible pineapple cultivars.

    PubMed

    de Farias Viégas Aquije, Glória Maria; Zorzal, Poliana Belisário; Buss, David Shaun; Ventura, José Aires; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Fusariosis, caused by the fungus Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. ananas (Syn. F. guttiforme), is one of the main phytosanitary threats to pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus). Identification of plant cell responses to pathogens is important in understanding the plant-pathogen relationship and establishing strategies to improve and select resistant cultivars. Studies of the structural properties and phenolic content of cell walls in resistant (Vitoria) and susceptible (Perola) pineapple cultivars, related to resistance to the fungus, were performed. The non-chlorophyll base of physiologically mature leaves was inoculated with a conidia suspension. Analyses were performed post-inoculation by light, atomic force, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and measurement of cell wall-bound phenolic compounds. Non-inoculated leaves were used as controls to define the constitutive tissue characteristics. Analyses indicated that morphological differences, such as cell wall thickness, cicatrization process and lignification, were related to resistance to the pathogen. Atomic force microscopy indicated a considerable difference in the mechanical properties of the resistant and susceptible cultivars, with more structural integrity, associated with higher levels of cell wall-bound phenolics, found in the resistant cultivar. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were shown to be the major phenolics bound to the cell walls and were found in higher amounts in the resistant cultivar. Leaves of the resistant cultivar had reduced fungal penetration and a faster and more effective cicatrization response compared to the susceptible cultivar.

  5. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment. PMID:21087497

  6. Quality assessment of 178 cultivars of plum regarding phenolic, anthocyanin and sugar content.

    PubMed

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Moehring, Jens; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In this study assessment of total phenolic, individual anthocyanin and total sugar content (TSC) of wide range of plum cultivars was done in order to select cultivars with high health benefiting compounds for potential breeding purposes. Total phenolics varied between 38.45 and 841.50mg GAE 100g(-1) FW. Cyaniding-3-rutinoside, cyaniding-3- glucoside and its equivalents were identified in anthocyanin measurement by HPLC with different ranges. TSC differed between 9.63 and 29.47%. Besides, evaluation of the effect of cultivar and year on phenolic content of 23 randomly selected cultivars over two following years (2013 & 2014) showed significant effect of both factors on phenolic content of plum cultivars. Overall, cultivars "Cacaks Spaete" which had high amount of total phenolics with stability over time, as well as "Hohenheim breed 4894" as a cultivar which contained high amounts of total phenolics, anthocyanins and TSC were selected for further breeding purposes to provide high nutritional quality plum to consumers. PMID:27507527

  7. Cell wall alterations in the leaves of fusariosis-resistant and susceptible pineapple cultivars.

    PubMed

    de Farias Viégas Aquije, Glória Maria; Zorzal, Poliana Belisário; Buss, David Shaun; Ventura, José Aires; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Fusariosis, caused by the fungus Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. ananas (Syn. F. guttiforme), is one of the main phytosanitary threats to pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus). Identification of plant cell responses to pathogens is important in understanding the plant-pathogen relationship and establishing strategies to improve and select resistant cultivars. Studies of the structural properties and phenolic content of cell walls in resistant (Vitoria) and susceptible (Perola) pineapple cultivars, related to resistance to the fungus, were performed. The non-chlorophyll base of physiologically mature leaves was inoculated with a conidia suspension. Analyses were performed post-inoculation by light, atomic force, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and measurement of cell wall-bound phenolic compounds. Non-inoculated leaves were used as controls to define the constitutive tissue characteristics. Analyses indicated that morphological differences, such as cell wall thickness, cicatrization process and lignification, were related to resistance to the pathogen. Atomic force microscopy indicated a considerable difference in the mechanical properties of the resistant and susceptible cultivars, with more structural integrity, associated with higher levels of cell wall-bound phenolics, found in the resistant cultivar. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were shown to be the major phenolics bound to the cell walls and were found in higher amounts in the resistant cultivar. Leaves of the resistant cultivar had reduced fungal penetration and a faster and more effective cicatrization response compared to the susceptible cultivar. PMID:20607243

  8. Assessment of potential soybean cadmium excluder cultivars at different concentrations of Cd in soils.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yang; He, Kangxin; Sun, Ting; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-09-01

    The selection of cadmium-excluding cultivars has been used to minimize the transfer of cadmium into the human food chain. In this experiment, five Chinese soybean plants were grown in three soils with different concentrations of Cd (0.15, 0.75 and 1.12mg/kg). Variations in uptake, enrichment, and translocation of Cd among these soybean cultivars were studied. The results indicated that the concentration of Cd in seeds that grew at 1.12mg/kg Cd in soils exceeded the permitted maximum levels in soybeans. Therefore, our results indicated that even some soybean cultivars grown on soils with permitted levels of Cd might accumulate higher concentrations of Cd in seeds that are hazardous to human health. The seeds of these five cultivars were further assessed for interactions between Cd and other mineral nutrient elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn. High Cd concentration in soil was found to inhibit the uptake of Mn. Furthermore, Fe and Zn accumulations were found to be enhanced in the seeds of all of the five soybean cultivars in response to high Cd concentration. Cultivar Tiefeng 31 was found to fit the criteria for a Cd-excluding cultivar under different concentrations of Cd in soils.

  9. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) - Theoretical selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Micco, Veronica; Buonomo, Roberta; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-05-01

    The development of plant-based Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) is a requirement for the realization of long-duration exploratory-class manned missions in so far as they help fulfilling astronauts' needs including nutritional demands, air regeneration and psychological support. The program ESA - MELiSSA (European Space Agency - Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) aims to conceive an artificial bioregenerative ecosystem based on both microorganisms and higher plants. Soybean is one of the four crops studied within this program as a candidate for cultivation in forthcoming BLSS. Within this project, the aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the selection of soybean candidate cultivars for BLSS. Our scope was to identify an objective and repeatable procedure to choose the best cultivar at each time, overcoming the variability of the market supply. This purpose was pursued with an approach based on a two-steps procedure: (a) the development of an objective criterion for the selection of the most suitable soybean cultivars (cultivated varieties) based on theoretical considerations and (b) the behaviour evaluation of the 4 best cultivars with a cultivation trial in a controlled environment. In this paper, we report the first phase of the selection procedure. We started with a literature survey to look for data about environmental needs, potential yields and nutritional traits of soybean cultivars already tested in cultivation trials (disregarding Gene Modified Organisms). Afterwards, a preliminary screening based on information about the main European companies and the most commercialized cultivars, as well as on the criteria suggested by ESA, allowed to select 93 cultivars among the 297 admitted in EU. Finally, an algorithm, based on the relevance of each considered characteristic, was created to attribute a score to each cultivar and to rank it for the identification of the best cultivars for subsequent cultivation trials.

  10. Response of five lettuce cultivars to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Pedroche, Nordalyn B; Villanueva, Luciana M; De Dirk, Waele

    2007-01-01

    The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognito (Kofoid et White) Chitwood is an important pathogen of vegetables. Five commercial cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were evaluated under greenhouse conditions for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, Benguet population. Plants were inoculated with 1000 eggs collected from 'Apollo' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) roots. The degree of galling and number of egg masses were assessed 4 and 8 weeks after inoculation. Host plant response was classified as immune, highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, intermediate, moderately susceptible, and highly susceptible based on the resistance index of Kouamè et at., 1998 [RI = (gall2 + egg2)]. Inoculation of 1000 eggs/plant significantly affected the growth and yield of the five lettuce cultivars 4 and 8 weeks after inoculation. A significant interaction was observed between treatment and cultivar during the two evaluation periods in terms of marketable and non-marketable yield, plant height, root weight, number of galls and number of egg masses. A reduction in growth and yield was observed in the cultivars Ballon, Lollo Rosa and Red Wave. Significant differences were noted in the number of galls and egg masses among the different cultivars tested. The highest average number of galls was obtained from the cultivars Red Wave, Ballon and Lollo Rosa. Cultivar Ballon had the highest average number of recovered nematode while Gilaben had the lowest with 15 and 4 per roots, respectively after 4 weeks inoculation. After 8 weeks, nematode was highest in cultivar Red Wave (615) and lowest in Great Lakes (70). Based on the host response, cultivars Great Lakes and Gilaben were rated highly resistant and resistant, respectively, while Red Wave, Ballon and Lollo Rosa were rated intermediate. PMID:18399501

  11. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  12. Variation in cadmium accumulation among 30 cultivars and cadmium subcellular distribution in 2 selected cultivars of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Junli; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi; Huang, Baifei; Zhou, Yihui; Xin, Junliang; Gong, Yulian; Yu, Hui

    2009-10-14

    To reduce the influx of cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, into the human food chain through vegetable intake, a pot experiment for the selection of a pollution-safe cultivar (PSC) of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) was carried out. The experiment with 30 tested cultivars revealed that the maximum differences in Cd concentration between the cultivars containing the highest and the lowest Cd were 3.0-3.9-fold under low-Cd treatment (soil Cd = 0.593 mg kg(-1)), 2.7-3.5-fold under middle-Cd treatment (soil Cd = 1.091 mg kg(-1)), and 2.6-2.7-fold under high-Cd treatment (soil Cd = 1.824 mg kg(-1)), large enough to define the Cd-PSCs. Concentrations of Cd in edible parts of six cultivars, cv. Daxingbaigu, Huifengqing, Qiangkunbaigu, Qiangkunqinggu, Shenniuliuye, and Xingtianqinggu, were lower than 0.2 mg kg(-1), the maximum level (ML) of Cd allowed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) standard, even under middle-Cd treatment. Accordingly, these cultivars were treated as typical Cd-PSCs. Four cultivars, cv. Jieyangbaigeng, Xianggangdaye, Sannongbaigeng, and Taiwan 308, contained Cd in edible parts exceeding the ML even under low-Cd treatment, and they were defined as typical non-Cd-PSCs. The correlations of the Cd concentrations among the tested cultivars between the three treatments were significant at the p < 0.05 level. A conspicuous difference in Cd subcellular distribution in hydroponic plant tissues between cv. Qiangkunqinggu (a typical Cd-PSC) and cv. Taiwan 308 (a typical non-Cd-PSC) were observed. Cd absorbed by cv. Qiangkunqinggu seemed to be well-compartmentalized in root and in cell wall fragment, which may be one of the mechanisms leading to its low Cd accumulating property. The results indicated that water spinach, a leafy vegetable, could be easily polluted by soils contaminated with Cd, as 80% of the tested cultivars had exceeded the ML of Cd according to the CAC standard even under the middle-Cd treatment. Much of the evidence obtained from

  13. The effect of gamma irradiation on the viscosity of two barley cultivars for broiler chicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kaisey, Mahdi T.; Mohammed, Mahmoud A.; Alwan, Abdul-Kader H.; Mohammed, Manal H.

    2002-03-01

    Seeds of two barley cultivars (Local Black and Shoaa) were gamma irradiated at 0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses using Cobalt-60 source to decrease the viscosity. The viscosity was determined in the flour of the seeds using Ostwald U-tube viscometer. The viscosity values were reduced by 25%, 50%, 65%, 72% and 74% in Local Black barley cultivar, while, in Shoaa cultivar the reductions were 15%, 30%, 52%, 69% and 67% at 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy, respectively. The chemical compositions of the seeds were determined in all treatments.

  14. Essential oil composition of two unique ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivars from Sikkim.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Indu; Venugopal, V V; Menon, A Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Volatile oils from two most popular cultivars from Sikkim namely, Bhaisa and Majulay, were isolated, characterised by analytical GC and GC-MS. Sixty constituents accounting for 94.9% and 92.6% of the Bhaisa and Majulay oils were identified. The major compounds of Bhaisa oil were geranyl acetate (18.8%), zingiberene (16.3%) and geranial (8.2%) and those of Majulay oil were zingiberene (19.8%) and geranial (16.5%). Compared to other ginger cultivar oils, the Bhaisa oil had higher content of oxygenated compounds (43.1%). This is the first report on the essential oils from Sikkim ginger cultivars. PMID:21985708

  15. Demographic Assessment of Plant Cultivar Resistance to Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Dusky-Veined Walnut Aphid (Hemiptera: Callaphididae) on Five Walnut Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Akköprü, Evin Polat; Atlıhan, Remzi; Okut, Hayrettin; Chi, Hsin

    2015-04-01

    To provide a comprehensive evaluation of walnut cultivar resistance to the dusky-veined walnut aphid, Panaphis juglandis (Goeze), we collected the life table data of this aphid reared on five cultivars of walnut ('Akça I,' 'Chandler,' 'Fernette,' 'Fernor,' and 'Pedro') under field conditions. The raw data of the developmental time, survival rate, and fecundity was analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table to account for the variable developmental rate and stage differentiation among individuals. Due to the species' longer immature developmental time, shorter adult longevity, shorter reproduction period, and lower fecundity, the net reproduction rate (R0=5.9 offspring), intrinsic rate of increase (r=0.0983 d(-1)), and finite rate (λ=1.1034 d(-1)) were the lowest when aphids were reared on the Fernor cultivar, while those reared on Akça I exhibited the highest population parameters (R0=18.0 offspring, r=0.2031 d(-1), and λ=1.2252 d(-1)). Based on the population characteristics, Fernor is a less favorable cultivar for the development and reproduction of P. juglandis. We also demonstrated the advantages of using bootstrapping for the analysis of standard errors of developmental time, longevity, fecundity, and other parameters as well. Our results indicated that demographic analysis of pest development, survival, and reproduction based on the age-stage, two-sex life table offers a comprehensive assessment of pest growth potential on different crop cultivars.

  16. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children.

  17. PPP insights in South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals.

  18. [Suppurative intracranial infections in Africa].

    PubMed

    Loembe, P M; Okome-Kouakou, M; Alliez, B

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review recent African literature on suppurative intracranial infection and its implications for neurosurgery. In order of decreasing frequency the main lesions are brain abscess, subdural empyema, and epidural abscess. Despite progress in diagnostic imaging and availability of antibiotic therapy, these lesions still cause disturbingly high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa where diagnosis is often delayed. The male-to-female ratio was 3.6:1 and 70 to 80% of patients were under the age of 20 years. Spread from the paranasal sinus or ear was the most common mechanism of infection. Hematogenous processes accounted for 22% of cases and the origin was undetermined in 11% to 26% of cases. Staphylococcus aureus and enteric gram-negative bacilli were the most common bacteria identified but cultures were reported as sterile in 30% to 50% of cases. While ultrasonography can be useful in newborns with an open fontanelle, arteriography is often the only feasible procedure for diagnosis in Black Africa. The diagnostic modality of choice is computed tomography which allows precise mapping prior to neurosurgery. Introduction of computed tomography in some African cities has led to a decrease in mortality ranging from 4.7% to 43%. The most effective treatment is a combination of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and surgical decompression of expanding lesions. The main procedures are aspiration through burr holes and craniotomy. Use of this combined strategy requires close cooperation between the neurosurgeon, infectious disease specialist, and microbiologist. Therapeutic indications are discussed within the context of Black Africa. PMID:9304016

  19. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  20. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  1. Retinitis pigmentosa in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J; Bartmann, L; Ramesar, R; Beighton, P

    1993-11-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal disorders which are a common cause of genetic blindness. The relative frequencies of the different forms of RP in South Africa, as determined from the register at the DNA banking centre for RP at the Department of Human Genetics, University of Cape Town, are presented and discussed. Of the 125 families analysed, 29 (23%) showed autosomal dominant, 33 (27%) autosomal recessive and 3 (3%) X-linked inheritance. In 10 families the pedigree data were insufficient to allow accurate genetic subtyping and a further 50 patients were sporadic without a family history of RP or other syndromic features which would allow categorization.

  2. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in Africa" was…

  3. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  4. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  5. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  6. Africa's Infrastructure Gathering: A Report Card

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Reinier

    2006-12-15

    This conference's high turnout and buoyant mood was a tribute to the progress that the Corporate Council on Africa, and the constituencies represented at the conference, have made in focusing on Africa's real development challenges and in persuading U.S. corporations and institutions to do so. (author)

  7. Muffled Drums: The News Media in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachten, William A.

    This book examines the news media of modern Africa--newspapers, radio, television, news agencies, and magazines. The first half of the book presents a general overview of African news media, including the following topics: the context of Africa as related to the media, the background of each form of media, government involvement, the patterns of…

  8. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  9. Evaluating Materials About Africa for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    Choosing texts, media, and literature about Africa is a difficult task for school librarians who have not studied Africa in detail; however it is possible to evaluate the available materials on the basis of several important criteria. These include the authority of the author, the dates of preparation and publication, and the accuracy of…

  10. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  11. Western Perspectives in Applied Linguistics in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree; Meinhof, Ulrike H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the nature of the historical and contemporary social contexts within which applied linguistics in Africa emerged, and is currently practiced. The article examines the challenges "local" applied Linguistics in Africa is confronted with as it tries to amplify applied linguistic programs emanating from…

  12. Moko Jumbies: Dancing Spirits from Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, S. A.; Phillips, Claire; Moore, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The original Moko Jumbie was a spirit dancer from West Africa. "Moko" is a West African word that refers to gods and "Jumbie" means ghost. In West Africa, Moko Jumbies are known to kidnap and eat disobedient children, steal dreams and see into evildoers' hearts and terrorize them. They walk through villages on 10- to 15-foot-high stilts wearing…

  13. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  14. Deafness in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyaga, Nassozi B.; Moores, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    A review of deaf education in sub-Saharan Africa notes the role of missionaries, especially Andrew Foster who established 31 schools and introduced total communication; deaf education in Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa; the growing acceptance of sign language; and the role of international disability organizations, especially the World…

  15. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  16. Intercultural and Transcultural Literacy in Contemporary Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…

  17. OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngugi, Catherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher…

  18. Melatonin content of pepper and tomato fruits: effects of cultivar and solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Riga, Patrick; Medina, Sonia; García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of cultivar and solar radiation on the melatonin content of Capsicum annuum (pepper) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruits. The melatonin content of red pepper fruits ranged from 31 to 93ngg(-1) (dry weight). The melatonin content of tomato ranged from 7.5 to 250ngg(-1) (dry weight). We also studied the effect of ripeness on melatonin content and identified one group of pepper cultivars in which the melatonin content increased as the fruit ripened and another in which it decreased as the fruit ripened. Under shade conditions, the melatonin content in most of tomato cultivars tended to increase (up to 135%), whereas that of most pepper cultivars decreased (to 64%). Overall, the results also demonstrated that the melatonin content of the fruits was not related to carbon fluxes from leaves.

  19. Microscopic and Macroscopic Studies on the Development of Puccinia hemerocallidis in Resistance and Susceptible Daylily Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection process of Puccinia hemerocallidis, the causal agent of daylily rust, and resistance responses in eight daylily cultivars were studied macroscopically and microscopically. After germination of urediniospores, appressoria formed at the tip of germ tubes and penetrated through stomatal openi...

  20. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety. PMID:25976793

  1. Analysis of phenolic compounds in six Norwegian plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Slimestad, Rune; Vangdal, Eivind; Brede, Cato

    2009-12-01

    Six European plum cultivars ( Prunus domestica L.) grown in Norway have been studied with respect to phenolic composition. Neochlorogenic acid was found to be the most important phenolic acid in all cultivars. Together with other phenolic acids, this compound varied significantly in amount among the cultivars. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside was found to account for >60% of the total anthocyanin content. Minor amounts of flavonols (rutin and quercetin 3-glucoside) were detected in all cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity varied from 814 to 290 micromol of Trolox 100 g(-1) of fresh weight. Measurement of total phenolic content in terms of Prussian blue complex formation revealed a method failure of magnitude order compared to results obtained by HPLC. Comparison of the response factors of a range of phenolic compounds obtained upon analysis by the Prussian blue and Folin-Ciocalteu assays revealed that the latter method returned higher yields in terms of gallic acid (GAE).

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid from a Single Chrysanthemum Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-01-01

    The chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the genus Pospiviroid with a single circular RNA genome, infects many chrysanthemum species. Here, we report 25 complete genome sequences of CSVd in a single chrysanthemum cultivar, revealing 20 variants. PMID:26251489

  3. Untargeted NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of the Metabolic Variety of New Apple Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Philipp; Ehlers, Mona; Weinert, Christoph H; Tzvetkova, Pavleta; Silber, Mara; Rist, Manuela J; Luy, Burkhard; Muhle-Goll, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Metabolome analyses by NMR spectroscopy can be used in quality control by generating unique fingerprints of different species. Hundreds of components and their variation between different samples can be analyzed in a few minutes/hours with high accuracy and low cost of sample preparation. Here, apple peel and pulp extracts of a variety of apple cultivars were studied to assess their suitability to discriminate between the different varieties. The cultivars comprised mainly newly bred varieties or ones that were brought onto the market in recent years. Multivariate analyses of peel and pulp extracts were able to unambiguously identify all cultivars, with peel extracts showing a higher discriminative power. The latter was increased if the highly concentrated sugar metabolites were omitted from the analysis. Whereas sugar concentrations lay within a narrow range, polyphenols, discussed as potential health promoting substances, and acids varied remarkably between the cultivars. PMID:27657148

  4. Physicochemical, thermal, and pasting properties of starches separated from different potato cultivars grown at different locations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The starch separated from 21 different Indian potato cultivars from four locations was evaluated for physicochemical, thermal, and pasting properties. The relationships between the different properties of starches were determined using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Amylose content was positively...

  5. Pattern of Variation of Fruit Traits and Phenol Content in Olive Fruits from Six Different Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, olive fruits from six cultivars grown under similar agronomical and environmental conditions were collected at four different times during fruit ripening. Some agronomical traits were determined, and general increases in the size of the fruit and oil contents were recorded for all cultivars. The phenolic fraction in fruits was also identified and quantified during the same period using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Thus, a total of 57 phenolic compounds were determined, and qualitative and quantitative differences among cultivars and also among sampling times were observed. In contrast to the agronomical traits, a general decrease of total phenolic compounds was observed, characterized by a domination of secoiridoids at the beginning of ripening and by a domination of simple phenols and flavonoids in the end. This is the first time that four of the six cultivars have been studied regarding phenolic compounds evolution during ripening.

  6. Effects of cultivar and processing method on the contents of catechins and procyanidins in grape juice.

    PubMed

    Fuleki, Tibor; Ricardo-Da-Silva, Jorge M

    2003-01-29

    The aim of the presented work was to study the effect of pressing method, pasteurization, cultivar, and vintage on the content of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and nine procyanidins in grape juice. The results showed that the concentration of these flavan-3-ols in the juice was influenced, in decreasing order of importance, by pressing method, cultivar, pasteurization, and vintage. Cold pressing without maceration was the least and hot pressing after maceration at 60 degrees C for 60 min the most effective method for extracting the flavan-3-ols. Pasteurization increased the concentration of catechins in cold-pressed juices, but it decreased concentrations in hot-pressed juices. The concentration of most procyanidins was increased by pasteurization. Among the white cultivars, Seyval and Niagara were highest in procyanidins and Elvira and Chardonnay were highest in catechins. Vincent, Foch, and Baco were the red cultivars highest in catechins, and Vincent also had the highest content of procyanidins.

  7. A GC-MS-based metabolomics study on the tubers of commercial potato cultivars upon storage.

    PubMed

    Uri, Csilla; Juhász, Zsófia; Polgár, Zsolt; Bánfalvi, Zsófia

    2014-09-15

    Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a system for the detection of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, and fatty acids, we characterised six commercial potato cultivars (Hópehely, Katica, Lorett, Somogyi kifli, Vénusz Gold, and White Lady) with different pedigrees, starch contents, cooking types, and dormancy periods, in five developmental stages from harvest to sprouting. The tubers were stored at 20-22°C in the dark. The metabolite data were subjected to principal component analysis. No correlation between metabolite contents of freshly harvested tubers and starch content or cooking type of the cultivars was detected. The storage decreased the fructose and sucrose and increased the proline concentrations of tubers. Irrespective of the length of dormancy a substantial difference in metabolite composition at each time point upon storage was detected in each cultivar except Somogyi kifli, the only cultivar amongst those tested with a pure Solanum tuberosum origin and A cooking type.

  8. Mineral composition of small-grain cultivars from a uniform test plot in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, J.A.; Moul, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Seventy-five cultivated varieties (cultivars) of hard red spring wheat (HRS), hard red winter wheat (HRW), durum wheat, oats, and barley were harvested in 1974 from a small-grain trial plot in Harding County, SD, just north of Buffalo. Analysis of the grains reported here includes crude protein for only the wheat cultivars, ash yield, and 17 chemical elements, many of which are not commonly given in the literature (such as B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se). Differences in composition between the two classes of hard red wheat indicate that HRS is significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HRW in protein content, ash yield, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, total S, Sr, and Zn; Cd is significantly higher in the HRW cultivars. For the most part, concentrations were quite uniform within all grain types. Only two cultivars were anomalous: cv. Hi Plains in HRW wheats and cv. Astro in the oat group.

  9. Glycoalkaloid and calystegine levels in table potato cultivars subjected to wounding, light, and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Erik V; Arif, Usman; Schulzova, Vera; Krtková, Veronika; Hajšlová, Jana; Meijer, Johan; Andersson, Hans Christer; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Sitbon, Folke

    2013-06-19

    Potato tubers naturally contain a number of defense substances, some of which are of major concern for food safety. Among these substances are the glycoalkaloids and calystegines. We have here analyzed levels of glycoalkaloids (α-chaconine and α-solanine) and calystegines (A₃, B₂, and B₄) in potato tubers subjected to mechanical wounding, light exposure, or elevated temperature: stress treatments that are known or anticipated to induce glycoalkaloid levels. Basal glycoalkaloid levels in tubers varied between potato cultivars. Wounding and light exposure, but not heat, increased tuber glycoalkaloid levels, and the relative response differed among the cultivars. Also, calystegine levels varied between cultivars, with calystegine B4 showing the most marked variation. However, the total calystegine level was not affected by wounding or light exposure. The results demonstrate a strong variation among potato cultivars with regard to postharvest glycoalkaloid increases, and they suggest that the biosynthesis of glycoalkaloids and calystegines occurs independently of each other. PMID:23692427

  10. Untargeted NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of the Metabolic Variety of New Apple Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Philipp; Ehlers, Mona; Weinert, Christoph H.; Tzvetkova, Pavleta; Silber, Mara; Rist, Manuela J.; Luy, Burkhard; Muhle-Goll, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Metabolome analyses by NMR spectroscopy can be used in quality control by generating unique fingerprints of different species. Hundreds of components and their variation between different samples can be analyzed in a few minutes/hours with high accuracy and low cost of sample preparation. Here, apple peel and pulp extracts of a variety of apple cultivars were studied to assess their suitability to discriminate between the different varieties. The cultivars comprised mainly newly bred varieties or ones that were brought onto the market in recent years. Multivariate analyses of peel and pulp extracts were able to unambiguously identify all cultivars, with peel extracts showing a higher discriminative power. The latter was increased if the highly concentrated sugar metabolites were omitted from the analysis. Whereas sugar concentrations lay within a narrow range, polyphenols, discussed as potential health promoting substances, and acids varied remarkably between the cultivars. PMID:27657148

  11. Antioxidant properties of peel and pulp hydro extract in ten Persian pomegranate cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hajimahmoodi, M; Oveisi, M R; Sadeghi, N; Jannat, B; Hadjibabaie, M; Farahani, E; Akrami, M R; Namdar, R

    2008-06-15

    This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay (FRAP assay), which is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(+2) concentration, in the range of 100-1000 micromol L(-1) were used for calibration. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively. The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars. PMID:18819648

  12. Effect of cultivars, Fusarium strains and storage temperature on trichothecenes production in inoculated potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hua-Li; Bi, Yang; Tang, Ya-Mei; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Yi

    2014-05-15

    Four trichothecenes (Fus-X, 3ADON, DAS and T-2) were detected in potato tubers inoculated with Fusarium spp. by UPLC-MS/MS. The influence of cultivars, Fusarium strains and storage temperature on trichothecenes production was evaluated. The concentration of trichothecenecs was much higher in susceptible cultivar (Longshu No. 3) than in resistant one (Longshu No. 6). The susceptible cultivar infected with Fusarium sulphureum had the maximum concentration of Fus-X, 3ADON and DAS. Among the three Fusarium strains, Fusarium solani had the strongest ability to produce T-2 in both susceptible and resistant cultivars. Room temperature storage was more likely to accumulate trichothecenes than low temperature storage. Meanwhile, the trichothecenes were found not only in the lesion but also in the adjacent asymptomatic tissue. Trichothecenes concentration showed a strong trend of decline with increase in distance from the infection point.

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid from a Single Chrysanthemum Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    The chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the genus Pospiviroid with a single circular RNA genome, infects many chrysanthemum species. Here, we report 25 complete genome sequences of CSVd in a single chrysanthemum cultivar, revealing 20 variants. PMID:26251489

  14. Glycoalkaloid and calystegine levels in table potato cultivars subjected to wounding, light, and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Erik V; Arif, Usman; Schulzova, Vera; Krtková, Veronika; Hajšlová, Jana; Meijer, Johan; Andersson, Hans Christer; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Sitbon, Folke

    2013-06-19

    Potato tubers naturally contain a number of defense substances, some of which are of major concern for food safety. Among these substances are the glycoalkaloids and calystegines. We have here analyzed levels of glycoalkaloids (α-chaconine and α-solanine) and calystegines (A₃, B₂, and B₄) in potato tubers subjected to mechanical wounding, light exposure, or elevated temperature: stress treatments that are known or anticipated to induce glycoalkaloid levels. Basal glycoalkaloid levels in tubers varied between potato cultivars. Wounding and light exposure, but not heat, increased tuber glycoalkaloid levels, and the relative response differed among the cultivars. Also, calystegine levels varied between cultivars, with calystegine B4 showing the most marked variation. However, the total calystegine level was not affected by wounding or light exposure. The results demonstrate a strong variation among potato cultivars with regard to postharvest glycoalkaloid increases, and they suggest that the biosynthesis of glycoalkaloids and calystegines occurs independently of each other.

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of barley landraces and cultivars in the Shanghai region of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z-W; Lu, R-J; Zou, L; Du, Z-Z; Gao, R-H; He, T; Huang, J-H

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of 115 barley germplasms, including 112 landraces and three new barley cultivars grown in the Shanghai region, using a set of 11 SSR markers. Sixty-six alleles were observed at the 11 SSR loci, ranged from three to ten, with a mean of six alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.568 to 0.853, with a mean of 0.732, indicating considerable genetic variation in barley in the Shanghai area. Clustering analysis indicated that these barley accessions could be divided into two categories (A and B). Ninety-seven six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the A category; sixteen two-rowed and two six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the B category. This demonstrated genetic differences between two-rowed and six-rowed barley varieties. In addition, we found that the three new barley cultivars are closely related. PMID:22535400

  16. Human origins: Out of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  17. South Africa: a toxicologist's goldmine.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    The emerging nation of South Africa, in common with some other countries, notably Eastern Europe, is heir to decades of neglect with regards to the exposure of the majority of its population to toxic materials. In this short review, the major toxic health hazards are described. For most of these risks there are now programs in place to improve the situation, but co-ordination and financial constraints, along with the fact that the majority of the population neither live, nor work, in a controlled environment, mean that much remains to be done. The recent formation of a South African Toxicology society, which strives to bring together environmental, industrial, forensic and clinical toxicology should assist in an improvement, both in the epidemiology of toxicity in South Africa and in improved measures to reduce the incidence of preventable noncommunicable diseases related to both acute and chronic exposure to toxins. The South African scene also provides a "window' of opportunity to study the more fundamental aspects of exposure in human subjects and to couple these to animal and in vitro studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms where these are unknown. PMID:11805740

  18. HIV prevention strategies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Menting, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns the administration of governmental and nongovernmental programs for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Africa. A 1986 government campaign in the prevention of HIV in Senegal has been initiated and has been guided consistently. The Society for Women and AIDS in Africa (SWAA) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) which assembles young population, women, and communities, towards their goal to prevent HIV infection. Marocaine de Lutte Contre le SIDA (ALCS), another NGO in Morocco believes that early intervention and education could help prevent further spread of infection. ALCS focused on the education of sex workers and the use of condoms. They also work with a group of men to promote safe sex and tackle the need for better testing facilities. In Uganda, the focus of the organization is to control the high incidence found in couples with only one infected partner. Another organization incorporates accurate HIV/AIDS information during prayers and other religious activities. Another approach was adopted by teaching English in secondary schools with AIDS information, values on education, family, and employment as content. An NGO in Cape Town was established to form loose cooperative to exchange information and resources within the community. An ongoing nationwide campaign for HIV prevention and control especially among high-risk groups and an effort on STD treatment is being organized.

  19. [Health care insurance for Africa].

    PubMed

    Schellekens, O P; Lindner, M E; van Esch, J P L; van Vugt, M; Rinke de Wit, T F

    2007-12-01

    Long-term substantial development aid has not prevented many African countries from being caught in a vicious circle in health care: the demand for care is high, but the overburdened public supply of low quality care is not aligned with this demand. The majority of Africans therefore pay for health care in cash, an expensive and least solidarity-based option. This article describes an innovative approach whereby supply and demand of health care can be better aligned, health care can be seen as a value chain and health insurance serves as the overarching mechanism. Providing premium subsidies for patients who seek health care through private, collective African health insurance schemes stimulates the demand side. The supply of care improves by investing in medical knowledge, administrative systems and health care infrastructure. This initiative comes from the Health Insurance Fund, a unique collaboration of public and private sectors. In 2006 the Fund received Euro 100 million from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs to implement insurance programmes in Africa. PharmAccess Foundation is the Fund's implementing partner and presents its first experiences in Africa. PMID:18179087

  20. An efficient identification strategy of clonal tea cultivars using long-core motif SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rang Jian; Gao, Xiang Feng; Kong, Xiang Rui; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), especially those with long-core motifs (tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide) represent an excellent tool for DNA fingerprinting. SSRs with long-core motifs are preferred since neighbor alleles are more easily separated and identified from each other, which render the interpretation of electropherograms and the true alleles more reliable. In the present work, with the purpose of characterizing a set of core SSR markers with long-core motifs for well fingerprinting clonal cultivars of tea (Camellia sinensis), we analyzed 66 elite clonal tea cultivars in China with 33 initially-chosen long-core motif SSR markers covering all the 15 linkage groups of tea plant genome. A set of 6 SSR markers were conclusively selected as core SSR markers after further selection. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of the core SSR markers was >0.5, with ≤5 alleles in each marker containing 10 or fewer genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the core SSR markers were not strongly correlated with the trait 'cultivar processing-property'. The combined probability of identity (PID) between two random cultivars for the whole set of 6 SSR markers was estimated to be 2.22 × 10(-5), which was quite low, confirmed the usefulness of the proposed SSR markers for fingerprinting analyses in Camellia sinensis. Moreover, for the sake of quickly discriminating the clonal tea cultivars, a cultivar identification diagram (CID) was subsequently established using these core markers, which fully reflected the identification process and provided the immediate information about which SSR markers were needed to identify a cultivar chosen among the tested ones. The results suggested that long-core motif SSR markers used in the investigation contributed to the accurate and efficient identification of the clonal tea cultivars and enabled the protection of intellectual property.

  1. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Rozema, Jelte; Cornelisse, Danny; Zhang, Yuancheng; Li, Hongxiu; Bruning, Bas; Katschnig, Diana; Broekman, Rob; Ji, Bin; van Bodegom, Peter

    2014-12-09

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and more recent breeding have changed salt tolerance of the cultivars relative to their ancestor. Our comparison of salt tolerance of crop cultivars is based on values of the relative growth rate (RGR) of the entire plant at various salinity levels. We found considerable salt tolerance of the sea beet and slightly, but significantly, reduced salt tolerance of the sugar beet cultivars. This indicates that traditional domestication by selection for morphological traits such as leaf size, beet shape and size, enhanced productivity, sugar content and palatability slightly affected salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars. Salt tolerance among four sugar beet cultivars, three of which have been claimed to be salt tolerant, did not differ. We analysed the components of RGR to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance at the whole-plant level. The growth rate reduction at higher salinity was linked with reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level (leaf area ratio) and at the individual leaf level (specific leaf area). The leaf weight fraction was not affected by increased salinity. On the other hand, succulence and leaf thickness and the net assimilation per unit of leaf area (unit leaf rate) increased in response to salt treatment, thus partially counteracting reduced capture of light by lower leaf area. This compensatory mechanism may form part of the salt tolerance mechanism of sea beet and the four studied sugar beet cultivars. Together, our results indicate that domestication of the halophytic ancestor sea beet slightly reduced salt tolerance and that breeding for improved salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars has not been effective.

  2. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium.

  3. Wheat responses to sodium vary with potassium use efficiency of cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Krishnasamy, Karthika; Bell, Richard; Ma, Qifu

    2014-01-01

    The role of varied sodium (Na) supply in K nutrition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is not well understood especially among cultivars differing in K efficiency. We examined the response of K-efficient and K-inefficient Australian wheat cultivars to Na supply (low to high Na) under K-deficient and K-adequate conditions. In a pot experiment, wheat cvv Wyalkatchem, Cranbrook (K-efficient), and cvv Gutha, Gamenya (K-inefficient) were grown for 8 weeks in a sandy soil containing 40 or 100 mg K/kg in combination with nil, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg Na/kg. High soil Na levels (100, 200 mg Na/kg) greatly reduced plant growth in all four cultivars especially at low soil K (40 mg K/kg). By contrast, low to moderate soil Na levels (25, 50 mg Na/kg) stimulated root dry weight at low K supply, particularly in K-efficient cultivars compared with K-inefficient cultivars. At low K supply, low to moderate Na failed to increase shoot Na to a concentration where substitution of K would be feasible. However, low to moderate Na supply increased shoot K concentration and content in all four wheat cultivars, and it increased leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to measured values similar to those under adequate K and nil Na conditions. The results showed that low to moderate Na stimulated K uptake by wheat particularly in K-efficient cultivars and through increased shoot K enhanced the photosynthesis. We conclude that increased photosynthesis supplied more assimilates that led to increased root growth and that greater root growth response of K-efficient cultivars is related to their greater K-utilization efficiency. However, the process by which low to moderate Na increased shoot K content warrants further investigation. PMID:25426133

  4. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programmes

    PubMed Central

    Rozema, Jelte; Cornelisse, Danny; Zhang, Yuancheng; Li, Hongxiu; Bruning, Bas; Katschnig, Diana; Broekman, Rob; Ji, Bin; van Bodegom, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and more recent breeding have changed salt tolerance of the cultivars relative to their ancestor. Our comparison of salt tolerance of crop cultivars is based on values of the relative growth rate (RGR) of the entire plant at various salinity levels. We found considerable salt tolerance of the sea beet and slightly, but significantly, reduced salt tolerance of the sugar beet cultivars. This indicates that traditional domestication by selection for morphological traits such as leaf size, beet shape and size, enhanced productivity, sugar content and palatability slightly affected salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars. Salt tolerance among four sugar beet cultivars, three of which have been claimed to be salt tolerant, did not differ. We analysed the components of RGR to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance at the whole-plant level. The growth rate reduction at higher salinity was linked with reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level (leaf area ratio) and at the individual leaf level (specific leaf area). The leaf weight fraction was not affected by increased salinity. On the other hand, succulence and leaf thickness and the net assimilation per unit of leaf area (unit leaf rate) increased in response to salt treatment, thus partially counteracting reduced capture of light by lower leaf area. This compensatory mechanism may form part of the salt tolerance mechanism of sea beet and the four studied sugar beet cultivars. Together, our results indicate that domestication of the halophytic ancestor sea beet slightly reduced salt tolerance and that breeding for improved salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars has not been effective. PMID:25492122

  5. Variation in resistance mechanisms to the green peach aphid among different Prunus persica commercial cultivars.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, J A; Méndez, T; Ortiz-Martínez, S A; Cumsille, R; Ramírez, C C

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Peaches and nectarines are frequently attacked by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with significant negative impacts on fruit production. The genetic variability of resistance to this aphid among commercial cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Prunus persica variety nectarina was evaluated in this study. In total, 16 cultivars of P. persica were selected to evaluate the occurrence and population growth rate of M. persicae in commercial orchards, as well as in no-choice and probing behavior laboratory assays. The results showed variability between cultivars in resistance and susceptibility to M. persicae, with three cultivars exhibiting different signatures of resistance. The peach cultivar 'Elegant Lady' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a low rate of growth, moderate leaf-rejection in a no-choice test and a higher number and longer period of salivation into sieve elements, suggesting resistance at the phloematic level. The nectarine cultivar 'August Red' also exhibited low aphid occurrence in the orchard, a low rate of growth, and resistance at the prephloem and phloem levels. Finally, the nectarine 'July Red-NS92' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a higher number of rejections in no-choice assays and no ingestion of phloem during the probing behavior experiments, suggesting prephloematic resistance. The rest of the cultivars studied exhibited clear susceptibility. Hence, different resistance mechanisms are apparent among the studied cultivars. The information gathered in this study regarding the resistance to M. persicae may assist breeding programs aimed at increasing aphid resistance to peaches and nectarines.

  6. Photosynthetic characteristics and enzymatic antioxidant capacity of leaves from wheat cultivars exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Irada M

    2012-08-01

    Two durum (Triticum durum L.), Barakatli-95 and Garagylchyg-2; and two bread (Triticum aestivum L.) wheat cultivars, Azamatli-95 and Giymatli-2/17 with different sensitivities to drought were grown in the field on a wide area under normal irrigation and severe water deficit. Drought caused a more pronounced inhibition in photosynthetic parameters in the more sensitive cvs Garagylchyg-2 and Giymatli-2/17 compared with the tolerant cvs Barakatli-95 and Azamatli-95. Upon dehydration, a decline in total chlorophyll and relative water content was evident in all cultivars, especially in later periods of ontogenesis. Potential quantum yield of PS II (F(v)/F(m) ratio) in cv Azamatli-95 was maximal during stalk emergency stage at the beginning of drought. This parameter increased in cv Garagylchyg-2, while in tolerant cultivar Barakatli-95 significant changes were not observed. Contrary to other wheat genotypes in Giymatli-2/17 drought caused a decrease in PS II quantum yield. Drought-tolerant cultivars showed a significant increase in CAT activity as compared to control plants. In durum wheat cultivars maximal activity of CAT was observed at the milk ripeness and in bread wheat cultivars at the end of flowering. APX activity also increased in drought-treated leaves: in tolerant wheat genotypes maximal activity occurred at the end of flowering, in sensitive ones at the end of ear formation. GR activity increased in the tolerant cultivars under drought stress at all stages of ontogenesis. SOD activity significantly decreased in sensitive cultivars and remained at the control level or increased in resistant ones. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.

  7. An efficient identification strategy of clonal tea cultivars using long-core motif SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rang Jian; Gao, Xiang Feng; Kong, Xiang Rui; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), especially those with long-core motifs (tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide) represent an excellent tool for DNA fingerprinting. SSRs with long-core motifs are preferred since neighbor alleles are more easily separated and identified from each other, which render the interpretation of electropherograms and the true alleles more reliable. In the present work, with the purpose of characterizing a set of core SSR markers with long-core motifs for well fingerprinting clonal cultivars of tea (Camellia sinensis), we analyzed 66 elite clonal tea cultivars in China with 33 initially-chosen long-core motif SSR markers covering all the 15 linkage groups of tea plant genome. A set of 6 SSR markers were conclusively selected as core SSR markers after further selection. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of the core SSR markers was >0.5, with ≤5 alleles in each marker containing 10 or fewer genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the core SSR markers were not strongly correlated with the trait 'cultivar processing-property'. The combined probability of identity (PID) between two random cultivars for the whole set of 6 SSR markers was estimated to be 2.22 × 10(-5), which was quite low, confirmed the usefulness of the proposed SSR markers for fingerprinting analyses in Camellia sinensis. Moreover, for the sake of quickly discriminating the clonal tea cultivars, a cultivar identification diagram (CID) was subsequently established using these core markers, which fully reflected the identification process and provided the immediate information about which SSR markers were needed to identify a cultivar chosen among the tested ones. The results suggested that long-core motif SSR markers used in the investigation contributed to the accurate and efficient identification of the clonal tea cultivars and enabled the protection of intellectual property. PMID:27504250

  8. Selection and Characterization of Vegetable Crop Cultivars for use in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhans, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Cultivar evaluation for controlled environments is a lengthy and multifaceted activity. The chapters of this thesis cover eight steps preparatory to yield trials, and the final step of cultivar selection after data are collected. The steps are as follows: 1. Examination of the literature on the crop and crop cultivars to assess the state of knowledge. 2. Selection of standard cultivars with which to explore crop response to major growth factors and determine set points for screening and, later, production. 3. Determination of practical growing techniques for the crop in controlled environments. 4. Design of experiments for determination of crop responses to the major growth factors, with particular emphasis on photoperiod, daily light integral and air temperature. 5. Developing a way of measuring yield appropriate to the crop type by sampling through the harvest period and calculating a productivity function. 6. Narrowing down the pool of cultivars and breeding lines according to a set of criteria and breeding history. 7. Determination of environmental set points for cultivar evaluation through calculating production cost as a function of set points and size of target facility. 8. Design of screening and yield trial experiments emphasizing efficient use of space. 9. Final evaluation of cultivars after data collection, in terms of production cost and value to the consumer. For each of the steps, relevant issues are addressed. In selecting standards to determine set points for screening, set points that optimize cost of production for the standards may not be applicable to all cultivars. Production of uniform and equivalent- sized seedlings is considered as a means of countering possible differences in seed vigor. Issues of spacing and re-spacing are also discussed.

  9. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  10. Assessing climate adaptation options and uncertainties for cereal systems in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, K.; Sultan, B.; Biasutti, M.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The already fragile agriculture production system in West Africa faces further challenges in meeting food security in the coming decades, primarily due to a fast increasing population and risks of climate change. Successful adaptation of agriculture should not only benefit in the current climate but should also reduce negative (or enhance positive) impacts for climate change. Assessment of various possible adaptation options and their uncertainties provides key information for prioritizing adaptation investments. Here, based on the several robust aspects of climate projections in this region (i.e. temperature increases and rainfall pattern shifts), we use two well-validated crop models (i.e. APSIM and SARRA-H) and an ensemble of downscaled climate forcing to assess five possible and realistic adaptation options (late sowing, intensification, thermal time increase, water harvesting and increased resilience to heat stress) in West Africa for the staple crop production of sorghum. We adopt a new assessment framework to account for both the impacts of adaptation options in current climate and their ability to reduce impacts of future climate change, and also consider changes in both mean yield and its variability. Our results reveal that most proposed "adaptation options" are not more beneficial in the future than in the current climate, i.e. not really reduce the climate change impacts. Increased temperature resilience during grain number formation period is the main adaptation that emerges. We also find that changing from the traditional to modern cultivar, and later sowing in West Sahel appear to be robust adaptations.

  11. Biology and life table parameters of Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cauliflower cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Fatemeh; Abbasipour, Habib; Askarianzadeh, Alireza; Hassanshahi, Golamhossein; Saeedizadeh, Ayatallah

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the biology and fertility life table parameters of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were studied on cauliflower leaves, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), of the cultivars Smilla, Snow mystique, White cloud, Buris, Galiblanka, Snow crown, SG, and Tokita. This study was conducted under controlled conditions: 25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiods. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. Further, the maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Galiblanka and Buris cultivars, respectively. The shortest nymphal instar growth period was observed on the Smilla cultivar (6.70 d), and the longest lifespan was seen on the White cloud (8.10 d). The Smilla cultivar (39%), in an adult emergence stage, and the SG (88%) revealed the lowest and highest rates of survival, respectively. Aphids reared on the Smilla cultivar were found to have increased due to the high intrinsic (r(m)) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the low doubling time (DT). The results indicated that the application of cultivars affecting adult reproductive parameters could be a good solution to cabbage aphid control management. PMID:25527591

  12. Fluorescence-based AFLPs occur as the most suitable marker system for oilseed rape cultivar identification.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Roman; Dolanská, Lenka; Curn, Vladislav; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Three different types of molecular markers, RAPD, SSR and fluorescence-based AFLP, were evaluated and compared for their ability to identify oilseed rape cultivars. The direct comparison of RAPD, SSR and AFLP approaches in cultivar identification showed that the AFLP methodology detected polymorphisms more efficiently than either RAPD or SSR methods. For the characterisation of six oilseed rape cultivars, 60 RAPD primers were tested and only eight of them (14%) detected sufficient levels of polymorphism. Five microsatellites out of fifteen tested were polymorphic, but in all loci, except one, only two different alleles were detected. This result indicated the limited degree of polymorphism found in Brassica napus. Each of the six tested AFLP combinations detected polymorphisms, the best combination (M-CAA/E-ACT) had 26% polymorphic peaks from a total of 90 peaks and could distinguish the analysed cultivars and 4 out of 5 core lines of cultivars. The results presented show that florescence-based AFLP is, for the purposes of oilseed rape cultivar fingerprinting, a more suitable approach than either RAPD or SSR.

  13. Studies on Paeonia cultivars and hybrids identification based on SRAP analysis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing; Liu, Zheng-An; Shu, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Rui'e; De Rick, Jan; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2008-02-01

    Plants of Paeonia are valuable for their ornamental and medicinal values. Genetic relations and hybrids identification among different sections of Paeonia were studied using sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. A total of 29 cultivars including 2 intersectional hybrids, 13 sect. Moutan and 14 from sect. Paeonia were used. A total of 197 bands were produced using 24 primer combinations, among which 187 bands showed polymorphism. From the bands amplified, we can identify the peony cultivars using unique SRAP markers and specific primer combinations. Fourteen peony cultivars were distinguished among each other by using totally 35 SRAP markers, which were generated by 16 primer pairs. Two specific primer pairs of Me8/Em8 and Me8/Em1 can be used to identify cultivars from different sections. The mean genetic similarity coefficient (GS), the gene diversity (GD), and the Shannon's information index of peony cultivars were 0.45, 0.19 and 0.32, respectively. Both UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic average) dendrogram and PCA (principle component analysis) analysis showed clear genetic relationships among the 29 peony cultivars, and within section and its intersectional hybrids. The above results are valuable for estimating and analyzing genetic background of Paeonia, parent selection in crossing breeding programs, molecular marker assisted selection (MAS) breeding for further germplasm innovation programs.

  14. Methane emissions from rice fields: Effect of plant height among several rice cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A.; Willis, C. R.; Sass, R. L.; Fisher, F. M.

    The effect of rice cultivar and plant height on methane (CH4) emission from rice fields was studied from data of 8-year field experiments. Field experiments were conducted from 1989 to 1996 at the Texas A & M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Beaumont, Texas. Eleven rice cultivars and three soil types were involved. The results of this study showed the following: 1) Rice cultivar choice slightly influenced the day-to-day seasonal pattern of methane emission, but it had a significant effect on the seasonal total methane emission. The average seasonal methane emission is 22.8gCH4m-2 for high-emitting cultivars (Mars and Della), ranging from 8.0 to 41.0gCH4m-2 and 17.7gCH4m-2 for low-emitting cultivars (Lemont, Labelle, Lebonnet, Dawn, Katy, IR 36, Cypress, and Jasmine), ranging from 1.7 to 28.4gCH4m-2. 2) Seasonal methane emission has a positive linear correlation with postheading rice plant height. The correlation coefficient r2 is 0.736 (n=24, and p<0.05). In this paper we suggest that plant height may be a good criteria in choosing cultivars for mitigation of methane emission. More importantly, it provides a potential method for estimating methane emission from regional or global rice paddies as plant height can be evaluated by remotely sensed imagery.

  15. Variability of cultivar responses to ozone. Final report, 25 June 1987-31 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, P.J.

    1989-06-01

    This study was conducted in open-top field chambers at the University of California, Riverside, CA. The investigator exposed four cultivars each of dry beans, processing tomatoes, cotton, lettuce, broccoli, and onions to oxidant air pollutants at three levels: charcoal filtered air, ambient air, and ambient air with ozone added to equal 1.5 times ambient concentrations. The investigator measured stomatal conductance, visible injury, yield, and vegetative biomass. In beans, varieties with higher rates of stomatal conductance exhibited greater amounts of visible injury and greater yield losses. For processing tomatoes, cultivars with potentially greater yields seemed more susceptible to oxidant induced yield losses. There was no relationship between visible injury or rates of stomatal conductance and yield reductions. For cotton, short-season cultivars suffered greater yield losses than late-maturing cultivars. All lettuce cultivars showed visible injury symptoms on their outer leaves, but no consistent effects on yield due to oxidant exposure. None of the broccoli cultivars showed a significant yield reduction in response to oxidant exposure. Exposure to elevated oxidant levels resulted in visible injury and accelerated senescence of onion plants.

  16. Plant-pathogenic fungi in seeds of different pea cultivars in poland.

    PubMed

    Wilman, Karolina; Stępień, Lukasz; Fabiańska, Izabela; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2014-09-29

    Legume crops are exposed to infection by fungal pathogens, which often results in contamination with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of field resistance/susceptibility of edible and fodder pea cultivars to the colonization of seeds by fungal pathogens in two subsequent seasons, as well as to identify the pathogens present in the seeds of the tested cultivars. Alternaria spp. were the most common fungi isolated from pea seeds in both seasons, followed by Fusarium spp., Stemphylium spp., Ulocladium spp., Botrytis cinerea Pers., Epicoccum nigrum Link., and Phomapinodella L. K. Jones. The highest percentage of infected seeds (55 %) was recorded for cultivar Ezop. The presence of a large number of fungi was found in 2012 for cultivars Santana, Tarchalska, Medal, Cysterski, Mentor, Lasso, and Ezop. Fodder cultivars displayed a lower infection level than edible cultivars. We can conclude that Alternaria spp. were the most frequent fungi present in pea seeds in Poland and Fusarium spp. were likely the most dangerous, having in mind their established mycotoxigenic abilities.

  17. Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding patterns in macadamia nut in Hawaii: nut maturity and cultivar effects.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Wright, Mark G; Golden, Mary

    2009-08-01

    Nezara viridula L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious pest of macadamia nuts, Macadamia integrifolia, in Hawaii. Using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes, feeding activity was determined for nuts of various maturity levels harvested from the tree and off the ground throughout the growing season in five commercial cultivars. Damage occurred in the tree and on the ground during all nut growth stages. Damage on the ground was often higher than in the tree. Cultivar 246 was more susceptible to attack than cultivars 333 and 800. It was previously thought that cultivar susceptibility was related to husk and shell thickness, but cultivar 246 showed higher damage than other cultivars even during early nut development when the nuts are small and before the shell has formed. This suggests that shell and husk thickness may play a secondary role in susceptibility to feeding by N. viridula. Monitoring N. viridula feeding activity during early nut development may help alert growers to potential problems later in the season, but early-season probing activity in immature nuts was not a good predictor of damage levels in mature nuts later in the season in our study.

  18. Nutrition mediates the expression of cultivar-farmer conflict in a fungus-growing ant.

    PubMed

    Shik, Jonathan Z; Gomez, Ernesto B; Kooij, Pepijn W; Santos, Juan C; Wcislo, William T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2016-09-01

    Attine ants evolved farming 55-60 My before humans. Although evolutionarily derived leafcutter ants achieved industrial-scale farming, extant species from basal attine genera continue to farm loosely domesticated fungal cultivars capable of pursuing independent reproductive interests. We used feeding experiments with the basal attine Mycocepurus smithii to test whether reproductive allocation conflicts between farmers and cultivars constrain crop yield, possibly explaining why their mutualism has remained limited in scale and productivity. Stoichiometric and geometric framework approaches showed that carbohydrate-rich substrates maximize growth of both edible hyphae and inedible mushrooms, but that modest protein provisioning can suppress mushroom formation. Worker foraging was consistent with maximizing long-term cultivar performance: ant farmers could neither increase carbohydrate provisioning without cultivars allocating the excess toward mushroom production, nor increase protein provisioning without compromising somatic cultivar growth. Our results confirm that phylogenetically basal attine farming has been very successful over evolutionary time, but that unresolved host-symbiont conflict may have precluded these wild-type symbioses from rising to ecological dominance. That status was achieved by the evolutionarily derived leafcutter ants following full domestication of a coevolving cultivar 30-35 Mya after the first attine ants committed to farming.

  19. Switchgrass Cultivar/Ecotype Selection and Management for Biofuels in the Upper Southeast USA

    DOE PAGES

    Lemus, Rocky; Parrish, David J.; Wolf, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer andmore » November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended.« less

  20. A Comparison of Flavor Differences between Pecan Cultivars in Raw and Roasted Forms.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Shelby M; Kelly, Brendan; Koppel, Kadri; Reid, William

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this research was to explore sensory differences among 8 different pecan cultivars ("Pawnee," "Witte," "Kanza," "Major," "Lakota," "Giles," "Maramec," "Chetopa") in raw and roasted forms. The cultivars were collected from 2 growing seasons (2013 and 2014) and evaluated separately. Trained panelists evaluated each cultivar from each season in raw and roasted forms, measuring intensities of 20 flavor attributes using descriptive analysis. The intensities of 10 of the 20 flavor attributes were higher for the roasted pecans across all cultivars. These included pecan ID, overall nutty, nutty-woody, nutty-grainlike, nutty-buttery, brown, caramelized, roasted, overall sweet, and sweet. The cultivars exhibited significant differences from one another for 8 attributes: pecan ID, nutty-buttery, caramelized, acrid, woody, oily, astringent, and bitter. Each of the cultivars displayed unique flavor profiles with some demonstrating extremes of certain attributes, for example the high astringency of "Lakota" or the buttery characteristics of "Pawnee." These results may help pecan growers and pecan product manufacturers understand flavor differences between different varieties of pecans, both in raw and roasted states, and the changes that occur during this process. PMID:27061839

  1. Biology and life table parameters of Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cauliflower cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Fatemeh; Abbasipour, Habib; Askarianzadeh, Alireza; Hassanshahi, Golamhossein; Saeedizadeh, Ayatallah

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the biology and fertility life table parameters of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were studied on cauliflower leaves, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), of the cultivars Smilla, Snow mystique, White cloud, Buris, Galiblanka, Snow crown, SG, and Tokita. This study was conducted under controlled conditions: 25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiods. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. Further, the maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Galiblanka and Buris cultivars, respectively. The shortest nymphal instar growth period was observed on the Smilla cultivar (6.70 d), and the longest lifespan was seen on the White cloud (8.10 d). The Smilla cultivar (39%), in an adult emergence stage, and the SG (88%) revealed the lowest and highest rates of survival, respectively. Aphids reared on the Smilla cultivar were found to have increased due to the high intrinsic (r(m)) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the low doubling time (DT). The results indicated that the application of cultivars affecting adult reproductive parameters could be a good solution to cabbage aphid control management.

  2. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Different Cultivars of Sweet Osmanthus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiguang; Fu, Jianxin; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour. has traditionally been a popular ornamental plant in China. In this study, ethanol extracts of the leaves of four cultivar groups of O. fragrans were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results suggest that variation in flavonoids among O. fragrans cultivars is quantitative, rather than qualitative. Fifteen components were detected and separated, among which, the structures of 11 flavonoids and two coumarins were identified or tentatively identified. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the abundance of these components (expressed as rutin equivalents), 22 selected cultivars were classified into four clusters. The seven cultivars from Cluster III ('Xiaoye Sugui', 'Boye Jingui', 'Wuyi Dangui', 'Yingye Dangui', 'Danzhuang', 'Foding Zhu', and 'Tianxiang Taige'), which are enriched in rutin and total flavonoids, and 'Sijigui' from Cluster II which contained the highest amounts of kaempferol glycosides and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, could be selected as potential pharmaceutical resources. However, the chemotaxonomy in this paper does not correlate with the distribution of the existing cultivar groups, demonstrating that the distribution of flavonoids in O. fragrans leaves does not provide an effective means of classification for O. fragrans cultivars based on flower color. PMID:27649119

  3. Switchgrass cultivar/ecotype selection and management for biofuels in the upper southeast USA.

    PubMed

    Lemus, Rocky; Parrish, David J; Wolf, Dale D

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer and November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended. PMID:25105170

  4. Phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of different parts of two sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Simin; Luo, Zisheng; Zhang, Yanbing; Zhong, Zhou; Lu, Baiyi

    2014-05-15

    Antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols of four parts of two sugarcane cultivars have been characterised. The total triterpenoid content (TTC), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total sterol content (TSC) were different among parts and cultivars of sugarcane. The node of both cultivars contained the highest TTC (2096.02 and 1779.66 mg ursolic acid/100g DW for green-rind and red-rind sugarcane, respectively). However, the highest TPC, TFC and TSC were found in the rind. Green-rind sugarcane cultivars contained higher TSC than the red-rind sugarcane cultivars in most parts, while opposite trend were found in TPC and TFC. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were found as two main phytosterols. Furthermore, TPC and TFC revealed good correlations with DPPH and FRAP. As cultivars and parts could affect phytochemical content, present result may provide a theoretical basis for further exploitation of the health beneficial resources of sugarcane.

  5. Functional analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in sugarcane (Saccharum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Upadhyay, S K; Verma, P C; Solomon, S; Singh, S B

    2011-03-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology.

  6. Sclerophylly and leaf anatomical traits of five field-grown olive cultivars growing under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Bacelar, Eunice A; Correia, Carlos M; Moutinho-Pereira, José M; Gonçalves, Berta C; Lopes, João I; Torres-Pereira, José M G

    2004-02-01

    Leaf-level morphological and structural adaptations to reduce water loss were examined in five olive (Olea europaea L.) tree cultivars (Arbequina, Blanqueta, Cobrançosa, Manzanilla and Negrinha) growing under field conditions with low water availability. Leaf measurements included leaf tissue thickness, stomatal density, leaf area, leaf mass per unit area, density of leaf tissue, relative water content, succulence, water saturation deficit, water content at saturation and cuticular transpiration rate. We found considerable genotypic differences among the cultivars. Negrinha, Manzanilla and Cobrançosa had more morphological and structural leaf adaptations to protect against water loss than the other cultivars. Manzanilla and Negrinha enhanced their sclerophylly by building parenchyma tissues and increasing protective structures like the upper cuticle and both the upper and lower epidermis. Cobrançosa exhibited good protection against water loss through high density of foliar tissue and by thick cuticle and trichome layers. Compared with the Negrinha, Manzanilla and Cobrançosa cultivars, Arbequina leaves had a thinner trichome layer, implying that the leaves were less protected against water loss; however, the development of smaller leaves may reduce water loss at the whole-plant level. Among cultivars, Blanqueta had the largest leaves and some anatomical traits that may lead to high water loss, especially from the adaxial surface. The mechanisms employed by the cultivars to cope with summer stress are discussed at the morpho-structural level. PMID:14676039

  7. Switchgrass cultivar/ecotype selection and management for biofuels in the upper southeast USA.

    PubMed

    Lemus, Rocky; Parrish, David J; Wolf, Dale D

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer and November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended.

  8. Nutrition mediates the expression of cultivar-farmer conflict in a fungus-growing ant.

    PubMed

    Shik, Jonathan Z; Gomez, Ernesto B; Kooij, Pepijn W; Santos, Juan C; Wcislo, William T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2016-09-01

    Attine ants evolved farming 55-60 My before humans. Although evolutionarily derived leafcutter ants achieved industrial-scale farming, extant species from basal attine genera continue to farm loosely domesticated fungal cultivars capable of pursuing independent reproductive interests. We used feeding experiments with the basal attine Mycocepurus smithii to test whether reproductive allocation conflicts between farmers and cultivars constrain crop yield, possibly explaining why their mutualism has remained limited in scale and productivity. Stoichiometric and geometric framework approaches showed that carbohydrate-rich substrates maximize growth of both edible hyphae and inedible mushrooms, but that modest protein provisioning can suppress mushroom formation. Worker foraging was consistent with maximizing long-term cultivar performance: ant farmers could neither increase carbohydrate provisioning without cultivars allocating the excess toward mushroom production, nor increase protein provisioning without compromising somatic cultivar growth. Our results confirm that phylogenetically basal attine farming has been very successful over evolutionary time, but that unresolved host-symbiont conflict may have precluded these wild-type symbioses from rising to ecological dominance. That status was achieved by the evolutionarily derived leafcutter ants following full domestication of a coevolving cultivar 30-35 Mya after the first attine ants committed to farming. PMID:27551065

  9. Antifungal activity and phytochemical screening of extracts from Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Boulenouar, Noureddine; Marouf, Abderrazak; Cheriti, Abdelkrim

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the rachis extracts of eight date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars were analysed by phytochemical screening and bioautography on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). The choice of cultivars was based on their reaction to Foa (resistant, tolerant and sensitive). Phytochemical screening was realised for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and coumarins. Antifungal effects were mostly represented by dichloromethanic extracts (seven out of nine inhibition zones). The best results were represented by the dichloromethanic extract of the cultivar 'Bent-Cherk' rachis (6.50 ± 1.41 mm) and the ethyl acetate extract of the cultivar 'Rotbi' rachis (6.00 ± 1.41 mm). The date palm cultivars presented some similarities concerning phytochemical screening results related to their resistance or sensibility to Foa. From the correlation between phytochemical screening and bioautography, it was observed that the majority of bioactive compounds against Foa seem to be polyphenols. Thus, the natural defence mechanism in vivo against Foa is probably related to the action of polyphenols. The difference between resistant, tolerant and sensitive cultivars is related to their mechanism of action. PMID:21834627

  10. Transcriptome analysis in different rice cultivars provides novel insights into desiccation and salinity stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the major environmental factors that affect rice productivity. Comparative transcriptome analysis between tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars can provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in these stress responses. In this study, the comparison of transcriptomes of a drought-tolerant [Nagina 22 (N22)] and a salinity-tolerant (Pokkali) rice cultivar with IR64 (susceptible cultivar) revealed variable transcriptional responses under control and stress conditions. A total of 801 and 507 transcripts were exclusively differentially expressed in N22 and Pokkali rice cultivars, respectively, under stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis suggested the enrichment of transcripts involved in response to abiotic stress and regulation of gene expression in stress-tolerant rice cultivars. A larger number of transcripts encoding for members of NAC and DBP transcription factor (TF) families in N22 and members of bHLH and C2H2 TF families in Pokkali exhibited differential regulation under desiccation and salinity stresses, respectively. Transcripts encoding for thioredoxin and involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were up-regulated in N22, whereas transcripts involved in wax and terpenoid metabolism were up-regulated in Pokkali. Overall, common and cultivar-specific stress-responsive transcripts identified in this study can serve as a helpful resource to explore novel candidate genes for abiotic stress tolerance in rice. PMID:27029818

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions in a faba bean crop: incluence of management practices and cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of two cultivars of faba bean (Muchamiel and Palenca) with two different management practices (conventional and organic) on the direct emissions of N2O and CH4 during the crop cycle and their interaction with soil properties. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. Faba bean crop spanned from 24 November 2014 to 2 March 2015. Gas samples were taken in different times (0, 30 and 60 minutes) once a week using the static gas chamber technique for crop cycle. The results showed that accumulated N2O was higher for both cultivars under conventional management practice with comparison to organic management, with an average increase of 18.27 mg m-2 in Muchamiel cultivar and 8.95 mg m-2 in Palenca cultivar. Accumulated CH4 was higher in Palenca cultivar under conventional management practice, with an average increase of 455.28 mg m-2 over this cultivar under organic management practice. We observed significant negative correlations between N2O emission and β-glucosaminidase activity, and between CH4 and sodium content in soil. In addition, CH4 emission showed a positive correlation with the enzyme activities arylesterase and cellulase. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE- 613781).

  12. A rapid and enhanced DNA detection method for crop cultivar discrimination.

    PubMed

    Monden, Yuki; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Niwa, Kousuke; Kawase, Mitsuo; Akitake, Hiroto; Tahara, Makoto

    2014-09-20

    In many crops species, the development of a rapid and precise cultivar discrimination system has been required for plant breeding and patent protection of plant cultivars and agricultural products. Here, we successfully evaluated strawberry cultivars via a novel method, namely, the single tag hybridization (STH) chromatographic printed array strip (PAS) using the PCR products of eight genomic regions. In a previous study, we showed that genotyping of eight genomic regions derived from FaRE1 retrotransposon insertion site enabled to discriminate 32 strawberry cultivars precisely, however, this method required agarose/acrylamide gel electrophoresis, thus has the difficulty for practical application. In contrast, novel DNA detection method in this study has some great advantages over standard DNA detection methods, including agarose/acrylamide gel electrophoresis, because it produces signals for DNA detection with dramatically higher sensitivity in a shorter time without any preparation or staining of a gel. Moreover, this method enables the visualization of multiplex signals simultaneously in a single reaction using several independent amplification products. We expect that this novel method will become a rapid and convenient cultivar screening assay for practical purposes, and will be widely applied to various situations, including laboratory research, and on-site inspection of plant cultivars and agricultural products. PMID:24954682

  13. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Different Cultivars of Sweet Osmanthus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiguang; Fu, Jianxin; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Hongbo

    2016-09-14

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour. has traditionally been a popular ornamental plant in China. In this study, ethanol extracts of the leaves of four cultivar groups of O. fragrans were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results suggest that variation in flavonoids among O. fragrans cultivars is quantitative, rather than qualitative. Fifteen components were detected and separated, among which, the structures of 11 flavonoids and two coumarins were identified or tentatively identified. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the abundance of these components (expressed as rutin equivalents), 22 selected cultivars were classified into four clusters. The seven cultivars from Cluster III ('Xiaoye Sugui', 'Boye Jingui', 'Wuyi Dangui', 'Yingye Dangui', 'Danzhuang', 'Foding Zhu', and 'Tianxiang Taige'), which are enriched in rutin and total flavonoids, and 'Sijigui' from Cluster II which contained the highest amounts of kaempferol glycosides and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, could be selected as potential pharmaceutical resources. However, the chemotaxonomy in this paper does not correlate with the distribution of the existing cultivar groups, demonstrating that the distribution of flavonoids in O. fragrans leaves does not provide an effective means of classification for O. fragrans cultivars based on flower color.

  14. Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding patterns in macadamia nut in Hawaii: nut maturity and cultivar effects.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Wright, Mark G; Golden, Mary

    2009-08-01

    Nezara viridula L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious pest of macadamia nuts, Macadamia integrifolia, in Hawaii. Using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes, feeding activity was determined for nuts of various maturity levels harvested from the tree and off the ground throughout the growing season in five commercial cultivars. Damage occurred in the tree and on the ground during all nut growth stages. Damage on the ground was often higher than in the tree. Cultivar 246 was more susceptible to attack than cultivars 333 and 800. It was previously thought that cultivar susceptibility was related to husk and shell thickness, but cultivar 246 showed higher damage than other cultivars even during early nut development when the nuts are small and before the shell has formed. This suggests that shell and husk thickness may play a secondary role in susceptibility to feeding by N. viridula. Monitoring N. viridula feeding activity during early nut development may help alert growers to potential problems later in the season, but early-season probing activity in immature nuts was not a good predictor of damage levels in mature nuts later in the season in our study. PMID:19689896

  15. A new strategy for complete identification of sea buckthorn cultivars by using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Ding, J; Wu, L R; Duan, Y D; Li, A Y; Shan, J Y; Wu, Y X

    2015-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting is both a popular and important technique with several advantages in plant cultivar identification. However, this technique has not been used widely and efficiently in practical plant identification because the analysis and recording of data generated from fingerprinting and genotyping are tedious and difficult. We developed a novel approach known as a cultivar identification diagram (CID) strategy that uses DNA markers to separate plant individuals in a more efficient, practical, and referable manner. A CID was manually constructed and a polymorphic marker was generated from each polymerase chain reaction for sample separation. In this study, 67 important sea buckthorn cultivars cultivated in China were successfully separated with random amplified polymorphic DNA markers using the CID analysis strategy, with only seven 11-nucleotide primers employed. The utilization of the CID of these 67 sea buckthorn cultivars was verified by identifying 2 randomly chosen groups of cultivars among the 67 cultivars. The main advantages of this identification strategy include fewer primers used and separation of all cultivars using the corresponding primers. This sea buckthorn CID was able to separate any sea buckthorn cultivars among the 67 studied, which is useful for sea buckthorn cultivar identification, cultivar-right-protection, and for the sea buckthorn nursery industry in China. PMID:25867329

  16. Absorption of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, M. C. V.; Gomez, R.; Arriaga, R. M.

    2003-05-01

    (4) The cadmium is highly toxic and for all biota in very small concentrations, these study was to know the limit of phitotoxicity and nutrition of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa, and to measure absorption of cadmium in roots, stem, leaves and grain. The experiment was carried out in plots with bean of the black variety Jamapa, in greenhouse, 6 treatments in the water of irrigation with 0, 25, 50, 100 y 200 micromoles of cadmium, to quantification of cadmium in plant, is carried out with ICP previous acid digest(I) method D4638-86 of ASTM 1990. Was carried out analysis of variation and results indicate that, there were been significant for the variables : number of leaves, foliate area, dry weight from root, height of plant; the threshold of toxicity for the plant in the condition that it was carried out the experiment were 100 200micromoles of cadmium applied in water of irrigation weekly, the visual symptom were: yellow of leaves, morphologic changes in leaves showed leaves bi-foliate and tetra-foliate in treatments upper of 100micromoles of cadmium.

  17. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    PubMed

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5′-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community.

  18. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications.

  19. Differential cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in sixteen tobacco cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, B.B.; Brennan, E. )

    1989-10-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of plant genotype on cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in tobacco. When low levels of CdCl{sub 2} were added to the nutrient solution of 16 tobacco cultivars growing in sand culture, the heavy metal was partitioned in the following order: leaves > roots > stems. Because leaves are the commercial product, this pattern of partitioning is highly undersirable. The concentration of Cd accumulated in the tissues varied with plant genotype and level of Cd treatment. At the 0.25 ppm Cd treatment, a maximum of 127.6 ppm Cd was found in foliage of the Coker-48 variety, and at the 1.0 ppm Cd treatment, a maximum of 382.6 ppm Cd was detected in the foliage of NC-232. None of the Cd-treated tobacco plants exhibited visual foliar symptoms commonly observed in other plant species. A concentration of 0.25 ppm Cd stimulated shoot height, internode length and leaf number but inhibited total dry weight and percent dry weight. Cd phytotoxicity was found to vary with plant genotype and level of Cd treatment but not with the amount of Cd accumulated by the plant.

  20. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. PMID:27180297

  1. Effect of rice cultivars on root-associated methanotrophic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüke, C.; Frenzel, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rice agriculture represents a major source of the greenhouse gas methane. However, a large amount of methane is oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria before being released to the atmosphere. Methanotrophs are characterized by their unique ability to use methane as sole source for carbon and energy. They are located at oxic-anoxic interfaces where methane and oxygen are present, such as the rhizosphere. Although they have been studied extensively in the past, only little is known about natural or anthropogenic factors influencing their large diversity. In this study, we investigated the effect of 20 different rice cultivars on methanotrophic communities associated with the roots of rice plants. The pmoA gene encoding a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase (catalyzing the first step of methane oxidation) was used as a functional and phylogenetic marker and analyzed using two different fingerprinting methods. The well established terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was compared to results obtained using a diagnostic pmoA microarray. Both methods indicated that type Ib (Methylococcus/Methylocaldum) and type II (Methylosinus/Methylocystis) were the predominat methanotrophs located on rice roots. Interestingly, analysis of pmoA transcripts suggested Methylobacter/Methylomonas (type Ia) to present the actively methane oxidizing population in this environment.

  2. Physiological responses of two soybean cultivars to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Marchiol, L.; Leita, L.; Martin, M.; Peressotti, A.

    1996-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities are increasing cadmium (Cd) concentrations in soils. Cadmium can be absorbed by plant roots and modify the physiology of the plant. Carbon exchange rate (CER) and leaf of two soybean (Glycine max [L.]Merr.) cultivars (Illini insensitive and Richland sensitive) for 6 consecutive days; Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} was added to the hydroponic solution to achieve a final concentration of 50 {mu}mol. At the end of the experiment, stomata length and width, mesophyll limitation to photosynthesis, root hydraulic conductance, relative water content (RWC), and Cd concentration in leaves, stems, and roots were measured on treated and control plants. Cadmium progressively reduced CER and g{sub s} to about 50% after 6 d of treatment. This was more evident in Richland than in Illini and was not linked with leaf RWC and mesophyll limitation to photosynthesis. After 6 d, the apparent root hydraulic water conductivity was 67% lower in the Cd-treated plants than in controls. The primary mechanism affected by Cd-induced stress in soybean is root water uptake, and this reduction is consistent with the decrease in stomatal opening and conductance, and therefore, in photosynthesis. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Interspecific hybridization among cultivars of hardy Hibiscus species section Muenchhusia.

    PubMed

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik; Christensen, Brian; Müller, Renate

    2016-03-01

    Rose mallows belong to the Muenchhusia section of the Hibiscus genus. They represent a small group of cold tolerant North American plants and are popular ornamentals mainly because of their abundant, large and colorful flowers. Due to their geographical origin they are well suited for garden use in temperate regions worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate hybridization barriers in crosses among cultivars of Hibiscus species from the Muenchhusia section: H. coccineus, H. laevis and H. moscheutos. Crossing barriers were identified as both pre- and post-zygotic. The analysis of pollen tube growth revealed inhibition of pollen tubes and their abnormal growth. In specific crosses the fertilization success was low. The pre-fertilization barriers did not cause a complete reproductive isolation between the hybridization partners. In relation to post-fertilization barriers, the occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities such as unviability, chlorosis, necrosis, stunted growth and albinism were the main drawback in production of hybrids. The appearance of symptoms of hybrid incompatibilities was dependent upon specific parental plants. The obtained progeny had intermediate leaf morphology and flower morphology compared to parental plants. Hybridity state was verified by morphological analysis and RAPD markers. Based on the overall plant morphology, 472 hybrid progenies were obtained. PMID:27162501

  4. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    PubMed

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5′-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community. PMID:22133378

  5. Interspecific hybridization among cultivars of hardy Hibiscus species section Muenchhusia

    PubMed Central

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik; Christensen, Brian; Müller, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Rose mallows belong to the Muenchhusia section of the Hibiscus genus. They represent a small group of cold tolerant North American plants and are popular ornamentals mainly because of their abundant, large and colorful flowers. Due to their geographical origin they are well suited for garden use in temperate regions worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate hybridization barriers in crosses among cultivars of Hibiscus species from the Muenchhusia section: H. coccineus, H. laevis and H. moscheutos. Crossing barriers were identified as both pre- and post-zygotic. The analysis of pollen tube growth revealed inhibition of pollen tubes and their abnormal growth. In specific crosses the fertilization success was low. The pre-fertilization barriers did not cause a complete reproductive isolation between the hybridization partners. In relation to post-fertilization barriers, the occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities such as unviability, chlorosis, necrosis, stunted growth and albinism were the main drawback in production of hybrids. The appearance of symptoms of hybrid incompatibilities was dependent upon specific parental plants. The obtained progeny had intermediate leaf morphology and flower morphology compared to parental plants. Hybridity state was verified by morphological analysis and RAPD markers. Based on the overall plant morphology, 472 hybrid progenies were obtained. PMID:27162501

  6. Characteristics of grape seed and oil from nine Turkish cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Unver, Ahmet; Gümüş, Tuncay; Akın, Aydın

    2012-11-01

    Percentages of crude oil, protein, fibre and ash of grape seeds obtained from Turkish cultivars were of the ranges 5.40-10.79, 5.24-7.54, 17.6-27.1, and 1.2-2.6, respectively. The highest crude oil, crude protein and crude fibre were determined in Siyah pekmezlik, Karadimrit and Antep grape seeds. The energy values of seeds were established to be between 102.28 and 148.07 kcal g(-1). Potassium and calcium contents of seed samples were found to be at high levels compared to sodium. The seeds contained 686-967 ppm of Na, 2468-3618 ppm of K and 2373-4127 ppm of Ca. The refractive index, relative density, acidity, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and iodine value of seed oils were determined to be in the ranges 1.474-1.477 [Formula: see text], 0.909-0.934 25/25°C, 0.74-1.24%, 181-197, 0.91-1.66%, and 126-135, respectively. The main fatty acids were of the ranges 60.7-68.5% linoleic, 16.1-23.4% oleic and 8.0-10.2% palmitic. The highest percentages of linoleic acid (68.5%) was determined in Siyah pekmezlik seed oil. PMID:22132714

  7. Inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Penrose, B; Johnson Née Payne, K A; Arkhipov, A; Maksimenko, A; Gaschak, S; Meacham, M C; Crout, N J M; White, P J; Beresford, N A; Broadley, M R

    2016-05-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium enter the human food chain primarily via soil-plant transfer. However, uptake of these radionuclides can differ significantly within species (between cultivars). The aim of this study was to assess inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in a leafy crop species, Brassica oleracea. This study comprised four independent experiments: two pot experiments in a controlled environment artificially contaminated with radiocaesium, and two field experiments in an area contaminated with radiocaesium and radiostrontium in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Radiocaesium concentration ratios varied 35-fold among 27 cultivars grown in pots in a controlled environment. These 27 cultivars were then grown with a further 44 and 43 other cultivars in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the field-grown cultivars radiocaesium concentration ratios varied by up to 35-fold and radiostrontium concentration ratios varied by up to 23-fold. In three of these experiments (one pot experiment, two field experiments) one out of the 27 cultivars was found to have a consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratio than the other cultivars. The two field experiments showed that, five out of the 66 cultivars common to both experiments had consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratios, and two cultivars had consistently lower radiostrontium concentration ratios. One cultivar had consistently lower radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentration ratios. The identification of cultivars that have consistently lower radiocaesium and/or radiostrontium concentration ratios suggests that cultivar selection or substitution may be an effective remediation strategy in radiologically contaminated areas. Future research should focus on plant species that are known to be the largest contributors to human dose. PMID:26945429

  8. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Myers, Clayton T.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars. PMID:26617629

  9. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  10. Robust features of future climate change impacts on sorghum yields in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, B.; Guan, K.; Kouressy, M.; Biasutti, M.; Piani, C.; Hammer, G. L.; McLean, G.; Lobell, D. B.

    2014-10-01

    West Africa is highly vulnerable to climate hazards and better quantification and understanding of the impact of climate change on crop yields are urgently needed. Here we provide an assessment of near-term climate change impacts on sorghum yields in West Africa and account for uncertainties both in future climate scenarios and in crop models. Towards this goal, we use simulations of nine bias-corrected CMIP5 climate models and two crop models (SARRA-H and APSIM) to evaluate the robustness of projected crop yield impacts in this area. In broad agreement with the full CMIP5 ensemble, our subset of bias-corrected climate models projects a mean warming of +2.8 °C in the decades of 2031-2060 compared to a baseline of 1961-1990 and a robust change in rainfall in West Africa with less rain in the Western part of the Sahel (Senegal, South-West Mali) and more rain in Central Sahel (Burkina Faso, South-West Niger). Projected rainfall deficits are concentrated in early monsoon season in the Western part of the Sahel while positive rainfall changes are found in late monsoon season all over the Sahel, suggesting a shift in the seasonality of the monsoon. In response to such climate change, but without accounting for direct crop responses to CO2, mean crop yield decreases by about 16-20% and year-to-year variability increases in the Western part of the Sahel, while the eastern domain sees much milder impacts. Such differences in climate and impacts projections between the Western and Eastern parts of the Sahel are highly consistent across the climate and crop models used in this study. We investigate the robustness of impacts for different choices of cultivars, nutrient treatments, and crop responses to CO2. Adverse impacts on mean yield and yield variability are lowest for modern cultivars, as their short and nearly fixed growth cycle appears to be more resilient to the seasonality shift of the monsoon, thus suggesting shorter season varieties could be considered a potential

  11. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  12. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  13. New initiatives against Africa's worms.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Since 1999, the funding available for the control of diseases of poverty (neglected diseases) has increased mainly due to leverage resulting from donations by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and loans from the World Bank. Many countries have embarked on control programmes on a national scale due to drug donations by pharmaceutical companies through vertical programmes. The Schistosomiasis Control Initiative has expanded its operations to cover six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, but overlap of treatments between different vertical programmes is now a reality, and so care is needed to ensure that too many different drugs are not given together. Dialogue between programme managers has increased, and integration of some programmes may offer chances of synergy.

  14. Retinitis pigmentosa in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J; Bartmann, L; Ramesar, R; Beighton, P

    1993-11-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal disorders which are a common cause of genetic blindness. The relative frequencies of the different forms of RP in South Africa, as determined from the register at the DNA banking centre for RP at the Department of Human Genetics, University of Cape Town, are presented and discussed. Of the 125 families analysed, 29 (23%) showed autosomal dominant, 33 (27%) autosomal recessive and 3 (3%) X-linked inheritance. In 10 families the pedigree data were insufficient to allow accurate genetic subtyping and a further 50 patients were sporadic without a family history of RP or other syndromic features which would allow categorization. PMID:8313621

  15. Missionary Education in Colonial Africa: The Critique of Mary Kingsley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Discussing missionary education in colonial Africa, Pearce examines the ideas of Mary Kingsley, one of the major influences on British thinking towards Africa from the late 1890's. Focusing attention on her educational views, Pearce states that she had influence on all areas of British policy in Africa, and especially West Africa. (GEA)

  16. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  17. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  18. From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees--management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species). Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified 'high' and 'low' conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86%) high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners) develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and protected species in

  19. Africa's natural gas: potentialities and letdowns

    SciTech Connect

    Baladian, K.

    1983-11-01

    Although Africa has experienced 10 times less hydrocarbon exploration than Western Europe, its proved gas reserves already amount to 220-223 trillion CF or 7% of world reserves, while Europe holds 6% or 167 TCF. Yet Africa marketed only 1.3 TCF in 1982 against Europe's 6.5 TCF. Because of the lack of domestic demand for gas, Africa flares up to 21% of its gas output. Algeria is the continent's primary gas consumer, with Egypt, Libya, and Nigeria trying to expand local gas markets. The vast majority of marketed African gas goes to Europe, either as gas sent through the Trans-Med pipeline or as LNG via tanker.

  20. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Ji, Wei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Han, Meikun; Xu, Xuexin; Wang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%–6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%–34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%–28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition. PMID:27362563

  1. Chromium-induced physio-chemical and ultrastructural changes in four cultivars of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Gill, Rafaqat A; Zang, Lili; Ali, Basharat; Farooq, Muhammad A; Cui, Peng; Yang, Su; Ali, Shafaqat; Zhou, Weijun

    2015-02-01

    In nature, plants are continuously exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Among these stresses, chromium (Cr) stress is one of the most adverse factors that affects the plant growth, and productivity, and imposes a severe threat for sustainable crop production. In the present study, toxic effects of Cr were studied in hydroponically grown seedlings of four different cultivars of Brassica napus L. viz. ZS 758, Zheda 619, ZY 50 and Zheda 622. The study revealed that elevated Cr concentrations reduced the plant growth rate and biomass as compared to respective controls in all the cultivars and this decline was more obvious in Zheda 622. It was observed that reduction of photosynthetic attributes was more pronounced in Zheda 622 as compared to other cultivars; while, cultivar ZS 758 performed better under Cr-toxicity. Results showed that Cr contents in different parts of seedlings were higher in Zheda 622 as compared to other cultivars and Cr contents were higher in roots than shoots in all the cultivars. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were induced under different Cr concentrations. Results showed that some of anti-oxidant enzyme activities in leaves and roots were increased under the Cr-toxicity. The electron microscopic study showed that ultrastructural damages in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells were more prominent in Zheda 622 as compared to other cultivars under 400 μM Cr stress. Under 400 μM Cr concentration, changes like broken cell wall, immature nucleus, a number of mitochondria, ruptured thylakoid membranes and large size of vacuole and starch grains were observed in leaf ultrastructures. The damages in root cells were observed in the form of disruption of golgibodies and diffused cell wall under the higher concentration of Cr (400 μM). On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that Zheda 622 was found to be more sensitive as followed by ZY 50, Zheda 619 and ZS 758 under Cr-toxicity.

  2. The assessment of the rice cultivars/lines resistance to blast disease in Mazandaran province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Amanzadeh, M; Okhovvat, S M; Moumeni, A; Javan-Nikkhah, M; Khosravi, V

    2004-01-01

    Blast, caused by Magnaporthe grisea, is one of the most important diseases in rice production regions of the world including Iran. To determine progress of rice blast disease on the selective cultivars and lines also to assay some components of partial resistance, a set of Iranian rice cultivars (Local and breeding) along with near-isogenic lines (NILs) and breeding lines from International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) were tested with some field races of the fungus in blast nursery and five of selective races in greenhouse. These experiments were conducted in a Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications (except greenhouse experiment on the leaves). Traits in this study consisted of Infection Neck Number (INN), Neck Lesion Size (NLS), Infection Type (IT), percent Diseased Leaf Area (DLA) and Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC); also IT, Sporulation Lesion Number (SLN), Sporulating Region Diameter (SRD) and percent DLA were measured in leaf blast in greenhouse (one replication). The Iranian local cultivars and NILs i.e. Co-39 and C104-PKT located as susceptible group for AUDPC, IT, INN and NLS. Iranian breeding cultivars, breeding lines from IRRI and NILs (except Co-39 and C104-PKT) were resistant or indicated hypersensivity reaction (HR). Some cultivars (Fujiminori, Onda, and Hassan Saraii) were semi susceptible to leaf blast in nursery. The main point is correlation in 1% (a = 0.0001) between the traits in greenhouse and blast nursery. Neck node infection of Haraz cultivar in greenhouse experiment to IA-89 race is very important, because Haraz is a resistant cultivar to blast disease in Iran. PMID:15756856

  3. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Baskar, Thanislas Bastin; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-28

    A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g), phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g). Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), Pearson's correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87%) at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%), followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might provide

  4. Morphological and molecular identification to secure cultivar maintenance and management of self-sterile Rubus arcticus

    PubMed Central

    Kostamo, K.; Toljamo, A.; Antonius, K.; Kokko, H.; Kärenlampi, S. O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Preservation of cultivar purity creates a particular challenge for plants that are self-incompatible, require insects for cross-pollination, and have easily germinating seeds and vigorously spreading rhizomes. As the fields must be planted with mixed populations, and a balance must be maintained between the cultivars to achieve effective pollination, methods for field monitoring of the relative density of different cultivars must be practical. Furthermore, a DNA-based method is needed for cultivar verification in the collections and outside of the growing season. The aim of this study was to develop both types of methods for Rubus arcticus (arctic bramble). Methods Morphological parameters were measured from six cultivars grown on three farms. Observations from the flowers and fruits included: petal and sepal number, flower diameter, arrangement of petals, size of calyx in relation to corolla, fruit weight, yield and soluble sugars. Observations from the leaves included: width and height of middle leaflet, shape of the base of terminal leaflet, shape of terminal leaflet, leaf margin serration and fingertip touch. The applicability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite DNA markers developed for red raspberry was tested on eight arctic bramble cultivars. Key Results and Conclusions Morphological and molecular identification methods were developed for R. arcticus. The best morphological characteristics were the length-to-width ratio of the middle leaflet and leaf margin serration. A particular characteristic, fingertip touch, was shown by electron microscopy to be related to the density and quality of the leaf hairs. Red raspberry SSR marker no. 126 proved to be applicable for differentiation of the eight arctic bramble cultivars tested. These identification methods are critical to secure the maintenance and management of R. arcticus. However, the challenges faced and approaches taken are equally applicable to other species with similar

  5. Constraints to hydraulic acclimation under reduced light in two contrasting Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Steven L; Rettedal, David D; Harmon, Derek A; Beukelman, MacKenzie R

    2014-08-01

    Two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were grown under three light levels to determine if hydraulic acclimation to light occurs in herbaceous annuals and whether intraspecific trade-offs constrain hydraulic traits. Acclimation occurred in response to reduced light and included decreased stomatal density (SD) and increased specific leaf area (SLA). Reduced light resulted in lower wood density (WD); decreased cavitation resistance, measured as the xylem pressure causing a 50 % reduction in stem conductivity (P50); and increased hydraulic capacity, measured as average leaf mass specific transpiration (E(LM)). Significant or marginally significant trade-offs between P50 and WD, WD and E(LM), and E(LM) and P50 reflected variation due to both genotype and environmental effects. A trade-off between WD and P50 within one cultivar indicated that morphological adjustment was constrained. Coordinated changes in WD, P50, and E(LM) within each cultivar in response to light were consistent with trade-offs constraining plasticity. A water-use efficiency (WUE, measured as δ(13)C) versus hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) trade-off was observed within each cultivar, further indicating that hydraulic trade-offs can constrain acclimation. Larger plants had lower hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) but greater cavitation resistance, WD, and WUE. Distinct hydraulic strategies were observed with the cultivar adapted to irrigated conditions having higher stomatal conductance and stem flow rates. The cultivar adapted to rain-fed conditions had higher leaf area and greater cavitation resistance. Hydraulic trade-offs were observed within the herbaceous P. vulgaris resulting from both genotype and environmental effects. Trade-offs within a cultivar reflected constraints to hydraulic acclimation in response to changing light.

  6. Effects of switchgrass cultivars and intraspecific differences in root structure on soil carbon inputs and accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, Jaron; Jastrow, Julie D.; Morris, Geoffrey P.; Six, Johan; de Graaff, Marie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), a cellulosic biofuel feedstock, may promote soil C 21 accumulation compared to annual cropping systems by increasing the amount and retention of 22 root-derived soil C inputs. The aim of this study was to assess how different switchgrass 23 cultivars impact soil C inputs and retention, whether these impacts vary with depth, and whether 24 specific root length (SRL) explains these impacts. We collected soil to a depth of 30 cm from six 25 switchgrass cultivars with root systems ranging from high to low SRL. The cultivars (C4 species) 26 were grown for 27 months on soils previously dominated by C3 plants, allowing us to use the 27 natural difference in 13C isotopic signatures between C3 soils and C4 plants to quantify 28 switchgrass-derived C accumulation. The soil was fractionated into coarse particulate organic 29 matter (CPOM), fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. We 30 measured total C and plant-derived C in all soil fractions across all depths. The study led to two main results: (1) bulk soil C concentrations beneath switchgrass cultivars varied by 40% in the 0-32 10 cm soil depth and by 70% in the 10-20 cm soil depth, and cultivars with high bulk soil C 33 concentrations tended to have relatively high C concentrations in the mineral soil fractions and 34 relatively low C concentrations in the POM fractions; (2) there were significant differences in 35 switchgrass-derived soil C between cultivars at the 0-10 cm depth, where soil C inputs ranged 36 from 1.2 to 3.2 mg C g-1 dry soil. There was also evidence of a positive correlation between SRL 37 and switchgrass-derived C inputs when one outlier data point was removed. These results 38 indicate that switchgrass cultivars differentially impact mechanisms contributing to soil C accumulation.

  7. Metabolic variations in different citrus rootstock cultivars associated with different responses to Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Ute; Fiehn, Oliver; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-10-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases of citrus. No resistant cultivars have been identified, although tolerance has been observed in the genus Poncirus and some of its hybrids with Citrus that are commonly used as rootstocks. In this study we exploited this tolerance by comparing five different tolerant hybrids with a cultivar that shows pronounced HLB sensitivity to discern potential contributing metabolic factors. Whole leaves of infected and non-infected greenhouse-grown seedlings were extracted and subjected to untargeted GC-TOF MS based metabolomics. After BinBase data filtering, 342 (experiment 1) and 650 (experiment 2) unique metabolites were quantified, of which 122 and 195, respectively, were assigned by chemical structures. The number of metabolites found to be differently regulated in the infected state compared with the non-infected state varied between the cultivars and was largest (166) in the susceptible cultivar Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and lowest (3) in the tolerant cultivars US-897 (C. reticulata 'Cleopatra' × Poncirus trifoliata) and US-942 (C. reticulata 'Sunki' × P. trifoliata) from experiment 2. Tolerance to HLB did not appear to be associated with accumulation of higher amounts of protective metabolites in response to infection. Many metabolites were found in higher concentrations in the tolerant cultivars compared with susceptible Cleopatra mandarin and may play important roles in conferring tolerance to HLB. Lower availability of specific sugars necessary for survival of the pathogen may also be a contributing factor in the decreased disease severity observed for these cultivars.

  8. Comparative qualitative and quantitative determination of alkaloids in narcotic and condiment Papaver somniferum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Frick, Susanne; Kramell, Robert; Schmidt, Jürgen; Fist, Anthony J; Kutchan, Toni M

    2005-05-01

    In the present study morphinan, tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and phthalideisoquinoline alkaloids were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC and LC-MS analysis in tissues of the Tasmanian Papaver somniferum L. elite cultivar C048-6-14-64. The data were compared with the results from the low-morphine cultivar "Marianne". In the elite cultivar, 91.2% of the latex alkaloids consist of the three pharmaceutically most valuable alkaloids: morphine, codeine, and thebaine. In the root system, the major alkaloids are sanguinarine/10-hydroxysanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine/10-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine. In the stems and leaves of C048-6-14-64, the same alkaloids were measured as in the latex. In the stems, a gradient in relative total alkaloid content from the top downward toward the roots was observed. The concentration of morphine was decreasing toward the roots, whereas an increasing gradient from the upper to the lower stem parts was detected for codeine. The relative total alkaloid concentration in leaves remained constant; no gradient was observed. The cultivar "Marianne" displayed a shifted pattern of alkaloid accumulation and reduced levels of total alkaloid. In the condiment cultivar, 80.5% of the alkaloids of the latex consisted of the two phthalideisoquinoline alkaloids narcotoline and noscapine. Only 18.8% of the relative total alkaloid content were morphinan alkaloids. In contrast to the narcotic cultivar, in which the benzo[c]phenanthridines in roots dominated over the morphinan and tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, the concentration of benzo[c]phenanthridines in "Marianne" was similar to that of morphinan and tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids. These data suggest a differential alkaloid regulation in each cultivar of P. somniferum.

  9. Water management affects arsenic and cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Huang, Jiexue; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Song, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Zhou, Liqiang; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food and one of the major sources of dietary arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Asia. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of four water management regimes (aerobic, intermittent irrigation, conventional irrigation and flooding) on As and Cd accumulation in seven major rice cultivars grown in Zhejiang province, east China. With increasing irrigation from aerobic to flooded conditions, the soil HCl-extractable As concentrations increased significantly and the HCl-extractable Cd concentrations decreased significantly. These trends were consistent with the As and Cd concentrations in the straw, husk and brown rice. Water management both before and after the full tillering stage affected As and Cd accumulation in the grains. The intermittent and conventional treatments produced higher grain yields than the aerobic and flooded treatments. Cd concentrations in brown rice varied 13.1-40.8 times and As varied 1.75-8.80 times among the four water management regimes. Cd and As accumulation in brown rice varied among the rice cultivars, with Guodao 6 (GD6) was a low Cd but high-As-accumulating cultivar while Indonesia (IR) and Yongyou 9 (YY9) were low As but high-Cd-accumulating cultivars. Brown rice Cd and As concentrations in the 7 cultivars were significantly negatively correlated. The results indicate that As and Cd accumulated in rice grains with opposite trends that were influenced by both water management and rice cultivar. Production of 'safe' rice with respect to As and Cd might be possible by balancing water management and rice cultivar according to the severity of soil pollution. PMID:23719663

  10. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat.) Flower.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Yong Joo; Chung, Sun Ok; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g) and cyanidin 3-(3"-malonoyl) glucoside (C3mg) and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar "Magic" showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar "Il Weol". The cultivar "Anastasia" contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar "Anastasia" and "Il Weol". Our results suggested that 'Magic", "Angel" and "Relance' had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas "Il Weol', "Popcorn Ball' and "Anastasia" produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, "Green Pang Pang", which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. "Kastelli", had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal's colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries. PMID:26083041

  11. Metabolic variations in different citrus rootstock cultivars associated with different responses to Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Ute; Fiehn, Oliver; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-10-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases of citrus. No resistant cultivars have been identified, although tolerance has been observed in the genus Poncirus and some of its hybrids with Citrus that are commonly used as rootstocks. In this study we exploited this tolerance by comparing five different tolerant hybrids with a cultivar that shows pronounced HLB sensitivity to discern potential contributing metabolic factors. Whole leaves of infected and non-infected greenhouse-grown seedlings were extracted and subjected to untargeted GC-TOF MS based metabolomics. After BinBase data filtering, 342 (experiment 1) and 650 (experiment 2) unique metabolites were quantified, of which 122 and 195, respectively, were assigned by chemical structures. The number of metabolites found to be differently regulated in the infected state compared with the non-infected state varied between the cultivars and was largest (166) in the susceptible cultivar Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and lowest (3) in the tolerant cultivars US-897 (C. reticulata 'Cleopatra' × Poncirus trifoliata) and US-942 (C. reticulata 'Sunki' × P. trifoliata) from experiment 2. Tolerance to HLB did not appear to be associated with accumulation of higher amounts of protective metabolites in response to infection. Many metabolites were found in higher concentrations in the tolerant cultivars compared with susceptible Cleopatra mandarin and may play important roles in conferring tolerance to HLB. Lower availability of specific sugars necessary for survival of the pathogen may also be a contributing factor in the decreased disease severity observed for these cultivars. PMID:27236226

  12. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat.) Flower.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Yong Joo; Chung, Sun Ok; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2015-06-15

    The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g) and cyanidin 3-(3"-malonoyl) glucoside (C3mg) and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar "Magic" showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar "Il Weol". The cultivar "Anastasia" contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar "Anastasia" and "Il Weol". Our results suggested that 'Magic", "Angel" and "Relance' had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas "Il Weol', "Popcorn Ball' and "Anastasia" produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, "Green Pang Pang", which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. "Kastelli", had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal's colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries.

  13. Glycoalkaloid and calystegine contents of eight potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Roitman, James N; Kozukue, Nobuyuki

    2003-05-01

    Diverse procedures have been reported for the separation and analysis by HPLC of the two major glycoalkaloids present in potatoes, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine. To further improve the usefulness of the HPLC method, studies were carried out on the influence of several salient parameters on the analysis of the two potato glycoalkaloids. Effects on retention (elution, separation) times of the (a) composition and pH of the mobile phase (acetonitrile and phosphate buffer), (b) concentration of the phosphate buffer, (c) capacity values of column packing of four commercial HPLC amino columns, (d) column temperature were studied. Except for pH, all of the variables significantly influenced the retention times. The results make it possible to select analysis conditions that produce well-separated as well as symmetrical peaks of the two glycoalkaloids. This improved HPLC method (limit of detection of approximately 150 ng) was evaluated with extracts from the cortex of one whole potato variety (May Queen) grown in Japan and the freeze-dried peel and flesh from the following eight cultivars grown in the United States: Atlantic, Dark Red Norland, Ranger Russet, Red Lasoda, Russet Burbank, Russet Norkota, Shepody, and Snowden. In addition, the same samples were analyzed by GC-MS for the presence of two water-soluble nortropane alkaloids, calystegine A(3) and calystegine B(2), reported to be potent glycosidase inhibitors. The following ranges for the eight varieties of total glycoalkaloid and calystegine levels were observed: dry flesh, 5-592 and 6-316 mg/kg; dry peel, 84-2226 and 218-2581 mg/kg; dry whole potatoes, 40-883 and 34-326 mg/kg; wet flesh, 1-148 and 1-68 mg/kg; wet peel, 12-429 and 35-467 mg/kg; wet whole potatoes, 7-187 and 5-68 mg/kg. The possible significance of the results to plant and food sciences is discussed.

  14. Effects of flavonol-rich green tea cultivar (Camellia sinensis L.) on plasma oxidized LDL levels in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Sachiko; Monobe, Manami; Ema, Kaori; Matsunaga, Akiko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Horie, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    To examine the possible benefits of tea flavonols, we compared anti-atherogenic effects between common and flavonol-rich tea cultivars. The tea infusion made from a flavonol-rich cultivar, but not a common cultivar, significantly decreased the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein level in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. The result suggests that tea flavonols have the potential to protect against cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Effects of flavonol-rich green tea cultivar (Camellia sinensis L.) on plasma oxidized LDL levels in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Sachiko; Monobe, Manami; Ema, Kaori; Matsunaga, Akiko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Horie, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    To examine the possible benefits of tea flavonols, we compared anti-atherogenic effects between common and flavonol-rich tea cultivars. The tea infusion made from a flavonol-rich cultivar, but not a common cultivar, significantly decreased the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein level in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. The result suggests that tea flavonols have the potential to protect against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26364623

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of the major peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars grown in China by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoping; Jiang, Huifang; Yan, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Lei, Yong; Huang, Jiaquan; Yan, Liying; Qi, Yue; Wei, Wenhui; Liao, Boshou

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 196 peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) cultivars which had been extensively planted in different regions in China. These SSR markers amplified 440 polymorphic bands with an average of 2.99, and the average gene diversity index was 0.11. Eighty-six rare alleles with a frequency of less than 1% were identified in these cultivars. The largest Fst or genetic distance was found between the cultivars that adapted to the south regions and those to the north regions in China. A neighbor-joining tree of cultivars adapted to different ecological regions was constructed based on pairwise Nei's genetic distances, which showed a significant difference between cultivars from the south and the north regions. A model-based population structure analysis divided these peanut cultivars into five subpopulations (P1a, P1b, P2, P3a and P3b). P1a and P1b included most the cultivars from the southern provinces including Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian. P2 population consisted of the cultivars from Hubei province and parts from Shandong and Henan. P3a and P3b had cultivars from the northern provinces including Shandong, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu and the Yangtze River region including Sichuan province. The cluster analysis, PCoA and PCA based on the marker genotypes, revealed five distinct clusters for the entire population that were related to their germplasm regions. The results indicated that there were obvious genetic variations between cultivars from the south and the north, and there were distinct genetic differentiation among individual cultivars from the south and the north. Taken together, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of Chinese peanut cultivars.

  17. Characterization of cultivar differences in beta-1,3 glucanase gene expression, glucanase activity and fruit pulp softening rates during fruit ripening in three naturally occurring banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2009-11-01

    beta-1,3 glucanase (E.C.3.2.1.39) is the key enzyme involved in the hydrolytic cleavage of 1,3 beta-D glucosidic linkages in beta-1,3 glucans. This work describes a comparative analysis of expression patterns of beta-1,3 glucanase gene in relation to changes in fruit pulp softening rates in three banana cultivars, Rasthali (AAB), Kanthali (AB), and Monthan (ABB). Analysis of transcript and protein levels of beta-1,3 glucanase gene during ripening revealed differential timing in expression of the gene which correlated well with the variation in enzymatic activity of glucanase and fruit pulp softening rates in the three cultivars. Exogenously applied ethylene strongly induced beta-1,3 glucanase expression during the early ripening days in Rasthali, while the expression of the gene was marginally stimulated following ethylene treatment in preclimacteric Kanthali fruit. Conversely, in Monthan, beta-1,3 glucanase expression was very low throughout the ripening stages, and ethylene treatment did not induce the expression of the gene in this cultivar. Analysis of glucanase activity using protein extracts from unripe and ripe fruit of Monthan with crude cell wall polysaccharide fractions (used as substrate) indicated that the natural substrate for glucanase remained almost unutilized in this cultivar due to low in vivo glucanase activity. Furthermore, the recombinant beta-1,3 glucanase protein, overexpressed in E. coli, showed requirement for substrates with contiguous beta-1,3 linkages for optimal activity. Overall, our results provide new information on the expression profile of beta-1,3 glucanase gene in connection with the pattern of changes in fruit firmness at the physiological and molecular levels during ripening in three banana cultivars. PMID:19697038

  18. Infestation of Caliothrips phaseoli (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Bean Cultivars Grown in the Winter, Rainy, and Dry Seasons in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal; Costa, Eduardo Neves; De Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha; Da Silva, Anderson Gonçalves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars less susceptible to Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood) in different growing seasons, to evaluate whether climatic conditions influence plant resistance to C. phaseoli infestation, and to investigate the preferred plant part for insect feeding. Eighteen common bean cultivars were evaluated in the winter season, and 19 cultivars were assessed in the rainy and dry seasons, under field conditions in the municipality of Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Infestation of C. phaseoli nymphs in the upper and lower parts of the beans plants was recorded at weekly intervals from 25 days after plant emergence (DAE) to 60 DAE. In the winter season, the cultivars 'IAC Galante,' 'IAC Centauro,' 'IAC Carioca Eté,' and 'IAC Formoso' had significantly lower number of thrips than the cultivar 'IAC Diplomata.' In the rainy season, the cultivars 'IAC Harmonia' and 'IPR Siriri' had the lowest thrips infestation, differing from the cultivars 'BRS Pontal' and 'IAC Una.' The bean cultivars were equally susceptible to C. phaseoli in the dry season. The results suggest that C. phaseoli nymphs prefer to infest leaves of the lower part of bean plants, like most generalist herbivorous insects. In the winter and dry seasons, the highest thrips infestation was observed at 60 DAE, while in the rainy season, it was recorded from 32 to 46 DAE. Overall, C. phaseoli infestation on bean cultivars was not influenced by either temperature, relative humidity, or rainfall.

  19. Density and growth rates of spider mites in relation to phenological stages of soybean cultivars in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arnemann, Jonas André; Fiorin, Rubens Alex; Perini, Clérison Régis; Storck, Lindolfo; Curioletti, Luis Eduardo; Nachman, Gösta; Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carús

    2015-11-01

    The population fluctuations of spider mites on different soybean cultivars were studied in two experiments performed in the municipalities of São Sepé (experiment 1) and Santa Maria (experiment 2) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The number of cultivars was 20 in São Sepé and 25 in Santa Maria, and at each location leaves were sampled from 15 plants per cultivar every week throughout the entire plant developmental cycle, amounting to 11 and 10 samplings in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that mite densities varied significantly with cultivar and time. Besides, the interaction between soybean cultivars and sampling times was significant at both locations. This indicates that the populations did not vary in the same way among cultivars over time, which is attributed to differences among the cultivars with respect to their phenology and response to spider mites. Equations for describing the mite population dynamics were estimated for each cultivar, mostly by fitting cubic equations to the weekly growth rates (per capita changes) in mite densities. We also found that the highest growth rates for mites on soybean cultivars in both locations occurred after the beginning of flowering, when the plants shifted from the vegetative to reproductive stages, about 3 weeks before reaching the peak densities.

  20. Physiological parameters of salt tolerance during germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of the same subtropical origin

    PubMed Central

    Bafeel, Sameera Omar

    2014-01-01

    Salt-tolerant ecotypes (or cultivars, varieties, etc.) of different plant species have been long known to evolve in nature. In the past few years, plant breeders have made significant achievements regarding salt tolerance in a number of potential crops using artificial selection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and screening of the natural sea water (Red sea) tolerance of 7 Saudi local (Baish, Jazan; 17.388086, 42.524070) cultivars of sorghum (Sorghumbicolor L., Moench; Poaceae) with respect to the performance of some physiological parameters such as germination, shoot and root development which could be recommended to local farmers and plant breeders. The shoot growth of the studied sorghum cultivars were significantly affected by the exposure to sea water. Root growth was different among cultivars even when treated with normal water. The cultivar C3 (mix white and red seeds) was observed as more salt tolerant and cultivar C4 (whitish seeds) was more salt sensitive on the basis of the germination-ability and shoot development. Cultivar C3 was also observed to produce better seeds compared with the other cultivars. Results of this experiment can be useful to the local sorghum growing farmers or as a genetic resource for the development of sorghum cultivars with improved germination under salt stress. PMID:25183939