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Sample records for africa nerica varieties

  1. New Rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivars exhibit different levels of post-attachment resistance against the parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica.

    PubMed

    Cissoko, Mamadou; Boisnard, Arnaud; Rodenburg, Jonne; Press, Malcolm C; Scholes, Julie D

    2011-12-01

    Striga hermonthica and S. asiatica are root parasitic weeds that infect the major cereal crops of sub-Saharan Africa causing severe losses in yield. The interspecific upland NEw RICe for Africa (NERICA) cultivars are popular amongst subsistence farmers, but little is known about their post-attachment resistance against Striga. Here, we evaluate the post-attachment resistance levels of the NERICA cultivars and their parents against ecotypes of S. hermonthica and S.asiatica, characterize the phenotype of the resistance mechanisms and determine the effect of Striga on host biomass. Some NERICA cultivars showed good broad-spectrum resistance against several Striga ecotypes, whereas others showed intermediate resistance or were very susceptible. The phenotype of a resistant interaction was often characterized by an inability of the parasite to penetrate the endodermis. Moreover, some parasites formed only a few connections to the host xylem, grew slowly and remained small. The most resistant NERICA cultivars were least damaged by Striga, although even a small number of parasites caused a reduction in above-ground host biomass. The elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of the resistance mechanisms and tolerance would allow the development of cultivars with multiple, durable resistance for use in farmers' fields.

  2. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G.; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (<2.2 Striga plants per pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8–5.7 and 8.7–16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be

  3. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (<2.2 Striga plants per pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8-5.7 and 8.7-16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be endowed

  4. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O; Onyuka, Enos A; Scholes, Julie D

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha(-1) were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha(-1) with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas.

  5. South Africa offers exploratory potential in variety of basins

    SciTech Connect

    Broad, D.S.; Mills, S.R. )

    1993-12-06

    While the future suspension of the oil embargo against South Africa will no doubt help revitalize the region's most powerful economy, a move away from dependence on coal as the major local energy source is also likely. This could be accomplished through regional cooperation and development were it not for the ongoing conflict in Angola, the only producer of oil and gas in the Southern African Development Community. Even with world oil prices in the doldrums, massive foreign exchange savings would result from a domestic source, and in line with world trends the possibility of harnessing the gas resources of the region is increasingly seen as a possibility. For the present, those resources remain to be defined. But ENH of Mozambique is pursuing an appraisal program for Pande field with World Bank funding, while Shell and its partners are considering possibilities of Kudu field in Namiba. And while South Africa's own national oil company, Soekor, has had limited success with its search for oil during the apartheid years, offshore F-A gas field is in production, and the potential for hydrocarbons-gas in particular--requires a great deal more investigation. The colleagues have prepared a series of articles on basins off South Africa. These articles were prepared in anticipation of the completion of political reform and of the start of a licensing round, possibly during 1994. This article draws together summaries of aspects thought to be most pertinent to petroleum exploration.

  6. Genetic relationships and structure among open pollinated maize varieties adapted to eastern and southern Africa using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), in collaboration with the national agricultural systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), have developed various stress-tolerant and more nutritious open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) of maize that are suitable for smallholder farmers’ g...

  7. Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001–2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers’ practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  8. Development and field performance of nitrogen use efficient rice lines for Africa.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Ogawa, Satoshi; Lu, Yingzhi; Wu, Liying; Downs, Christopher; Skinner, Wayne; Lu, Zhongjin; Kridl, Jean C; Ishitani, Manabu; van Boxtel, Jos

    2016-11-27

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a major input cost in rice production, and its excess application leads to major environmental pollution. Development of rice varieties with improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is essential for sustainable agriculture. Here, we report the results of field evaluations of marker-free transgenic NERICA4 (New Rice for Africa 4) rice lines overexpressing barley alanine amino transferase (HvAlaAT) under the control of a rice stress-inducible promoter (pOsAnt1). Field evaluations over three growing seasons and two rice growing ecologies (lowland and upland) revealed that grain yield of pOsAnt1:HvAlaAT transgenic events was significantly higher than sibling nulls and wild-type controls under different N application rates. Our field results clearly demonstrated that this genetic modification can significantly increase the dry biomass and grain yield compared to controls under limited N supply. Increased yield in transgenic events was correlated with increased tiller and panicle number in the field, and evidence of early establishment of a vigorous root system in hydroponic growth. Our results suggest that expression of the HvAlaAT gene can improve NUE in rice without causing undesirable growth phenotypes. The NUE technology described in this article has the potential to significantly reduce the need for N fertilizer and simultaneously improve food security, augment farm economics and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the rice ecosystem.

  9. Robustness and strategies of adaptation among farmer varieties of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian Rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokuwa, Alfred; Nuijten, Edwin; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Struik, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    This study offers evidence of the robustness of farmer rice varieties (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) in West Africa. Our experiments in five West African countries showed that farmer varieties were tolerant of sub-optimal conditions, but employed a range of strategies to cope with stress. Varieties belonging to the species Oryza glaberrima - solely the product of farmer agency - were the most successful in adapting to a range of adverse conditions. Some of the farmer selections from within the indica and japonica subspecies of O. sativa also performed well in a range of conditions, but other farmer selections from within these two subspecies were mainly limited to more specific niches. The results contradict the rather common belief that farmer varieties are only of local value. Farmer varieties should be considered by breeding programmes and used (alongside improved varieties) in dissemination projects for rural food security.

  10. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  11. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  12. Host-plant variety and not climate determines the establishment and performance of Aceria lantanae (Eriophyidae), a biological control agent of Lantana camara in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mukwevho, Ludzula; Simelane, David; Olckers, Terence

    2017-02-28

    The flower-galling mite Aceria lantanae (Cook) (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae) was released for the biological control of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) in South Africa in 2007, but has displayed variable and patchy establishment throughout the weed's range. Surveys were undertaken in 2013-2014, both seasonally and during the mite's peak infestation periods, to determine the influence of climatic factors on its performance. Although there were seasonal differences in the percentages of mite-infested inflorescences, these did not differ significantly between altitudinal zones. There were also no significant relationships between the percentages of mite-infested inflorescences and either of annual rainfall, temperature or relative humidity. A field inoculation trial revealed significant differences between 10 common South African L. camara varieties in their susceptibility to A. lantanae. Only three varieties displayed appreciable susceptibility (50-61% of inflorescences infested), whereas six displayed only slight to moderate susceptibility (8-21%) and one displayed a lack of susceptibility (no infestation). These data support the contention that differential varietal susceptibility and not climate is responsible for the variable performance of A. lantanae on L. camara in South Africa. Complementing the current biotype of A. lantanae, originally sourced from Florida (USA), with other biotypes from different L. camara genotypes in Central and South America could increase the mite's impact on the weed.

  13. Assessment of the virulence spectrum and its association with genetic diversity in Magnaporthe oryzae populations from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutiga, Samuel Kilonzo; Rotich, Felix; Ganeshan, Veena Devi; Mwongera, David Thuranira; Mgonja, Emmanuel; Were, Vincent Mbashira; Harvey, Jagger W; Zhou, Bo; Wasilwa, Lusike; Feng, Chunda; Ouedraogo, Ibrahima; Wang, Guo-Liang; Mitchell, Thomas; Talbot, Nick; Correll, James C

    2017-04-03

    A collection of 122 isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae, from nine sub-Saharan African countries, was assessed for virulence diversity and genetic relatedness. The virulence spectrum was assessed by pathotype analysis with a panel of 43 rice genotypes consisting of differential lines carrying 24 blast resistance genes (R- genes), contemporary African rice cultivars, and susceptible checks. The virulence spectrum among isolates ranged from 5-80%. Five isolates were avirulent to the entire rice panel, while two isolates were virulent to ~75% of the panel. Overall, cultivar 75-1-127, the Pi9 R-gene donor, was resistant to all isolates (100%), followed by four African rice cultivars (AR105, NERICA 15, 96%; NERICA 4, 91%, and F6-36, 90%). Genetic relatedness of isolates was assessed by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) derived from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and by vegetative compatibility tests. Phylogenetic analysis of SNPs of a subset of isolates (n=78) revealed seven distinct clades which differed in virulence. Principal component analysis showed isolates from East Africa were genetically distinct from those from West Africa. Vegetative compatibility tests of a subset of isolates (n=65) showed no common groups among countries. This study shows that blast disease could be controlled by pyramiding of Pi9 together with other promising R-genes into rice cultivars which are adapted to East and West African regions.

  14. Emergency nursing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brysiewicz, Petra; Bruce, Judy

    2008-04-01

    The role of the emergency nurse in South Africa is a challenging one due to a variety of reasons. This article describes the healthcare system of South Africa with particular attention to the emergency medical system as well as the reason why most emergency clients present to the emergency departments. The actual experience of working as an emergency nurse in South Africa is highlighted.

  15. Trends Abroad: South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Douglas H.

    1970-01-01

    In South Africa today there is a complex structure of laws and regulations which impose a variety of restrictions on individual liberties including the freedom to publish and read literary material. The successive steps by which this state of affairs has been reached are briefly described. (NH)

  16. Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  17. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  18. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  19. Peanut Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  20. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 12 runner types, 4 Spanish types and 8 Virginia types...

  1. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  2. Own Variety Bias

    PubMed Central

    García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-01-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn’t claim a different variety as their own. PMID:27648211

  3. Mozambique Coast, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The serene coastline of Mozambique (17.0S, 39.5E) Africa and the Indian Ocean offer some of the best beaches and recreational diving water in the world. Offshore reefs provide interesting coral formations that host a wide variety of marine life. Inland, the coastal savannas of this tropical nation are filled with a wide range of wildlife in some of the last animal refuges on the African continent.

  4. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive features about a third of the way from the ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  MISR ...

  5. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    PubMed Central

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  6. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures.

  7. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  8. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-08-31

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL{sub 2}-varieties are considered.

  9. Terrorism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  10. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  11. Nutrition in Africa.

    PubMed

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  12. 7 CFR 906.13 - Variety or varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variety or varieties. 906.13 Section 906.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... oranges; (d) white seeded grapefruit; (e) white seedless grapefruit; (f) pink and red seeded...

  13. 7 CFR 906.13 - Variety or varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variety or varieties. 906.13 Section 906.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... oranges; (d) white seeded grapefruit; (e) white seedless grapefruit; (f) pink and red seeded...

  14. North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nicod, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    The total area covered by petroleum rights in the six countries described in this paper increased by more than 17% in 1980 compared to 1979. Joint venture agreements were finalized for 19 blocks over 94,000 km/sup 2/ in the Algerian venture. Although official information is scarce for Algeria and Libya, seismic activity probably increased in 1980 compared to 1979. Exploration drilling activity increased with 121 wildcats drilled compared to 93 during the previous year. This effort led to 40 discoveries, a 34.5% success ratio. Chevron was especially successful in wildcatting, with 6 oil discoveries for 8 wells drilled in the interior basins of Sudan. One Moroccan discovery can be considered as a highlight: the BRPM Meskala 101 well in the Essaouira basin found an apparently large amount of gas in Triassic sandstones. This discovery deserves special attention, since the gas has been found in Triassic pays rather than in the usual Jurassic pays in the Essaouira basin. Oil production in North Africa decreased from about 13.5% in 1980, with about 3,405,000 barrels of oil per day compared to 3,939,500 barrels of oil per day in 1979. When oil output strongly decreased in Algeria (-16.4%) and Libya (-15.6%), Tunisian production peaked at 116,287 barrels of oil per day and Egypt production also peaked at 584,148 barrels of oil per day. Total gas production in 1980 strongly declined from 44%, mostly due to the decline of the Algerian gas production. 8 figures, 40 tables.

  15. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  16. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  17. Brunei English: A Developing Variety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara-Davies, Breda

    2010-01-01

    A considerable amount of time has elapsed since the existence of a distinct variety of English, Brunei English (BNE), was mooted in the early 1990s. A subsequent study conducted by Svalberg in 1998 suggested that BNE was then in its infancy and that its speakers were largely unaware of the differences between it and Standard British English (STE).…

  18. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  19. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  20. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  1. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  2. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  3. The use of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) traditional varieties and their mixtures with commercial varieties to manage bean fly (Ophiomyia spp.) infestations in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssekandi, W; Mulumba, J W; Colangelo, P; Nankya, R; Fadda, C; Karungi, J; Otim, M; De Santis, P; Jarvis, D I

    The bean fly (Ophiomyia spp.) is considered the most economically damaging field insect pest of common beans in Uganda. Despite the use of existing pest management approaches, reported damage has remained high. Forty-eight traditional and improved common bean varieties currently grown in farmers' fields were evaluated for resistance against bean fly. Data on bean fly incidence, severity and root damage from bean stem maggot were collected. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) revealed significant resistance to bean fly in the Ugandan traditional varieties. A popular resistant traditional variety and a popular susceptible commercial variety were selected from the 48 varieties and evaluated in pure and mixed stands. The incidence of bean fly infestation on both varieties in mixtures with different arrangements (systematic random versus rows), and different proportions within each of the two arrangements, was measured and analysed using GLMMs. The proportion of resistant varieties in a mixture and the arrangement type significantly decreased bean fly damage compared to pure stands, with the highest decrease in damage registered in the systematic random mixture with at least 50 % of resistant variety. The highest reduction in root damage, obvious 21 days after planting, was found in systematic random mixtures with at least 50 % of the resistant variety. Small holder farmers in East Africa and elsewhere in the world have local preferences for growing bean varieties in genetic mixtures. These mixtures can be enhanced by the use of resistant varieties in the mixtures to reduce bean fly damage on susceptible popular varieties.

  4. Toward Cost-Effective Fingerprinting Methodology to Distinguish Maize Open-Pollinated Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Africa, many smallholder farmers grow open pollinated maize varieties (OPVs), as they allow seed recycling and out-yield traditional farmer’s (unimproved) landraces. One popular OPV, ZM521 released by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), has been provided to farmers, o...

  5. Dematerialization: Variety, caution, and persistence.

    PubMed

    Ausubel, Jesse H; Waggoner, Paul E

    2008-09-02

    Dematerialization, represented by declining consumption per GDP of energy or of goods, offers some hope for rising environmental quality with development. The declining proportion of income spent on staples as affluence grows, which income elasticity <1.0 measures, makes dematerialization widespread. Further, as learning improves efficiency of resource use, the intensity of environmental impact per production of staples often declines. We observe that combinations of low income elasticity for staples and of learning by producers cause a variety of dematerializations and declining intensities of impact, from energy use and carbon emission to food consumption and fertilizer use, globally and in countries ranging from the United States and France to China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Because dematerialization and intensity of impact are ratios of parameters that may be variously defined and are sometimes difficult to estimate, their fluctuations must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, substantial declining intensity of impact, and especially, dematerialization persisted between 1980 and 2006.

  6. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  7. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  8. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  9. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  10. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  11. Food variety and biodiversity: Econutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Specht, R L

    1998-12-01

    Both annual biomass production and biodiversity at any locality on earth are continually under threat as the population of Homo sapiens steadily increases, with the resultant pollution of atmosphere, soil and water. Today, environmental degradation and global warming (with its effect on evaporative aerodynamics and cellular respiration) have increased at an alarming rate. The ABP of all terrestrial plant communities (natural or cultivated) is slowly declining, thus reducing the energy supply of component plants and resident animals; in turn, the biodiversity of all the world's ecosystems, plant and animal, is threatened. The maintenance of biodiversity is important to human health for several reasons: (i) a varied food supply is essential to maintain the health of the omnivorous human species; (ii) a range of diverse food sources is necessary to safe-guard against climatic and pestilent disasters which may affect one or more of the food sources; (iii) a diversity of plants and animals may provide a rich source of medicinal material, essential for the extraction of undiscovered therapeutic compounds; (iv) intact ecosystems of indigenous plants and animals appear to act as a buffer to the spread of invasive plants and animals, and of pathogens and toxins, thus contributing to the health of populations nearby; and (v) the 'spiritual' values of exploring the diversity of plants, animals and ecosystems in an area appear to have a beneficial effect on mental health, strengthening the feeling of 'belonging to the landscape'. The variety of foods, their energy contents and food values, consumed throughout the year is amenable to scientific enquiry; as is the amount of energy expended in this collection or production. The control and management of food production and of water supplies, with attention to safety issues, has led to an improvement in life expectancy for a proportion of the world's population. The question is at what point might human health be disadvantaged by

  12. Generation 2030/Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  13. Islam in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-09

    orders as well as followers in West Africa and Sudan, and, like other orders, strives to know God through meditation and emotion. Sufis may be Sunni or...Shi’ite, and their ceremonies may involve chanting, music, dancing, and meditation . West Africa and Sudan have various Sufi orders regarded

  14. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and…

  15. Teaching about Francophone Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Mary; Timbo, Adama

    Lessons and resources for Social Studies and French courses are included in this document. The major goals of these materials are to help students (1) explore the history and geography of Francophone Africa, (2) examine French influences in contemporary Africa, (3) recognize and appreciate cultural differences and similarities in values and…

  16. Strengthening pharmacovigilance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mehta, U; Dheda, M; Steel, G; Blockman, M; Ntilivamunda, A; Maartens, G; Pillay, Y; Cohen, K

    2014-02-01

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a national pharmacovigilance workshop held in August 2012 in South Africa (SA). A survey of current pharmacovigilance activities, conducted in preparation for the meeting, identified multiple programmes collecting drug safety data in SA, with limited co-ordination at national level. The meeting resolved that existing pharmacovigilance programmes need to be strengthened and consolidated to ensure that important local safety issues are addressed, data can be pooled and compared and outputs shared more widely. Pharmacovigilance activities should inform treatment guidelines with the goal of improving patient care. A variety of pharmaco-epidemiological approaches should be employed, including nesting drug safety studies within existing sentinel cohorts and the creation of a pregnancy exposure registry. The attendees agreed on key principles that will inform a national pharmacovigilance plan and compiled a list of priority pharmacovigilance issues facing public health programmes in SA.

  17. Evaluation of Africa South of the Sahara. An Inquiry Program for Grades 7-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Barry K.; And Others

    Project Africa, a social studies curriculum research and development project, is primarily engaged in testing new materials and techniques for teaching about Africa south of the Sahara in American secondary schools. The purpose of this technical report is to highlight the program's strengths and weaknesses from a variety of viewpoints -- those of…

  18. "That Indefinable Something Besides": Southern Africa, British Identity, and the Authorial Informant, 1883-1924

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Free, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    This project examines the role of southern Africa (from the Cape to the Zambezi) in the constitution of British identity from the rise of the systematic exploitation of the region's mineral deposits through the close of World War One. Reading a wide variety of print culture produced by South Africa's "authorial informants"--British…

  19. Religions in Africa: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. C.; Crummey, Donald

    The wide variety of religious practices in Africa can be bewildering to outsiders. Although most of the world's religions have been introduced to Africa, this handbook focuses upon three categories of religious belief: traditional African religions, Christianity, and Islam. The book is arranged in three parts. Part 1, "Background…

  20. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  1. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    PubMed

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  2. Contemporary Problems in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Patrick; Winchester, N. Brian

    1987-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of political and economic developments of the past 25 years in Africa. Maintains this was a period of experimentation with vast differences in the ways in which governments dealt with human and natural problems. (JDH)

  3. Child Labour in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The question of child labor in Africa is complicated by the failures of the educational system, family relations, traditional forms of apprenticeship, proliferation of the informal economic sector, and continuing existence of a rural economy. Hazardous working conditions prevail. (SK)

  4. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  5. AIDS in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-09

    have recommended that Africans infected with HIV be treated with an antibiotic/ sulfa drug combination known as cotrimoxazole in order to prevent...response is the subject of much debate. An estimated 500,000 Africa AIDS patients were being treated with antiretroviral drugs in mid-2005, up from 150,000...whether drugs can be made widely accessible without costly health infrastructure improvements. U.S. concern over AIDS in Africa grew in the 1980s, as the

  6. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  7. Maize variety and method of production

    DOEpatents

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  8. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  9. 7 CFR 947.11 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 947.11 Section 947.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.11 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of...

  10. 7 CFR 946.11 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 946.11 Section 946.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.11 Varieties. Varieties means and includes...

  11. Decolonizing Bioethics in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay-Adeyelure, O.C.

    2017-01-01

    The global spread of bioethics from its North-American and European provenance to non-Western societies is currently raising some concerns. Part of the concern has to do with whether or not the exportation of bioethics in its full Western sense to developing non-Western states is an instance of ethical imperialism or bioethical neocolonialism. This paper attempts an exploration of this debate in the context of bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather than conceding that bioethics has a colonial agenda in Africa, this paper defends the position that the current bioethics trend in sub-Saharan Africa is an unintended imperialistic project. It argues that its colonizing character is not entirely a product of the Western programmed goals of training and institution building; rather, it is a structural consequence of many receptive African minds and institutions. Though bioethics in Africa is turning out as a colonizing project, one serious implication of such trend, if unchecked urgently, is that bioethics’ invaluable relevance to Africa is being incapacitated. This paper, therefore, attempts a decolonizing trajectory of bioethics in Africa. Contrary to the pretense of ‘African bioethics,’ which some African scholars are now defending, this paper through the logic of decolonization makes case for ‘bioethics in Africa’. In such logic, the principle of existential needs is prioritized over the principle of identity and authenticity that define African voice in bioethics. PMID:28344985

  12. Undisciplining Knowledge Production: Development Driven Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2006-01-01

    South African higher education institutions are increasingly under scrutiny to produce knowledge that is more relevant to South Africa's social and economic needs, more representative of the diversity of its knowledge producers, and more inclusive of the variety of the sites where knowledge is produced. Only a small percentage of South Africans…

  13. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  14. Neogene desertification of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Pickford, Martin; Ségalen, Loïc

    2009-08-01

    Throughout the Neogene, the faunas and floras in Africa recorded global climatic changes. We present an overview of Neogene desertification in Africa by tracing stable isotopes in eggshells and mammalian enamel, by faunal (changes in hypsodonty, etc.) and floral changes in sequences at the latitudinal extremities of the continent and the equator. This work reveals that desertification started in the southwest ca 17-16 Ma, much earlier than the region of the present-day Sahara (ca 8-7 Ma) and long before the deserts in East Africa (Plio-Pleistocene). A consequence of this history is that animals and plants inhabiting the South of the continent had a long period of time in which to adapt to arid, unstable climatic conditions. When parts of East Africa became arid during the Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene, several of these lineages expanded northwards and occupied developing arid niches before local lineages could adapt. Several of the latter became extinct, while others withdrew westwards as the tropical forest diminished in extent. It is proposed that the history of desertification in Africa was related to that of the polar ice caps (Antarctic, Arctic).

  15. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  16. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  17. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  18. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  19. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  20. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  1. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  2. Innovativeness and Variety of Internet Shopping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Brian F.; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Valdiserri, Colin M.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of 208 Internet users examined the factors underlying Internet usage and shopping. Data were gathered on Information shopping (IS) innovativeness, overall IS frequency, visit variety, purchase variety, network prevalence, education, age, gender, employment, extensiveness of Internet use, and non-shopping Internet applications. (MES)

  3. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., striate; Millet, foxtail; Millet, pearl; Oat; Pea, field; Peanut; Rice; Rye; Safflower; Sorghum; Sorghum... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided in § 201.11a. If separate percentages for the kind and the variety or hybrid are shown, the name of...

  4. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., striate; Millet, foxtail; Millet, pearl; Oat; Pea, field; Peanut; Rice; Rye; Safflower; Sorghum; Sorghum... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided in § 201.11a. If separate percentages for the kind and the variety or hybrid are shown, the name of...

  5. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., striate; Millet, foxtail; Millet, pearl; Oat; Pea, field; Peanut; Rice; Rye; Safflower; Sorghum; Sorghum... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided in § 201.11a. If separate percentages for the kind and the variety or hybrid are shown, the name of...

  6. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., striate; Millet, foxtail; Millet, pearl; Oat; Pea, field; Peanut; Rice; Rye; Safflower; Sorghum; Sorghum... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided in § 201.11a. If separate percentages for the kind and the variety or hybrid are shown, the name of...

  7. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., striate; Millet, foxtail; Millet, pearl; Oat; Pea, field; Peanut; Rice; Rye; Safflower; Sorghum; Sorghum... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided in § 201.11a. If separate percentages for the kind and the variety or hybrid are shown, the name of...

  8. Out of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure…

  9. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  10. Who Speaks for Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Judging by the press coverage, it would seem that Europeans are the only ones concerned about conditions in Africa, but perhaps the media is not telling the whole story. According to Mark P. Fancher, chair of the National Conference of Black Lawyers' Section on International Affairs & World Peace and the author of "The Splintering of…

  11. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  12. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  13. AED in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the AED programs in Africa since 1975. Current AED Programs include: (1) HIV/AIDS Prevention and Impact…

  14. AED in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    For 30 years, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) has worked to support African development. In Uganda, Tanzania, and Botswana AED promoted some of Africa's first AIDS prevention programs. AED is funding research in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and perhaps Zambia that will target stigma and its role in AIDS prevention. Working with governments…

  15. Africa: Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)

  16. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  17. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba…

  18. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  19. Flower Volatiles, Crop Varieties and Bee Responses

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Björn K.; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximillian

    2013-01-01

    Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

  20. Questioning the Role of Children's Indigenous Games of Africa on Development of Fundamental Movement Skills: A Preliminary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyoka, Philemon A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper interrogates the role children's indigenous games of Africa can play in the development of fundamental movement skills relevant in modernized sports. On a daily basis, children in Africa play varieties of traditional games that vary between tribes, communities and distances. However, the efficacy of these games in the development of…

  1. YES Africa: Geoscience Projects for Development (GPD) (Strategy and Process)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barich, A.; Nkhonjera, E.; Venus, J.; Gonzales, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    For various reasons, Earth Science in Africa has been acareer path that has not been promoted or a preferred option. In January 2011, the YES Network in Africa launched the Network in Africa through a symposium. This took place at the University of Johannesburg, in conjunction with the Colloquium of Africa Geology in January 2011. The Symposium brought together young geoscientists from all regions of Africa to talk about their geoscience research that focused on geohazards and professional development within the African continent. The YES Africa Symposium also aimed to improve the participation of students in African geosciences issues and to also discuss how geoscience education in Africa can be promoted to attract more students to choose a career in the profession. The YES Africa Symposium resulted in ambitious short/long term projects. Symposium participants agreed unanimously that spreading awareness throughout the society about geological hazards, climate change, water management strategies and sustainable development remains a priority. As a direct result local projects are being developed by the YES Network's African National Chapters to develop a long-term geoscience taskforce within the continent. These projects will be developed by implementing student chapters in universities and strengthening the ties with local geoscience organizations and governments. Many YES Network African National Chapters have already taken the lead in developing their local projects, and some have been very successful in their efforts. Collaboration with the various YES Network National Chapters will be critical in developing a geo-hazard portal which links regional organizations and institutions together. This will help to disseminate geo-information more efficiently, and also to develop the next generation of young African geoscience students and early-career professionals. This presentation will detail a variety of innovative outreach methods used to connect with the public

  2. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  3. Recognition of wheat varieties by image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhanming; Zhao, Renyong; Wang, Bingxi

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a rapid, objective, and easy method for recognizing wheat varieties, which is important for breeding, milling and marketing. The method can be used in place of the existing procedures to remove subjectivity from wheat variety recognition. In contrast to previous work, most of which has focused on wheat morphological characteristics, the features utilized in this paper are based mainly on kernel color. Varietal classification is performed by using Support Vector Machines (SVMs) method. More than 96% correct recognition rates are achieved with bulk samples involving 16 varieties representing a wide range of wheat varieties, wheat class, and kernel types. The proportion of single wheat kernels correctly recognized ranges from 87% to 93%. The results were encouraging since the method proposed here can be easily conducted in routine inspection.

  4. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection... Agriculture intends to reestablish the Plant Variety Protection Board. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul....regulations.gov or by e-mail: Paul.Zankowski@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Plant...

  5. Internet Performance to Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    We report the first results ever for real-time Internet performance to Africa using the PingER methodology. Multiple monitoring hosts were used to enable comparisons with performance from different parts of the world. From these preliminary measurements, we have found that Internet packet losses to some African sites in recent months range from very poor to bad (> 12%), some getting better, others are holding steady or getting worse. This, together with the average monthly Round Trip Times, imply end-to-end maximum TCP throughputs that are order of magnitudes different between countries in the region. Africa is shown to be far from the Internet performance in industrialized nations due to the poor infrastructure in place today. These monitoring efforts can provide valuable information to analyze the relative rates of future improvement and today they help us to quantify the digital divide and can provide quantitative information to policy makers.

  6. Tuberculosis in tropical Africa

    PubMed Central

    Roelsgaard, E.; Iversen, E.; Bløcher, C.

    1964-01-01

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere. In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another. Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes. PMID:14178027

  7. The Dragon Enters Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    1950s. China’s establishment of modern relations with Africa started with the 1955 Bandung Conference where 29 developing nations, including China and a...few Af1ican nations, met to show solidarity by denouncing neocolonialism and pledging to stand up to the western powers. 2 The Bandung Conference ...problems; The report caused western banks and loan agencies to bail on a donor’s conference scheduled for July of 2002. The collapse of the donor’s

  8. Islamic Militancy in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    has also actively resisted Western influences—seen as negatively affecting Muslims ’ religiosity .3 Both al Shabaab and Boko Haram have their roots in...focused on local concerns. u Islamic militant organizations in Africa generally only command the support of small minorities within Muslim communities...educated activist, inspired by the Islamist Muslim Students’ Society of Nigeria1 (MSSN), formed in 1954, and in particular Ibrahim al Zakzaki, as

  9. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  10. France in Black Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    disease and the lack of support from the metropole (mother 4 France Acquires and Adninisters an Empire country), French rule over the small...as socially 9 France in Black Africa undesirable in an officer corps still dominated by the aristocracy; they were apt to be republicans, anticler- ics ...the interior. Endemic tropical diseases like yellow fever and malaria claimed a high proportion of Europeans who attempted to live in this region up to

  11. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  12. Men's Attitudes Towards Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bietsch, Kristin E

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines male attitudes towards family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studying attitudes is ideal as they can be calculated for all men, at any point in their lives, regardless of marital status, sexual activity, or fertility desires. We find that positive attitudes towards family planning have increased across Sub-Saharan Africa in the last two decades. We analyze both the association of positive attitudes with a variety of demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and religion) and the relationships with multiple forms of discussion about family planning (radio, television, friends, and partners). We find higher approval at older ages and higher levels of education, and lower levels of approval among Muslims compared to Christians. Interactions between characteristics and discussion of family planning. demonstrate that hearing or talking about contraception has different associations for different groups. This paper offers a new way to explore fertility and reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  14. Astronomy Across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ted

    2014-01-01

    African astronomy is growing rapidly. The Southern African Large Telescope is the largest optical telescope in the southern hemisphere, MeerKat and the Square Kilometer Array will revolutionize radio astronomy in the coming decade, and Namibia hosts HESS II, the world’s largest gamma-ray telescope. A growing community of observational and theoretical astronomers utilizes these multi-wavelength observational facilities. The largest concentrations of researchers are in southern Africa, but the community is now expanding across the continent. Substantial resources are being invested in developing the next generation of African astronomers. The African Astronomical Society was formed in 2011 to foster and coordinate the growth of the science in Africa. The IAU has located its global Office of Astronomy for Development in South Africa, with the mandate to find innovative ways of using astronomy to promote social and educational development around the world. African astronomy offers abundant opportunities for collaborative research with colleagues from across the globe. This special session will introduce many of the aspects of African astronomy to the US community, with the aim of engendering new partnerships and strengthening existing ones.

  15. Dermatophytosis in northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nweze, E I; Eke, I

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by dermatophytes are a global problem and a major public health burden in the world today. In Africa, especially in the northern geographical zone, dermatophytic infections are being reported at an alarming rate. This is mostly because of some local but unique cultural practices, socioeconomic and environmental conditions, lack of reliable diagnostic personnel and facilities and ineffective treatment. Interestingly, the pathogen spectrum and the clinical manifestation are most times different from what is seen in other continents. Several epidemiological studies have been performed on the incidence and aetiology of dermatophytoses in northern Africa. However, there is currently no review article with up-to-date information on the relevant findings reported so far in this region. This information is necessary for clinicians who treat dermatophytic infections all over the world since agents of dermatophytes are no longer restricted because of the rapid mobility of humans from one part of the world to another. Moreover, the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is known to change over time, thus requiring the update of information from time to time. A review of relevant studies published on dermatophytoses in northern Africa is presented. This covers all of old Sudan, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco.

  16. [Epidemic typhus in Africa].

    PubMed

    Ndihokubwayo, J B; Raoult, D

    1999-01-01

    Epidemic typhus is caused by a small strictly intracellular virus named Rickettsia prowazekii, a member of the Rickettsial family. It is transmitted to man by the body louse, Pediculus humanus. Although now rare in Western countries, exanthematic typhus remains common in the Southern hemisphere due to poverty, inadequate clothing hygiene, and poor socioeconomic conditions. In Africa, outbreaks have historically occurred in Burundi, Rwanda, southwest Ouganda, and Ethiopia. The largest outbreak of epidemic typhus since the World War II was reported in Burundi where ongoing civil war since October 1993 has forced 10 p. 100 of the population of Burundi to live in cold, promiscuity, and malnutrition of makeshift refugee camps. The purpose of this report based on our two-year experience working with this unfortunate population is to describe the characteristics of this disease in Africa where the epidemic form had become rare until recently. Indeed political unrest as well as numerous civil wars are now epidmiological factors favorizing outbreaks of epidemic typhus at any time. This overview also provides an opportunity to recall epidemiological, bacteriological, and clinical aspects of typhus as well as diagnosis and treatment of the disease in the context of Africa.

  17. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  18. Hyperelliptic Prym Varieties and Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rui Loja; Vanhaecke, Pol

    We introduce two algebraic completely integrable analogues of the Mumford systems which we call hyperelliptic Prym systems, because every hyperelliptic Prym variety appears as a fiber of their momentum map. As an application we show that the general fiber of the momentum map of the periodic Volterra lattice is an affine part of a hyperelliptic Prym variety, obtained by removing n translates of the theta divisor, and we conclude that this integrable system is algebraic completely integrable.

  19. Redefinition of Aureobasidium pullulans and its varieties

    PubMed Central

    Zalar, P.; Gostinčar, C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Uršič, V.; Sudhadham, M.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.

    2008-01-01

    Using media with low water activity, a large numbers of aureobasidium-like black yeasts were isolated from glacial and subglacial ice of three polythermal glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), as well as from adjacent sea water, sea ice and glacial meltwaters. To characterise the genetic variability of Aureobasidium pullulans strains originating from the Arctic and strains originating pan-globally, a multilocus molecular analysis was performed, through rDNA (internal transcribed spacers, partial 28 S rDNA), and partial introns and exons of genes encoding β-tubulin (TUB), translation elongation factor (EF1α) and elongase (ELO). Two globally ubiquitous varieties were distinguished: var. pullulans, occurring particularly in slightly osmotic substrates and in the phyllosphere; and var. melanogenum, mainly isolated from watery habitats. Both varieties were commonly isolated from the sampled Arctic habitats. However, some aureobasidium-like strains from subglacial ice from three different glaciers in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), appeared to represent a new variety of A. pullulans. A strain from dolomitic marble in Namibia was found to belong to yet another variety. No molecular support has as yet been found for the previously described var. aubasidani. A partial elongase-encoding gene was successfully used as a phylogenetic marker at the (infra-)specific level. PMID:19287524

  20. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  1. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  2. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  3. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  4. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  5. Sugarcane Variety Census:Florida 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  6. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  7. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  8. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  9. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  10. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  11. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  12. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  13. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  14. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  15. Zika virus outside Africa.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Edward B

    2009-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.

  16. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Guayule rubber for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-17

    It is reported that Agtec together with South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, is investigating the possibility of large-scale production of guayule. The rubber-yielding shrub grows in semi-arid climates and may be the source of a $35-million natural rubber industry in South Africa.

  18. Africa in World Cultures Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Maintains that many world geography and culture textbooks that deal with Africa present misinformation and misleading generalities. Reviews three recent textbooks--"Insights: Sub-Saharan Africa," by Ella C. Leppert, "People and Progress: A Global History," by Milton Finkelstein, and "World Cultures," by Clarence L.…

  19. Vine variety discrimination with airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro-Armán, M.; Alba-Castro, J. L.; Homayouni, S.; da Costa, J. P.; Martín-Herrero, J.

    2007-09-01

    We aim at the discrimination of varieties within a single plant species (Vitis vinifera) by means of airborne hyperspectral imagery collected using a CASI-2 sensor and supervised classification, both under constant and varying within-scene illumination conditions. Varying illumination due to atmospheric conditions (such as clouds) and shadows cause different pixels belonging to the same class to present different spectral vectors, increasing the within class variability and hindering classification. This is specially serious in precision applications such as variety discrimination in precision agriculture, which depends on subtle spectral differences. In this study, we use machine learning techniques for supervised classification, and we also analyze the variability within and among plots and within and among sites, in order to address the generalizability of the results.

  20. Relapsing Fever Borreliae in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The study of relapsing fever borreliae in Africa has long suffered from the use of non-specific laboratory tools for the direct detection of these spirochetes in clinical and vector specimens. Accordingly, Borrelia hispanica, Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis have traditionally been distinguished on the basis of geography and vector and the unproven hypothesis that each species was exclusive to one vector. The recent sequencing of three relapsing fever Borrelia genomes in our laboratory prompted the development of more specific tools and a reappraisal of the epidemiology in Africa. Five additional potential species still need to be cultured from clinical and vector sources in East Africa to further assess their uniqueness. Here, we review the molecular evidence of relapsing fever borreliae in hosts and ectoparasites in Africa and explore the diversity, geographical distribution, and vector association of these pathogens for Africans and travelers to Africa. PMID:23926141

  1. Genetic fingerprinting of potato varieties from the Northwest Potato Variety Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Northwest Potato Variety Development Program using conventional breeding has successfully released more than 40 improved varieties of potato since its inception in 1983. Potato breeders rely primarily on morphological and phenotypic data for selection and breeding of potato cultivars. With the a...

  2. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  3. Infinite flag varieties and conjugacy theorems

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Dale H.; Kac, Victor G.

    1983-01-01

    We study the orbit of a highest-weight vector in an integrable highest-weight module of the group G associated to a Kac-Moody algebra [unk](A). We obtain applications to the geometric structure of the associated flag varieties and to the algebraic structure of [unk](A). In particular, we prove conjugacy theorems for Cartan and Borel subalgebras of [unk](A), so that the Cartan matrix A is an invariant of [unk](A). PMID:16593298

  4. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  5. [Histoplasmosis (infection with Histoplasma capsulatum, capsulatum variety)].

    PubMed

    Pădeanu, V; Dragoş, Mădălina; Radu, Rodica; Dobre, Vl

    2005-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is an endemic mycosis in some regions in the US, but it can be more and more often imported to Europe. One of the clinical characters of the infection is the variety of shapes it can have, many similar to tuberculosis. It can be associated to HIV infection, being the most frequent mycosis in these patients in endemic regions. Diagnosis is based on evidence of mycotic filaments on microscopy or culture. Treatment consists of Amphotericin B and Itraconazole, the latter being also the foundation of primary and secondary prevention.

  6. Ebola in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  7. Ebola in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  8. The effect of variety and location on cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit quality.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Maryna; Nel, Philip; Osthoff, Gernot; Labuschagne, Maryke T

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the performance of South African cactus pear varieties in different agro-ecological regions. Effects of locality on internal quality parameters of available cactus pear varieties were examined. With only one exception, no significant differences among the mean replication values for the different parameters between the different locations were observed. The differences between mean values for most individual parameters at the three localities were highly significant. Highly significant differences between the mean values for the measured characteristics were observed, not only among the locations (except for the pulp glucose values), but also for the influences of genotype and interaction between locality and genotype. Significant variations existed between mean values of the different characteristics between localities. Genotype x environmental interactions were noted. It was concluded that Meyers is the most appropriate cultivar for economical purposes in South Africa.

  9. Africa: sexual minorities at risk.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Cécile

    2011-04-01

    Violence against homosexuality is growing in Africa, where most of the countries on the continent continue to criminalize same-sex relations, fostering a climate of hate that, in some cases, is abetted by politicians.

  10. Mechanism and active variety of allelochemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peng, S.-L.; Wen, J.; Guo, Q.-F.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes allelochemicals' active variety, its potential causes and function mechanisms. Allelochemicals' activity varies with temperature, photoperiod, water and soils during natural processes, with its initial concentration, compound structure and mixed degree during functional processes, with plant accessions, tissues and maturity within-species, and with research techniques and operation processes. The prospective developmental aspects of allelopathy studies in the future are discussed. Future research should focus on: (1) to identify and purify allelochemicals more effectively, especially for agriculture, (2) the functions of allelopathy at the molecular structure level, (3) using allelopathy to explain plant species interactions, (4) allelopathy as a driving force of succession, and (5) the significance of allelopathy in the evolutionary processes.

  11. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  12. Lightning medicine in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Ryan; Trengrove, Estelle; Jandrell, Ian R; Saayman, Gert

    2012-06-06

    South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a concerted and co-ordinated attempt be made to report and collate data regarding lightning strike victims in South Africa.

  13. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-19

    quotes Trevor Howard, a former member of the 23d Battalion, an elite unit led by South African officers and white mercenaries recruited by the puppet...intervene only to raise their flag," claims Trevor Howard. AFRICA CONCORD says that it is crucial for South Africa to maintain the UNITA terrorist...racist army had.to mobilize its best land and air facilities to preclude the seizure of Mavinga by the Angolan Armed Forces. Trevor Howard documented the

  14. Northwest Africa - A Climatological Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    A climatological study of NorthwestAfrica, includingAlgeria, Tunisia, Morocco , Western Sahara, and the northern parts of Mauritania, Mali, and Niger...additional hazards. 14. Subject Terms: CLIMATOLOGY, METEOROLOGY, WEATHER, GEOGRAPHY, AFRICA, ALGERIA, MOROCCO , TUNISIA, WESTERN SAHARA, MAURITANIA, MALI, NIGER...line where mean annual rainfall exceeds 250 boundary. This zone includes most of Morocco , mm (the area south of this line is described in and the

  15. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  16. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  17. The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A

    2008-02-27

    Sub-Saharan Africa could have a shortfall of nearly 90Mt of cereals by the year 2025 if current agricultural practices are maintained. Biotechnology is one of the ways to improve agricultural production. Insect-resistant varieties of maize and cotton suitable for the subcontinent have been identified as already having a significant impact. Virus-resistant crops are under development. These include maize resistant to the African endemic maize streak virus and cassava resistant to African cassava mosaic virus. Parasitic weeds such as Striga attack the roots of crops such as maize, millet, sorghum and upland rice. Field trials in Kenya using a variety of maize resistant to a herbicide have proven very successful. Drought-tolerant crops are also under development as are improved varieties of local African crops such as bananas, cassava, sorghum and sweet potatoes.

  18. Neuropsychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-21

    This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  19. Perspectives of RH. Africa.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Three Japanese journalists visited Tanzania and Ghana during July 5-21 to observe how reproductive health (RH) services are delivered as part of community-based services promoted by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tanzania's Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral UNFPA programs, and JOICFP. The tour was organized by JOICFP with the support of UNFPA. In Tanzania, the team was welcomed in Mukuranga District where MOH staff deliver UNFPA-funded RH services. The journalists observed public health nurses deliver outreach services and provide information on safe delivery and family planning to expectant mothers They also spoke with a Japanese midwife based at a health center in Tanga and traveled to JOICFP's project area in Kilimanjaro Region. In Ghana, the group observed a clinic run by the MOH and activities of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The effectiveness of government-NGO collaboration was observed in Bontrease. Back in Japan, two of the journalists shared their experiences in Africa through a series of published articles, while the third journalist will air his digital video on Television Tokyo.

  20. Cardiomegaly in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    The term "cardiomegaly" is found in 5-7% of chest X-ray film evaluations in tropical Africa. However, "cardiomegaly" is a descriptive term, devoid of any aetiological meaning. Therefore, providing information about the aetiological factors leading to heart enlargement in a group of Africans (Nigerians) was the purpose of this study. In the years 2002-2011, 170 subjects (aged 17-80 years, mean age 42 years) in whom "cardiomegaly" was revealed by chest radiographs were studied at the Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele. The patients underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and several appropriate laboratory tests. Arterial hypertension was found to be most frequently associated with heart enlargement (39.4%), followed by dilated cardiomyopathy (21.76%), endomyocardial fibrosis (14.1%), valvular defects (9.4%), cardiac enlargement in the course of sickle-cell anaemia (6.47%), and schistosomal cor pulmonale (3.52%). This study is a contribution to a better aetiological elucidation of "cardiomegaly" in the tropics and emphasizes the importance of arterial hypertension as one of its causative factors. The dire need for effective treatment of hypertensive patients becomes evident. A high prevalence of elevated blood pressure seems to reflect an impact of civilization-related factors on the African communities.

  1. Variety of synchronous regimes in neuronal ensembles.

    PubMed

    Komarov, M A; Osipov, G V; Suykens, J A K

    2008-09-01

    We consider a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of oscillatory activity in neurons of the snail Helix pomatia. This model has a distinctive feature: It demonstrates multistability in oscillatory and silent modes that is typical for the thalamocortical neurons. A single neuron cell can demonstrate a variety of oscillatory activity: Regular and chaotic spiking and bursting behavior. We study collective phenomena in small and large arrays of nonidentical cells coupled by models of electrical and chemical synapses. Two single elements coupled by electrical coupling show different types of synchronous behavior, in particular in-phase and antiphase synchronous regimes. In an ensemble of three inhibitory synaptically coupled elements, the phenomenon of sequential synchronous dynamics is observed. We study the synchronization phenomena in the chain of nonidentical neurons at different oscillatory behavior coupled with electrical and chemical synapses. Various regimes of phase synchronization are observed: (i) Synchronous regular and chaotic spiking; (ii) synchronous regular and chaotic bursting; and (iii) synchronous regular and chaotic bursting with different numbers of spikes inside the bursts. We detect and study the effect of collective synchronous burst generation due to the cluster formation and the oscillatory death.

  2. Assessing and Enhancing Visualization Skills of Engineering Students in Africa: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Holly K.; John, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Visualization skills are believed to be a strong indicator of success in engineering, science, and a variety of other careers. Previous studies have compared the visualization skills of first year engineering students in the US with their cohorts in Europe and Brazil, but to date there have been no data reported for developing countries in Africa.…

  3. Theatre Safari in East Africa: An Exploration of Theatre in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, P. William

    Six months of observation--at two universities, at a drama festival, and with several independent theatre companies--form the basis for this evaluation of theatre in Kenya, Africa. While Kenyan dramas deal with a variety of themes, the majority are topical rather than universal in their treatment of issues. In many, the emphasis is on the…

  4. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in Ticks in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

    2014-01-01

    DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae. PMID:24615133

  5. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  6. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  7. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  8. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2014-02-01

    The humanitarian crises caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought forecasts with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model precipitation forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for March-May and October-December rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the consensus forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF), which is the present operational product for precipitation forecast over East Africa. Complementing the original ECMWF precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  9. Expanding radio astronomy in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylard, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

  10. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  11. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  12. Africa; Expanding market creates more gas lines

    SciTech Connect

    Quarles, W.R.; Thiede, K.; Parent, L.

    1990-11-01

    The authors report on pipeline development activities in Africa. They discuss how a growing European market for gas has increased potential pipeline construction in Africa, especially for Algeria, Egypt, and Libya.

  13. Geoscience Initiative Develops Sustainable Science in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Durrheim, Ray; Dirks, Paul; Graham, Gerhard; Gibson, Roger; Webb, Susan

    2011-05-01

    AfricaArray (http://www.AfricaArray.org) is a 20-year initiative in the geosciences to meet the African Union's New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) requirements for continent-wide cooperation in human resources development and capacity building. The name AfricaArray refers to arrays of scientists working on linked projects across the continent, arrays of shared training programs and recording stations, and, above all, a shared vision that Africa will retain capacity in an array of technical and scientific fields vital to its sustainable development. AfricaArray officially launched in January 2005 and, with support from many public and private partners, has become multifaceted, promoting a broad range of educational and research activities and supporting a multiuser sensor network (Figure 1). Though fostering geophysics education and research in South Africa was its initial focus, AfricaArray has expanded to 17 countries and is now branching out into all areas of the geosciences (Earth, atmosphere, and space).

  14. Islet cell research brings hope for a diabetes cure: meeting report from the 6(th) annual islet society meeting in Stellenbosch, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tchokonte-Nana, V; Cockburn, I L; Manda, J K; Kotze, P C; Johnson, J D

    2014-01-01

    The International Diabetes Federation predicts that, over the next twenty years, the largest increase in the prevalence of diabetes will be in the Africa region. Recognizing an unmet need for more focus on Africa and engagement with African scholars, the Islet Society held its 6th annual meeting July 20-21, 2014 in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Here, we present a report that covers the presentations and discussion points from that meeting. Work was presented on a variety of topics and included presentations by a significant proportion of Africa diabetes researchers. Overall, it was an excellent conference, with many new international collaborations initiated. We hope that other groups will also respond to the need for more conferences in Africa and focused on Africa.

  15. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  16. Russian Interests in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    in the same year, reached ZAR188 billion. Russia’s trade with its most important African partner is, in fact, the smallest of all of the BRIC ...Brazil, Russia, India, and China) coun- tries, the notional grouping of BRIC and South Africa, to be discussed in more detail.76 The growth in trade...AFRICA Russia is attracted by the notion of cooperation in Africa between countries making up the BRICS (Bra- zil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

  17. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  18. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  19. Urbanization in Africa. A Resource Unit. Project Africa, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, William E.

    The introduction to this suggested resource unit discusses several different approaches to the study of urbanization and its impact in Africa south of the Sahara. Part I of this unit includes an annotated bibliography of selected sources. The brief descriptions of selected materials should prove useful in classroom study, and in the development of…

  20. Africa in Classical Antiquity: A Curriculum Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    1977-01-01

    A curriculum resource developed by the School District of Philadelphia deals with Africa in Classical Antiquity. Each unit contains suggestions for lower, middle and upper schools. Topics covered are: history of Africa; great Africans in the Graeco-Roman world; racial attitudes; blacks in classical art, and Africa in classical literature. (CHK)

  1. Southern Africa’s Transnational Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    distribution of Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is prevalent throughout Southern Africa. In most incidences, Cannabis profits dwarfs local income...had its source in Tanzania and Tanzanians have identified markets for their fake US dollars in South Africa. Cannabis South Africa, Lesotho...Swaziland, Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia National and International markets Page 23. the listed states are the major cannabis - producing

  2. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections…

  3. Language in Education in Eastern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, T. P., Ed.

    This volume contains the papers given at the first Eastern Africa Conference on Language and Linguistics, held in Dar es Salaam in December 1968, under the auspices of the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa. The chief aim of the Conference was to bring together scholars and teachers working in Eastern Africa interested…

  4. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  5. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Emmah; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Dutra, Emanuel; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Pappenberger, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF), which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  6. Monitoring Optimism in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mari

    2007-01-01

    An article with exactly this same title was published in Social Indicators Research (41:279-304, 1997). The purpose of the current article is to update the findings discussed in that first article. Therefore the abstract published previously is still relevant: The last few decades have been the most crucial and eventful ones in South Africa's…

  7. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This document contains articles on SubSaharan Africa. Topics include: internal affairs, political science , education , and commerce.

  8. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  9. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  10. Peace Education in Postcolonial Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether efforts by donor agencies and Third World governments toward achieving basic education for all will lead to further development of peace education in Africa; whether the outcomes of the 1990 Education for All (EFA) conference in Thailand will promote positive peace; and whether the new EFA strategy will lead to a self-reliant…

  11. Basic space sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo, Richard S.

    Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this ``Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,'' Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

  12. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…

  13. Africa in Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekiros, Astair; Wiley, Marylee

    Based on an examination of 50 general social studies textbooks, the report discusses the most frequently found biases, misconceptions, omissions, inaccuracies, and misrepresentations. Criteria for judging the textbooks include: readable and suitable materials; accurate and current content; presentation of Africa as a diverse continent; open…

  14. NeuroAIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T Dianne; Weyessa, Tufa Gemechu; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2010-05-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting "NeuroAIDS in Africa." This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region.

  15. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    brought him organe juice and yogurt ," the statement said. "Newspaper reports that Dean Farisani is on a hunger strike are not true. That is...materials— [?worth] R3.3 billion during December to bring its total export earnings for 1986 to R41.8 billion. South Africa’s import of manufactured

  16. Christian Higher Education in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…

  17. Peacekeeping Operations in West Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government or the Department of Defense. In accordance with Air...1 DEFINITON OF — PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

  18. Madagascar Adventure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  19. Universal Algebraic Varieties and Ideals in Physics:. Field Theory on Algebraic Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Kazumoto

    A class of universal algebraic varieties in physics is discussed herein using the concepts of determinant ideals in algebraic geometry. It is shown that these algebraic varieties arise with very different physical contexts in many branches of physics and mathematics from high energy physics theory to chaos theory. In these physical systems the models are constructed by using the fields on usual manifolds such as vector fields in a Euclidean space and a Minkowskian space. But there is a universal mathematical aspect of linear algebra for linear vector spaces, where the linear independency and dependency are described using the Gramians of the vectors. These Gramians form a class of hypersurfaces in a higher-dimensional mathematical space: If there exist g vectors vi in an n-dimensional Euclidean space, the Gramian Gg is given as a g × g determinant Gg=Det[xij] with the inner products xij=(vi,vj), and exists in a g(g-1)/2-[g(g+1)/2-] dimensional space if the vectors are (not) normalized, xii=1 (xii ≠ 1). It is also shown that the Gramians are invariant under automorphisms of the vectors. The mathematical structure of the Gramians is revealed to be equivalent to the concepts of determinant ideals Ig(v), each element of which is a g × g determinant constructed from components of an arbitrary N×N matrix with N>n and which have inclusion relation: R=I0(v)⊃ I1(v) ⊃···⊃ Ig(v) ⊃···, and Ig(v)=0 if g>n. In the various physical systems the ideals naturally emerge to give us dynamical flows on the hypersurfaces, and therefore, it is called the field theory on algebraic varieties. This viewpoint provides us a grand viewpoint in physics and mathematics.

  20. 77 FR 75607 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Plant Variety Protection Office (PVPO) is...

  1. A new variety of Salvia macrosiphon (Lamiaceae) for Iran.

    PubMed

    Kharazian, Navaz

    2008-04-15

    In this study, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. var. longiflora Kharaz. is reported for the first time as one of the new varieties of Salvia macrosiphon in Iran. The morphological characters of this variety have been described in details.

  2. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Reiner Jr., Robert C.; Battle, Katherine E.; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J.; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  3. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  4. Transplantation in Africa - an overview.

    PubMed

    Muller, Elmi

    Africa is underdeveloped in terms of treatment options for patients with end-stage renal failure. Economic growth and corresponding increases in health expenditures in the African region mean that we can confidently anticipate increased demand for organ transplantation within the region over the next few years. Renal failure in Africa occurs mainly due to glomerular nephropathies, hypertension, diabetes, and HIV. For the subset of the population that might be considered medically suitable for transplantation, demand for transplantation is tightly constrained by the availability of specialist physicians and surgeons, pathology facilities, capacity to achieve acceptable graft outcomes, cultural and religious attitudes towards organ donation, trust in the health system, and the extent to which patients are able to meet the costs of surgery and ongoing immunosuppression. There are currently several countries in Africa which are building up living-related-donor transplantation. Active living-donor transplantation already takes place in South Africa, Tunisia, and Sudan, but deceased donation is only available in South Africa. Whereas living-donor transplantation might be successfully driven by a motivated individual and a single institution, deceased-donor transplantation requires dialysis programs, tissue typing and crossmatching facilities, an organ procurement program, an on-call surgical team, capacity to fund this infrastructure, and an appropriate legislative framework. A significant and recurring barrier to transplantation in the African region is the high cost of transplantation and follow-up care, and, in particular, the cost of maintenance immunosuppression. A positive environment that could potentially change this scenario will have to include governmental funding, academic support to clinicians as well as a legislative framework, which is still needed in many African countries.

  5. Epizootic ulcerative syndrome affecting fish in the Zambezi river system in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Andrew, T G; Huchzermeyer, K D A; Mbeha, B C; Nengu, S M

    2008-11-22

    In late 2006, diseased fish of a variety of species began to appear in the Chobe and upper Zambezi rivers in southern Africa. In April 2007, investigations showed that the levels of pesticides and heavy metals in the tissues of the fish were very low, discounting pollution as an underlying cause for the disease. However, histological evidence showed that the disease closely resembled the epizootic ulcerative syndrome caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans, a serious aquatic pathogen that has been isolated from freshwater and estuarine fish in Japan, south-east Asia, Australia and the usa since the 1970s, but not previously recorded in Africa.

  6. Gangrenous ergotism in cattle grazing fescue (Festuca elatior L.) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Botha, C J; Naudé, T W; Moroe, M L; Rottinghaus, G E

    2004-03-01

    The 1st outbreak of fescue toxicosis in South Africa was recently confirmed in a Brahman herd at Perdekop, near Standerton, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Within 3 weeks of being placed on a fescue pasture in mid-winter, 50 of 385 cattle developed lameness and/or necrosis of the tail. The farmer had established Festuca elatior L. (tall fescue, Iewag variety) on c. 140 ha for winter grazing. Fescue may be infected by an endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces ergot alkaloids, in particular ergovaline. Ergovaline concentrations in basal leaf sheaths and grass stems collected during the outbreak ranged from 1720-8170 ppb on a dry-matter basis.

  7. National variety trials identify clones with high potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality potato varieties are the backbone of a strong potato industry. Variety trials have been used to identify promising new varieties for well over a century. Trials are repeated and information collected over many years in order to confidently identify lines that may be well suited for productio...

  8. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  9. 78 FR 37200 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural... their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: July 31, 2013... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and...

  10. 2015 Louisiana “Ho” nursery variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Sugarcane Research Unit’s sugarcane variety program, promising experimental varieties are assigned permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers three years after selection in the seedling stage. These varieties are then planted in replicated yield trials at USDA's Ardoyne Farm in Schriever and at the LS...

  11. 2012 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three years after selection in the seedling stage of the USDA variety program, superior experimental varieties are assigned permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers. These varieties are then planted in replicated yield trials at SRU’s Ardoyne Farm in Schriever and at the LSU AgCenter’s Iberia Research Stati...

  12. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  13. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  14. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  15. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  16. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  17. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  18. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  19. 2014 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the USDA sugarcane variety program, superior experimental varieties are assigned permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers three years after selection in the seedling stage. These varieties are then planted in replicated yield trials at the Sugarcane Research Unit's (SRU) Ardoyne Farm in Schriever and at ...

  20. The VIRCA Project: virus resistant cassava for Africa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel J; Halsey, Mark; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Anderson, Paul; Gichuki, Simon; Miano, Douglas; Bua, Anton; Alicai, Titus; Fauquet, Claude M

    2012-01-01

    The VIRCA (Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa) project is a collaborative program between the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA the National Crops Resources Research Institute, Uganda and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kenya. VIRCA is structured to include all aspects of the intellectual property, technology, regulatory, biosafety, quality control, communication and distribution components required for a GM crop development and delivery process. VIRCA's goal is to improve cassava for resistance to the viral diseases cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) using pathogen-derived RNAi technology, and to field test, obtain regulatory approval for and deliver these products to small landholder farmers. During Phase I of the project, proof of concept was achieved by production and testing of virus resistant plants under greenhouse and confined field trials in East Africa. In VIRCA Phase II, two farmer-preferred varieties will be modified for resistance to CBSD and CMD, and lead events identified after molecular and field screening. In addition to delivery of royalty-free improved planting materials for farmers, VIRCA capacity building activities are enhancing indigenous capability for crop biotechnology in East Africa.

  1. Modern maize varieties going local in the semi-arid zone in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maize is the most produced crop in Sub-Saharan Africa, but yields are low and climate change is projected to further constrain smallholder production. The current efforts to breed and disseminate new high yielding and climate ready maize varieties are implemented through the formal seed system; the chain of public and private sector activities and institutions that produce and release certified seeds. These efforts are taking place in contexts currently dominated by informal seed systems; local and informal seed management and exchange channels with a long history of adapting crops to local conditions. We here present a case study of the genetic effects of both formal and informal seed management from the semi-arid zone in Tanzania. Results Two open pollinated varieties (OPVs), Staha and TMV1, first released by the formal seed system in the 1980s are cultivated on two-thirds of the maize fields among the surveyed households. Farmer-recycling of improved varieties and seed selection are common on-farm seed management practices. Drought tolerance and high yield are the most important characteristics reported as reason for cultivating the current varieties as well as the most important criteria for farmers’ seed selection. Bayesian cluster analysis, PCA and FST analyses based on 131 SNPs clearly distinguish between the two OPVs, and despite considerable heterogeneity between and within seed lots, there is insignificant differentiation between breeder’s seeds and commercial seeds in both OPVs. Genetic separation increases as the formal system varieties enter the informal system and both hybridization with unrelated varieties and directional selection probably play a role in the differentiation. Using a Bayesian association approach we identify three loci putatively under selection in the informal seed system. Conclusions Our results suggest that the formal seed system in the study area distributes seed lots that are true to type. We suggest that

  2. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  3. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  4. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  5. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  6. Child neurology services in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Newton, Charles R

    2011-12-01

    The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level.

  7. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  8. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Polytechnic in London, suggests that Botshabelo is an example ; of what the Government intended when it accept- ed the concept of "orderly urbanisation ...the goodies. This "final solution" approach was tried in 1960, after the Sharpe- ville disturbances, and failed; and it was tried again in 1976...South Africa’s total population of 29 million was urbanised . Projections for the year 2000 were that the total population would increase to about 4

  9. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Farms Over Peasant Farming (SOUTHERN AFRICA FOCUS, Feb 87) 69 SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE Pinto da Costa Reshuffles Cabinet, Creates New Ministries...Voting Slated 134 ECONOMIC Statistics Reveal Shortage of Engineering Graduates (Mandy Jean Woods; BUSINESS DAY, 10 Feb 87) 135 Self-Help Projects...Ocean Newsletter. It is not certain that Jacques Chirac’s government is excessively worried, satisfied as it is at having secured a modus vivendi

  10. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-06

    the training. He added that if the information was true then it was lamentable, but a solution would be found through contacts with the Moroccan ...Virginia 22201. JPRS-SSA-87-018 6 MARCH 1987 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA REPORT CONTENTS ANGOLA Minister on Moroccan Aid to UNITA, U.S. Talks (Luanda...Sacked 1 30 LIBERIA Briefs Moroccan Cooperation Memorandum Signed 31 Matthews Advises on Reconciliation 31 Hongkong Steel Mill Construction 32

  11. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  12. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Nation’s Business Schools Say More Management Training Needed (Andrew Gillingham; BUSINESS DAY, 26 Jan 87) 98 Country’s Management Needs Said To Be...in specific sectors of mining." /9274 CSO: 3400/926 97 SOUTH AFRICA NATION’S BUSINESS SCHOOLS SAY MORE MANAGEMENT TRAINING NEEDED...Europe’s 1:12. And SA shapes even worse in comparison with the US, where the ratio is one manager to five workers. SA business schools say that, on

  13. Confronting Africa’s Sobels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    operations as American troops attempt to differentiate allies from enemies. In Africa, sometimes they are one and the same. Sobel , a portmanteau of...night” or, as the villagers called them, “ sobels .” On closer examination, it can be observed that the relationship between the soldiers of the...rich land, changed over time, thus making the sobel phenom- enon more like the sobel phenomena. Unfortunately, the presence of sobels is often an

  14. Refining American Strategy in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    that Americans seek a little further away. In addition, economic opportunities in Africa are growing. By volume, about 14 percent of U.S. crude oil ...Eastern Europe and continued to supply the Angolan rebels (who could pay with the proceeds of diamond sales).100 This is simply the starkest example...Cowling Publications Assistant Ms. Rita A. Rummel ***** Composition Mrs. Christine A. Williams Cover Artist Mr. James E. Kistler

  15. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Cotonou Domestic Service, 31 Mar 87) GHANA Military ’Exercise Full Impact’ Ends (Accra Domestic Service, 29 Mar 87) Radio Commentary Hails Planned...4 Sanctions Hit Natal Coal Mine 104 - e - BENIN COOPERATION AGREEMENTS SIGNED WITH MAURITANIA AB011622 Cotonou Domestic Service in French 1930...encourage the World Council of Churches and people like Senator Edward Kennedy to "hammer us until we are finished ." He said South Africa’s future

  16. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2013-08-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in the East African region have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with adequate lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts and drought indices, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), promises to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The October-December rain season has higher skill that the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF) which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extend and intensity of the drought event.

  18. Population research potentials in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hyden, G

    1980-01-01

    There is a need in Africa to test prevailing theories and concepts in population studies to see how they apply to this culture. Most of the prevailing perspective on population issues can be influenced by development strategies and policies affecting demographic variables. So research designed to determine the longterm consequences of rural settlement policies on subsequent access to family planning or family planning policies are also needed, as are studies which zero in on the work and results of specific population projects. The following issues are considered worth special consideration in Africa, where the vast majority of women live in rural areas where family planning services will not reach for some time. The areas of investigation which seem most pertinent in sub-saharan Africa are: side effect of contraceptive devices and agents; infertility assessments, social and medical consequences of adolescent pregnancies, the means of offering effective population education in rural African areas, the possible effects of fertility control programs on demographic transition, and potential funding sources.

  19. Variation of volatile compounds among wheat varieties and landraces.

    PubMed

    Starr, G; Petersen, M A; Jespersen, B M; Hansen, Å S

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of volatile compounds was performed on 81 wheat varieties and landraces, grown under controlled greenhouse conditions, in order to investigate the possibility of differentiating wheat varieties according to their volatile compound profiles. Volatile compounds from wheat samples were extracted by dynamic headspace extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-two volatile compounds were identified in the wheat samples. Multivariate analysis of the data showed a large diversity in volatile profiles between samples. Differences occurred between samples from Austria compared to British, French and Danish varieties. Landraces were distinguishable from modern varieties and they were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for esters, alcohols, and some furans. Modern varieties were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for terpenes, pyrazines and straight-chained aldehydes. Differences in volatile profiles are demonstrated between wheat samples for the first time, based on variety. These results are significant to plant breeders and commercial users of wheat.

  20. VARIETIES OF PNEUMOCOCCUS AND THEIR RELATION TO LOBAR PNEUMONIA

    PubMed Central

    Dochez, A. R.; Avery, O. T.

    1915-01-01

    A study of pneumococci isolated from individuals suffering from lobar pneumonia has shown that the majority of these organisms fall into definite biological groups. These groups have been arbitrarily numbered from I to IV. The first three groups consist of organisms which within the group are closely related to each other by certain immunological reactions; i. e., protection and agglutination. Extensive study has failed to reveal crossing in either of these reactions between members of separate groups. The fourth group is formed of a series of independent varieties which cannot be definitely related to one another by the immune reactions employed. Up to the present time we have observed no tendency of these organisms to lose their specific characters, nor have we observed a change of one type into another. These groups vary in their pathogenicity for human beings, and in the order of their virulence are as follows: group III, group II, group I, group IV. The degree of protective power developed in the sera of animals immunized against members of the different groups varies inversely with the virulence and with the amount of capsular development. This, however, applies only to tests of passive immunity. The highly virulent groups give as good active immunity as those of lower virulence, if not better. In view of these constant differential characters of the pneumococcus, it was deemed advisable to study the pneumococci occurring in normal sputum. It has been commonly assumed that infection in pneumonia is autogenic, and occurs from the invasion of the lungs by a pneumococcus habitually carried in the mouth. If this is so, we should find the same types in the normal mouth as occur during the disease. Examination of a series of normal individuals showed this not to be the case. In no instance was an organism found which could be grouped with any of the fixed types of pneumococcus. All exhibited the same characters as those organisms obtained from lobar pneumonia which

  1. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  2. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  3. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  4. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  5. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  6. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  7. Epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Prevett, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Over 10 million people in Africa have epilepsy of which most have no access to appropriate treatment. Epilepsy in Africa is different- the incidence is higher, and the causes and cultural attitudes towards it differ. This article examines the epidemiology, causes and treatment of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa and looks at the challenges to improve access to treatment and potential solutions and the implications for neurologists in more developed countries.

  8. Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Road to Democracy in South Africa," Peace Review 15, no. 3 (09 2003): 268. 32 Lowenberg, 64. 33 Wood, 143. 34 Ibid, 175. 35 Peter Gastrow...Winter 1997): 11. Frankel, Philip. Soldiers in a Storm. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2000. Gastrow, Peter . Bargaining for Peace South Africa...132. Louw, Antoinette . "Citizen Perceptions of Crime and Policing in South Africa." Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies. Johannesburg, South

  9. Changes in chloroplast pigments of olive varieties during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Roca, M; Mínguez-Mosquera, M I

    2001-02-01

    Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of five olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties destined for milling were investigated at six consecutive ripening stages. There was a manifest dependence between olive variety, moment of picking, and chloroplast pigment composition of the fruits. Although the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids differed with fruit variety, ripening always involved their gradual loss, which becames more pronounced with increased presence of anthocyanin compounds. The relative rates of disappearance of chlorophylls and carotenoids were markedly different between varieties, implying that the catabolism of these pigments takes place at a relative rate inherent to each variety. The varieties less rich in pigments showed the most extreme behavior. The highest relative rate of disappearance was observed in fruits of the Blanqueta variety, and the lowest was observed in those of Arbequina. The chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio remained practically constant during ripening, with a value very similar for Hojiblanca, Picual, Cornicabra, and Blanqueta, but much higher for Arbequina, implying that the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus is different in the latter variety. In the five varieties studied, lutein was the slowest carotenoid to be degraded, so that its percentage in the fruits increased with ripening, whereas beta-carotene was the fastest to disappear. In ripe fruits covered with anthocyanins, chloroplast pigments were retained in both skin and pulp, with the rate of disappearance being much higher in the latter.

  10. Stress-Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of One of Africa’s Stable States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    A RESEARCH PAPER FROM THE AFRICA CENTER FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES by Assis Malaquias July 2011 Stress- Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of...control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress- Testing South Africa...articulating African perspectives to U.S. policymakers. Washington, D.C. Stress- Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of One of Africa’s

  11. [Epidemic characteristics and security implications of Africa schistosomiasis on people who go to Africa].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Yang, Ya; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2015-08-01

    With the economic globalization, and the economic and trade cooperation and cultural communication between China and African countries, more and more Chinese people go to Africa for work or travel. However, there is a quick increase of imported schistosomiasis patients who return from Africa. This paper analyzes the security implications of epidemic characteristics of Africa schistosomiasis on the people who go to Africa, and put forward several suggestions to help them to prevent from schistosomiasis.

  12. AFRICOM and Australian Military Engagement in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-30

    interests. Since 2001, trade with Africa has grown 10.5% and Australia’s exports to Africa have grown by 54% in the same time frame.55 An area of...Australia’s merchandise exports and imports to Africa also achieved the highest yearly growth over five years.60 This result was also replicated by the...Commonwealth of Australia, Composition of Trade 2006, 67-69. Australia’s merchandise exports to Africa were AUD$3.6b in 2006-07, an increase from AUD$2.3b

  13. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  14. A perspective on the impact of reproductive technologies on food production in Africa.

    PubMed

    van Marle-Köster, Esté; Webb, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Africa for the largest part is still regarded as part of the developing world and has a history of political instability, natural disasters, floods and droughts that all had an effect on the development of livestock production systems and the potential application of biotechnologies. It is expected that the human population in sub Saharan Africa will experience a growth of 1.2 % per year over the next 30 years. There is therefore pressure to increase sustainable productivity of livestock. Reproductive technologies such as Artificial Insemination in Africa were driven primarily by the need to control or prevent venereal diseases like Trichomoniases and Campylobacter fetus in cattle. Reproductive biotechnology had a limited impact in Africa due to several factors including a lack of infrastructure and animal recording systems, clear breeding objectives and continuously changing production systems and markets. Africa has a large variety of genetic resources adapted to the diverse environment and production systems and biotechnology should be applied within this context for an increase in food production.

  15. Trends in cotton variety development: Technology in the seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton breeding and variety development are an integral part of the cotton improvement research team. The genetics of a particular cotton variety provide a baseline for the variety’s lint yield and fiber quality potential. Over the last 100 years, the cotton industry has benefited from research focu...

  16. Making better decisions: 2014 Colorado winter wheat variety performance trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers need timely reports of varietal performance for making informed variety selection for their farms each year. The objective of this document is to provide a yield and performance summary of the last three years of winter wheat variety trials run at multiple locations in eastern Colorado. Fort...

  17. Dynamic vapor sorption isotherms of medium grain rice varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that the two popular medium rice varieties, namely M202 and M206, in California have different fissuring resistances. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to investigate the sorption behavior of these two varieties by a new approach using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method for elu...

  18. 7 CFR 201.7 - Purity (including variety).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purity (including variety). 201.7 Section 201.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7 Purity (including variety). The...

  19. Field evaluation of rice varieties for resistance to major diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and use of improved disease resistant rice varieties remains of foremost importance to rice producers, with field evaluation under local environments essential. In this study, we evaluated new and existing varieties, potential releases, and Texas elite breeding lines for resistance t...

  20. Turf varieties for the Intermountain West - today and tomorrow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landscape managers and sod growers in the Intermountain West are limited in their ability to select the varieties of turfgrass that perform well in this semi-arid environment. The varieties of seed sold in Utah are rarely based on what performs well here. Turf managers will often make one visit to...

  1. Determination of catechins and flavonol glycosides in Chinese tea varieties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Hairong; Héritier, Julien; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2012-05-01

    A standardised profiling method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometric detection (MS) was established to analyse the phenolic compounds of selected tea varieties used for manufacturing of green, black and oolong teas. The composition and content of 24 tea constituents were analysed, including catechins, flavonol and flavones glycosides, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids. Each tea variety had a unique chemical profile. The compositions of catechins were lower in the tea varieties for green tea manufacturing, while the content of myricetin glycosides was the lowest in the tea variety for oolong tea manufacturing. The content of individual phenolic compounds in the selected tea varieties is highly variable. However, the content of total catechins is proposed to be helpful to classify tea according to the future application as non fermented green and fermented oolong or black tea.

  2. Private Observatories in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  3. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  4. Retinitis pigmentosa in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J; Bartmann, L; Ramesar, R; Beighton, P

    1993-11-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal disorders which are a common cause of genetic blindness. The relative frequencies of the different forms of RP in South Africa, as determined from the register at the DNA banking centre for RP at the Department of Human Genetics, University of Cape Town, are presented and discussed. Of the 125 families analysed, 29 (23%) showed autosomal dominant, 33 (27%) autosomal recessive and 3 (3%) X-linked inheritance. In 10 families the pedigree data were insufficient to allow accurate genetic subtyping and a further 50 patients were sporadic without a family history of RP or other syndromic features which would allow categorization.

  5. South Africa: defiance campaign continues.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) has continued its "defiance campaign against patent abuse and AIDS profiteering." In partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), and with the support of Oxfam and the Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), on 28 January 2002 three TAC members returned to South Africa from Brazil carrying generic versions of the antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP). Some of the imported capsules contain a combination of AZT and 3TC.

  6. The Sociolinguistics of Variety Identification and Categorisation: Free Classification of Varieties of Spoken English Amongst Non-Linguist Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the examination of non-linguists' evaluations of different speech varieties, in recent years sociolinguists and sociophoneticians have afforded greater attention towards the ways in which naïve listeners perceive, process, and encode spoken language variation, including the identification of language varieties as regionally or…

  7. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  8. Reversing Africa's Decline. Worldwatch Paper 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.; Wolf, Edward C.

    This paper highlights some of the themes that any successful strategy to reverse the decline of Africa must embrace. Africa is a continent experiencing a breakdown in the relationship between people and their natural support systems. Famine and the threat of famine are among the manifestations of this breakdown. This decline can be reversed. To do…

  9. Western Perspectives in Applied Linguistics in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree; Meinhof, Ulrike H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the nature of the historical and contemporary social contexts within which applied linguistics in Africa emerged, and is currently practiced. The article examines the challenges "local" applied Linguistics in Africa is confronted with as it tries to amplify applied linguistic programs emanating from…

  10. Africa in Classical Antiquity: A Curriculum Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    This curriculum resource is intended primarily to assist teachers of Latin and Greek to infuse material on Africa in classical antiquity into the curriculum at all levels. It gathers together background information on the role of Africa in classical antiquity that has not been treated in traditional classical language courses. The resource guide…

  11. Researching Postgraduate Educational Research in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…

  12. Are Community Colleges Right for South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, James L.; Gibson-Benninger, Barbara

    Post-apartheid South Africa has been struggling with the question of how to restructure its institutions of higher education to both foster an equitable society and contribute to economic and technological development. Proponents of community colleges in the United States suggest that these institutions may best meet South Africa's needs.…

  13. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  14. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  15. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  16. Evaluating Materials About Africa for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    Choosing texts, media, and literature about Africa is a difficult task for school librarians who have not studied Africa in detail; however it is possible to evaluate the available materials on the basis of several important criteria. These include the authority of the author, the dates of preparation and publication, and the accuracy of…

  17. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  18. Intercultural and Transcultural Literacy in Contemporary Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…

  19. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  20. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  1. Moko Jumbies: Dancing Spirits from Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, S. A.; Phillips, Claire; Moore, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The original Moko Jumbie was a spirit dancer from West Africa. "Moko" is a West African word that refers to gods and "Jumbie" means ghost. In West Africa, Moko Jumbies are known to kidnap and eat disobedient children, steal dreams and see into evildoers' hearts and terrorize them. They walk through villages on 10- to…

  2. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear Energy Set to Increase,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 9, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 38 David...Foresees Massive Expansion,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 5, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 41 Sven Lunsche

  3. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  4. OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngugi, Catherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher…

  5. Analysis of leaf surface sesquiterpenes in potato varieties.

    PubMed

    Szafranek, Beata; Chrapkowska, Karolina; Pawińska, Maria; Szafranek, Janusz

    2005-04-20

    A comparative study of potato leaf sesquiterpenes was carried out. GC, GC-MS, and NMR analyses were used to identify and quantify the sesquiterpenes in the leaf surfaces of 10 potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties. Two sesquiterpene alcohols and 17 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were identified and quantitatively determined. The distribution of the sesquiterpenes was found to be variety-specific. The sesquiterpene contents of the different potato varieties were subjected to cluster and principal component analyses. The eight potato varieties of the main chemotype cluster were dominated by beta-caryophyllene (9-148 ng/cm2), germacrene D (2-46 ng/cm2), germacrene D-4-ol (0.4-31 ng/cm2), beta-sesquiphellandrene (1-34 ng/cm2), and an unknown sesquiterpene alcohol III (0.2-37 ng/cm2). Chemometric classification distinguished two varieties, Mila and Vistula, from a major cluster. The Vistula variety was distinguished from the others by its high contents of beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, germacrene D, and germacrene D-4-ol and the Mila variety by beta-elemene, trans-alpha-bergamotene, (Z)-beta-farnesene, (E)-beta-farnesene, trans-beta-bergamotene, beta-sesquiphellandrene, and unknown sesquiterpene alcohols I, II, III.

  6. Biochemical analysis of two varieties of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.).

    PubMed

    Faruk, M Omar; Amin, M Ziaul; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Shaha, Ranajit Kumar; Biswas, Kamal Krishna

    2012-11-01

    In this study, two varieties (Green and red) of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.) have been selected for their biochemical analysis as well as nutrient composition using standard methods. The proximate composition of green water chestnuts revealed moisture 62.5, ash 1.04, crude fiber 2.13%, total soluble sugar 0.92%, reducing sugar 0.33%, non-reducing sugar 0.59%, starch 8.7%, lipid 0.84%. One hundred gram of green variety contained water soluble protein 0.275 mg, beta-Carotene 60 microg, vitamin-C 1.1 mg and total phenol 0.5 mg. The minerals contents of green variety were potassium 5.22%, sodium 0.64%, calcium 0.25%, phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.38%, and iron, copper, manganese and zinc 200, 430, 90 and 600 ppm, respectively. The red variety contained moisture 62.7%, ash 1.30%, crude fiber 2.27%, total soluble sugar 0.90%, reducing sugar 0.30%, non-reducing sugar 0.60%, starch 8.2%, lipid 0.83%. The red variety contained water soluble protein 0.251 mg, beta-Carotene 92 microg, vitamin-C 0.9 mg and total phenol 0.60 mg per 100 g. The red variety contained potassium 5.32%, sodium 0.59%, calcium 0.26% phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.32%, Iron 200 ppm, copper 450 ppm, manganese 110 ppm and zinc 650 ppm. The free amino acids, glutamic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, lysine and leucine were commonly found in both varieties. In addition, green and red variety contained cysteine, arginine and proline and glutamine and asparagines, respectively. Thus, the present study sheds light on the nutrient contents of the two varieties of water chestnuts and suggests that water chestnuts may play a crucial role in human nutrition.

  7. Dermatology and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jenny; McKoy, Karen; Papier, Art; Klaus, Sidney; Ryan, Terence; Grossman, Henning; Masenga, Elisante J; Sethi, Aisha; Craft, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward. PMID:21887061

  8. Human origins: Out of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  9. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... impression as to the history or characteristics of the kind or variety....

  10. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... impression as to the history or characteristics of the kind or variety....

  11. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  12. Tailoring IEC to CBD needs. IEC in Africa.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    This article identifies recent workshops on IEC in Africa: the first JOICFP IEC Workshop for Africa, which focused on community based programs, and the Sub-regional IEC Workshop/Exchange Training Program held in Ghana on community-based reproductive health services. The Sub-regional Workshop was organized by the Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana, the National Population Council, the Ministry of Health of Ghana, UNFPA, IPPF, and JOICFP. The 40 participants came from IEC and community-based programs in Ethiopia, Gambia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Ghana, and other organizations. The workshop relied on findings from a 1994 evaluation of JOICFP's country and regional projects and the 1996 Technical Workshop on Needs Assessment and Strategy Development. The workshop included a review of existing IEC materials that participants brought with them and an overview of the Ghana system of IEC approaches and materials. The field visits followed group work sessions that identified gaps and concept needs. The workshop revealed a wide variety of IEC materials, which inspired participants and clarified gaps in approaches and materials. Gaps were noticed in materials on adolescent health, male involvement in family planning, and gender issues and in use of traditional media, such as songs, dance, story telling, and street theater. There was a lack of inclusion of audiovisual (AV) materials and inaccessibility of AV equipment. Participants were regrouped to discuss topics on family planning, other reproductive health issues, and community-based distribution. The review process revealed the importance of training service providers on use of materials and of providing technical assistance to support the development of effective materials. People desired kits on female genital mutilation, adolescents, reproductive rights, and unsafe abortion. A catalog of existing materials would be useful.

  13. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable.

  14. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  15. Health and social policies in the new South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Y G; Bond, P

    1995-01-01

    South Africa's first democratic government is today confronted with the challenge of recasting apartheid social and health policies, transforming a moribund bureaucracy's mode of governance, and restructuring a variety of public and private institutions, including the national Department of Health. In the attempt to redress racial, gender, and class inequities, enormous barriers confront health policy analysts and planners, progressive politicians, and activists within civil society who work in the field of health. This article sets the broad social policy context for the emerging strategies, documents some of the continuing inequities in the health sector, and recounts some recent experiences in one of the nine provinces (KwaZulu-Natal). to illustrate the difficulties and potentials that change of this magnitude presents under the prevailing conditions of neoliberal politics and economics.

  16. Mean surface water balance over Africa and its interannual variability

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, S.E.; Kim, J.; Ba, M.B.; Lare, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    This article presents calculations of surface water balance for the African continent using a revised version of the Lettau climatonomy. Calculations are based on approximately 1400 rainfall stations, with records generally covering 60 yr or longer. Continental maps of evapotranspiration. runoff, and soil moisture are derived for January, July, and the annual mean. The model is also used to provide a gross estimate of the interannual variability of these parameters over most of the continent and local water balance calculations for a variety of locations in Africa. The results are compared with four other comprehensive global water balance studies. The results of this study are being used to produce a gridded dataset for the continent, with potential applications for numerical modeling studies. 50 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Missionary Education in Colonial Africa: The Critique of Mary Kingsley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Discussing missionary education in colonial Africa, Pearce examines the ideas of Mary Kingsley, one of the major influences on British thinking towards Africa from the late 1890's. Focusing attention on her educational views, Pearce states that she had influence on all areas of British policy in Africa, and especially West Africa. (GEA)

  18. The silent struggle. South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shiner, C

    1994-01-01

    South Africa's new Constitution will include a women's rights charter that addresses issues such as domestic violence. The Women's National Coalition, which drafted the charter, united South African women across political, racial, ethnic, and social class boundaries. Despite vastly different priorities, the women were able to agree on the centrality of the domestic violence issue. One in six South African women is battered by her husband and one out of two is raped. The charter mandates the state to provide education to police and the courts about violence against women and to offer counseling and shelters. A problem faced by the group is the inability of federal law to override customary laws that give village chiefs the right to control the lives of Black women. Similarly, the charter's call for gender equality in development funding is not binding on international agencies. Nonetheless, the charter is expected to create a political climate of greater awareness of and respect for women's rights.

  19. Geological remote sensing in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  20. Magnetotelluric fieldwork adventures in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaler, K. A.

    2006-04-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method is a way of probing the electrical resistivity (or its inverse, electrical conductivity) distribution of the subsurface. It is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, in which natural magnetic field sources external to the Earth induce eddy currents within it whose geometry and decay depend on the subsurface resistivity structure. The method is therefore entirely passive, and it can be employed in environmentally sensitive areas. The resistivity of the subsurface depends on its temperature, mineralogy and fluid content, both interstitial and partial melt, and is sensitive to even small amounts of melt and residual fluids and its connectivity. Thus it can be a good discriminant between different rock types, and complements information available from other geophysical methods. Here, I outline the basics of the MT method, indicate how data acquisition, processing and modelling are undertaken, and illustrate the uses of MT to investigate tectonic and structural problems through three case studies from Africa.

  1. New initiatives against Africa's worms.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Since 1999, the funding available for the control of diseases of poverty (neglected diseases) has increased mainly due to leverage resulting from donations by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and loans from the World Bank. Many countries have embarked on control programmes on a national scale due to drug donations by pharmaceutical companies through vertical programmes. The Schistosomiasis Control Initiative has expanded its operations to cover six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, but overlap of treatments between different vertical programmes is now a reality, and so care is needed to ensure that too many different drugs are not given together. Dialogue between programme managers has increased, and integration of some programmes may offer chances of synergy.

  2. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  3. Physics and Development in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingu, Edmund

    2003-03-01

    Scientific research is an essential investment in the welfare of a country. Some developing countries have made important contributions to the development of science and technology, and have enjoyed the economic benefits of their investments in science and technology. Several developing countries have been treating science as a marginal activity. Most developing countries are aware of the importance of science and technology, but inadequate infrastructure and resources create strong barriers to their path of advancement. Notable achievements in physics have played a major role in the development of technologies which currently drive the economy of the world e.g. electronics, lasers, internet, molecular biology and nuclear power. The significant role that physics continues to play in the technological development clearly demonstrates the crucial need to develop physics and physicists in the developing world. An analysis of the economic and technological development of the countries in Africa will be presented and the impact of development in physics in those countries will be assessed. A number of development projects in physics in Africa, both current and planned, will be analysed to identify the characteristics of successful projects. The particular value of North-South and South-South partnerships in development will be reviewed. Many of the projects that have relied on partnerships and development-aid funding have failed to yield substantial results because of the failure to link technology transfer to skills development. Practicing physics is costly, especially when one considers multi-billion dollar projects in physics that have been initiated, and sometimes abandoned, around the world. While developing countries have an obligation to release some of their limited resources for development, well-resourced countries have a global and moral responsibility to participate in the development of physics in the developing world.

  4. South Africa, Namibia Diamond Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image covers a portion of the Richtersveld National Park and Orange River (top of image) in the Northern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa. The Orange River marks the boundary between South Africa to the south and Namibia to the north. This is an area of active mining for diamonds, which were washed downstream from the famous Kimberley Diamond Area, millions of years ago when the river was much larger. The mining is focused on ancient drainages of the Orange River which are currently buried by think layers of sand and gravel. Scientists are investigating whether these ancient drainages can be seen with the radar's ability to penetrate sand cover in extremely dry regions. A mine, shown in yellow, is on the southern bank of the river in an abandoned bend which is known as an 'oxbow.' The small bright circular areas (left edge of image) west of the mine circles are fields of a large ostrich farm that are being watered with pivot irrigation. The large dark area in the center of the image is the Kubus Pluton, a body of granite rock that broke through the surrounding rocks about 550 million years ago. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is about 55 by 60 kilometers (34 by 37 miles) centered at 28.4 degrees south latitude, 16.8 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired on April 18, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

  5. Africa's natural gas: potentialities and letdowns

    SciTech Connect

    Baladian, K.

    1983-11-01

    Although Africa has experienced 10 times less hydrocarbon exploration than Western Europe, its proved gas reserves already amount to 220-223 trillion CF or 7% of world reserves, while Europe holds 6% or 167 TCF. Yet Africa marketed only 1.3 TCF in 1982 against Europe's 6.5 TCF. Because of the lack of domestic demand for gas, Africa flares up to 21% of its gas output. Algeria is the continent's primary gas consumer, with Egypt, Libya, and Nigeria trying to expand local gas markets. The vast majority of marketed African gas goes to Europe, either as gas sent through the Trans-Med pipeline or as LNG via tanker.

  6. US Africa Command, Changing Security Dynamics, and Perceptions of US Africa Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    about AFRICOM. Gavin Cawthra,111 Director of The Centre for Defence and Security Management, University of the Witwatersrand , manages courses that... Witwatersrand , commented that what will bring change is a broad-based educational campaign in South Africa and the rest of Africa to explain the role of...Kenyan international relations expert at the University of the Witwatersrand , 143 said that South Africa has a different perspective, because it is

  7. Implications of Competition for Strategic Minerals in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY IMPLICATIONS OF COMPETITION FOR STRATEGIC MINERALS IN AFRICA by John S. Cranston, CDR, USN A...Mongolia, and Africa. Copper in Africa In Africa, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are home to the Central African Copperbelt , a...1980 Brautigam, Deborah. The Dragon’s Gift, Oxford University Press, 2009 Bullock, Richard. Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic, Off Track

  8. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy.

  9. Characterization of Wheat Varieties Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hongyi; Jiang, Yuying; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis were explored to discriminate eight wheat varieties. The absorption spectra were measured using THz time-domain spectroscopy from 0.2 to 2.0 THz. Using partial least squares (PLS), a regression model for discriminating wheat varieties was developed. The coefficient of correlation in cross validation (R) and root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) were 0.985 and 1.162, respectively. In addition, interval PLS was applied to optimize the models by selecting the most appropriate regions in the spectra, improving the prediction accuracy (R = 0.992 and RMSECV = 0.967). Results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis can provide rapid, nondestructive discrimination of wheat varieties. PMID:26024421

  10. Influence of barley varieties on wort quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Signe; Damgaard, Jacob; Petersen, Mikael A; Jespersen, Birthe M; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N

    2013-02-27

    Wort from the barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) Pallas, Fero, and Archer grown on the same location were investigated for their influence on oxidative stability and volatile profile during wort processing. Barley varieties had a small influence on radical formation, thiol-removing capacity, and volatile profile. Wort boiling with and without hops had a large influence on these same parameters. Potentially antioxidative thiols were oxidized in sweet wort, but reduction of thiols using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride revealed that Archer wort had a significantly larger content of total thiols than Pallas and Fero. Oxidized thiols resulted in gel proteins and longer filtration time for Archer wort. Our study shows that wort processing to a large extent will eliminate variations in volatile profile and thiol levels in wort which otherwise might arise from different barley varieties.

  11. Drought Monitoring and Forecasting: Experiences from the US and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Justin; Chaney, Nate; Yuan, Xing; Wood, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Drought has important but very different consequences regionally due to differences in vulnerability. These differences derive from variations in exposure related to climate variability and change, sensitivity of local populations, and coping capacity at all levels. Managing the risk of drought impacts relies on a variety of measures to reduce vulnerability that includes forewarning of drought development through early-warning systems. Existing systems rely on a variety of observing systems from satellites to local observers, modeling tools, and data dissemination methods. They range from sophisticated state-of-the-art systems to simple ground reports. In some regions, systems are virtually non-existent due to limited national capacity. This talk describes our experiences in developing and implementing drought monitoring and seasonal forecast systems in the US and sub-Saharan Africa as contrasting examples of the scientific challenges and user needs in developing early warning systems. In particular, early warning can help improve livelihoods based on subsistence farming in sub-Saharan Africa; whist reduction of economic impacts is generally foremost in the US. For the US, our national drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system has been operational for over 8 years and provides near real-time updates on hydrological states at ~12km resolution and hydrological forecasts out to 9 months. Output from the system contributes to national assessments such as from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the US National Drought Monitor (USDM). For sub-Saharan Africa, our experimental drought monitoring system was developed as a translation of the US system but presents generally greater challenges due to, for example, lack of ground data and unique user needs. The system provides near real-time updates based on hydrological modeling and satellite based precipitation estimates, and has recently been augmented by a seasonal forecast component. We discuss the

  12. Tutorials for Africa - Malaria: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    Tutorials for Africa: Malaria In Uganda, the burden of malaria outranks that of all other diseases. This tutorial includes information about how malaria spreads, the importance of treatment and techniques for ...

  13. Population Explosion in Africa: Further Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidore, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains that population growth in Africa has caused a deterioration of vegetation and soil resources. This deterioration has resulted from overgrazing, too frequent and too extensive burning of the vegetation, and overcultivation. (Author/AV)

  14. The Problems of Science in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Rodney T.; Kaunda, Loveness

    1997-11-01

    What good is science for a developing country? Will it vanquish flimsy schooling, inappropriate technology, and unresponsive elites? Well, it might, and it must. In today's South Africa, the problems of education are the problems of science.

  15. Documentary Note: Rural Refugees in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Tristram F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the issue of spontaneous refugee resettlement in Africa in which peasant families have fled across boundaries which bisect common tribal groupings. Presents options available to formal agencies when assisting this resettlement process. (MK)

  16. Conscientious Objectives: Campuses Respond to South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexter, Holly

    1985-01-01

    In the wake of political pressures and deteriorating conditions in South Africa, many campuses are reviewing their investment policies and considering other contributions. The rising interest in educational initiatives is discussed including establishment of scholarships for South African students. (MLW)

  17. EPA Collaboration with Sub-Saharan Africa

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s environmental program in Sub-Saharan Africa is focused on addressing Africa’s growing urban and industrial pollution issues, such as air quality, water quality, electronics waste and indoor air from cookstoves.

  18. Alkaloid patterns in some varieties of Datura stramonium.

    PubMed

    Berkov, Strahil; Zayed, Rawia; Doncheva, Tsvetelina

    2006-04-01

    A comparative GC-MS investigation of the alkaloid patterns of three varieties of Datura stramonium vars. stramonium, tatula and godronii, was carried out. Twenty-five tropane alkaloids were identified in the plant organs. Alkaloid patterns of the roots, leaves and seeds of the varieties grown at equal conditions in Bulgaria were very similar. In contrast, alkaloid pattern of D. stramonium var. stramonium, grown in Egypt, showed significant differences indicating that it is influenced more strongly by the environmental factors than genetic ones.

  19. Identification of granite varieties from colour spectrum data.

    PubMed

    Araújo, María; Martínez, Javier; Ordóñez, Celestino; Vilán, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The granite processing sector of the northwest of Spain handles many varieties of granite with specific technical and aesthetic properties that command different prices in the natural stone market. Hence, correct granite identification and classification from the outset of processing to the end-product stage optimizes the management and control of stocks of granite slabs and tiles and facilitates the operation of traceability systems. We describe a methodology for automatically identifying granite varieties by processing spectral information captured by a spectrophotometer at various stages of processing using functional machine learning techniques.

  20. The value of variety and scarcity across development.

    PubMed

    Echelbarger, Margaret; Gelman, Susan A

    2017-04-01

    An important task that children face is determining the value of items, and two possible cues to value include scarcity and variety. In three studies with 289 children aged 4-12years and 148 adults, we examined the use of these cues to guide choices when making selections among items. At all ages, participants typically preferred varied sets for themselves and others. In contrast, scarce items were rarely preferred to abundant items. However, when in the context of multiple recipients, participants selected scarce and varied items more when items were maximally scarce. Our results suggest that the preference for variety is early emerging, whereas the preference for scarce items is context dependent.

  1. Strategy for the Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-16

    International Monetary Fund to restructure their lending policies towards Africa. Africa cannot compete with the develoned world. Current lending policies ...year war in Eritrea. Ethiopia foreign and domestic policies have been derived from the desire to acquire access to the Red Sea. The EPLF (Eritrean...regarding policy and power rivalry led to the killing of many senior military and government officers. In 1977, Lt Col Mengistu Haile Mariam took 5 the

  2. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  3. Africa and the War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-17

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL31247 Africa and the War...Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress,100 Independence Ave, SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...the many messages of sympathy and solidarity sent by Africans.” Bush Administration officials note that Africa, with its large Muslim population, can

  4. Mongoose rabies in southern Africa: a re-evaluation based on molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nel, L H; Sabeta, C T; von Teichman, B; Jaftha, J B; Rupprecht, C E; Bingham, J

    2005-05-01

    Relative to the developed world, rabies has been poorly studied in the vast African continent. The southern African countries of Zimbabwe and South Africa, however, are known to sustain a great diversity of lyssaviruses, with large biological variations amongst genotype 1 (rabies viruses) at present more apparent here than elsewhere on the continent. One recognized biotype of rabies virus in the subcontinent appears to be specifically adapted to a variety of mongooses, belonging to the Viverrinae subfamily (family Herpestidae) and are commonly referred to as viverrid viruses, although the term mongoose rabies would be more correct, considering the taxonomic status of the host species involved. It was our objective to study the genetic relationships of 77 rabies virus isolates of this mongoose biotype, isolated in South Africa and Zimbabwe, towards elucidation of the molecular epidemiology of this interesting group of African viruses. In our study of a 592 nucleotide sequence encompassing the cytoplasmic domain of the glycoprotein and the G-L intergenic region of the viral genomes, we provide the first comprehensive data on the molecular epidemiology of these viruses and indicate a history of extended evolutionary adaptation in this geographical domain. The molecular epidemiological observations reported here are highly unlikely to be limited to the small geographical areas of South Africa and Zimbabwe and illustrate the need for lyssavirus surveillance in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa and throughout the entire continent.

  5. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: effects of variety and tuber storage time.

    PubMed

    Elmore, J Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G; Mottram, Donald S

    2015-09-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed.

  6. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  7. In Brief: New atlas of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-07-01

    A newly revised atlas of Africa features more than 300 satellite images that show striking before and after photographs of environmental changes spanning about 35 years. Africa: Atlas of Our Changing Environment, compiled by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), provides visual evidence of how development choices, population growth, climate change, and, in some cases, conflicts affect Africa, often negatively. The book includes photographs of shrinking glaciers on Mount Kilimanjaro as well as on Uganda's Rwenzori Mountains; deforestation along an expanding road system in the Congo; the drying up of Lake Chad; and the expansion of urban areas such as Cape Town, South Africa, and Dakar, Senegal. Satellite images also indicate some positive signs of environmental management, including action to stop overgrazing in a Tunisian national park, the effects of a management plan for a dam in Zambia that has helped restore seasonal flooding, and positive impacts of wetlands expansion around a national park in Mauritania. For more information, visit http://www.unep.org/dewa/africa/AfricaAtlas.

  8. Emigration dynamics in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1995-01-01

    This report on the emigration dynamics at work in Western Africa opens by noting that this region comprises an important migration system with large legal and illegal movements of people within the region and to industrialized countries. Migration has been fueled by high growth rates coupled with lower growth rates of per capital income. Migration takes the form of continuing inflow into receiving countries, such as the Ivory Coast, sudden changes in migration status (in Ghana and Nigeria) reflecting sudden economic changes, a brain drain to developed countries, and an influx of refugees. The second section of the report presents a brief look at historical migratory patterns, including those of nomads which continue today. Data limitations are addressed in section 3, and the drawbacks of census data for migration information are noted. The next section describes the economic and demographic factors in the region which contribute to migration. These include the long lasting effects of colonization in general, the exploitation of minerals, patterns of agricultural development, poverty, and population growth. A closer examination of these forces at work is provided in case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, and the migration stream from Burkina Faso to the Ivory Coast. Section 5 looks at the economic causes and effects of the brain drain. Social and cultural factors are covered in section 6, with an emphasis placed on family and migration networks. Section 7 covers political factors influencing migration, such as the efforts of people to retain contact with other members of their ethnic group who may live on the opposite side of an arbitrarily drawn (by colonizers) international border, the designation of administrative capital cities, and the ease in crossing borders without documentation. The next section describes the 1975 formation of the Economic Community for West Africa (ECOWAS) and its protocols regarding free movement of citizens within the states which comprise the

  9. PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF CARTRIDGE AND SHELL CASINGS. THIS DEPARTMENT WAS TRANSFORMED FROM A MONEY-LOSING OPERATION TO A PROFIT CENTER UNDER THE FIRST WORKER-MANAGED QUALITY CIRCLE IN THE PLANT. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. Pedagogic Implications of Regionally-Determined Varieties of Cameroon English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubanako, Valentine Njende

    2011-01-01

    With much regional variation in Cameroon English, language learning and teaching becomes very much affected in Cameroon. As the same users make use of the various forms of English as the changing circumstances require, it becomes more and more difficult for them to make clear distinctions between the varieties, and somehow all of these varieties…

  11. Response of crapemyrtle varieties to Cercospora leaf spot, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crapemyrtle varieties, Lagerstroemia spp., were evaluated for Cercospora leaf spot in two field test evaluations, planted in either 2004 or 2011 at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. The experimental designs for both test evaluations were a randomized complete block design...

  12. Grain and Flour Characterization of Four Different Sorghum Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an increasing number of people with celiac disease, the need for gluten-free products is on the rise. Sorghum is a grain tolerated by celiac patients which can be used in gluten-free foods. The grain and flour of four sorghum varieties were characterized through physical and chemical means. ...

  13. New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almond, J. C.

    1966-01-01

    Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.

  14. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 47th edition, one newly released apricot cultivar and five pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are des...

  15. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 48

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 48th edition, one newly released apricot cultivar is described in terms of its origin, important fruit ...

  16. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 46

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 46th edition, 5 newly released apricot cultivars and 3 pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are descr...

  17. Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 45

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 45th edition, 7 newly released apricot cultivars and 11 pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are descri...

  18. Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 44

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world but with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 44th edition, 11 newly released apricot cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important...

  19. A Reader on Language Variety. Vol. 1, Exeter Linguistic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, C. S., Ed.; Hartmann, R. R. K., Ed.

    Although the study of language variety has wide implications in several fields, it is an aspect of linguistics that has been neglected for too long in theory and practice. This collection takes a comprehensive look at dialectal, social, and stylistic variation in human communication. The reader consists of 13 contributions grouped into three…

  20. Comparison of minor anthocyanins in different varieties of blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins consist of a 2-phenylbenzopyrylium moiety with a variety of polyhydroxyl, polymethoxyl, and glycosolated substituents. Their presence is responsible for the red to purplish colors associated with fresh fruits and berries. There is currently a strong interest in these compounds because...

  1. Chinese Perceptions of Inner Circle Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Betsy E.

    2010-01-01

    Research from populations around the world on attitudes to varieties of English is essential in order to have a better understanding of how the complexities of globalization play a role in the form of English as a world language. To that end, university students in China were asked to name countries around the world where they believe English is…

  2. Phenotypic and molecular variation in 44 vintage tomato varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important goal of tomato breeding is to create varieties that will provide high quality product for fresh consumption. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acidity (TA) are major components of fruit flavor and quality. Although several-thousand genotypes a...

  3. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  4. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  5. 78 FR 63448 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Notices #0; Federal...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is intended to notify...

  6. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  7. Culture, Class, and Language Variety: A Resource Book for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, A. L., Ed.

    Eleven articles illustrating linguistic and methodological considerations concerning culture, class, and language variety are compiled in this text. It is suggested that a familiarity with the ideas in this book will enable teachers of the disadvantaged to improve their linguistic perspectives and teaching skills. The articles include: (1)…

  8. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  9. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  12. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  13. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  14. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  15. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  16. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  17. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  18. Sociolinguistic Issues in Non-Native Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sridhar, Kamal K.

    A careful study of second language varieties (SLVs) of English, which have not yet entered the mainstream of sociolinguistic research because of neglect and misunderstanding, shows that they are qualitatively different from the categories recognized in current sociolinguistic typology. SLVs provide some of the clearest evidence of sociocultural…

  19. Developing Critical Thinking Skills through a Variety of Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Karen; Guenther, Traci; Veerman, Cathy

    This action research project sought to develop students' critical thinking skills by implementing a variety of instructional strategies. Targeted for this study were students in one early childhood special education program, one kindergarten class, and one eighth grade science class. The deficit in critical thinking and problem-solving skills was…

  20. Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica) varieties.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Bertoldi, Michele C; Krenek, Kimberley; Talcott, Stephen T; Stringheta, Paulo C; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2010-04-14

    Many polyphenolics contained in mango have shown anticancer activity. The objective of this study was to compare the anticancer properties of polyphenolic extracts from several mango varieties (Francis, Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Haden) in cancer cell lines, including Molt-4 leukemia, A-549 lung, MDA-MB-231 breast, LnCap prostate, and SW-480 colon cancer cells and the noncancer colon cell line CCD-18Co. Cell lines were incubated with Ataulfo and Haden extracts, selected on the basis of their superior antioxidant capacity compared to the other varieties, where SW-480 and MOLT-4 were statistically equally most sensitive to both cultivars followed by MDA-MB-231, A-549, and LnCap in order of decreasing efficacy as determined by cell counting. The efficacy of extracts from all mango varieties in the inhibition of cell growth was tested in SW-480 colon carcinoma cells, where Ataulfo and Haden demonstrated superior efficacy, followed by Kent, Francis, and Tommy Atkins. At 5 mg of GAE/L, Ataulfo inhibited the growth of colon SW-480 cancer cells by approximately 72% while the growth of noncancer colonic myofibroblast CCD-18Co cells was not inhibited. The growth inhibition exerted by Ataulfo and Haden polyphenolics in SW-480 was associated with an increased mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic biomarkers and cell cycle regulators, cell cycle arrest, and a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, polyphenolics from several mango varieties exerted anticancer effects, where compounds from Haden and Ataulfo mango varieties possessed superior chemopreventive activity.

  1. Downstaging cancer in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngoma, Twalib; Mandeli, John; Holland, James F

    2015-06-15

    Cancer is usually diagnosed late in rural Africa leading to incurability and abbreviated survival. Many curable cancers present on the body surface, often recognizable early by laymen as suspicious, justifying professional referral. Cancer diagnoses in two randomly chosen Tanzanian villages were compared after conventional dispensary self-referral vs. proactive visits in the home. Village navigators organized trips for professional consultation. In the control village 21% were self-referred, 20% of them were sent on as suspicious, 78% had cancer (8% in men) 0.9% of the village population. In the intervention village 99% were screened, 14% were referred for professional opinion, 93% had cancer (32% in men) 1.6% (p < 0.01 compared with control village). In the second and third years similar activity yielded 0.5% cancer annually in the control village for a 3 year total of 1.86% whereas interventional villagers had 1.4% and 0.6% cancer for a 3 year total of 3.56% (p < 0.001). Downstaging was recognized in the second and third years of intervention from 23 to 51 to 74% Stages I and II (p < 0.001) but in the control village Stages I and II changed from 11% to 22% to 37% (p = NS). The greatest downstaging occurred in breast and cervix cancers.

  2. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  3. Occurrences and Effects of Drought across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Drought is a common occurrence in Africa and its effects vary temporally and spatially across the continent. The objective of this paper is to synthesize available information on droughts in Africa in order to discern emerging trends vis-à-vis spatiotemporal occurrences, impacts and adaptation. Drought forcings in the Sahelian region and southern Africa are predominately related to the passage of mid-latitude air masses while in locations near the equator is strongly linked to the position of ITCZ, except perhaps in the deserts where albedo may predominate. The review shows that drought occurrences have increased both temporally and spatially; its effects on the society vary across scales, and are influenced by political, economic, social, cultural, and ecological factors. The drought occurrence and its impacts varied spatially and temporally. The effect of drought also varied with socioeconomic sector; agriculture and pastoralism were the widely reported. The greater horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, has the most continuous record of droughts. The synthesis also reveals that a suite of drought adaptation strategies exists at the local scale; in contrasts, at the aggregate scale, coping strategies are scarce. Drought management tailored for specific livelihood system or societies are non-existent. The study found that occurrence of drought alongside issues related to the multiscale political economy affect the viability of most adaptation strategies used by societies across Africa. Drought management has been silent on the social, political, and economic dimensions that reasonably aggravate the vulnerability of lives and livelihood systems to this climatic hazard. The effect of drought and social pressures is relational and simultaneous to such a degree that differential vulnerability among communities across Africa is to be expected. Although scenarios about rainfall and drought vis-à-vis Africa are largely contested there is a general indication that most

  4. Step Into Africa: Elementary Level Activities Using Africa Is Not a Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Bahrenburg, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This book takes student inside the vast continent of Africa. The goal of these lessons is to provide young students with a look at contemporary Africa and to give them a feeling for the rich diversity of the many different nations of the continent. The lessons integrate language arts and geography, and some lessons include math. This book…

  5. The Africa Collection: An Annotated Historical Resource Bibliography for the Student of Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This annotated bibliographic collection of resources on Africa including non-fiction, fiction, texts, poetry, draft papers, addresses, periodicals, film, records, and travel agencies is designed to aid secondary students and their teachers interested in research on Africa. An instructional approach is taken, drawing upon examples to demonstrate…

  6. Financing Vocational Training in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Region Human Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziderman, Adrian

    This document is part of the World Bank's comprehensive study of post-basic education and training in Sub-Sahara Africa and includes findings from three short field studies conducted in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbawe in early 2001. Chapter titles are as follows: Executive Summary; Introduction; Conventional Patterns of Financing Training;…

  7. Generating public awareness in Africa. Advocacy for reproductive health: Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyong'o, D

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 the IPPF Africa Region undertook advocacy missions to six countries in the region to sensitize national leaders about family planning (FP). This mission was governed by the six challenges laid down in the IPPF's strategic plan, Vision 2000, and the program of action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. In Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania the concerns were adolescent sexuality, family life education, and services to youth. In Uganda unsafe abortion; while in the Central African Republic and Guinea sexual and reproductive health, unsafe abortion, the sexuality of youth, and the empowerment of women were the main issues. Documentation packages prepared for the mission included annual reports, periodicals, conference reports, booklets, and position papers. The target audiences were political leaders, national, regional, and international organizations, religious, educational, and media leaders, and the public. Press conferences were organized and lobbying was conducted with national family planning associations to strengthen networking and coalition building. In Ethiopia the IPPF president's visit pertained to the sexuality of young people. In Kenya the mission coincided with the controversy of introducing family life education in primary schools. A seminar in Nairobi brought together 100 influential people who came to an agreement on the necessity of such education. In Tanzania the advocacy team crusaded for reproductive health services for young people. The country's president fully supported FP activities even allowing the use of hospitals and health centers for the distribution of contraceptives. There was a visit to a teenage mothers' center providing vocational training and reproductive health counseling in Dar es Salaam. In Uganda UNFPA, USAID, and national family planning association representatives met to forge closer working relations and examine the issue of tax exemption for imported contraceptives

  8. The Role of the Colloquial Varieties in the Acquisition of the Standard Variety: The Case of Arabic Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the acquisition of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by second language (L2) learners and by heritage speakers of the colloquial varieties of Arabic. The study focused on three questions: (1) whether heritage speakers who enroll in college-level elementary MSA classes have an advantage over their L2 counterparts, (2) whether any…

  9. South Africa: Distance Higher Education Policies for Access, Social Equity, Quality, and Social and Economic Responsiveness in a Context of the Diversity of Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badat, Saleem

    2005-01-01

    The principal concern of this paper is the implication of the increasing diversity of higher education provision in South Africa for equity of access and opportunity for historically disadvantaged social groups, high-quality provision, and social and economic responsiveness in distance higher education. This diversity is signalled by a variety of…

  10. Grazing lands in Sub-Saharan Africa and their potential role in climate change mitigation: What we do and don’t know

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazinglands cover much of sub-Saharan Africa. When well-managed, these lands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, many of which are positively correlated with increase in soil carbon. Pastoralists and other land managers are currently rewarded primarily for the production of animal product...

  11. Plague in Africa from 1935 to 1949

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D. H. S.

    1953-01-01

    The history of plague in Africa during the period 1935-49 is reviewed. Much of the information derives from a questionnaire sent to all African territories in 1950. The annual incidence of plague in Africa declined, particularly from 1946 onwards. In 1949, under 400 cases were reported, as compared with over 6,000 in 1935. By the end of 1949, plague was still active in the Belgian Congo, Kenya and Tanganyika, Madagascar, and southern Africa. No cases were reported from Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, or Uganda during 1949. A comparison of the seasonal incidence of plague with prevailing atmospheric conditions (temperature and rainfall) in African territories shows that human plague is more frequent in warm moist weather—60°-80°F (15°-27°C)—than in hot dry, or cold, weather—over 80°F (27°C) or under 60°F (15°C). The highlands of equatorial Africa and of Madagascar appear to provide the optimum environment for the persistence of plague on the domestic (murine) plane and the high-veld and Kalahari of southern Africa on the sylvatic plane. The rat (Rattus rattus) and the multimammate mouse (R. (Mastomys) natalensis) and their fleas Xenopsylla brasiliensis and X. cheopis appear to be mainly responsible for the persistence of the reservoir in the East African highlands; R. rattus and X. cheopis play this role in Madagascar. The gerbils (Tatera and Desmodillus) and their burrow fleas X. philoxera and X. piriei are the main reservoirs of plague in southern Africa. Within these areas, Pasteurella pestis finds an environment suitable for its continued survival; the conditions seem to be comparable to those defined as obtaining in endemic centres in India. Elsewhere in Africa such endemic centres do not appear to exist. PMID:13115987

  12. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    PubMed

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  13. Africa's inevitable walk to genetically modified (GM) crops: opportunities and challenges for commercialization.

    PubMed

    Okeno, James A; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Misra, Manjit K; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2013-01-25

    High relative poverty levels in Africa are attributed to the continent's under performing agriculture. Drought, low-yielding crop varieties, pests and diseases, poor soils, low fertilizer use, limited irrigation and lack of modern technologies are among the problems that plague African agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) crops may possess attributes that can help overcome some of these constraints, but have yet to be fully embraced in the mix of technology solutions for African agriculture. Cognizant of this, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt are steadily growing GM crops on a commercial scale. Countries like Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda are increasingly field-testing these crops with the view to commercialize them. These countries show strong government support for GM technology. Progress by these first adopter nations provides an insight as to how GM crops are increasingly being viewed as one of the ways in which the continent can invigorate the agriculture sector and achieve food security.

  14. First Ground-based Observation of Transient Luminous Events over Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnadih, Ogechukwu; Kosch, Michael; Martinez, Peter

    2016-07-01

    We present the first ground-based observations in southern Africa of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) in the summer of 2015/16 over convective thunderstorms. For the months of December to February, South Africa has one of the highest lightning stroke rates in the world. This was part of the AfriSprite campaign initiated by the South African National Space Agency. These observations show a variety of fine structures such as tree-like shaped, carrot, angel and jellyfish-shaped sprites. The South African Weather Service array of VLF receivers is used to locate and quantify the magnitude and polarity of the lightning strikes associated with TLEs. We plan to make bi-static as well as multi-wavelength observations in future.

  15. Human rights, mental illness, and HIV: the Luthando Neropsychiatric HIV Clinic in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Greg; Furin, Jennifer; Jeenah, Fatema; Moosa, M Y; Sivepersad, Reshmi; Kalafatis, Fran; Schoeman, Janine

    2011-12-15

    HIV is the leading infectious killer of adults in the world today and a majority of persons with HIV live in southern Africa. Mental illness is common among patients with HIV. Persons with HIV and mental illness, however, are often denied access to HIV treatment for a variety of reasons, including presumed non-adherence, potential drug interactions, and lack of coordinated care. The exclusion of the mentally ill from HIV care is a concerning human rights issue. This paper discusses some of the human rights issues in the care of patients with mental illness and HIV and describes a successful model for integrated care developed at the Luthando Neuropsychiatric HIV Clinic in Soweto, South Africa. The Luthando clinic has provided care to more than 500 patients and has been shown to be a successful model for other programs to improve HIV care among the mentally ill.

  16. [Ecological regionalization of cotton varieties based on GGE biplot].

    PubMed

    Xu, Nai-Yin; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Li, Jian; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2013-03-01

    By using the heritability-adjusted GGE biplot analysis method, and taking the trial sites Anqing, Nanyang, Huanggang, Jingzhou, Wuhan, Xiangyang, Changde, Yueyang, Nanjing, Nantong, Yancheng, Jiujiang, Jianyang, Shehong, and Cixi as the representative cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin, the ecological regionalization of cotton varieties in the basin was made based on the lint cotton yield, and the regionalization results were adjusted by the information ratio (IR) method, aimed to provide scientific basis for the selection of cotton varieties in the cotton-planting areas of the basin. The cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin could be divided into three ecological regions, i.e., the "Sichuan basin cotton region" with Jianyang and Shehong as the representative, the "Nan-Xiang basin cotton region" with Xiangyang and Nanyang as the representative, and the "majority complex cotton region in the Yangtze River basin" including all the other sites in the basin.

  17. Mathematical modeling of biological growth for some Vicia faba varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    Vicia faba is one of the legume species of importance for human and animal nutrition. Over the past decade, the areas cultivated with this species have significantly increased. Given that the levels of the yield and quality obtained from this species depend largely on the specific soil and climate conditions, the present paper focuses on the study of the morpho-productive features under the conditions in Banat Plain, in the west of Romania. A collection of varieties and genetic lines was studied, with focus on the interdependence between plant height, characteristics of the foliage and in the end the foliar surface of the leaf and of the entire plant. The observations led to the conclusion that variety Melodie has the best response of biological growth on the plain.

  18. Systems of elements preserving measure on varieties of groups

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshenko, E I

    2013-12-31

    It is proved that for any l, 1≤l≤r, a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) of a free metabelian group S of rank r≥2 is primitive if and only if it preserves measure on the variety of metabelian groups A{sup 2}. From this we obtain the result that a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) is primitive in the group S if and only if it is primitive in its profinite completion S-hat . Furthermore, it is proved that there exist a variety M and a nonprimitive element v∈F{sub r}(M) such that v preserves measure on M. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  19. [Breeding of new Curcuma wenyujin variety "Wenyujin No. 1"].

    PubMed

    Tao, Zheng-Ming; Jiang, Wu; Zheng, Fu-Bo; Wu, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    In order to breed and spread a new cultivar of Curcuma wenyujin, the C. wenyujin germplasm resources were investigated in authentic regions. Better varieties were chosen by comparing the yield, economic characters and quality differences between different cultivars. The results showed that the character of new selected cultivar was stable, the yield of zedoary, turmeric and curcuma was reached 313.7, 177.9, 91.2 kg per 667 m2, respectively, it increased 11.6%, 10.2%, 14.2% comparing with farmer varieties. The volatile oil contents in zedoary and turmeric was 4.0%, 3.0%, respectively. The target ingredients (germacrone) content was stable. It is demonstrated that the new cultivar "Wenyujin No. 1" has value for extension at authentic regions.

  20. Variety of neutron sensors based on scintillating glass waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.

    1995-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has fabricated cerium-activated lithium silicate glass scintillating fiber waveguide neutron sensors via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have a transmission length (e-1 length) of greater than 2 meters. The underlying physics of, the properties of, and selected devices incorporating these fibers are described. These fibers constitute an enabling technology for a wide variety of neutron sensors.

  1. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  2. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  3. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-10-10

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology.

  4. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J.C.B.; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J.; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L. Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M.; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

  5. Gamagrass varieties as potential feedstock for fermentable sugar production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Zhang, Ximing; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Eubanks, Mary W

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the potential of gamagrass as a feedstock for biofuels, seven gamagrass varieties were analyzed for their chemical composition and subjected to pretreatment at 121 °C using 1% NaOH/H(2)SO(4) (w/w) for 60 min and enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugar production. Based on total sugar yield, the varieties Eagle Point Devil Corn and Sun Devil were selected for NaOH and H(2)SO(4) pretreatment, respectively. The investigation on pretreatment conditions showed that, the conditions applied in gamagrass variety screening (121 °C, 1% NaOH/H(2)SO(4), 60 min) were sufficient to maximize sugar production, such that the total sugar yield of Eagle Point Devil Corn reached 479.6 mg g(-1) after NaOH pretreatment and that of Sun Devil reached 456.5 mg g(-1) raw biomass after H(2)SO(4) pretreatment. Compared with other potential energy crops including switchgrass and Bermuda grass, gamagrass gave a higher sugar yield after NaOH pretreatment and a comparable sugar yield after H(2)SO(4) pretreatment.

  6. Crystal structures of low-symmetry cancrinite and cancrisilite varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Rozenberg, K. A.; Olysych, L. V.

    2007-09-01

    The high-sodium variety of cancrinite [Si6.3Al5.7O24][Na2(H2O)2][Na5.7(CO3)0.9(SO4)0.1(H2O)0.6] (Kovdor Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia) and the calcium-containing variety of cancrisilite [Si6.6Al5.4O24][(Na1.2Ca0.4)(H2O)1.6][Na6(CO3)1.3(H2O)1.2] (Khibiny Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia) are studied. The trigonal unit cell parameters of the crystal structures under investigation are as follows: a = 12.727(4) Å, c = 5.186(2) Å, and space group P3 for the former mineral and a = 12.607(4) Å, c = 5.111(1) Å, and space group P3 for the latter mineral. The reduced symmetry of the new varieties as compared to the symmetry of typical cancrinite and typical cancrisilite is associated with the specific features in the arrangement of the carbonate groups and water molecules in channels. This inference is confirmed by the IR spectroscopic data.

  7. Postharvest quality and shelf life of some hot pepper varieties.

    PubMed

    Samira, Awole; Woldetsadik, Kebede; Workneh, Tilahun S

    2013-10-01

    Five hot pepper varieties were grown at Haramaya University Research Farm, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. The experiment was undertaken using completely randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications. Green peppers were stored under ambient and evaporatively cooled conditions. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences were observed among cultivars and storage conditions in changes in quality of pepper. Storage at ambient conditions resulted in high weight loss and rapid deterioration in chemical composition. The highest and lowest moisture contents were recorded in Melka Eshet and PBC 600, respectively. Evaporative cooler reduced weight loss and maintained higher levels of pH, ascorbic acid and marketability. The highest weight loss was recorded in Melka Dima stored at ambient condition. The lowest weight loss and highest ascorbic acid content was obtained in Mareko Fana stored in evaporative cooler. After 16 days of storage, all pepper fruits stored at ambient condition were unmarketable while those stored in evaporative cooler were kept up to 28 days. The highest pungency level was observed in ambient storage environment than in evaporative cooler. Evaporative cooling was shown to improve shelf life by four-fold compared to the ambient condition. The shelf life of pepper was improved in all varieties tested while the quality characteristics were maintained better in Mareko Fana than in the other varieties when harvested at mature-green stage and stored under evaporatively cooled storage.

  8. Interdisciplinarity and impact: distinct effects of variety, balance, and disparity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Thijs, Bart; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research is increasingly recognized as the solution to today's challenging scientific and societal problems, but the relationship between interdisciplinary research and scientific impact is still unclear. This paper studies the association between the degree of interdisciplinarity and the number of citations at the paper level. Different from previous studies compositing various aspects of interdisciplinarity into a single indicator, we use factor analysis to uncover distinct dimensions of interdisciplinarity corresponding to variety, balance, and disparity. We estimate Poisson models with journal fixed effects and robust standard errors to analyze the divergent relationships between these three factors and citations. We find that long-term (13-year) citations (1) increase at an increasing rate with variety, (2) decrease with balance, and (3) increase at a decreasing rate with disparity. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity also affects the process of citation accumulation: (1) although variety and disparity have positive effects on long-term citations, they have negative effects on short-term (3-year) citations, and (2) although balance has a negative effect on long-term citations, its negative effect is insignificant in the short run. These findings have important implications for interdisciplinary research and science policy.

  9. Interdisciplinarity and Impact: Distinct Effects of Variety, Balance, and Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Thijs, Bart; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research is increasingly recognized as the solution to today’s challenging scientific and societal problems, but the relationship between interdisciplinary research and scientific impact is still unclear. This paper studies the association between the degree of interdisciplinarity and the number of citations at the paper level. Different from previous studies compositing various aspects of interdisciplinarity into a single indicator, we use factor analysis to uncover distinct dimensions of interdisciplinarity corresponding to variety, balance, and disparity. We estimate Poisson models with journal fixed effects and robust standard errors to analyze the divergent relationships between these three factors and citations. We find that long-term (13-year) citations (1) increase at an increasing rate with variety, (2) decrease with balance, and (3) increase at a decreasing rate with disparity. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity also affects the process of citation accumulation: (1) although variety and disparity have positive effects on long-term citations, they have negative effects on short-term (3-year) citations, and (2) although balance has a negative effect on long-term citations, its negative effect is insignificant in the short run. These findings have important implications for interdisciplinary research and science policy. PMID:26001108

  10. The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2013-04-01

    Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

  11. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium: A Key to Developing the Future Geoscience Workforce in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkhonjera, E.

    2011-12-01

    Africa is facing serious challenges in geoscience education. This has been as a result of absence of or very young/small Earth Science Departments in some universities (e.g., Mauritius, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Malawi): Limited capacity (staff and equipment needed for practicals) to cope with the growing number of students, compounded by brain drain of academic staffs and the fact that current tertiary programmes do not seem to produce graduates suitable for the industry are some of the contributing factors to the challenges, (UNESCO-AEON Report, 2009). As such Earth Science studies in Africa have been one of the career paths that has not been promoted or highly preferred by many students. In January 2011, the YES Network African chapter was launched through the YES Africa 2011 Symposium that took place at the University of Johannesburg South Africa in Conjunction with the 23rd Colloquium of Africa Geology from the 08-14th January 2011. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium was organized by five YES African National networks from Southern, Central, Eastern and Northern Africa to bring young geoscientists from all regions of Africa together to present their research about African geoscience topics. The symposium also included roundtable discussions about increasing the involvement of youth's participation in geoscience issues in Africa, about how to increase the number of youths in African geosciences education university programs, and about how to promote geoscience careers to university students in Africa c. Roundtable discussions revealed that many African colleges and universities do not provide adequate infrastructure and resources to support the students studying in the department. As such, most students graduate with poor preparation for geoscience careers, having gained a theoretical understanding of geology, but not the practical application of the discipline. The recommendations from the YES Africa 2011 Symposium also highlighted on the best ways of

  12. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R

    2009-03-01

    The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone) is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1) implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2) amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African

  13. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of adlay varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Chen, Jingyi; Xie, Huihui; Ju, Xingrong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-05-29

    Consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of developing major chronic diseases. These health benefits have been attributed in part to their unique phytochemicals. Little is known about the complete profiles of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of different adlay varieties. The objectives of this study were to determine the phytochemicals profiles of the three adlay varieties, including both free and bound of total phenolics and total flavonoids, and to determine the total antioxidant activity of adlay. The free, bound, and total phenolic contents of adlay samples ranged from 31.23 to 45.19 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, from 28.07 to 30.86 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, and from 59.30 to 76.04 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, respectively. On average, the bound phenolics contributed 45.3% of total phenolic content of the adlay varieties analyzed. The free, bound, and total flavonoid contents of adlay samples ranged from 6.21 to 18.24 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, from 18.68 to 35.27 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, and from 24.88 to 52.86 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, respectively. The average values of bound flavonoids contributed 71.1% of total flavonoids of the adlay varieties analyzed. The percentage contribution of flavonoid content to phenolic content of free, bound, and total ranged from 11.6 to 35.2%, from 50.5 to 66.8%, and from 24.6 to 50.5%. The free, bound, and total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of adlay samples ranged from 231.9 to 316.6 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, from 209.0 to 351.4 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, and from 440.9 to 668.0 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, respectively. The average ORAC values of bound phytochemicals contributed 48.1% of total antioxidant activity of the adlay varieties analyzed. The content of total polyphenol and the antioxidant capacity are obviously different among different species. Liaoning 5 adlay and Longyi 1 adlay are significantly better than Guizhou

  14. Variety of Behavior of Equity Returns in Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Giovanni; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2001-03-01

    The price dynamics of a set of equities traded in an efficient market is pretty complex. It consists of almost not redundant time series which have (i) long-range correlated volatility and (ii) cross-correlation between each pair of equities. We perform a study of the statistical properties of an ensemble of equities returns which is fruitful to elucidate the nature and role of time and ensemble correlation. Specifically, we investigate a statistical ensemble of daily returns of n equities traded in United States financial markets. For each trading day of our database, we study the ensemble return distribution. We find that a typical ensemble return distribution exists in most of the trading days [1] with the exception of crash and rally days and of the days following to these extreme events [2]. We analyze each ensemble return distribution by extracting its first two central moments. We call the second moment of the ensemble return distribution the variety of the market. We choose this term because high variety implies a variated behavior of the equities returns in the considered day. We observe that the mean return and the variety are fluctuating in time and are stochastic processes themselves. The variety is a long-range correlated stochastic process. Customary time-averaged statistical properties of time series of stock returns are also considered. In general, time-averaged and portfolio-averaged returns have different statistical properties [1]. We infer from these differences information about the relative strength of correlation between equities and between different trading days. We also compare our empirical results with those predicted by the single-index model and we conclude that this simple model is unable to explain the statistical properties of the second moment of the ensemble return distribution. Correlation between pairs of equities are continuously present in the dynamics of a stock portfolio. Hence, it is relevant to investigate pair correlation

  15. 'Africa Alive Corridors': Forging a new future for the people of Africa by the people of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix Toteu, Sadrack; Malcolm Anderson, John; de Wit, Maarten

    2010-11-01

    ' Africa Alive Corridors' (AAC) addresses major stewardship goals in Africa through a selection of 20 heritage Corridors (varying from 1000 to 4000 km in length and 50 to 100 km wide). These include more than 400 heritage nodes (World Heritage Sites, Biosphere Reserves, biodiversity hotspots, Geoparks, etc.). AAC tracks Africa's journey from around 4 billion years ago to the present day through these chronologically sequenced Corridors. And so, the 4-billion-year autobiography of the continent is told. It encompasses the geological, biological and anthropological/cultural history of Africa's 54 nations - a (hi-) story without borders. The wealth of scientific and biographical knowledge archived in this network of Corridors tells the story of continental drift, mega-geohazards, climate variability and change, and the origin and extinction of biodiversity; and includes our human roots, culture and spirituality, our impact on the Earth and our potential to influence its future. In telling this story of Africa, new research avenues will be discovered and new learning methodologies will be experienced and developed and shared. In this way, the AAC provide loci along which the eight UN-Millennium Development Goals may be readily and realistically achieved. In concert, they can form the basis for a new collective endeavour - of Pan African Earth Stewardship Science. In this, the final - 2010 - phase of IYPE (the International Year of Planet Earth), we aim to make a start at bringing the ' Africa Alive Corridors' into real-life context. Whilst the concept of the Corridors has been formulated and presented at various international forums—most recently in Africa at the launch of IYPE in Arusha, Tanzania, in May 2008—here we present in brief their conceptual framework, and summarize the rationale behind the selection of the 20 African Corridors. Then, we describe, for the first time, how the AAC concept might evolve. To achieve the latter, we focus on an exploratory

  16. Obtaining informed consent for genomics research in Africa: analysis of H3Africa consent documents

    PubMed Central

    Munung, Nchangwi Syntia; Marshall, Patricia; Campbell, Megan; Littler, Katherine; Masiye, Francis; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Seeley, Janet; Stein, D J; Tindana, Paulina; de Vries, Jantina

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in genomic and biobanking research worldwide has led to the development of different informed consent models for use in such research. This study analyses consent documents used by investigators in the H3Africa (Human Heredity and Health in Africa) Consortium. Methods A qualitative method for text analysis was used to analyse consent documents used in the collection of samples and data in H3Africa projects. Thematic domains included type of consent model, explanations of genetics/genomics, data sharing and feedback of test results. Results Informed consent documents for 13 of the 19 H3Africa projects were analysed. Seven projects used broad consent, five projects used tiered consent and one used specific consent. Genetics was mostly explained in terms of inherited characteristics, heredity and health, genes and disease causation, or disease susceptibility. Only one project made provisions for the feedback of individual genetic results. Conclusion H3Africa research makes use of three consent models—specific, tiered and broad consent. We outlined different strategies used by H3Africa investigators to explain concepts in genomics to potential research participants. To further ensure that the decision to participate in genomic research is informed and meaningful, we recommend that innovative approaches to the informed consent process be developed, preferably in consultation with research participants, research ethics committees and researchers in Africa. PMID:26644426

  17. Air Quality Impact of Diffuse and Inefficient Combustion Emissions in Africa (DICE-Africa).

    PubMed

    Marais, Eloise A; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-10-04

    Anthropogenic pollution in Africa is dominated by diffuse and inefficient combustion sources, as electricity access is low and motorcycles and outdated cars proliferate. These sources are missing, out-of-date, or misrepresented in state-of-the-science emission inventories. We address these deficiencies with a detailed inventory of Diffuse and Inefficient Combustion Emissions in Africa (DICE-Africa) for 2006 and 2013. Fuelwood for energy is the largest emission source in DICE-Africa, but grows from 2006 to 2013 at a slower rate than charcoal production and use, and gasoline and diesel for motorcycles, cars, and generators. Only kerosene use and gas flaring decline. Increase in emissions from 2006 to 2013 in this work is consistent with trends in satellite observations of formaldehyde and NO2, but much slower than the explosive growth projected with a fuel consumption model. Seasonal biomass burning is considered a large pollution source in Africa, but we estimate comparable emissions of black carbon and higher emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from DICE-Africa. Nitrogen oxide (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) emissions are much lower than from biomass burning. We use GEOS-Chem to estimate that the largest contribution of DICE-Africa to annual mean surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is >5 μg m(-3) in populous Nigeria.

  18. Genetic evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Murci, L; Semino, O; Bandelt, H J; Passarino, G; McElreavey, K; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A S

    1999-12-01

    The out-of-Africa scenario has hitherto provided little evidence for the precise route by which modern humans left Africa. Two major routes of dispersal have been hypothesized: one through North Africa into the Levant, documented by fossil remains, and one through Ethiopia along South Asia, for which little, if any, evidence exists. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be used to trace maternal ancestry. The geographic distribution and variation of mtDNAs can be highly informative in defining potential range expansions and migration routes in the distant past. The mitochondrial haplogroup M, first regarded as an ancient marker of East-Asian origin, has been found at high frequency in India and Ethiopia, raising the question of its origin. (A haplogroup is a group of haplotypes that share some sequence variations.) Its variation and geographical distribution suggest that Asian haplogroup M separated from eastern-African haplogroup M more than 50,000 years ago. Two other variants (489C and 10873C) also support a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. These findings, together with the virtual absence of haplogroup M in the Levant and its high frequency in the South-Arabian peninsula, render M the first genetic indicator for the hypothesized exit route from Africa through eastern Africa/western India. This was possibly the only successful early dispersal event of modern humans out of Africa.

  19. Socioeconomic differentials and availability of domestic water in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungumaro, Esther W.

    The past few decades has seen massive efforts to increasing provision of domestic water. However, water is still unavailable to many people most of them located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia. Furthermore, availability of water varies greatly both spatially and temporary. While other people pay so dearly for domestic water others have an easy access to adequate clean water and sanitation. Accessibility and affordability of domestic water and sanitation is determined by a great variety of factors including socioeconomic status of households. The main objective of the paper is to inform on factors which need to be taken into account when coming up with projects to provide domestic water. It is more critical when the issue of water pricing comes into the equation. Water pricing has many facets, including equity, willingness to pay and affordability. In this premise, it is deemed important to understand the socioeconomic characteristics of the people before deciding on the amount of money they will have to pay for water consumption. It is argued that understanding people’s socioeconomic situation will greatly help to ensure that principles of sustainability and equity in water allocation and pricing are achieved. To do so, the paper utilized 2002 South Africa General Household Survey (GHS), to analyze socioeconomic variables and availability of domestic water. Analysis was mainly descriptive. However, logistic regression analysis was also utilized to determine the likelihood of living in a household that obtain water from a safe source. The study found that there is a strong relationship between availability of domestic water and socioeconomic conditions. Economic status, household size and to a lesser extent gender of head of household were found to be strong predictors of living in a household which obtained water from a safe source. The paper recommends that needs and priorities for interventions in water provision should take into account

  20. Food, politics and population in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1976-02-01

    The food situation in Africa is discussed in light of the demographic realities of the region. The unique demographic situation of Africa, the continuing dependence of the region on grain imports, the low nutritional quality of food consumed over the greater part of the region, and the poor health conditions of most African children and mothers are underlined. The importance of the food situation to political stability is noted and the concern is expressed over the increasing time lag between the realization of the problem and action. The low priority given to Family Planning Programs is discussed. The urgency of increasing quality and quantity of food production in Africa and in particular the need for additional measures to decelerate the rate of population growth are underlined.

  1. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts.

    PubMed

    van Hensbroek, Michael B; Jonker, Femkje; Bates, Imelda

    2011-09-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of iron or folic acid, are associated with severe anaemia. Bacterial infections and, in very young children, hookworm infections are also common in severe anaemia. Irrespective of the aetiology, the mechanism causing severe anaemia is often red cell production failure. Severe anaemia in Africa is therefore a complex multi-factorial syndrome, which, even in an individual patient, is unlikely to be amenable to a single intervention. Policies and practices concerning anaemia diagnosis, treatment and prevention need to be substantially revised if we are to make a significant impact on the huge burden of severe anaemia in Africa.

  2. A survey of Simulium control in Africa.

    PubMed

    BROWN, A W

    1962-01-01

    It has become possible to control or even eradicate the Simulium fly vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative organism of onchocerciasis. There are two vectors in Africa-namely, S. damnosum, characteristic of the rivers of West Africa, and S. neavei, which breeds on the carapaces of crabs in the streams of East Africa. The use of DDT applied to the water at a concentration as low as 0.1 p.p.m. for 30 minutes eliminates the larvae of Simulium. Such larvicidal methods have eradicated S. neavei from western Kenya and virtually eradicated S. damnosum from the Victoria Nile in Uganda. Excellent control sufficient to render the transmission of onchocerciasis almost negligible has been obtained at Léopoldville (Republic of the Congo) and in circumscribed areas in southern Chad, Northern Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The following survey describes operational research on Simulium control carried out in Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, Chad, Nigeria, Ghana, Upper Volta and Sierra Leone.

  3. Applications of the IRI in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    The IRI forms the basis of the Single Site Location Direction Finding networks of the South African Defence Force as well as theNational Intelligence Agency. It is also used in "Path Analysis" applications where the possible transmitter coverage is calculated. Another application of the IRI is in HF frequency predictions, especially for the South African Defence Force involved in peace keeping duties in Africa. The IRI is either used independently or in conjunction with vertical ionosondes. In the latter case the scaled F2 peak parameters (foF2, hmF2) are used as inputs to the IRI. The IRI thus gets "calibrated" to extend the area covered by the ionosonde(s). The IRI has proved to be a very important tool in South Africa and Africa in the fight against crime, drug trafficking, political instability and maintaining the peace in potentially unstable countries.

  4. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  5. Children in Africa: Key Statistics on Child Survival, Protection and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report presents key statistics relating to: (1) child malnutrition in Africa; (2) HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Africa; (3) child marriage, birth registration and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C); (4) education in Africa; (5) child mortality in Africa; (6) Drinking water and sanitation in Africa; and (7) maternal health in Africa.…

  6. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    PubMed

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.

  7. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  8. Nephrology in Africa--not yet uhuru.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-10-01

    Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling.

  9. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J. G.; Raupach, M. R.; Houghton, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y-1 for the period 2000 2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y-1) and land use change (240 TgC y-1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000 2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y-1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y-1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y-1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/, close to the world average of 199 gC/. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  10. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J. G.; Raupach, M. R.; Houghton, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 Tg C y-1 for the period 2000-2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 Tg C y-1) and land use change (240 Tg C y-1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 Tg C accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000-2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y-1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 t C y-1 compared to the global average of 1.2 t C y-1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US{} of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa was 187 g C/ in 2005, close to the world average of 199 g C/. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  11. Multiplex flow-through immunoassay formats for screening of mycotoxins in a variety of food matrices.

    PubMed

    Ediage, E Njumbe; Di Mavungu, J Diana; Goryacheva, I Y; Van Peteghem, C; De Saeger, S

    2012-04-01

    Two multi-analyte flow-through immunoassay formats for rapid detection of mycotoxins in a variety of food matrices (peanut cake, maize, and cassava flour) were developed and evaluated. The selected food matrices are typical staple foods and export products for most low-income communities around the world. The assay formats included gel-based and membrane-based flow-through assays and were based on the principle of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using the same immunoreagents, the performance characteristics of both assays were compared. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on such a comparison. The gel-based format was developed to screen for ochratoxin A, fumonisin B(1), deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone detection at cut-off values of 3, 1,250, 1,000, and 200 μg kg(-1), respectively, while the membrane-based format can be used to screen ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B(1,) deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone at the following cut-offs: 3, 5, 700, and 175 μg kg(-1), respectively. The applicability of these assay formats was demonstrated by evaluating the performance characteristics of both tests through performing multiple experiments on different days. Both assays were further evaluated by analyzing naturally contaminated samples in the laboratory and also in the field under tropical conditions (Cameroon, West Africa). The false-negative rate with both formats was less than 5%, which is in good agreement with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC regarding the performance of analytical methods intended for screening purposes.

  12. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geyang; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Texture differences of cooked quinoa were studied among 13 different varieties. Correlations between the texture parameters and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking quality, flour pasting properties, and flour thermal properties were determined. The results showed that texture of cooked quinoa was significantly differed among varieties. 'Black,' 'Cahuil,' and 'Red Commercial' yielded harder texture, while '49ALC,' '1ESP,' and 'Col.#6197' showed softer texture. '49ALC,' '1ESP,' 'Col.#6197,' and 'QQ63' were more adhesive, while other varieties were not sticky. The texture profile correlated to physical--chemical properties in different ways. Protein content was positively correlated with all the texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters. Seed hardness was positively correlated with TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness at P ≤ 0.09. Seed density was negatively correlated with TPA hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness, whereas seed coat proportion was positively correlated with these TPA parameters. Increased cooking time of quinoa was correlated with increased hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. The water uptake ratio was inversely related to TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Rapid Visco Analyzer peak viscosity was negatively correlated with the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (P < 0.07); breakdown was also negatively correlated with those TPA parameters (P < 0.09); final viscosity and setback were negatively correlated with the hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness (P < 0.05); setback was correlated with the adhesiveness as well (r = -0.63, P = 0.02). Onset gelatinization temperature (To ) was significantly positively correlated with all the texture profile parameters, and peak temperature (Tp ) was moderately correlated with cohesiveness, whereas neither conclusion temperature (Tc ) nor enthalpy correlated with the texture of cooked quinoa.

  13. SERVIR-Africa: Developing an Integrated Platform for Floods Disaster Management in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.

  14. AfricaArray: Building science capacity and improving seismic networks in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Dirks, P.; Graham, G.

    2007-05-01

    AfricaArray is a long-term initiative to promote coupled training and research programs in geophysics for building and maintaining a scientific workforce for Africa's natural resource sector. The main goals of AfricaArray are to: 1) maintain and develop further geophysical training programs in Africa, in response to industry, government and university needs, 2) promote geophysical research in Africa, and establish an Africa-to-Africa research support system, 3) obtain geophysical data, through a network of shared observatories, to study scientific targets of economic and societal interest, as well as fundamental geological processes shaping the African continent. AfricaArray is supported by a public-private partnership consisting of many government organizations in the US and Africa, and mining and oil companies. AfricaArray has been built on existing programs and expertise within partner institutions and is being implemented in three phases over ten years. During Phase 1 (1/2005 - 12/2007), the educational program at the University of the Witwatersrand is being expanded and improved to provide B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degree training in geophysics for students from across Africa. Seismic stations are being installed or upgraded in participating countries to form a network of shared scientific observatories, and technical personnel are being trained to operate and maintain the seismic equipment. Data from the seismic stations are being used for student thesis research projects, and the seismic network is helping to catalyze scientific community building through educational and research collaborations. During subsequent phases (2007-2014), the in-situ education and research program will grow to provide B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. training for many more African students, the network of shared scientific observatories will be expanded, temporary networks of seismic stations will be installed, sustainable centers of excellence in geophysics will be established at other

  15. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  16. Unfair trade: e-waste in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Charles W

    2006-04-01

    Africa is quickly becoming a destination for information technology in the form of tons of used computers, fax machines, cell phones, and other electronics. Although many of these machines can be repaired and resold, up to 75% of the electronics shipped to Africa is junk. This equipment, when dumped, may leach lead, mercury, and cadmium into the environment; when burned, it may release carcinogenic dioxins and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In the United States, activists are working to limit the flow of e-waste to developing countries through international agreements and voluntary e-waste export reduction efforts.

  17. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa.

    PubMed

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever, a zoonotic viral infection, is endemic in West Africa. The disease causes annual wide spread morbidity and mortality in Africa, and can be imported by travelers. Possible importation of Lassa fever and the potential for the use of Lassa virus as an agent of bioterrorism mandate clinicians in Israel and other countries to be vigilant and familiar with the basic characteristics of this disease. The article reviews the basis of this infection and the clinical management of patients with Lassa fever. Special emphasis is given to antiviral treatment and infection control.

  18. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  19. HIV/AIDS and Africa's orphan crisis.

    PubMed

    Leyenaar, Joanna K

    2005-05-01

    The number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS in the developing world has reached crisis proportions. In Sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS has exacerbated poverty in many communities and has weakened the capacity of many countries to care for their orphaned children. The present article discusses orphanage care and its alternatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. The physical and mental health effects of parental loss are discussed and the psychosocial impacts of institutional care are reviewed. Foster care is discussed as a potential long-term strategy to help communities cope with the rising numbers of HIV/AIDS orphans. The importance of community-based care is highlighted.

  20. First carboniferous conulariids from Niger (west Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, L. E.; Lang, J.; Yahaya, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two new conulariid species, Paraconularia feldmanni sp. nov. and P. sahara sp. nov., are described from the Lower Carboniferous (Visean) Talak Formation of northern Niger. These are the first example of the genus Paraconularia to be reported from Africa and the first Carboniferous conulariids from that continent to be assigned to species level. Previously reported Carboniferous conulariids from Africa were collected from Morocco, assigned to other genera, and left in open nomenclature. Paraconularia is interpreted to have been cosmopolitan by the Early Carboniferous, and is the dominant genus in most assemblages of Carboniferous conulariids.

  1. Tele-Education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. Method: A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Conclusion: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained

  2. Africa, A Military Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-12

    34THE LANET MUTINY," JORA, 92:59-66,MAR.1965. ""REVL. OF EVENTS IN EAST AFRICA IN EAST AFRICA," R, 73:151- 4 ,JAN.1957. "SLANE, P.M. "TACTICAL PROBLEMS IN...DIV L L MILLER 12 OCT 85UC SSIFIED USAFRS/MSLD/SB-113 F/G 5/ 4 NLMNSOON mEEEEEIhIIEIIE I.’.... LL iV6 I MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU...OBSOLETE Unlsi1 F 0 7 02 4 GOP. * --. ~SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OFTHIS PAGE (Wheni Data Entered) - % IL" / U.S. ARMY FIELD ARTILLERY SCHOOL LIBRARY FORT

  3. Elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa: possible?

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Charles D; Homeida, Mamoun M; Hopkins, Adrian D; Lawrence, Joni C

    2012-01-01

    Human onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease found in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen, causes blindness and severe dermatological problems. In 1987, efforts to control this infection shifted from vector approaches to include the mass distribution of ivermectin - a drug donated by Merck & Co. for disease control in Africa and for disease elimination in the Americas. Currently, almost 25 years later, with the Americas being highly successful and now approaching elimination, new evidence points towards the possibility of successful elimination in Africa. We suggest several major changes in the programmatic approach that through focused goal-directed effort could achieve global elimination of onchocerciasis by 2025.

  4. Defense and Development in Africa: Annotated Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    x7- "r . . : M - f- t . U~~ -,’- +m L 4’ L . 1T’ Y. 4 SZ __N ’Ch I-41 IV teS4* .i m. 7W4 r,4 W r. .- MI 0 107w REPOT DOCUMENTATION PAGE amW I LM lOOM N...Labor Aristocracies, and Economic Development in Tropical Africa," in G. Arrighi and J. Saul (eds.), Essays on the Political Economy of Africa, Monthly...Pointers for Action, New York: United Nations Economic and Social Council, 26 January 1977 [E/AC.54/ L .90]). Ś- Bretton, Henry, The Rise and Fall of

  5. I Didn't Know There Were Cities in Africa!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    As Professor Michael Bamidele Adeyemi of the University of Botswana suggests, "Americans believe that Africa is a country, that Africa is "still uncivilized," that the average African is polygamous, and that Africa is not urbanized." In fact, the African continent encompasses a diverse set of more than 50 nations, each made up…

  6. The H3Africa policy framework: negotiating fairness in genomics

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jantina; Tindana, Paulina; Littler, Katherine; Ramsay, Michèle; Rotimi, Charles; Abayomi, Akin; Mulder, Nicola; Mayosi, Bongani M.

    2015-01-01

    Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) research seeks to promote fair collaboration between scientists in Africa and those from elsewhere. Here, we outline how concerns over inequality and exploitation led to a policy framework that places a firm focus on African leadership and capacity building as guiding principles for African genomics research. PMID:25601285

  7. The H3Africa policy framework: negotiating fairness in genomics.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jantina; Tindana, Paulina; Littler, Katherine; Ramsay, Michèle; Rotimi, Charles; Abayomi, Akin; Mulder, Nicola; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2015-03-01

    Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) research seeks to promote fair collaboration between scientists in Africa and those from elsewhere. Here, we outline how concerns over inequality and exploitation led to a policy framework that places a firm focus on African leadership and capacity building as guiding principles for African genomics research.

  8. The State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indabawa, Sabo A., Ed.; Oduaran, Akpovire, Ed.; Afrik, Tai, Ed.; Walters, Shirley, Ed.

    This document contains 21 papers examining the state of adult and continuing education in Africa. The following papers are included: "Introduction: An Overview of the State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Akpovire Oduaran); "Setting the Tone of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Michael A. Omolewa);…

  9. New UN projections depict a variety of demographic futures.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1997-04-01

    The UN Population Division current projection of a world population between 7.7 and 11.2 billion by 2050 is lower than the 1994 projection of 7.9-11.9 billion. This new projection is based on reduced total fertility rates in many regions. It is particularly difficult to make population projections in developing countries because demographers must base these projections on assumptions about birth and death rates. The UN, therefore, provides four projections based on various assumptions: high, medium, low, and constant fertility variants. The medium projection is usually labeled "most likely" to occur and assumes that fertility will converge at 2.1 children/woman by 2050. The low projection assumes that total fertility rate will decline to 1.6, and the high one uses a rate of 2.6. Constant fertility assumes that the 1990-95 fertility level of 3.0 will prevail and will produce a population of 15 billion by 2050. Projections for Africa indicate slightly slower growth because of the onset of fertility decline and the impact of AIDS, which has reduced life expectancy by about 6 years. Asia had a lower overall birth rate than was assumed for the period 1990-95 due to a reduction in the crude birth rate of India for the period. The projection for Latin America was slightly lower because of a decrease in Brazil's total fertility rate. Europe's projected population decline in the medium figures reflects the "free-fall" in fertility seen in the former Soviet republics and the newly independent states. These new UN projections show that it is possible to achieve reductions in population growth in developing countries. The assumptions behind these figures should be examined carefully, however, before they are used.

  10. Coal and peat in the sub-Saharan region of Africa: alternative energy options?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Landis, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Coal and peat are essentially unused and in some cases unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. However, they might comprise valuable alternative energy sources in some or all of the developing nations of the region. The 11 countries considered in this appraisal reportedly contain coal and peat. On the basis of regional geology, another five countries might also contain coal-bearing rocks. If the resource potential is adequate, coal and peat might be utilized in a variety of ways including substituting for fuelwood, generating electricity, supplying process heat for local industry and increasing agricultural productivity. -from Author

  11. Theoretical Perspectives on Gender in Education: The Case of Eastern and Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannathoko, Changu

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, throughout Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been a proliferation of research on gender in education. It is possible to point to a wide variety of publications, courses and programmes planned and organized by universities, national governments, international organizations, non-governmental organizations and the private sector relating to this field. This article examines the feminist and gender theories underpinning all these endeavors. The theories are assessed for their potential capacity to assist in elucidating the complex relationship between gender and development within the region.

  12. [Fast discrimination of varieties of sugar based on spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping; Chen, Yong-Ming; He, Yong

    2009-02-01

    Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied in the discrimination of sugar varieties. NIRS is a pollution-free, rapid, quantitative and qualitative analysis method, with the characteristics of high speed, non-destructiveness, high precision and reliable detection data, etc. Four kinds of sugar were gained from the local market and each species was divided into 40 samples. One hundred twenty samples were used as the training set and the remainders (total 40 samples) formed the prediction set. Samples were scanned by a spectroradiometer within a wavelength region of 325-1 075 nm. Three pre-processing methods were applied on the spectra prior to building the PLS regression model. The multivariable analysis using partial least square (PLS) was applied to abstract characteristics of the pattern. Through full cross validation, 11 principal components presenting important information of spectra were confirmed. The correlation coefficient (R), residual variance (Rv) and standard error of calibration (SEC) were 0.999 916, 0. 00 985 and 0.014 538 respectively. Then, these 11 principal components were taken as the input of BP neural network. This model was used to predict the varieties of 40 unknown samples. Through training and prediction, the recognition rate of 100% was achieved by BP neural network. This model has come to be reliable and practicable. Thus, it is concluded that PLS analysis combined with BP neural network is an available alternative for pattern recognition based on the spectroscopy technology.

  13. Biochemical Analyses of Sorghum Varieties Reveal Differential Responses to Drought

    PubMed Central

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C.; Stepien, Piotr; Dyson, Beth C.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Ellis, David I.; Goodacre, Royston; Johnson, Giles N.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the biochemical responses of two sorghum cultivars of differing drought tolerance, Samsorg 17 (more drought tolerant) and Samsorg 40 (less drought tolerant), to sustained drought. Plants were exposed to different degrees of drought and then maintained at that level for five days. Responses were examined in terms of metabolic changes and the expression of drought induced proteins—Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and dehydrins (DHNs). Generalised phenotypic changes were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and non-targeted Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to detect changes in metabolites, while changes in protein expression were examined using Western blot analysis. Different response profiles of metabolites, HSPs and DHNs were observed in the two cultivars. Metabolic changes involved variation in amino acids, polysaccharides and their derivatives. A total of 188 compounds, with 142 known metabolites and 46 unknown small molecules, were detected in the two sorghum varieties. Under water deficit conditions, Samsorg 17 accumulated sugars and sugar alcohols, while in Samsorg 40 amino acids increased in concentration. This study suggest that the two Sorghum varieties adopt distinct approaches in response to drought, with Samsorg 17 being better able to maintain leaf function under severe drought conditions. PMID:27153323

  14. Norovirus infections in preterm infants: wide variety of clinical courses

    PubMed Central

    Armbrust, Sven; Kramer, Axel; Olbertz, Dirk; Zimmermann, Kathrin; Fusch, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background Norovirus is an important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in all ages. Atypical courses are described. Clinical symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, fever and malaise. Apart from three recent short reports we describe for the first time an outbreak of norovirus in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Findings The typical symptoms of norovirus infection are in part also seen in premature born infants but with a different pattern and a huge variety of clinical courses. Vomiting is not the main symptom of norovirus infection in premature infants but distended abdomen and other symptoms such as apnea, gastric remainders or sepsis like appearance. The course in premature born patients could be explained by an immunocompromised mice model. Extensive hygienic measures were necessary to control the outbreak without closing the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Conclusion Norovirus infection in premature infants shows an impressive pattern of a wide variety of clinical courses. Only the consequent use of different hygienic pattern can lead to elimination of norovirus. PMID:19490612

  15. Blue glass: A new impactite variety from Zhamanshin crater, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C. )

    1988-03-01

    A new variety of impact glass has been discovered at Zhamanshin impact crater (USSR). The crater has been known as the source of different impact glasses such as irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites (Si-rich varieties) and Si-poor (andesitic) zhamanshinites. The newly discovered impact glass is of distinct blue color and shows a layered structure with numerous small vesicles. The blue color ranges between the layers from opaque turquoise to very dark blue. The layers of blue glass are usually connected with layers of greyish or brownish color showing normal Si-rich zhamanshinite composition. The major and trace element chemistry of the blue glass differs from the chemistry of other Si-rich impact glasses from the Zhamanshin crater in several ways. One of the most distinct features is the high CaO content (up to about 7 wt.%), and the different CaO/MgO ratios. Volatile trace elements are generally intermediate between irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites, or even higher than in Si-rich zhamanshinites, reflecting the inhomogeneity of the blue glass. REE abundances are slightly larger than in Si-rich zhamanshinites and irghizites and show a less pronounced Eu anomaly. Impact mixing of country rocks present at the crater seems capable of explaining the chemistry of the blue glass.

  16. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  17. Oviposition induced volatile emissions from African smallholder farmers' maize varieties.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Amanuel; Bruce, Toby J A; Midega, Charles A O; Woodcock, Christine M; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2012-03-01

    Maize (corn), Zea mays, is a genetically diverse crop, and we have recently shown that certain open pollinated varieties (OPVs) of Latin American origin possess a trait not present in mainstream commercial varieties: they produce volatiles in response to stemborer oviposition that are attractive to stemborer parasitoids. Here, we tested whether a similar tritrophic effect occurs in the African OPVs 'Nyamula' and 'Jowi'. Herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) were collected from plants exposed to egg deposition by the stemborer Chilo partellus. In a four-arm olfactometer bioassay, the parasitic wasp Cotesia sesamiae preferred samples containing HIPVs from plants with eggs to samples collected from plants without eggs. EAG-active compounds, including (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), were released in higher amounts from the egg induced headspace samples. Our results suggest that this oviposition trait is not limited to S. American Z. mays germplasm, and that it could be used to increase indirect defense against attack by stemborers.

  18. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-16

    have expressed interest in the creation of an Africa Command, and in 2006, Senator Russ Feingold introduced legislation requiring a feasibility study on...Growth and Opportunity Act and Beyond, by Danielle Langton. Current U.S. National Security Strategy Toward Africa The establishment of the new Africa...of Congress have expressed interest in the creation of an Africa Command, and in 2006, Senator Russ Feingold introduced S.Amdt. 4527 to the FY2007

  19. Characterizing virulence phenotypes among U.S. isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae using IRRI NILs, US germplasm, and NERICA lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is a major constraint to rice production in most rice production areas, including the Southern U.S. In continued efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of resistance (R) genes, a total of 33 field and 12 U.S. reference isolates of M. oryzae were eval...

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  1. Books About Africa for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    This index presents references to 413 children's textbooks and tradebooks about Africa. All of the entries were published in the United States between 1970 and 1979. The main purpose of the index is to aid elementary and secondary social studies and language arts classroom teachers as they develop curriculum for African area study programs.…

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa Report No. 2807.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-08

    General by the Bureau Politique of the Central Committee of the Popular Party for the Revolution. [Text] [London WEST AFRICA in English 2 May 83 p...being taken into account and are yielding some dividends " (a reference to the famous MULPOCs). Gardiner honoured It was encouraging to see. amid

  3. The Image of Africa in Our Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the media portrayal of Africa remains highly selective, focusing almost solely on negative and violent stories. Positive stories (local initiatives, political reform) go unreported as does much of the Western powers involvement in famine and destruction. Includes a list of sources on African current affairs. (MJP)

  4. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  5. Legal improvements brighten North Africa production outlook

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-12

    North Africa`s three main oil producing countries soon will reap benefits of past moves by their governments to encourage investment by international companies. Production of crude oil and natural gas in Algeria, Egypt, and Libya is ready to increase from suppressed levels of the recent past, says International Energy Agency, Paris. The gains are possible despite political risks, total reserves accounting for only 4% of the world`s crude reserves, and oil prices well below levels of the 1980s, when the countries` flow rates peaked. The reason: producing oil in North Africa is profitable. In a recent study entitled North Africa Oil and Gas, IEA attributes the bright production outlook to improvements that the countries` governments have made in the past decade to hydrocarbon laws and the fiscal terms they offer international investors. According to announced plans, the three countries` combined capacity to produce crude oil will rise 18% by the year 2000 to 3.65 million b/d, and a further gain of 700,000 b/d is possible. IEA expects production capacity for natural gas to increase 50% from its 1995 level by 2000 to a combined 139.4 billion cu m/year. This paper discusses production capacities, Algeria`s record, improvements in Egypt, and Libya`s changes.

  6. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  7. Aging in Africa: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Makoni, Sinfree

    2008-06-01

    My goal in this article is to analyze gerontological discourses in Africa using articles in this collection as a spring board. The broad intention is to explore the possible areas of intersection between research in African aging and other social science disciplines such as history, politics and linguistics as a way of demonstrating how gerontology may contribute to scholarship in other disciplines.

  8. Africa Section. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on the role and services of African libraries and the education of African librarians, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "The Information Sector in the Economic Development of Africa: The Potential Role for Libraries," in which Benzies Y. Boadi…

  9. Voodoo in Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Golden, K M

    1977-12-01

    The authors states that the practice of hexing is not just a nearly extinct phenomenon of isolated rural communities of the deep south of the United States but is evident in large urban areas in the northeast and west. He describes the psychological mechanisms of voodoo as practiced in West Africa to provide insight into similar practices in the United States.

  10. Climate Change and Development in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    development, health indicators, deforestation , population growth, or poverty.35 Malawi’s domestic stability and development trajectory are threatened...accessible targets. The main driver for deforestation is the practice of turning charcoal into cooking fuel. The extraction of charcoal from... deforestation rates, 2.8 percent, in Southern Africa.38 Measures put in place to protect forest preserves have further destabilized the communities

  11. Epidemiology: Malaria in a warmer West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminade, C.; Jones, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Malaria risk in West Africa is expected to fall (western region) or remain the same (eastern region) in response to climate change over the twenty-first century. This is primarily due to extreme temperature conditions projected under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  12. Elections and Social Conflict in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    democratic process will be allowed to take its course. In countries that lack these traits , elections have often led to violence. In the Democratic...participation. While elections are COUNTRY ELECTION DATE DEATHS Kenya December, 2007 1502 South Africa April, 1994 239 Nigeria April, 2007 226 Cote

  13. The Development of Higher Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Conference on the Development of Higher Education in Africa was held for two specific reasons. The first was to identify possible solutions to: (1) problems of choice and adaptation of the higher education curriculum to the specific conditions of African life and development, and the training of specialized personnel for public administration…

  14. Africa: A Social Studies and Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holboke, Kathy; And Others

    This packet was designed to help teachers maximize a visit to a zoo's Africa exhibit. The packet provides two levels of activities, grades 3-5, and grades 6-8, for use before, during and after the visit. Activities are designed to enhance skills taught in science, social studies, language arts, reading, art, and math. A multi-grade background…

  15. Are You Going to Teach About Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. Thomas; And Others

    This guide for educators at the elementary and secondary levels contains articles written by people directly concerned with African studies. Charles Billings, in his article, "Africa in the Curriculum," offers a rationale for African studies and puts forward a number of useful suggestions regarding content, approaches and emphases. Commonly held…

  16. View of east Africa ravaged by drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of a portion of east Africa revaged by drought for the past five years is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The semi-desert scene is in southwestern Niger.

  17. Induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Rogo, K O

    1993-06-01

    Unsafe abortions and their complications are a major cause of maternal mortality. Hospital based studies from most African countries confirm that up to 50% of maternal deaths are due to abortion. This paper reviews problem of induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa. Issues of prevalence and prevention are addressed while acknowledging the need to review the legal regimes operating in these countries.

  18. Melioidosis in Traveler from Africa to Spain

    PubMed Central

    Quereda, Carmen; Gil, Horacio; Anda, Pedro; Núñez-Murga, María; Cantón, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide epidemiology of melioidosis is changing. We describe a case of acute melioidosis in Spain in a patient who had traveled to Africa. A novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei was identified in this patient. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in travelers returning from melioidosis-nonendemic regions. PMID:24047798

  19. Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Materu, Peter; Righetti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the status and practice of higher education quality assurance in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on degree-granting tertiary institutions. A main finding is that structured national-level quality assurance processes in African higher education are a very recent phenomenon and that most countries face major capacity constraints.…

  20. Redirecting Student Interests: Africa and Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Lincoln C.

    Suggestions for students preparing for foreign study in Asia and Africa are presented. It is noted that cooperation and peace may be linked to developing successful programs in the non-Western world. The brief time that students spend in the host country enables the student to describe what the foreign values seem to be, but probably without…

  1. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  2. A Qualitative Data Collection Strategy for Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    ms Ne tw or k (F EW SN ET...In this study, sponsored by the Rapid Reaction Technology Office (RRTO) in the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Rapid Fielding...simulations, and other computational tools ( MS &T) for analysis of Africa. Through the identification of gaps in qualitative data, IDA developed

  3. Narco-Pipeline to West Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    examined are: language, colonization, religion, health , literacy , and economic indicators. Language & Colonization Language, the foundation of...AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA 2006”, p. 882. 12 13 Health Literacy & Economic Indicators In South America nearly 90 per cent of all adults can

  4. Combating Narco-Terrorism in West Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-15

    stability of nation. ’>uhvcning government institmion:-. through corruption and harmjng citizen ~ worldwide. Tran~national criminal organizarions...permissive environment for drug cartels and terrorists to operate and find haven. West Africa’s strategic location, lack of governance , high...lack effective government institutions coupled with corruption. Poverty and lack of opportunities for West African youth have enabled drug traffickers

  5. Processes Affecting Tropospheric Ozone over Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diab, Roseanne D.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    This is a Workshop Report prepared for Eos, the weekly AGU magazine, The workshop took place between 26-28 January 2004 at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa and was attended by 26 participants (http//www.geography.und.ac.za). Considerable progress has been made in ozone observations except for northern Africa (large data gaps) and west Africa (to be covered by the French-sponsored AMMA program). The present-day ozone findings were evaluated and reviewed by speakers using Aircraft data (MOZAIC program), NASA satellites (MOPITT, TRMM, TOMS) and ozone soundings (SHADOZ). Besides some ozone gaps, there are challenges posed by the need to assess the relative strengths of photochemical and dynamic influences on the tropospheric ozone budget. Biogenic, biofuels, biomass burning sources of ozone precursors remain highly uncertain. Recent findings (by NASA's Chatfield and Thompson, using satellite and sounding data) show significant impact of Indian Ocean pollution on African ozone. European research on pollutants over the Mediterranean and the middle east, that suggests that ozone may be exported to Africa from these areas, also needs to be considered.

  6. Challenges and opportunities for chemistry in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegaz, Berhanu

    2016-06-01

    Chemistry education and research in Africa is challenging -- a fact that is clearly reflected by publication metrics. Yet this is far from the full story on a continent that has youth on its side, a cultural link to chemistry through its strong interest in plants and indigenous medicine, and an increasing number of ways forward.

  7. Will Democracy Come to South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, N. Brian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses prospects for democracy in South Africa. Explores the complexities and contradictions endemic to the process of overcoming 300 years of racist laws and practices. Considers the risks of concessions for both Black and White leaders; problems resulting from enduring political and economic inequalities; and constitutional alternatives.…

  8. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in…

  9. Student Protests in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkinyangi, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of political activism in Africa considers whether educational institutions will become arenas of social struggle as other avenues of dissent close. Social and economic context, the cycle of student action and predictable government reaction, rising violence in student demonstrations, and emerging solidarity between students and social…

  10. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  11. Population Problems and Family Planning in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uche, Chukwudum

    The focal points of this essay are the population problems in Africa and what the African peoples and governments are doing about them. It is stated cagegorically that a problem does exist. Indicators often used to deny this position are population density and pressure, undeveloped resources, the availability of empty lands, and alleged intrigue…

  12. Preschool Educare in South Africa. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    This fact sheet presents information about the educare situation in South Africa to illustrate the glaring disparities between the races, until recently officially classified as White, Indian, Colored, and Black. These statistics delineate: (1) the under-6 population by race, geographic, and economic background; (2) costs, fees, and…

  13. What Is a Resource? Africa Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Laurence

    This four-lesson unit, designed for use with high school students, examines economic development in Africa. Lesson 1, "What Is Development?" has students investigating terms such as development, third world, North, and South. In lesson 2, "Resources and Culture," students learn that people define resources based on their own…

  14. Directory of Adult Education Centres in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Dakar (Senegal). Regional Office for Education in Africa.

    The Bureau Regional pour L'Education en Afrique (BREDA) survey, published partly in French, assembled data on the activities of adult education institutions in Africa in order to identify and develop future regional documentation centers. This draft copy of the survey is the first step towards improving international collaboration among…

  15. Narrative vs. Expository Texts. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Narrative…

  16. Variable Star Observing in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hers, Jan

    1986-12-01

    Variable star observing by amateurs in South Africa has a long history, dating back to the previous century. Amateurs all over the world still play an important role in the study of variable stars contributing important observations to the professional community.

  17. A Sense of Water. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  18. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  19. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  20. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  1. It's about TIME: engendering AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses how TIME magazine represents sub-Saharan African women in its coverage of HIV/AIDS. As rates of infection escalate across the continent, researchers are increasingly emphasising the need to understand the socioeconomic and cultural contexts that make women particularly vulnerable to infection. Yet popular media representations of AIDS continue to rely on older colonial imageries of Africa as the feminised, diseased 'dark continent'. This article identifies three major themes in TIME's representation of sub-Saharan African women and HIV/AIDS: the metaphor of Africa as a woman in crisis, the construction of women as the means of transmission, and the engendered nature of the debate about the impact of international development policies. It is argued that the reliance on familiar cultural narratives often obscures the epidemiological, economic and cultural realities within which sub-Saharan women live. Not merely a consequence of unprotected sex, AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is also the result of global economics and politics, reflecting the inequities between the West and Africa, male and female, white and black. The paper concludes with a call for further research on the role of representations of HIV/AIDS and its actual routes of transmission.

  2. Africa Adult Education. Chronologies in Commonwealth Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A., Ed.

    In this document, leading educators from 12 African Commonwealth countries trace the development of adult education in Africa and show how providers of adult education outside the formal education system (including government and nongovernment organizations, trade unions, women's groups, and religious organizations) have met the needs of their…

  3. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  4. Converging Oceaniac Internal Waves, Somalia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The arculate fronts of these apparently converging internal waves off the northeast coast of Somalia (11.5N, 51.5E) probably were produced by interaction with two parallel submarine canyons off the Horn of Africa. Internal waves are packets of tidally generated waves traveling within the ocean at varying depths and are not detectable by any surface disturbance.

  5. Standards-Based Accountability in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of standards-based accountability (SBA) interventions aimed at improving school performance often focuses on the testing component, at the expense of capacity building. This was the case in South Africa when a SBA programme was instituted by government in 2000, which was accompanied by substantial rises in senior certificate…

  6. Seismotectonics and crustal deformation in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2016-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events, and harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures, seismic anisotropy tomography and gravity anomaly, into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies obtained from the analysis of late Quaternary faulting and geodetic data will serve as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map will be useful for the seismic hazard assessment and earthquake risk mitigation for significant infrastructures and their socio-economic implications in Africa. The constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of this map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014, now extended to 2016).

  7. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  8. Dengue expansion in Africa-not recognized or not happening?

    PubMed

    Jaenisch, Thomas; Junghanss, Thomas; Wills, Bridget; Brady, Oliver J; Eckerle, Isabella; Farlow, Andrew; Hay, Simon I; McCall, Philip J; Messina, Jane P; Ofula, Victor; Sall, Amadou A; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Velayudhan, Raman; Wint, G R William; Zeller, Herve; Margolis, Harold S; Sankoh, Osman

    2014-10-01

    An expert conference on Dengue in Africa was held in Accra, Ghana, in February 2013 to consider key questions regarding the possible expansion of dengue in Africa. Four key action points were highlighted to advance our understanding of the epidemiology of dengue in Africa. First, dengue diagnostic tools must be made more widely available in the healthcare setting in Africa. Second, representative data need to be collected across Africa to uncover the true burden of dengue. Third, established networks should collaborate to produce these types of data. Fourth, policy needs to be informed so the necessary steps can be taken to provide dengue vector control and health services.

  9. Phytochemical Profiles of New Red-Fleshed Apple Varieties Compared with Traditional and New White-Fleshed Varieties.

    PubMed

    Bars-Cortina, David; Macià, Alba; Iglesias, Ignasi; Romero, Maria Paz; Motilva, Maria José

    2017-03-01

    This study is an exhaustive chemical characterization of the phenolic compounds, triterpenes, and organic and ascorbic acids in red-fleshed apple varieties obtained by different breeding programs and using five traditional and new white-fleshed apple cultivars as reference. To carry out these analyses, solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) were used. The results showed that the red-fleshed apples contained, in either the flesh or peel, higher amounts of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid), anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-galactoside), dihydrochalcones (phloretin xylosyl glucoside), and organic acids (malic acid) but a lower amount of flavan-3-ols than the white-fleshed apples. These quantitative differences could be related to an up-regulation of anthocyanins, dihydrochalcones, and malic acid and a down-regulation of flavan-3-ols (anthocyanin precursors) in both the flesh and peel of the red-fleshed apple varieties. The reported results should be considered preliminary because the complete phytochemical characterization of the red-fleshed apple cultivars will be extended to consecutive harvest seasons.

  10. HADES, A Code for Simulating a Variety of Radiographic Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M B; Henderson, G; von Wittenau, A; Slone, D M; Barty, A; Martz, Jr., H E

    2004-10-28

    It is often useful to simulate radiographic images in order to optimize imaging trade-offs and to test tomographic techniques. HADES is a code that simulates radiography using ray tracing techniques. Although originally developed to simulate X-Ray transmission radiography, HADES has grown to simulate neutron radiography over a wide range of energy, proton radiography in the 1 MeV to 100 GeV range, and recently phase contrast radiography using X-Rays in the keV energy range. HADES can simulate parallel-ray or cone-beam radiography through a variety of mesh types, as well as through collections of geometric objects. HADES was originally developed for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications, but could be a useful tool for simulation of portal imaging, proton therapy imaging, and synchrotron studies of tissue. In this paper we describe HADES' current capabilities and discuss plans for a major revision of the code.

  11. Varieties of moral personality: beyond the banality of heroism.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lawrence J; Frimer, Jeremy A; Dunlop, William L

    2010-06-01

    Four perspectives dominate thinking about moral heroism: One contends that moral action is primarily instigated by situational pressures, another holds that moral excellence entails the full complement of virtues, the third asserts a single superintending principle, and the fourth posits different varieties of moral personality. This research addresses these competing perspectives by examining the personalities of moral heroes. Participants were 50 national awardees for moral action and 50 comparison individuals. They responded to personality inventories and a life-review interview that provided a broadband assessment of personality. Cluster analysis of the moral exemplars yielded three types: a "communal" cluster was strongly relational and generative, a "deliberative" cluster had sophisticated epistemic and moral reasoning as well as heightened self-development motivation, and an "ordinary" cluster had a more commonplace personality. These contrasting profiles imply that exemplary moral functioning can take multifarious forms and arises from different sources, reflecting divergent person x situation interactions.

  12. Geometric descriptions of entangled states by auxiliary varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Holweck, Frederic; Luque, Jean-Gabriel; Thibon, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the paper is to propose geometric descriptions of multipartite entangled states using algebraic geometry. In the context of this paper, geometric means each stratum of the Hilbert space, corresponding to an entangled state, is an open subset of an algebraic variety built by classical geometric constructions (tangent lines, secant lines) from the set of separable states. In this setting, we describe well-known classifications of multipartite entanglement such as 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign (n+ 1), for n Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1, quantum systems and a new description with the 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 quantum system. Our results complete the approach of Miyake and make stronger connections with recent work of algebraic geometers. Moreover, for the quantum systems detailed in this paper, we propose an algorithm, based on the classical theory of invariants, to decide to which subvariety of the Hilbert space a given state belongs.

  13. Anomalous Knight Shift properties in a variety of Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Bianca; Klemm, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Anomalous Knight shift properties have been found in a variety of superconductors below the superconducting transition temperature. In most instances this anomaly is an observed Knight shift along one axis but no observed Knight shift perpendicular to this axis (usually the c-axis). Materials that show this anomaly include LiFeAs, UPt3, CeTIn5 (T =Co and Ir), Tl2Ba2CuO6 +y, and YBa2Cu3O7- δ. Another anomaly occurs in the material Na0.35CoO2 .1.3H2O, where NMR data for the Knight shift done on 59Co and 23Na do not agree. Additionally, NMR data of FeSe show no shift, which is contrary to the material's s-wave pairing superconductivity. Finally, Sr2RuO4 has a constant Knight shift, which is contrary to upper critical field measurements and superconducting gap measurements.

  14. Variety and intensity of emotions in nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu; Donderi, Don C

    2006-04-01

    Nightmares are usually defined as frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper. This study uses the waking criterion to distinguish between nightmares and bad dreams and investigated the variety and intensity of emotions reported in each form of disturbing dream. Ninety participants recorded their dreams for 4 consecutive weeks and, for each dream recalled, noted the emotions present and their intensities on a 9-point scale. Thirty-six participants reported at least one nightmare and one bad dream over the 4 weeks covered by the log, while 29 reported having had at least one bad dream but no nightmares. Nightmares were rated as being significantly (p < 0.001) more intense than bad dreams. Thirty percent of nightmares and 51% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. The findings support the claim that awakening can serve as an indirect measure of nightmare intensity and raise important implications for the operational definition of nightmares.

  15. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow, Manchester, and Newcastle and paired with the same conversational partner. Participants completed a "spot-the-difference" task which elicited a considerable amount of contrasting regionally specific sign data in the participant-confederate dyads. Accommodation was observed during the task with younger signers accommodating more than older signers. The results are interpreted with reference to the relationship between language contact and lexical accommodation in BSL, and address how further studies could help us better understand how contact and accommodation contribute to language change more generally.

  16. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of five eggplant varieties.

    PubMed

    Akanitapichat, Pannarat; Phraibung, Kallayanee; Nuchklang, Kwunchai; Prompitakkul, Suparichart

    2010-10-01

    Eggplant is consumed throughout the world and varies in fruit color, shape, and size. In this study, five varieties of eggplant (purple colored moderate size, white-green colored moderate size, long green, green striped moderate size and pale-green colored small size, respectively, called SM1-SM5) were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotection against cytotoxicity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2. Total phenolic content found in methanol extracts of SM1-SM5 ranged from 739.36 ± 1.59 to 1116.13 ± 7.30 gallic acid equivalents mg/100g extract and total flavonoid content from 1991.29 ± 6.32 to 3954.20 ± 6.06 catechin equivalents mg/100 g extract. SM1 and SM2 which contained high total phenolic and flavonoid had better antioxidant activities than the other varieties. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with 50 and 100 μg/mL of SM1-SM5 significantly increased the viability (p<0.05) of t-BuOOH-exposed HepG2 cells by 14.49 ± 1.14% to 44.95 ± 2.72%. The antioxidant activities of the eggplant were correlated with the total amounts of phenolic and flavonoid (r = 0.5310-0.7961). Significant correlation was found between hepatoprotective activities and total phenolic/flavonoid content (r = 0.6371-0.8842) and antioxidant activities (r = 0.5846-0.9588), indicating the contribution of the phenolic antioxidant present in eggplant to its hepatoprotective effect on t-BuOOH-induced toxicity.

  17. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes.

  18. The crystal structure of loparite: a new acentric variety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Elena A.; Lushnikov, Sergey G.; Yakovenchuk, Victor N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.

    2017-02-01

    The crystal structure of a new structural variety of loparite (Na0.56Ce0.21La0.14Ca0.06Sr0.03Nd0.02Pr0.01)Σ=1.03(Ti0.83Nb0.15)Σ=0.98O3 from the Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia, was solved by direct methods and refined to R 1 = 0.029 for 492 unique observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The mineral is orthorhombic, Ima2, a = 5.5129(2), b = 5.5129(2) and c = 7.7874(5) Å. Similarly to other perovskite-group minerals with the general formula ABO3, the crystal structure of loparite is based upon a three-dimensional framework of distorted corner-sharing BO6. The A cations are coordinated by 12 oxygen atoms and are situated in distorted cuboctahedral cavities. In contrast to the ideal perovskite-type structure ( Pmoverset{-}{3} m ), the unit cell is doubled along the c axis and the a and b axes are rotated in the ab plane at 45o. The BO6 octahedron displays distortion characteristic for the d 0 transition metal cations with the out-of-center shift of the B site. The symmetry reduction is also attributable to the distortion of the BO6 octahedra which are tilted and rotated with respect to the c axis. The occurrence of a new acentric variety of loparite can be explained by the pecularities of its chemical composition characterized by the increased content of Ti compared to the previously studied samples.

  19. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  20. An ensemble climate projection for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Mathison, Camilla; Jones, Richard; Williams, Karina; Wang, Changgui; McSweeney, Carol

    2015-04-01

    The Met Office Hadley Centre's PRECIS regional climate modelling system has been used to generate a five member ensemble of climate projections for Africa over the 50 km resolution Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment-Africa domain. The ensemble comprises the downscaling of a subset of the Hadley Centre's perturbed physics global climate model (GCM) ensemble chosen to exclude ensemble members unable to represent the African climate realistically and then to capture the spread in outcomes from the projections of the remaining models. The PRECIS simulations were run from December 1949 to December 2100. The regional climate model (RCM) ensemble captures the annual cycle of temperatures well both for Africa as a whole and the sub-regions. It slightly overestimates precipitation over Africa as a whole and captures the annual cycle of rainfall for most of the African regions. The RCM ensemble substantially improve the patterns and magnitude of precipitation simulation compared to their driving GCM which is particularly noticeable in the Sahel for both the magnitude and timing of the wet season. Present-day simulations of the RCM ensemble are more similar to each other than those of the driving GCM ensemble which indicates that their climatologies are influenced significantly by the RCM formulation and less so by their driving GCMs. Consistent with this, the spread and magnitudes of the large-scale responses of the RCMs are often different than the driving GCMs and arguably more credible given the improved performance of the RCM. This also suggests that local climate forcing will be a significant driver of the regional response to climate change over Africa.