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Sample records for africa nerica varieties

  1. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (<2.2 Striga plants per pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8-5.7 and 8.7-16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be endowed

  2. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G.; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (<2.2 Striga plants per pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8–5.7 and 8.7–16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be

  3. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R.; Midega, Charles A.O.; Onyuka, Enos A.; Scholes, Julie D.

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha−1 were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha−1 with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas. PMID:26089591

  4. Diversity in grain physico-chemical characteristics of West African rice, including Nerica genotypes, as compared to cultivars from the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landraces from West Africa (WA), NERICA progenies derived from crosses between Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, and improved O. sativa lines from Africa Rice Center were introduced to the Beaumont Rice Research Center in Texas, United States of America (USA) (29 degrees 57’ N and 94 degrees 30’ W)...

  5. South Africa offers exploratory potential in variety of basins

    SciTech Connect

    Broad, D.S.; Mills, S.R. )

    1993-12-06

    While the future suspension of the oil embargo against South Africa will no doubt help revitalize the region's most powerful economy, a move away from dependence on coal as the major local energy source is also likely. This could be accomplished through regional cooperation and development were it not for the ongoing conflict in Angola, the only producer of oil and gas in the Southern African Development Community. Even with world oil prices in the doldrums, massive foreign exchange savings would result from a domestic source, and in line with world trends the possibility of harnessing the gas resources of the region is increasingly seen as a possibility. For the present, those resources remain to be defined. But ENH of Mozambique is pursuing an appraisal program for Pande field with World Bank funding, while Shell and its partners are considering possibilities of Kudu field in Namiba. And while South Africa's own national oil company, Soekor, has had limited success with its search for oil during the apartheid years, offshore F-A gas field is in production, and the potential for hydrocarbons-gas in particular--requires a great deal more investigation. The colleagues have prepared a series of articles on basins off South Africa. These articles were prepared in anticipation of the completion of political reform and of the start of a licensing round, possibly during 1994. This article draws together summaries of aspects thought to be most pertinent to petroleum exploration.

  6. Focus on South Africa. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Vivian, Ed.

    Essays on English in South Africa and its neighboring countries include: "A History of English in South Africa" (Len Lanham); "English in South African Society: A Preliminary Overview" (Bill Branford); "Black English in South Africa" (David Gough); "Language Contact, Transmission, Shift: South African Indian English" (Rajend Mesthrie); "Afrikaans…

  7. Genetic relationships and structure among open pollinated maize varieties adapted to eastern and southern Africa using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), in collaboration with the national agricultural systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), have developed various stress-tolerant and more nutritious open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) of maize that are suitable for smallholder farmers’ g...

  8. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  9. Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001–2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers’ practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  10. Robustness and Strategies of Adaptation among Farmer Varieties of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian Rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Struik, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers evidence of the robustness of farmer rice varieties (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) in West Africa. Our experiments in five West African countries showed that farmer varieties were tolerant of sub-optimal conditions, but employed a range of strategies to cope with stress. Varieties belonging to the species Oryza glaberrima – solely the product of farmer agency – were the most successful in adapting to a range of adverse conditions. Some of the farmer selections from within the indica and japonica subspecies of O. sativa also performed well in a range of conditions, but other farmer selections from within these two subspecies were mainly limited to more specific niches. The results contradict the rather common belief that farmer varieties are only of local value. Farmer varieties should be considered by breeding programmes and used (alongside improved varieties) in dissemination projects for rural food security. PMID:23536754

  11. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  12. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  13. Food variety and dietary diversity as indicators of the dietary adequacy and health status of an elderly population in Sharpeville, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Kruger, Rozanne

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional, analytical study was a comprehensive health assessment focusing on dietary quality of 170 randomly selected elderly respondents in Sharpeville, South Africa. The methods included a sociodemographic, health food frequency questionnaire, 24h-recall questionnaires, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The low mean +/- standard deviation (SD) dietary diversity score (3.41 +/- 1.34) and food variety score (4.77 +/- 2.2) compared with poverty parameters confirmed household food insecurity in this community. Although three (n = 99, 58.6%) or two (n = 49, 28.9%) daily meals were mostly consumed, these were mainly carbohydrate-based and nutrient-deficient. The cereal group (2.01 +/- 0.81) had the highest mean food variety score +/- SD, followed by dairy (0.62 +/- 0.53) and flesh foods (0.40 +/- 0.53). When a mean adequacy ratio of 70% was used as a cut-off point for nutrient adequacy, it was found that the food variety score must be eight or higher and the dietary variety score must be at least six. These indicators thus have a high ability to identify those respondents with an inadequate diet but lower ability to identify those respondents with a nutritionally adequate diet. The data further showed a trend that with a higher food variety and dietary diversity, a better mean adequacy ratio is reached for this low-income group of elderly subjects. In conclusion, the results showed that food variety and dietary diversity scores give a fairly good assessment of the adequacy of the diet, and scoring dietary diversity is a significant, yet simple tool to identify elderly persons at risk of food and nutrition insecurity. PMID:18928193

  14. Surface Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02175 Surface Variety This image of part of Aram Chaos shows two different surface textures with distinctly different brightnesses. The lighter layer appears to be on top (therefore younger) than the darker surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 2.1N, Longitude 338.7E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Dune Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02173 Dune Variety

    This image of the east end of Coprates Chasma contains several dune fields. The dunes in the center of the image are larger and darker than the dunes at the bottom.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.8N, Longitude 304.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Canyon Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03281 Canyon Variety

    This image shows paret of the west end of Melas Chasma. Landslide deposits are visible at the top of the image, with dark dunes appearing at the bottom.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2N, Longitude 281.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. West Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa     View Larger Image ... of agricultural fires that were burning throughout western Africa during December and early January, and was likely to have been ...

  18. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

  19. Aging and variety seeking.

    PubMed

    Novak, Deanna L; Mather, Mara

    2007-12-01

    The authors examined the influence of age on variety seeking in 3 experiments. When given choices among jellybeans or music, age differences in variety seeking emerged. Younger adults selected similar levels of variety when choosing what to consume immediately and what to consume later. In contrast, older adults consistently chose less variety when making choices to be consumed at a later time than when making choices to be consumed immediately. This pattern may be related to an increased focus on regulating future emotional experience that is associated with age. PMID:18179293

  20. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  1. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  2. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  3. Peanut Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  4. Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  5. Mozambique Coast, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The serene coastline of Mozambique (17.0S, 39.5E) Africa and the Indian Ocean offer some of the best beaches and recreational diving water in the world. Offshore reefs provide interesting coral formations that host a wide variety of marine life. Inland, the coastal savannas of this tropical nation are filled with a wide range of wildlife in some of the last animal refuges on the African continent.

  6. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ... red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses ...

  7. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    PubMed Central

    Neri, I; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G; Patrizi, A

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane. Images PMID:8001950

  8. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    PubMed Central

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  9. I Didn't Know There Were Cities in Africa!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    As Professor Michael Bamidele Adeyemi of the University of Botswana suggests, "Americans believe that Africa is a country, that Africa is "still uncivilized," that the average African is polygamous, and that Africa is not urbanized." In fact, the African continent encompasses a diverse set of more than 50 nations, each made up of a variety of…

  10. Africa: "Yonondio."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendetson, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experiences on a trip to Africa. Describes her pleasant moments with her fellow travelers; her appreciation of the natural setting; her visit to an impoverished native school; and her confrontation with a Maasai warrior. (TB)

  11. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  12. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  13. South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239. PMID:12178120

  14. Language Varieties and Standard Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Randolph

    It is argued that viewing learners' errors as evidence for the emergence of new varieties of the English language is dangerously mistaken, particularly where it leads to the abandonment of Standard English as a model for learners. It is shown how this view is mistaken by: (1) citing recent British thinking on the relationship of varieties of…

  15. Nutrition in Africa.

    PubMed

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation. PMID:12283697

  16. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  17. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  18. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  19. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  20. Variety, Palatability, and Obesity1234

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Fiona; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Among the key characteristics of the Western obesogenic food environment is a highly palatable and varied food supply. Laboratory investigations of eating behavior in both humans and animals established key roles for palatability and variety in stimulating appetite, delaying satiety, and promoting excessive energy intake. There is a robust effect of food palatability and variety on short-term food intake, and increased variety and palatability also cause weight gain in animal models. However, laboratory paradigms do not replicate the complexities of eating in a natural setting, and there is a shortage of evidence to estimate the magnitude of effects on weight in humans. There are substantial individual differences in susceptibility to the palatability effect and this may be a key determinant in individual vulnerability to weight gain. The understanding of pathways through which palatability and variety can affect eating is advancing, and epidemiologic and intervention studies are needed to translate laboratory findings into applications in public health or clinical domains, and to establish whether there is a role for greater regulation of the food environment in tackling increases in obesity. PMID:25398751

  1. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  2. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  3. Varieties of maximal line subbundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxbury, W. M.

    2000-07-01

    The point of this note is to make an observation concerning the variety M(E) parametrizing line subbundles of maximal degree in a generic stable vector bundle E over an algebraic curve C. M(E) is smooth and projective and its dimension is known in terms of the rank and degree of E and the genus of C (see Section 1). Our observation (Theorem 3·1) is that it has exactly the Chern numbers of an étale cover of the symmetric product S[delta]C where [delta] = dim M(E).This suggests looking for a natural map M(E) [rightward arrow] S[delta]C; however, it is not clear what such a map should be. Indeed, we exhibit an example in which M(E) is connected and deforms non-trivially with E, while there are only finitely many isomorphism classes of étale cover of the symmetric product. This shows that for a general deformation in the family M(E) cannot be such a cover (see Section 4).One may conjecture that M(E) is always connected. This would follow from ampleness of a certain Picard-type bundle on the Jacobian and there seems to be some evidence for expecting this, though we do not pursue this question here.Note that by forgetting the inclusion of a maximal line subbundle in E we get a natural map from M(E) to the Jacobian whose image W(E) is analogous to the classical (Brill-Noether) varieties of special line bundles. (In this sense M(E) is precisely a generalization of the symmetric products of C.) In Section 2 we give some results on W(E) which generalise standard Brill-Noether properties. These are due largely to Laumon, to whom the author is grateful for the reference [9].

  4. Toward Cost-Effective Fingerprinting Methodology to Distinguish Maize Open-Pollinated Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Africa, many smallholder farmers grow open pollinated maize varieties (OPVs), as they allow seed recycling and out-yield traditional farmer’s (unimproved) landraces. One popular OPV, ZM521 released by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), has been provided to farmers, o...

  5. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  6. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  7. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  8. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  9. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  10. Food variety and biodiversity: Econutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Specht, R L

    1998-12-01

    Both annual biomass production and biodiversity at any locality on earth are continually under threat as the population of Homo sapiens steadily increases, with the resultant pollution of atmosphere, soil and water. Today, environmental degradation and global warming (with its effect on evaporative aerodynamics and cellular respiration) have increased at an alarming rate. The ABP of all terrestrial plant communities (natural or cultivated) is slowly declining, thus reducing the energy supply of component plants and resident animals; in turn, the biodiversity of all the world's ecosystems, plant and animal, is threatened. The maintenance of biodiversity is important to human health for several reasons: (i) a varied food supply is essential to maintain the health of the omnivorous human species; (ii) a range of diverse food sources is necessary to safe-guard against climatic and pestilent disasters which may affect one or more of the food sources; (iii) a diversity of plants and animals may provide a rich source of medicinal material, essential for the extraction of undiscovered therapeutic compounds; (iv) intact ecosystems of indigenous plants and animals appear to act as a buffer to the spread of invasive plants and animals, and of pathogens and toxins, thus contributing to the health of populations nearby; and (v) the 'spiritual' values of exploring the diversity of plants, animals and ecosystems in an area appear to have a beneficial effect on mental health, strengthening the feeling of 'belonging to the landscape'. The variety of foods, their energy contents and food values, consumed throughout the year is amenable to scientific enquiry; as is the amount of energy expended in this collection or production. The control and management of food production and of water supplies, with attention to safety issues, has led to an improvement in life expectancy for a proportion of the world's population. The question is at what point might human health be disadvantaged by

  11. Familial varieties of primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Stowasser, M; Gunasekera, T G; Gordon, R D

    2001-12-01

    1. Improved approaches to screening and diagnosis have revealed primary aldosteronism (PAL) to be much more common than previously thought, with most patients normokalaemic. The spectrum of this disorder has been further broadened by the study of familial varieties. 2. Familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I) is a glucocorticoid-remediable form of PAL caused by the inheritance of an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- regulated, hybrid CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene. Diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by the advent of genetic testing. The severity of hypertension varies widely in FH-I, even among members of the same family, and has demonstrated relationships with gender, degree of biochemical disturbance and hybrid gene crossover point position. Hormone "day curve" studies show that the hybrid gene dominates over wild-type CYP11B2 in terms of aldosterone regulation. This may be due, in part, to a defect in wild-type CYP11B2-induced aldosterone production. Control of hypertension in FH-I requires only partial suppression of ACTH and much smaller glucocorticoid doses than previously recommended. 3. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II (FH-II) is not glucocorticoid remediable and is not associated with the hybrid gene mutation. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II is clinically, biochemically and morphologically indistinguishable from apparently non-familial PAL. Linkage studies in one informative family did not show segregation of FH-II with the CYP11B2, AT1 or MEN1 genes, but a genome-wide search has revealed linkage with a locus in chromosome 7. As has already occurred in FH-I, elucidation of causative mutations is likely to facilitate earlier detection of PAL. PMID:11903322

  12. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  13. Generation 2030/Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  14. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Definitions § 51.348 One variety. One variety within...

  15. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided in § 201.11a. If separate percentages for the kind and the variety or hybrid are shown, the name of the kind and the name of the variety or the term “hybrid” shall be clearly associated with the...

  16. Maize variety and method of production

    DOEpatents

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  17. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  18. Religions in Africa: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. C.; Crummey, Donald

    The wide variety of religious practices in Africa can be bewildering to outsiders. Although most of the world's religions have been introduced to Africa, this handbook focuses upon three categories of religious belief: traditional African religions, Christianity, and Islam. The book is arranged in three parts. Part 1, "Background Information,"…

  19. "That Indefinable Something Besides": Southern Africa, British Identity, and the Authorial Informant, 1883-1924

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Free, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    This project examines the role of southern Africa (from the Cape to the Zambezi) in the constitution of British identity from the rise of the systematic exploitation of the region's mineral deposits through the close of World War One. Reading a wide variety of print culture produced by South Africa's "authorial informants"--British authors who…

  20. Measuring Africa's E-Readiness in the Global Networked Economy: A Nine-Country Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifinedo, Princely

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses the integration of Africa into the global economy by computing the e-readiness for nine African countries. The measuring tool used is simple and incorporates a variety of indicators used by comparable tools. Overall, the mean e-readiness of Africa is poor in comparison to other economies. Particularly, Sub-Saharan Africa…

  1. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  2. Women in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Manon

    1975-01-01

    The role and status of women in Africa has changed profoundly since the end of the colonial period. Many differences in women's status and role are based on geography, history, nationality, political and socioeconomic systems, culture, and religion. (JR)

  3. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  4. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  5. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  6. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  7. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  8. Dietary Variety Impairs Habituation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Giacomelli, April M.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that dietary variety decreases the rate of habituation and increases energy intake in children. Design In Experiment 1, salivation in response to the same or a variety of food cues was measured followed by consumption of the study food(s). In Experiment 2, children responded in a computer task to earn points for the same or a variety of low or high energy density foods, which were then consumed. Main Outcome Measures Salivation, number of responses, and energy intake were measured. Results Participants in the same groups habituated faster than those in the variety groups (p < .05), and in Experiment 2, the effect of variety was independent of energy density. Participants in the variety groups also consumed more energy than those in the same groups in both experiments (p < .05). Conclusions Dietary variety disrupted habituation and increased energy intake in children. In addition, the response to dietary variety was independent of energy density, suggesting that increasing variety of low energy density foods may increase consumption. PMID:18248101

  9. Undisciplining Knowledge Production: Development Driven Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2006-01-01

    South African higher education institutions are increasingly under scrutiny to produce knowledge that is more relevant to South Africa's social and economic needs, more representative of the diversity of its knowledge producers, and more inclusive of the variety of the sites where knowledge is produced. Only a small percentage of South Africans…

  10. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. PMID:24406800

  11. Neogene desertification of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Pickford, Martin; Ségalen, Loïc

    2009-08-01

    Throughout the Neogene, the faunas and floras in Africa recorded global climatic changes. We present an overview of Neogene desertification in Africa by tracing stable isotopes in eggshells and mammalian enamel, by faunal (changes in hypsodonty, etc.) and floral changes in sequences at the latitudinal extremities of the continent and the equator. This work reveals that desertification started in the southwest ca 17-16 Ma, much earlier than the region of the present-day Sahara (ca 8-7 Ma) and long before the deserts in East Africa (Plio-Pleistocene). A consequence of this history is that animals and plants inhabiting the South of the continent had a long period of time in which to adapt to arid, unstable climatic conditions. When parts of East Africa became arid during the Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene, several of these lineages expanded northwards and occupied developing arid niches before local lineages could adapt. Several of the latter became extinct, while others withdrew westwards as the tropical forest diminished in extent. It is proposed that the history of desertification in Africa was related to that of the polar ice caps (Antarctic, Arctic).

  12. Update on zebra chip variety screening trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable management of zebra chip (ZC) disease of potato requires the identification and development of tolerant or resistant potato varieties. For five years (2010-2014), over 280 potato varieties and advanced breeding lines were screened for ZC under controlled field cage conditions, by infecti...

  13. Innovativeness and Variety of Internet Shopping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Brian F.; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Valdiserri, Colin M.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of 208 Internet users examined the factors underlying Internet usage and shopping. Data were gathered on Information shopping (IS) innovativeness, overall IS frequency, visit variety, purchase variety, network prevalence, education, age, gender, employment, extensiveness of Internet use, and non-shopping Internet applications. (MES)

  14. 7 CFR 51.890 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One variety. 51.890 Section 51.890 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.890 One variety....

  15. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.10 Variety. (a) The following kinds of agricultural seeds are generally... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  16. Second Language Learners' Attitudes towards English Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weimin; Hu, Guiling

    2008-01-01

    This pilot project investigates second language (L2) learners' attitudes towards three varieties of English: American (AmE), British (BrE) and Australian (AuE). A 69-word passage spoken by a female speaker of each variety was used. Participants were 30 Chinese students pursuing Masters or Doctoral degrees in the United States, who listened to each…

  17. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.10 Variety. (a) The following kinds of agricultural seeds are generally... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  18. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.10 Variety. (a) The following kinds of agricultural seeds are generally... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  19. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  20. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  1. Hematology in Africa.

    PubMed

    Makani, Julie; Roberts, David J

    2016-04-01

    This review of hematology in Africa highlights areas of current practice and the immediate needs for development and clinical research. Acute hematological practice is dominated by anemia, sickle cell disease, and the need to provide a safe and rapidly available supply of blood. There is a growing need for specialist services for bleeding and coagulation, hematological malignancy, and palliative care. There are many areas of practice where straightforward measures could yield large gains in patient care. There is an urgent need for good clinical research to describe the epidemiology, natural history, and management of hematological diseases in Africa. PMID:27040965

  2. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Björn K; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximilian; von Fragstein, Maximillian

    2013-01-01

    Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

  3. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  4. Telecommunications and Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiplagat, B. A., Ed.; Werner, M. C. M., Ed.

    The Telecommunications Foundation of Africa (TFA) was created in 1992 out of a conviction that insufficient telecommunications in Africa are an impediment to economic growth, and that more resources could be mobilized to strengthen this sector. This volume was made by TFA for readers both inside and outside of Africa and the telecommunications…

  5. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  6. Haritaki (Chebulic myrobalan) and its varieties

    PubMed Central

    Ratha, Kshirod Kumar; Joshi, Girish Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz., Family: Combretaceae) possesses a great therapeutic value and is widely distributed in India, up to an altitude of 1500 m. Though Terminalia chebula Retz is the only botanical source of Haritaki, the uses of its varieties along with their sources, identifying features and therapeutic uses are described in Ayurvedic classics and other medical literature. In the present study, a detailed review has been carried out on different varieties of Haritaki. PMID:24501534

  7. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Zankowski, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Room 401,...

  8. Smoke in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences

  9. Africa: Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)

  10. Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Documentation and Information, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This selected, annotated bibliography of information resources in English and/or French is divided into sections on books; documents and articles; UNESCO publications; reference works; and African periodicals. A list of institutions concerned with education in Africa is included, as well as educational documentation and information services in…

  11. AED in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the AED programs in Africa since 1975. Current AED Programs include: (1) HIV/AIDS Prevention and Impact…

  12. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries. PMID:11961693

  13. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has, in…

  14. Pythiosis in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rivierre, Christine; Laprie, Caroline; Guiard-Marigny, Olivier; Bergeaud, Patrick; Berthelemy, Madeleine

    2005-01-01

    We report the first case of pythiosis from Africa in an 8-month-old dog with a chronic and ulcerative cutaneous lesion. The etiologic agent belonged to the genus Pythium. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in a sister group to the other P. insidiosum strains. However, the isolate may belong to a new Pythium species. PMID:15757572

  15. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  16. Who Speaks for Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Judging by the press coverage, it would seem that Europeans are the only ones concerned about conditions in Africa, but perhaps the media is not telling the whole story. According to Mark P. Fancher, chair of the National Conference of Black Lawyers' Section on International Affairs & World Peace and the author of "The Splintering of Global…

  17. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba Moyo); "Classroom Code-Switching…

  18. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  19. Neonatal surgery in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chirdan, Lohfa B; Ngiloi, Petronilla J; Elhalaby, Essam A

    2012-05-01

    The management of neonatal surgical problems continues to pose considerable challenges, particularly in low-resource settings. The burden of neonatal surgical diseases in Africa is not well documented. The characteristics of some neonatal surgical problems are highlighted. Late presentation coupled with poor understanding of the milieu interior of the neonates by incompetent health care providers and poorly equipped hospitals combine to give rise to the unacceptable high morbidity and mortality in most parts of Africa. Proper training of all staff involved in neonatal health care coupled with community awareness must be vigorously pursued by all stakeholders. Various governments throughout the continent of Africa, in conjunction with international donor agencies, must not only provide an adequate budget for health care services and improve infrastructures, but must also deliberately encourage and provide funding for neonatal surgical care and research across the continent. The well-established pediatric surgical training programs, particularly in North and South Africa, should hold the moral responsibility of training all possible numbers of young surgeons from other African countries that do not have any existing pediatric surgical training programs or those countries suffering from remarkable shortage of trained pediatric surgeons. PMID:22475121

  20. Out of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure with her students…

  1. AED in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    For 30 years, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) has worked to support African development. In Uganda, Tanzania, and Botswana AED promoted some of Africa's first AIDS prevention programs. AED is funding research in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and perhaps Zambia that will target stigma and its role in AIDS prevention. Working with governments…

  2. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  3. Libraries in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyia, Christian O.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss library and information work in Africa. Highlights include computerization in Nigerian libraries; education for library and information services in Ghana; an evaluation of African librarianship; the role of Nigerian publishers in national development; and the role of information services in national development…

  4. [Nixtamalization cooking characteristics of 11 maize varieties].

    PubMed

    Billeb de Sinibaldi, A C; Bressani, R

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, 11 maize varieties were analyzed for their nixtamalization cooking quality. The 11 varieties were grown in the same locality and in the same year. The samples were evaluated for their physical characteristics, such as moisture content averaging 13.3%, average 1000 kernel weight (312.5 g), grain hardness through density (1.28 g/ml) and percent floaters (9.5%). These data indicated that all maize varieties had a hard endosperm which is recommended for the nixtamalization cooking process. The 11 varieties were formed on the average by 5.7% seed coat, 11.5% germ and 82.8% endosperm. The low seed coat content suggest a low solids loss during processing. Cooking quality evaluation was done by applying a standard lime cooking procedure to all varieties. An average solid loss of 3.2% was measured, with 0.8% of seed coat still attached to the endosperm. Water absorption at the end of cooking was 40.8% without soaking and 46.9% at the end of soaking. Nixtamal moisture was 47.9% after soaking and only 41.5% at the end of cooking. Cooking time with soaking for 50% moisture in the grain varied from 69 to 122 minutes at 1500 meters over sea level. The cooked grain was dried with hot air and ground however, the particle size obtained was not as that in commercial nixtamalized maize flour. However, the cooking quality parameters to make dough and tortillas were acceptable, with a penetration index of hydrated flour of 178.6 mm, pH 7.97, water absorption index (WAI) of 3.23 g gel/g flour and 4.11% water solubility index (WSI). All flours from the 11 varieties of maize gave acceptable tortillas as evaluated by physical characteristics and sensory quality. However of the 11 varieties 7 including the control were superior for nixtamalization cooking quality. PMID:11515238

  5. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  6. Policosanol contents and compositions of wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Sibel; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2005-07-13

    Policosanol (PC) is the common name for a mixture of high molecular weight (20-36 carbon) aliphatic primary alcohols, which are constituents of plant epicuticular waxes. Wheat germ oil has been reported to improve human physical fitness, and this effect is attributed to its high PC, specifically its high octacosanol (OC) content. Although the PC composition of wheat leaves has been studied extensively, information on PC content and composition of wheat grain fractions is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the PC contents and compositions of wheat grain fractions of 31 varieties grown in Oklahoma. PC compositions of the samples were identified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. The PC content of wheat bran was higher than that of the germ, shorts, and flour. The Trego and Intrada varieties had the highest PC content among the 31 wheat varieties studied. Tetracosanol (C24), hexacosanol (C26), and OC (C28) were the major PC components in all varieties. This study showed that wheat varieties grown under identical growing conditions and management differ significantly in PC content and composition. PMID:15998118

  7. Trivalent Graphs, Volume Conjectures and Character Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Pichai, Ramadevi; Zodinmawia

    2014-10-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to colored quantum invariants of the theta and tetrahedron graph. The character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with E edges in S 3 is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus g = E/3 + 1. For the theta and tetrahedron graph, we conjecture that the configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety.

  8. Hyperelliptic Prym Varieties and Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rui Loja; Vanhaecke, Pol

    We introduce two algebraic completely integrable analogues of the Mumford systems which we call hyperelliptic Prym systems, because every hyperelliptic Prym variety appears as a fiber of their momentum map. As an application we show that the general fiber of the momentum map of the periodic Volterra lattice is an affine part of a hyperelliptic Prym variety, obtained by removing n translates of the theta divisor, and we conclude that this integrable system is algebraic completely integrable.

  9. Internet Performance to Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    We report the first results ever for real-time Internet performance to Africa using the PingER methodology. Multiple monitoring hosts were used to enable comparisons with performance from different parts of the world. From these preliminary measurements, we have found that Internet packet losses to some African sites in recent months range from very poor to bad (> 12%), some getting better, others are holding steady or getting worse. This, together with the average monthly Round Trip Times, imply end-to-end maximum TCP throughputs that are order of magnitudes different between countries in the region. Africa is shown to be far from the Internet performance in industrialized nations due to the poor infrastructure in place today. These monitoring efforts can provide valuable information to analyze the relative rates of future improvement and today they help us to quantify the digital divide and can provide quantitative information to policy makers.

  10. Tuberculosis in tropical Africa

    PubMed Central

    Roelsgaard, E.; Iversen, E.; Bløcher, C.

    1964-01-01

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere. In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another. Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes. PMID:14178027

  11. This Is Africa.

    PubMed

    Verlo, April R; Bailey, Hugh H; Cook, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Military deployments will always result in exposure to health hazards other than those from combat operations. The occupational and environmental health and endemic disease health risks are greater to the Special Operations Forces (SOF) deployed to the challenging conditions in Africa than elsewhere in the world. SOF are deployed to locations that lack life support infrastructures that have become standard for most military deployments; instead, they rely on local resources to sustain operations. Particularly, SOF in Africa do not generally have access to advanced diagnostic or monitoring capabilities or to medical treatment in austere locations that lack environmental or public health regulation. The keys to managing potential adverse health effects lie in identifying and documenting the health hazards and exposures, characterizing the associated risks, and communicating the risks to commanders, deployed personnel, and operational planners. PMID:26360366

  12. Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of the driest regions on Earth, the Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa (23.0N, 15.0E) lies adjacent to the Atlantic coast but upwelling oceanic water causes a very stable rainless atmosphere. The few local inland rivers do not reach the sea but instead appear as long indentations where rivers penetrate the dune fields and end as small dry lakes. The vast dune fields are the result of sands deposited over millions of years by the stream flow.

  13. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  14. Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of the driest regions on Earth, the Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa (23.0N, 15.0E) lies adjacent to the Atlantic coast but the upwelling oceanic water causes a very stable rainless atmosphere. The few local inland rivers do not reach the sea but instead, appear as long indentations where they penetrate the dune fields and end as small dry lakes. The vast dune fields are the result of sands deposited over millions of years by the stream flow.

  15. Men's Attitudes Towards Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bietsch, Kristin E

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines male attitudes towards family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studying attitudes is ideal as they can be calculated for all men, at any point in their lives, regardless of marital status, sexual activity, or fertility desires. We find that positive attitudes towards family planning have increased across Sub-Saharan Africa in the last two decades. We analyze both the association of positive attitudes with a variety of demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and religion) and the relationships with multiple forms of discussion about family planning (radio, television, friends, and partners). We find higher approval at older ages and higher levels of education, and lower levels of approval among Muslims compared to Christians. Interactions between characteristics and discussion of family planning. demonstrate that hearing or talking about contraception has different associations for different groups. This paper offers a new way to explore fertility and reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26897912

  16. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  17. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  18. Astronomy Across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ted

    2014-01-01

    African astronomy is growing rapidly. The Southern African Large Telescope is the largest optical telescope in the southern hemisphere, MeerKat and the Square Kilometer Array will revolutionize radio astronomy in the coming decade, and Namibia hosts HESS II, the world’s largest gamma-ray telescope. A growing community of observational and theoretical astronomers utilizes these multi-wavelength observational facilities. The largest concentrations of researchers are in southern Africa, but the community is now expanding across the continent. Substantial resources are being invested in developing the next generation of African astronomers. The African Astronomical Society was formed in 2011 to foster and coordinate the growth of the science in Africa. The IAU has located its global Office of Astronomy for Development in South Africa, with the mandate to find innovative ways of using astronomy to promote social and educational development around the world. African astronomy offers abundant opportunities for collaborative research with colleagues from across the globe. This special session will introduce many of the aspects of African astronomy to the US community, with the aim of engendering new partnerships and strengthening existing ones.

  19. Secondary Teaching Strategies on South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    1987-01-01

    Offers learning activities on South Africa, which help students gain background information on South Africa's culture, history, and geography; examine United States foreign policy toward South Africa; conduct community research on United States involvement with South Africa; confront different life styles of individuals living in South Africa; and…

  20. Four new rice varieties for specialty markets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although conventional long grain rice varieties are grown on over 75% of the acreage in the US, there is interest in developing rice cultivars which possess specific qualities required for certain value-added markets. USDA ARS researchers at Beaumont, TX and Stuttgart, AR, in various collaborations ...

  1. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  2. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  3. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  4. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  5. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  6. Phonological Convergence in a Contracting Language Variety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Barbara E.; Gerfen, Chip

    2004-01-01

    Most work investigating the role of convergence in situations of language attrition has focused on the morpho-syntactic restructuring of the dying language variety. A central concern of such research has been untangling the factors driving the restructuring with an eye towards establishing whether the changes observed are best viewed as externally…

  7. Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Khan; Alam, Zeb

    2007-08-01

    Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%-10.27%, 2.15%-2.55% total fats, 1.72%-1.85% dietary fibers, 77.65x10(-6)-84.25x10(-6) of potassium and 7.70x10(-6)-35.90x10(-6) of sodium ions concentration, 0.24x10(-6)-0.84x10(-6) of phosphorus, 1.44%-2.10% ash, 31.108-43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%-9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes. PMID:17657856

  8. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  9. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  10. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  11. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  12. Redefinition of Aureobasidium pullulans and its varieties.

    PubMed

    Zalar, P; Gostincar, C; de Hoog, G S; Ursic, V; Sudhadham, M; Gunde-Cimerman, N

    2008-01-01

    Using media with low water activity, a large numbers of aureobasidium-like black yeasts were isolated from glacial and subglacial ice of three polythermal glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), as well as from adjacent sea water, sea ice and glacial meltwaters. To characterise the genetic variability of Aureobasidium pullulans strains originating from the Arctic and strains originating pan-globally, a multilocus molecular analysis was performed, through rDNA (internal transcribed spacers, partial 28 S rDNA), and partial introns and exons of genes encoding beta-tubulin (TUB), translation elongation factor (EF1alpha) and elongase (ELO). Two globally ubiquitous varieties were distinguished: var. pullulans, occurring particularly in slightly osmotic substrates and in the phyllosphere; and var. melanogenum, mainly isolated from watery habitats. Both varieties were commonly isolated from the sampled Arctic habitats. However, some aureobasidium-like strains from subglacial ice from three different glaciers in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), appeared to represent a new variety of A. pullulans. A strain from dolomitic marble in Namibia was found to belong to yet another variety. No molecular support has as yet been found for the previously described var. aubasidani. A partial elongase-encoding gene was successfully used as a phylogenetic marker at the (infra-)specific level. PMID:19287524

  13. Redefinition of Aureobasidium pullulans and its varieties

    PubMed Central

    Zalar, P.; Gostinčar, C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Uršič, V.; Sudhadham, M.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.

    2008-01-01

    Using media with low water activity, a large numbers of aureobasidium-like black yeasts were isolated from glacial and subglacial ice of three polythermal glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), as well as from adjacent sea water, sea ice and glacial meltwaters. To characterise the genetic variability of Aureobasidium pullulans strains originating from the Arctic and strains originating pan-globally, a multilocus molecular analysis was performed, through rDNA (internal transcribed spacers, partial 28 S rDNA), and partial introns and exons of genes encoding β-tubulin (TUB), translation elongation factor (EF1α) and elongase (ELO). Two globally ubiquitous varieties were distinguished: var. pullulans, occurring particularly in slightly osmotic substrates and in the phyllosphere; and var. melanogenum, mainly isolated from watery habitats. Both varieties were commonly isolated from the sampled Arctic habitats. However, some aureobasidium-like strains from subglacial ice from three different glaciers in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), appeared to represent a new variety of A. pullulans. A strain from dolomitic marble in Namibia was found to belong to yet another variety. No molecular support has as yet been found for the previously described var. aubasidani. A partial elongase-encoding gene was successfully used as a phylogenetic marker at the (infra-)specific level. PMID:19287524

  14. "Legal Language": Varieties, Genres, Registers, Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzon, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes classification of "legal language," clarifying terms such as "variety,""genre,""register," and "discourse," and related issues in languages for special purposes, particularly as they apply to professions. Argues that "genre," not "register," is the most appropriate term for legal language, and that study of legal discourse should focus on…

  15. RECENTLY RELEASED USDA/ARS GRAPE VARIETIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production practices for the latest table grape varieties released by ARS, SJVASC, Parlier, California are summarized along with their performance. Sweet Scarlet provides growers with a mid-season, red seedless grape with a light Muscat flavor. It has exceptional eating quality because of its ...

  16. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  18. Menu Variety in Mississippi Child Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kathy B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the variety of lunch menus in licensed child care centers in Mississippi. A total of 460 lunch menus were analyzed using nutrient analysis software, and a frequency analysis showed the most commonly used foods. Found that foods used most often included white bread, sliced ham, and sausage pizza. Results support the need for nutrition…

  19. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  20. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  1. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  2. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  3. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  4. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS...-sudangrass, Soybean; Sudangrass; Sunflower; Tobacco; Trefoil, birdsfoot; Triticale; Wheat, common; Wheat... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  5. On the Basis of the Basic Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    1997-01-01

    Considers the interplay between source and target language in relation to two points made by Klein and Perdue: (1) the argument that the analysis of the target language should not be used as the model for analyzing interlanguage data; and (2) the theoretical claim that under the technical assumptions of minimalism, the Basic Variety is a "perfect"…

  6. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  7. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  8. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

  9. Estuaries of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanson, Brian; Baird, Dan

    1999-05-01

    Estuaries of South Africa presents an authoritative and comprehensive review of the current status of that country's estuarine research and management. Contributors provide information on a wide range of topics, including geological, physical and chemical processes; diversity and productivity of plant and animal communities; interactions among estuarine organisms; and system properties, ecological modeling and current management issues. This broad scope is complemented by a comparative perspective, resulting in a volume that provides a unique contribution to the subject of estuarine ecology. This volume is relevant to all those working in this field throughout the world.

  10. Deployment of MAGDAS in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Kakinami, Y.; Tokunaga, T.; Fujimoto, A.; Ikeda, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, S.; Sakai, M.; Eto, N.; Terada, H.; Shinohara, M.; Fujita, Y.; Matsuyama, K.

    2011-12-01

    The deployment of MAGDAS (MAGnetic Data Acquisition System) began in Africa in the Year 2006 with installations along the dip equator (or "geomagnetic equator") in three countries. In 2008, the 96 Deg. MM Chain was established, running from Hermanus, South Africa, to Fayum, Egypt. In 2010, a major upgrade was performed on the equatorial stations of MAGDAS.

  11. Africa in World Cultures Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Maintains that many world geography and culture textbooks that deal with Africa present misinformation and misleading generalities. Reviews three recent textbooks--"Insights: Sub-Saharan Africa," by Ella C. Leppert, "People and Progress: A Global History," by Milton Finkelstein, and "World Cultures," by Clarence L. Van Steeg. (DB)

  12. Relapsing Fever Borreliae in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The study of relapsing fever borreliae in Africa has long suffered from the use of non-specific laboratory tools for the direct detection of these spirochetes in clinical and vector specimens. Accordingly, Borrelia hispanica, Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis have traditionally been distinguished on the basis of geography and vector and the unproven hypothesis that each species was exclusive to one vector. The recent sequencing of three relapsing fever Borrelia genomes in our laboratory prompted the development of more specific tools and a reappraisal of the epidemiology in Africa. Five additional potential species still need to be cultured from clinical and vector sources in East Africa to further assess their uniqueness. Here, we review the molecular evidence of relapsing fever borreliae in hosts and ectoparasites in Africa and explore the diversity, geographical distribution, and vector association of these pathogens for Africans and travelers to Africa. PMID:23926141

  13. Child health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Costello, A M

    1996-09-01

    The economic failure experienced by most countries in sub-Saharan Africa during the past 15 years has had adverse consequences on health. Flawed structural adjustment programs have led to rising unemployment, cuts in government food subsidies, declining health service budgets, and the introduction of user fees. Such policies have led to increasing maternal mortality rates in Zimbabwe, lower attendance at sexually transmitted disease clinics in Kenya, and declining use of perinatal care services. Sustainability is a key concern in immunization programs, which have seen dramatic declines in the percentages of children covered. The ultimate success of the World Health Organization's diarrheal diseases and acute respiratory infection programs will depend upon adoption of an integrated approach to the management of sick children in district-level clinics. New challenges to child health are posed by HIV infection and by nutritional deficiencies and parasitic infections that adversely affect school performance. Implementation of the potentially cost-effective health interventions which have been identified may improve the educational outcomes for all children in Africa. PMID:12291731

  14. Cretaceous paleogeography of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Hulver, M.L.; Ziegler, A.M.; Rowley, D.B.; Sahagian, D.

    1986-05-01

    Five stage-length maps (Valanginian, Aptian, Cenomanian, Coniacian, and Maestrichtian) of Africa integrate topography/bathymetry, lithofacies, tectonics, and climatically sensitive sediments. These reconstructions differ from currently available maps in their level of detail and accuracy, and in that computer routines were developed to plot all aspects of the maps, including lithofacies patterns. Bathymetric contours were determined from community paleoecology and from thermal subsidence models of the newly opening Atlantic and Indian oceans. Topographic contours have been estimated from uplift models of rift shoulders, as well as from the erosion and sedimentation record of both the internal and marginal basins. The uplift of rift shoulders from Nigeria to Sudan is suggested by the extensive Nubian and equivalent sandstones across north Africa. This Benue-Ngaoundere-Abu Gabra rift system approximately paralleled the paleoequator, and its shoulders must have experienced the high rainfall normally associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In fact, these mountains would have served as a high level heat source, and would have pinned the ITCZ to their summits. Such a system tends to reduce seasonal excursions of the ITCZ, and may have influenced the high biological productivity represented by the oil source rocks of the Arabian peninsula. These sources also lie on the equator and could have resulted from a shelf incursion of the equatorial divergence zone, which is controlled by the ITCZ.

  15. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  16. Brazil-Africa geological links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  17. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  18. Mechanism and active variety of allelochemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peng, S.-L.; Wen, J.; Guo, Q.-F.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes allelochemicals' active variety, its potential causes and function mechanisms. Allelochemicals' activity varies with temperature, photoperiod, water and soils during natural processes, with its initial concentration, compound structure and mixed degree during functional processes, with plant accessions, tissues and maturity within-species, and with research techniques and operation processes. The prospective developmental aspects of allelopathy studies in the future are discussed. Future research should focus on: (1) to identify and purify allelochemicals more effectively, especially for agriculture, (2) the functions of allelopathy at the molecular structure level, (3) using allelopathy to explain plant species interactions, (4) allelopathy as a driving force of succession, and (5) the significance of allelopathy in the evolutionary processes.

  19. Spectral behavior of wheat yield variety trials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Little variation between varieties is seen at jointing, but the variability is found to increase during grain filling and decline again at maturity. No relationship is found between spectral response and yield, and when yields are segregated into various classes the spectral response is the same. Spring and winter nurseries are found to separate during the reproductive stage because of differences in dates of heading and maturity, but they exhibit similar spectral responses. The transformed normalized difference is at a minimum after the maximum grain weight occurs and the leaves begin to brown and fall off. These data of 100% ground cover demonstrate that it is not possible to predict grain yield from only spectral data. This, however, may not apply when reduced yields are caused by less-than-full ground cover

  20. Cryopreservation of Bituminaria bituminosa varieties and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Carmina; Dabauza, Mercedes; Correal, Enrique; Swennen, Rony; Panis, Bart

    2015-10-01

    Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton is a drought tolerant, perennial legume pasture species and a source of pharmaceutical compounds. Bituminaria breeding programs aim to develop and conserve hybrids with desirable traits such as high forage quality, tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses, and high contents of furanocoumarins. In this work we present a cryopreservation study of different B. bituminosa accessions: two varieties and eight intervarietal hybrids resulting from crosses between the three botanical varieties: var. bituminosa, var. crassiuscula, and var. albomarginata. No previous work on cryopreservation of Bituminaria species has been reported. We applied the ultra-fast cooling method, using droplet vitrification on aluminum foil strips. First, we investigated the PVS2 toxicity and cryopreservation damage in two genotypes, comparing three PVS2 treatments and two culture media. An incubation of 30 min in PVS2 resulted in regeneration rates after cryopreservation higher than 80%. The MS medium was selected for optimal meristem outgrowth, in order to avoid the prominent callus formation that was observed in the presence of BAP. These conditions were subsequently used to cryopreserve eight other genotypes. The results were highly variable; 45 days after cryopreservation, survival ranged between 22% and 98% while regeneration ranged between 0% and 96%, depending on the accession. A significant and positive correlation was observed between survival and regeneration. At 90 days post culture plantlets could be recovered from cryopreserved explants of all genotypes. This study shows that the droplet vitrification method is promising for the cryopreservation of eight of the 10 genotypes assayed and the method can thus be applied to develop a cryobank of B. bituminosa. PMID:26231072

  1. Understanding variety: tasting different foods delays satiation.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Foster, Rebecca; Newman, Tammy; Anderson, Annie S; Norton, Geraldine

    2006-02-28

    Variety stimulates intake by as much as 40% following both simultaneous and sequential presentations. Varying sensory and other characteristics of foods could sustain interest in eating and delay the development of satiation. Two experiments set out to explore this by investigating the effect of introducing different foods to taste and rate during intake of a snack. In Experiment 1, 33 participants (23 female) attended the lab on four occasions, to eat sweet or salted popcorn (depending on preference). In a counterbalanced order participants ate ad libitum (control), or were interrupted during eating to taste and rate either the food they were eating (same condition: SC), another food with shared taste characteristics (congruent condition: CC) or a food with a different taste (incongruent condition: IC). Overall participants consumed significantly more in CC and IC than in SC [F(3,90) = 2.74, p<0.05], and pleasantness ratings of the eaten food during CC and IC remained high relative to SC, demonstrating a delay in the normal decline in pleasantness associated with satiation. In Experiment 2, 47 participants (31 female) were allocated to either a food focus (FF) or food distraction (FD) condition, in which intake of chocolate was interrupted during eating to taste and rate chocolate only (FF) or this food and a cheese cracker (FD). FD (94 +/- 9.3 g) participants ate significantly more than FF (68 +/- 9.5 g) and in support of findings from Experiment 1 pleasantness ratings during eating declined more rapidly during FF than FD. Variety may stimulate food intake, in part, by delaying the development of satiation which extends eating and therefore amount consumed. Encouraging consumers to focus on eating should facilitate the normal decline in pleasantness of the food and serve to limit intake. PMID:16405929

  2. Lightning over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images were taken 9 seconds apart as the STS-97 Space Shuttle flew over equatorial Africa east of Lake Volta on December 11, 2000. The top of the large thunderstorm, roughly 20 km across, is illuminated by a full moon and frequent bursts of lightning. Because the Space Shuttle travels at about 7 km/sec, the astronaut perspectives on this storm system becomes more oblique over the 9-second interval between photographs. The images were taken with a Nikon 35 mm camera equipped with a 400 mm lens and high-speed (800 ISO) color negative film. Images are STS097-351-9 and STS097-351-12, provided and archived by the Earth Science and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/

  3. Ebola in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  4. Ebola in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  5. A Report on the 2007 Outfield Variety Test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outfield variety trials, the final testing stage in the Louisiana Variety Development Program, are evaluated cooperatively by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and American Sugar Cane League. Advanced experimental varieties as well as current co...

  6. 77 FR 75607 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Plant Variety Protection Office (PVPO) is seeking candidates for the Plant Variety Protection Board. We are asking for the submission of nomination...

  7. The abortion debate in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rees, H

    1991-01-01

    Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives

  8. Overcoming Gender Inequity in Prevention of Blindness and Visual Impairment in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mganga, Herrieth; Lewallen, Susan; Courtright, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Globally, and in Africa, after adjusting for age, women are about 1.4 times more likely to be blind than men. While women generally live longer than men, the lack of accessibility to and use of services is likely the most important reason for excess blindness in women in Africa. Aim: We sought to review the literature on vision loss in Africa and summarize the findings related to gender equity. Materials and Methods: Information from across sub-Saharan Africa was collected on the evidence of gender inequity and reasons for this inequity. Finally, the results were used to generate suggestions on how gender equity could be improved. Results: In all published surveys (except one), cataract surgical coverage among women was lower than cataract surgical coverage among men. Although data available are limited, similar findings appeared in the use of services for other disease conditions, notably, childhood cataract and glaucoma. Evidence suggests that a variety of approaches are needed to improve the use of eye care services. Three main strategies are needed to address gender inequity in vision loss in Africa. First, it is important to address transport needs. Second, counseling of patients and family members is required. Finally, programs need to put in place pricing systems that make the services affordable the population. Conclusions: VISION 2020 can be achieved in Africa, but investment is needed in a variety of strategies that will ensure that eye care services are affordable, accessible, and acceptable to women and girls. PMID:21731318

  9. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  10. Africa: Private Power's Next Frontier?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Reinier

    2006-10-15

    There might seem to be ample economic gloom and doom to support the old notion that much of Africa is a 'basket case' with no real hope of escaping from its sub-economic cellblock. But such a view may be misguided as we witness the creation of many of the building blocks for real, sustainable economic progress in much of Africa, including programs for serious expansions in electricity infrastructure. (author)

  11. The Role of Variety Recognition in Japanese University Students' Attitudes towards English Speech Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Language attitude studies have tended to assume that informants who listen to and evaluate speech stimuli are able to identify with consistent accuracy the varieties of English in question. However, misidentification could reduce the validity of any results obtained, particularly when it involves the evaluations of non-native English-speaking…

  12. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.7 Variety group 2. Variety group 2 means the following varieties...

  13. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.6 Variety group 1. Variety group 1 means the following varieties...

  14. The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A

    2008-02-27

    Sub-Saharan Africa could have a shortfall of nearly 90Mt of cereals by the year 2025 if current agricultural practices are maintained. Biotechnology is one of the ways to improve agricultural production. Insect-resistant varieties of maize and cotton suitable for the subcontinent have been identified as already having a significant impact. Virus-resistant crops are under development. These include maize resistant to the African endemic maize streak virus and cassava resistant to African cassava mosaic virus. Parasitic weeds such as Striga attack the roots of crops such as maize, millet, sorghum and upland rice. Field trials in Kenya using a variety of maize resistant to a herbicide have proven very successful. Drought-tolerant crops are also under development as are improved varieties of local African crops such as bananas, cassava, sorghum and sweet potatoes. PMID:17761472

  15. Cardiomegaly in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    The term "cardiomegaly" is found in 5-7% of chest X-ray film evaluations in tropical Africa. However, "cardiomegaly" is a descriptive term, devoid of any aetiological meaning. Therefore, providing information about the aetiological factors leading to heart enlargement in a group of Africans (Nigerians) was the purpose of this study. In the years 2002-2011, 170 subjects (aged 17-80 years, mean age 42 years) in whom "cardiomegaly" was revealed by chest radiographs were studied at the Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele. The patients underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and several appropriate laboratory tests. Arterial hypertension was found to be most frequently associated with heart enlargement (39.4%), followed by dilated cardiomyopathy (21.76%), endomyocardial fibrosis (14.1%), valvular defects (9.4%), cardiac enlargement in the course of sickle-cell anaemia (6.47%), and schistosomal cor pulmonale (3.52%). This study is a contribution to a better aetiological elucidation of "cardiomegaly" in the tropics and emphasizes the importance of arterial hypertension as one of its causative factors. The dire need for effective treatment of hypertensive patients becomes evident. A high prevalence of elevated blood pressure seems to reflect an impact of civilization-related factors on the African communities. PMID:22669813

  16. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival. PMID:1786270

  17. Theatre Safari in East Africa: An Exploration of Theatre in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, P. William

    Six months of observation--at two universities, at a drama festival, and with several independent theatre companies--form the basis for this evaluation of theatre in Kenya, Africa. While Kenyan dramas deal with a variety of themes, the majority are topical rather than universal in their treatment of issues. In many, the emphasis is on the…

  18. A Review of Sugarcane Deterioration in the United States and South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of sugarcane deterioration that detrimentally affects processing in the United States (US) and South Africa (SA) is presented. Postharvest sugarcane deterioration products are dependent on sugarcane injury, environmental conditions, variety, cut-to-crush delays, and extent of adventitious i...

  19. Coming of Age in Africa: Continuity and Change. Through African Eyes: Cultures in Change, Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    This book, first in a series of six dealing with African culture and intended for secondary level students, deals with tradition and change in Africa. All of the selections in this volume were written by Africans and come from a variety of sources including autobiographies, novels, and poems. The basic purpose of the book is to capture some of the…

  20. Science Textbooks in the Context of Political Reform in South Africa: Implications for Access to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Whitfield; Naidoo, Devika

    2008-01-01

    The post-apartheid National Physical Science Curriculum was implemented for the first time in South Africa in grade 10 during 2006. A variety of new textbooks for grade 10 have been published. This study was a comparative analysis of three popular textbooks, one prepared to support the previous curriculum, and two prepared for the new curriculum.…

  1. Assessing and Enhancing Visualization Skills of Engineering Students in Africa: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Holly K.; John, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Visualization skills are believed to be a strong indicator of success in engineering, science, and a variety of other careers. Previous studies have compared the visualization skills of first year engineering students in the US with their cohorts in Europe and Brazil, but to date there have been no data reported for developing countries in Africa.…

  2. A review of sugarcane deterioration in the United States and South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of sugarcane deterioration that detrimentally affects processing in the United States (US) and South Africa (SA) is presented. Postharvest sugarcane deterioration products are dependent on sugarcane injury, environmental conditions, variety, cut-to-crush delays, and extent of adventitious i...

  3. Becoming Academically Literate in South Africa: Lessons from Student Accounts for Policymakers and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a series of studies undertaken at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa, in the 1990s. The studies explore how students acquire academic literacy in the home and community, school and at university. The main focus is on the literacy biographies of 36 students who come from a variety of educational, linguistic and…

  4. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in Ticks in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

    2014-01-01

    DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae. PMID:24615133

  5. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  6. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  7. Three futures for Africa.

    PubMed

    Bugnicourt, J

    1979-01-01

    Industrialization and the monetary economy have changed the relationship between society and nature that characterized majority of African cultures. Modernization is raping the environment, and impersonal and formal attitudes are on the rise. To determine what African life would be like by the year 2000, 3 scenarios are proposed, based upon the relationship of lifestyle to the African people's most pressing needs and aspirations, and the ways in which these can be satisfied: 1) the prolongation of present tendencies. This means the continued exploitation of African raw materials, concurrent increase of energy imports with growth rates, and modernization pattern following the European or American model. Environmental damage is dealt with by a limited policy, mainly in smart areas and big agglomerations, and in certain tourist spots. 2) distributing benefits of development--the dominant countries redistribute benefits of development (e.g., improved terms of trade for Africa); the African economy, however is still directed to the outside, even if it is partly managed by African managers. Intermediate lifestyles are fostered by the money economy, and the African masses aspire for imported models. 3) environmental development--African society no longer depends on the world market but instead tries to meet the basic needs of its people, with the environment as the permanent focal point of reference. This necessitates the adoption of a tough strategy and new options in use of technology, in consumption levels, in cultural models, and in distribution of activities between town and country. Currently, the future environment and life styles of the African people are being decided by various centres of decision-making--big powers, multinationals, governments, local interests--without their being aware of it. It is not unreasonable to expect that a great public debate on whether to conform or to imitate, or to be independent, may soon unfold to determine the aspirations of the

  8. "Been to Africa".

    PubMed

    Fiander, A; Hughes, D

    The main drawback for young doctors from developed countries working in Africa or other developing area, is the lack of supervision. Medical and nursing care standards are low, with poor facilities and infrastructure and the problems encountered are enormous. Attitudes and expectations will have to change and mistakes will inevitably occur. Additional frustrations are poor motivation of the local staff, lack of essential supplies and the doctor coming down with tropical diseases. However, much can be gained by this type of experience: basic skills will be improved and self-confidence gained in ones own judgement; technical abilities will grow because of limited resources and equipment, and the need to justify their use only when absolutely necessary. Management and administrative skills will also improve, and opportunities found for teaching and making little changes. The personal thanks and appreciation of the patients, despite their great poverty and their quiet suffering also adds to the experience. Valuable lessons can be learned from the nurses, both medically and culturally and they have been accepting and friendly. Planning for such an experience takes 1-2 years. It is hard to find suitable jobs and one should seek the advice of consultants or other experts with experience abroad. Organizations concerned with health in developing countries such as the Institute of Child Health, International Centre for Eye Health, Christian Medical Fellowship, are resources for obtaining positions. Placement may be with a missionary organization, nongovernmental organization, college program, or a hospital exchange. The best time is when the doctor has completed the specialist exams and has something specific to offer. A 2-year contract is a reasonable time period to plan for. Keeping up with the literature and some standard teaching tools are important and publishing the experiences gained will be valuable for others. Prepare for this by keeping records of work, including a

  9. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  10. [AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Bolin, H

    1987-12-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943

  11. Islet cell research brings hope for a diabetes cure: Meeting report from the 6th annual islet society meeting in Stellenbosch, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tchokonte-Nana, V; Cockburn, I L; Manda, J K; Kotze, P C; Johnson, J D

    2014-01-01

    The International Diabetes Federation predicts that, over the next twenty years, the largest increase in the prevalence of diabetes will be in the Africa region. Recognizing an unmet need for more focus on Africa and engagement with African scholars, the Islet Society held its 6th annual meeting July 20–21, 2014 in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Here, we present a report that covers the presentations and discussion points from that meeting. Work was presented on a variety of topics and included presentations by a significant proportion of Africa diabetes researchers. Overall, it was an excellent conference, with many new international collaborations initiated. We hope that other groups will also respond to the need for more conferences in Africa and focused on Africa. PMID:25437378

  12. Geoscience Initiative Develops Sustainable Science in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Durrheim, Ray; Dirks, Paul; Graham, Gerhard; Gibson, Roger; Webb, Susan

    2011-05-01

    AfricaArray (http://www.AfricaArray.org) is a 20-year initiative in the geosciences to meet the African Union's New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) requirements for continent-wide cooperation in human resources development and capacity building. The name AfricaArray refers to arrays of scientists working on linked projects across the continent, arrays of shared training programs and recording stations, and, above all, a shared vision that Africa will retain capacity in an array of technical and scientific fields vital to its sustainable development. AfricaArray officially launched in January 2005 and, with support from many public and private partners, has become multifaceted, promoting a broad range of educational and research activities and supporting a multiuser sensor network (Figure 1). Though fostering geophysics education and research in South Africa was its initial focus, AfricaArray has expanded to 17 countries and is now branching out into all areas of the geosciences (Earth, atmosphere, and space).

  13. Africa; Expanding market creates more gas lines

    SciTech Connect

    Quarles, W.R.; Thiede, K.; Parent, L.

    1990-11-01

    The authors report on pipeline development activities in Africa. They discuss how a growing European market for gas has increased potential pipeline construction in Africa, especially for Algeria, Egypt, and Libya.

  14. Mesoscale convective complexes in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, A.G.; Fritsch, J.M. )

    1993-08-01

    Digitized full-disk infrared satellite imagery from the European geostationary satellite (Meteosat) for 1986 and 1987 was used to construct a climatology of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) in Africa. One hundred ninety-five systems formed over Africa and its near vicinity during the two-year study period. From this database, characteristics of Africa MCCs were calculated. The results indicate that these MCCs display many of the same characteristics as those found in the Americas, the Indian subcontinent, and the western Pacific region. The systems are predominantly nocturnal and tend to form over or in the immediate vicinity of land. The average lifetime of African MCCs is about 11.5 h. The size distributions of the African systems are also extremely similar to those of the Americas, the Indian subcontinent, and the western Pacific region with most systems exhibiting areas between 2 [times] 10[sup 5] and 3 [times] 10[sup 5] km[sup 2]. The monthly frequency distribution of African systems indicates that peak activity tends to occur during the period of most intense insolation. Like the MCCs in the western Pacific region and the Americas, the African MCCs tend to propagate toward the low-level high-[theta][sub e] air that feeds the convective systems. Systems over northern Africa moved toward the west-southwest, with a few developing into tropical cyclones over the Atlantic. Systems over southeastern Africa generally moved toward the northeast and east. It is concluded that the satellite-observed systems over Africa are essentially the same phenomena as the MCC populations observed over the Americas, the Indian monsoon region, and the western Pacific region. In addition, the large number of MCCs found worldwide (approximately 300-400 per year) indicate that they may be significant contributors to the global tropospheric energy budget and hydrological cycle. 46 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  16. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  17. Africa in Classical Antiquity: A Curriculum Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    1977-01-01

    A curriculum resource developed by the School District of Philadelphia deals with Africa in Classical Antiquity. Each unit contains suggestions for lower, middle and upper schools. Topics covered are: history of Africa; great Africans in the Graeco-Roman world; racial attitudes; blacks in classical art, and Africa in classical literature. (CHK)

  18. Theme: Education with Production in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ben; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes " A Bridge Too Far: Democracy, Development and Education in Rural South Africa (Parker); "Khuphuka: A Skills Training and Employment Programme in Durban, South Africa" (Comninos); "Reconstruction and Development Programme and Tertiary Institutions in South Africa"; and "Report on the First Session of the Seminar: Mafeking, September…

  19. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections provides…

  20. Contact and the ecology of racial division: some varieties of informal segregation.

    PubMed

    Dixon, John; Durrheim, Kevin

    2003-03-01

    The analysis of contact between groups must proceed from an uncomfortable realization. Notwithstanding its formal abolition in many societies, segregation remains pervasive as an informal mechanism for ordering and defining social relations. Social psychologists' tendency to investigate contact under 'optimal' conditions may obscure this fact. This article discusses an observational study that attempted to chart some varieties of informal segregation on an 'open' beach in post-apartheid South Africa. The study used a novel methodology to plot the ecology of racial distribution within this public setting over time. The analysis, which included measures of dissimilarity (D) and exposure (P), indicated that processes of segregation operated in various ways to limit the opportunities for racial contact. Follow-up interviews conducted with 'white' holiday-makers suggested that such processes embodied shared assumptions about the 'proper' socio-spatial organization of race relations. Some implications for research on the contact hypothesis are discussed. PMID:12713753

  1. 76 FR 21701 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Natalie Worku, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and Technology... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: May 11 and 12, 2011, 8...

  2. 78 FR 37200 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and Technology... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural... their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: July 31,...

  3. 77 FR 20610 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY... public of their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: April...-2223, Beltsville, MD 20705. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety...

  4. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  5. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  6. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  7. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  8. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  9. 2012 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three years after selection in the seedling stage of the USDA variety program, superior experimental varieties are assigned permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers. These varieties are then planted in replicated yield trials at SRU’s Ardoyne Farm in Schriever and at the LSU AgCenter’s Iberia Research Stati...

  10. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  11. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  12. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  13. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  14. National variety trials identify clones with high potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality potato varieties are the backbone of a strong potato industry. Variety trials have been used to identify promising new varieties for well over a century. Trials are repeated and information collected over many years in order to confidently identify lines that may be well suited for productio...

  15. Evaluation of new energy cane varieties for Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in U.S bioenergy markets may offer an alternative source of income for Louisiana sugarcane growers. High-fiber sugarcane or energy cane varieties are currently being developed. As with traditional sugarcane varieties, energy-cane varieties need to be evaluated across the sugarca...

  16. 2014 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the USDA sugarcane variety program, superior experimental varieties are assigned permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers three years after selection in the seedling stage. These varieties are then planted in replicated yield trials at the Sugarcane Research Unit's (SRU) Ardoyne Farm in Schriever and at ...

  17. Toward the "New South Africa."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Examines, in the light of political reforms in South Africa, the prime concerns of geographers. Discusses the future of the Bantustans; questions of land redistribution, tenure systems, production levels, and support systems; spatial economic policies; land and housing; and regional relations. Argues that, to realize its potential, southern Africa…

  18. Africa in Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekiros, Astair; Wiley, Marylee

    Based on an examination of 50 general social studies textbooks, the report discusses the most frequently found biases, misconceptions, omissions, inaccuracies, and misrepresentations. Criteria for judging the textbooks include: readable and suitable materials; accurate and current content; presentation of Africa as a diverse continent; open…

  19. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  20. Madagascar Adventure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  1. Monitoring Optimism in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mari

    2007-01-01

    An article with exactly this same title was published in Social Indicators Research (41:279-304, 1997). The purpose of the current article is to update the findings discussed in that first article. Therefore the abstract published previously is still relevant: The last few decades have been the most crucial and eventful ones in South Africa's…

  2. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  3. Narrative Cartoons. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  4. Human fascioliasis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Black, J; Ntusi, N; Stead, P; Mayosi, B; Mendelson, M

    2013-09-01

    Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus.  PMID:24300687

  5. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  6. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  7. Christian Higher Education in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…

  8. NeuroAIDS in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2013-01-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region. PMID:20500018

  9. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…

  10. Basic space sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo, Richard S.

    Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this ``Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,'' Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

  11. Current Status of MAGDAS Deployment in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Kakinami, Y.; Tokunaga, T.; Fujimoto, A.; Ikeda, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, S.; Sakai, M.; Eto, N.; Shinohara, M.; Magdas Project Team

    2010-12-01

    Under the lead of Prof. K. Yumoto (PI of the MAGDAS Project), the MAGDAS Project is intensively installing a network of real time magnetometers in Africa along two chains: (1) Dip Equator Chain, and (2) the so-called "96 Degree MM Chain" that runs from Egypt to South Africa. The Africa installations began in 2006 and still continue to this day. This talk discusses the details of the current status of this significant ground observation program in Africa. Africa presents some special problems. However, important data is now being collected continuously along these two chains. The MAGDAS Project is perhaps Japan's most significant contribution to IHY and ISWI (International Space Weather Initiative).

  12. Modern maize varieties going local in the semi-arid zone in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maize is the most produced crop in Sub-Saharan Africa, but yields are low and climate change is projected to further constrain smallholder production. The current efforts to breed and disseminate new high yielding and climate ready maize varieties are implemented through the formal seed system; the chain of public and private sector activities and institutions that produce and release certified seeds. These efforts are taking place in contexts currently dominated by informal seed systems; local and informal seed management and exchange channels with a long history of adapting crops to local conditions. We here present a case study of the genetic effects of both formal and informal seed management from the semi-arid zone in Tanzania. Results Two open pollinated varieties (OPVs), Staha and TMV1, first released by the formal seed system in the 1980s are cultivated on two-thirds of the maize fields among the surveyed households. Farmer-recycling of improved varieties and seed selection are common on-farm seed management practices. Drought tolerance and high yield are the most important characteristics reported as reason for cultivating the current varieties as well as the most important criteria for farmers’ seed selection. Bayesian cluster analysis, PCA and FST analyses based on 131 SNPs clearly distinguish between the two OPVs, and despite considerable heterogeneity between and within seed lots, there is insignificant differentiation between breeder’s seeds and commercial seeds in both OPVs. Genetic separation increases as the formal system varieties enter the informal system and both hybridization with unrelated varieties and directional selection probably play a role in the differentiation. Using a Bayesian association approach we identify three loci putatively under selection in the informal seed system. Conclusions Our results suggest that the formal seed system in the study area distributes seed lots that are true to type. We suggest that

  13. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Reiner Jr., Robert C.; Battle, Katherine E.; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J.; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  14. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  15. Identification and DUS Testing of Rice Varieties through Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Pourabed, Ehsan; Jazayeri Noushabadi, Mohammad Reza; Jamali, Seyed Hossein; Moheb Alipour, Naser; Zareyan, Abbas; Sadeghi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Identification and registration of new rice varieties are very important to be free from environmental effects and using molecular markers that are more reliable. The objectives of this study were, first, the identification and distinction of 40 rice varieties consisting of local varieties of Iran, improved varieties, and IRRI varieties using PIC, and discriminating power, second, cluster analysis based on Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, and, third, determining the ability of microsatellite markers to separate varieties utilizing the best combination of markers. For this research, 12 microsatellite markers were used. In total, 83 polymorphic alleles (6.91 alleles per locus) were found. In addition, the variation of PIC was calculated from 0.52 to 0.9. The results of cluster analysis showed the complete discrimination of varieties from each other except for IR58025A and IR58025B. Moreover, cluster analysis could detect the most of the improved varieties from local varieties. Based on the best combination of markers analysis, five pair primers together have shown the same results of all markers for detection among all varieties. Considering the results of this research, we can propose that microsatellite markers can be used as a complementary tool for morphological characteristics in DUS tests. PMID:25755666

  16. Variety support and exercise adherence behavior: experimental and mediating effects.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Benjamin D; Standage, Martyn; McEwan, Desmond; Wolf, Svenja A; Lubans, David R; Eather, Narelle; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Crocker, Peter R E; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the provision of variety (i.e., variety support) is related to exercise behavior among physically inactive adults and the extent to which the 'experience of variety' mediates those effects. One hundred and twenty one inactive university students were randomly assigned to follow a high or low variety support exercise program for 6 weeks. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 3- and 6-weeks. Participants in the high variety support condition displayed higher levels of adherence to the exercise program than those in the low variety support condition [F(1, 116) = 5.55, p = .02, η p (2)  = .05] and the relationship between variety support and adherence was mediated by perceived variety (β = .16, p < .01). Exercise-related variety support holds potential to be an efficacious method for facilitating greater exercise adherence behaviors of previously inactive people by fostering perceptions of variety. PMID:26546241

  17. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of three varieties of Piper species.

    PubMed

    Isong, E U; Essien, I B

    1996-02-01

    The proximate composition of three varieties of Piper guineense (Odusa-Ibibio/Efik) viz. 'Uyat Odusa' (cultivated and peppery), 'Eting-keni Ikot' (wild forest variety) and 'Eting-keni mben inyang' (wild, riverine variety), were determined using available standard methods. Also determined were mineral, antinutrient and ascorbate levels. The cultivated pepperic variety had the highest content of crude protein and moisture (18.9% and 97% respectively) while the wild, riverine variety had the highest content of ether extract, carbohydrate and calories (7.79%, 63.38% and 398 cals respectively). The cultivated variety had appreciable amounts of phosphorus (1.12 mg/100 g), potassium (1.2 mg/100 g), sodium (0.24 mg/100 g), zinc (0.18 mg/100 g), and copper (0.18 mg/100 g) while the forest variety contained more of calcium (12.38 mg/100 g), magnesium (1.21 mg/100 g) and iron (0.85 mg/100 g). The wild riverine variety appeared to have the least mineral content but had the highest ascorbate level of 173.4 mg/100 g. Of four antinutrients assayed, the cultivated pepperic one had the least quantities while the forest variety was highest in hydrocyanic acid (85.8 mg/100 g) and glucosinolates (0.20 mg/100 g). The wild riverine variety had the highest level of total oxalate (165.0 mg/100 g). These quantities are however far below documented toxic levels. PMID:8811726

  18. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences. PMID:24906348

  19. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  20. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  1. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  2. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  3. Can GM sorghum impact Africa?

    PubMed

    Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa. PMID:18191263

  4. Child neurology services in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Newton, Charles R

    2011-12-01

    The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level. PMID:22019842

  5. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  6. Child Neurology Services in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilmshurst, Jo M.; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D.; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Newton, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level. PMID:22019842

  7. Universal sex differences in the desire for sexual variety: tests from 52 nations, 6 continents, and 13 islands.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, David P; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Ault, Lara; Austers, Ivars; Bennett, Kevin L; Bianchi, Gabriel; Boholst, Fredric; Cunen, Mary Ann Borg; Braeckman, Johan; Brainerd, Edwin G; Caral, Leo Gerard A; Caron, Gabrielle; Casullo, Maria Martina; Cunningham, Michael; Daibo, Ikuo; De Backer, Charlotte; De Souza, Eros; Diaz-Loving, Rolando; Diniz, Gláucia; Durkin, Kevin; Echegaray, Marcela; Eremsoy, Ekin; Euler, Harald A; Falzon, Ruth; Fisher, Maryanne L; Foley, Dolores; Fry, Douglas P; Fry, Sirpa; Ghayur, M Arif; Golden, Debra L; Grammer, Karl; Grimaldi, Liria; Halberstadt, Jamin; Herrera, Dora; Hertel, Janine; Hoffmann, Heather; Hooper, Danica; Hradilekova, Zuzana; Hudek-Kene-evi, Jasna; Jaafer, Jas; Jankauskaite, Margarita; Kabangu-Stahel, Heidi; Kardum, Igor; Khoury, Brigitte; Kwon, Hayrran; Laidra, Kaia; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert; Lakerveld, Dustin; Lampert, Ada; Lauri, Maryanne; Lavallée, Marguerite; Lee, Suk-Jae; Leung, Luk Chung; Locke, Kenneth D; Locke, Vance; Luksik, Ivan; Magaisa, Ishmael; Marcinkeviciene, Dalia; Mata, André; Mata, Rui; McCarthy, Barry; Mills, Michael E; Moreira, João; Moreira, Sérgio; Moya, Miguel; Munyae, M; Noller, Patricia; Opre, Adrian; Panayiotou, Alexia; Petrovic, Nebojsa; Poels, Karolien; Popper, Miroslav; Poulimenou, Maria; P'yatokha, Volodymyr; Raymond, Michel; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Reneau, Susan E; Rivera-Aragon, Sofia; Rowatt, Wade C; Ruch, Willibald; Rus, Velko S; Safir, Marilyn P; Salas, Sonia; Sambataro, Fabio; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; Schulmeyer, Marion K; Schütz, Astrid; Scrimali, Tullio; Shackelford, Todd K; Shaver, Phillip R; Sichona, Francis; Simonetti, Franco; Sinehsaw, Tilahun; Speelman, Tom; Spyrou, Spyros; Sümer, H Canan; Sümer, Nebi; Supekova, Marianna; Szlendak, Tomasz; Taylor, Robin; Timmermans, Bert; Tooke, William; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Tungaraza, F S K; Vandermassen, Griet; Vanhoomissen, Tom; Van Overwalle, Frank; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Vasey, Paul L; Verissimo, João; Voracek, Martin; Wan, Wendy W N; Wang, Ta-Wei; Weiss, Peter; Wijaya, Andik; Woertman, Liesbeth; Youn, Gahyun; Zupanèiè, Agata

    2003-07-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have hypothesized that men and women possess both long-term and short-term mating strategies, with men's short-term strategy differentially rooted in the desire for sexual variety. In this article, findings from a cross-cultural survey of 16,288 people across 10 major world regions (including North America, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, Middle East, Africa, Oceania, South/Southeast Asia, and East Asia) demonstrate that sex differences in the desire for sexual variety are culturally universal throughout these world regions. Sex differences were evident regardless of whether mean, median, distributional, or categorical indexes of sexual differentiation were evaluated. Sex differences were evident regardless of the measures used to evaluate them. Among contemporary theories of human mating, pluralistic approaches that hypothesize sex differences in the evolved design of short-term mating provide the most compelling account of these robust empirical findings. PMID:12872886

  8. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  9. ERTS imagery as a source of environmental information for southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, D. T.; Gilbertson, B.

    1974-01-01

    Southern Africa is faced with a variety of environmental problems that reflect the different states of development of countries in the region. The task of the environmental planner is in many instances complicated by a lack of basic resource information. The acquisition of the necessary data is often impeded by shortage of trained personnel and lack of funds, particularly in developing nations of the region. The range of environmental problems in Southern Africa are described and specific examples are shown of how ERTS type imagery can materially assist in solving these problems. These examples demonstrate that ERTS type data will be of substantial value to both the industrialized and the developing nations of Southern Africa, provided that problems of availability and user education are overcome.

  10. Spreading Astronomy Education Through Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baki, P.

    2006-08-01

    Although Astronomy has been an important vehicle for effectively passing a wide range of scientific knowledge, teaching the basic skills of scientific reasoning, and for communicating the excitement of science to the public, its inclusion in the teaching curricula of most institutions of higher learning in Africa is rare. This is partly due to the fact that astronomy appears to be only good at fascinating people but not providing paid jobs. It is also due to the lack of trained instructors, teaching materials, and a clear vision of the role of astronomy and basic space science within the broader context of education in the physical and applied sciences. In this paper we survey some of the problems bedeviling the spread of astronomy in Africa and discuss some interdisciplinary traditional weather indicators. These indicators have been used over the years to monitor the appearance of constellations. For example, orions are closely intertwined with cultures of some ethnic African societies and could be incorporated in the standard astronomy curriculum as away of making the subject more `home grown' and to be able to reach out to the wider populace in popularizing astronomy and basic sciences. We also discuss some of the other measures that ought to be taken to effectively create an enabling environment for sustainable teaching and spread of astronomy through Africa.

  11. Population research potentials in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hyden, G

    1980-01-01

    There is a need in Africa to test prevailing theories and concepts in population studies to see how they apply to this culture. Most of the prevailing perspective on population issues can be influenced by development strategies and policies affecting demographic variables. So research designed to determine the longterm consequences of rural settlement policies on subsequent access to family planning or family planning policies are also needed, as are studies which zero in on the work and results of specific population projects. The following issues are considered worth special consideration in Africa, where the vast majority of women live in rural areas where family planning services will not reach for some time. The areas of investigation which seem most pertinent in sub-saharan Africa are: side effect of contraceptive devices and agents; infertility assessments, social and medical consequences of adolescent pregnancies, the means of offering effective population education in rural African areas, the possible effects of fertility control programs on demographic transition, and potential funding sources. PMID:12336771

  12. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  14. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  15. 78 FR 63448 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY... public of their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES... Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60601. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Maria Pratt, Plant...

  16. "Sentence Variety": Where Theory and Practice Meet and Lose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1993-01-01

    Complains that, even though composition instructors beg their students to improve their writing style, much professional writing is stylistically dense and unreadable. Questions whether writing teachers can teach style or whether asking for sentence variety is useful. Criticizes the treatment of style and sentence variety in composition textbooks.…

  17. Making better decisions: 2014 Colorado winter wheat variety performance trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers need timely reports of varietal performance for making informed variety selection for their farms each year. The objective of this document is to provide a yield and performance summary of the last three years of winter wheat variety trials run at multiple locations in eastern Colorado. Fort...

  18. A report on the 2014 outfield variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outfield variety tests are conducted each year on grower farms that represent different regions and soils of the Louisiana sugarcane industry. These tests are carried out during the final three years of a 12 year Louisiana sugarcane variety development program and include recommended commercial vari...

  19. REGISTER OF NEW FRUIT AND NUT VARIETIES LIST 39.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This register of new fruit varieties includes these crops: apple, apricot, blackberry and hybrid berries, blueberry, grape, grape rootstock, nectarine, paw-paw, peach, pecan, plum and plum hybrids, Prunus rootstock, raspberry, strawberry, and tropical fruits avocado and kiwifruit. For each variety t...

  20. 2008 Louisiana "HoCP" Nursery and Infield Variety Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three years after selection in single-stools at the seedling stage, scientists in the breeding program assign permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers to experimental varieties advanced for further testing. These newly assigned varieties are planted in replicated nursery trials at three locations (Ardoyne ...

  1. Phenotypic characterization of fifteen commercial and Rootstock Avocado varieties.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present paper was to characterize 15 avocado varieties to increase the information available for this fruit. Fifteen avocado varieties from the United States Department of agriculture Germplasm Repository System, Miami, FL: Aycock, Brooks, Cellon's Hawaii Seedling, Collins, Coll...

  2. A report on the 2011 outfield variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outfield variety tests are conducted each year on grower farms, representing different regions and soils of the Louisiana sugarcane industry. These tests are conducted during the final three years of the 12-year Louisiana sugarcane variety improvement program. This report is a summary of the yield p...

  3. REGISTER OF NEW FRUIT AND NUT VARIETIES LIST 43.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This register of new fruit varieties includes these crops: apple, apricot, blackberry and hybrid berries, blueberry, grape, grape rootstock, nectarine, paw-paw, peach, pecan, plum and plum hybrids, prunus rootstock, raspberry, strawberry, and tropical fruits avocado and kiwifruit. For each variety t...

  4. Growing Super-Sweet Sugarcane Varieties Makes Good Sense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently-released L 99-226, HoCP 00-950, and L 01-283 all mature significantly earlier and maintain a higher overall sucrose content than previously released varieties in Louisiana. The advantage that high-sucrose varieties have over those with moderate sucrose content is that less cane must be har...

  5. Requests in a South African Variety of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasanga, Luanga A.

    2006-01-01

    The main assumption in this article is that the pragmatics of the variety of South African English commonly referred to as black South African English (BSAE) have been shaped, over time, by educated bilinguals, through a transfer of features from African languages. Transfer of syntactic forms, now firmly established in the variety, is evidenced…

  6. 2010 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three years after selecting in single-stools in the seedling stage, scientists in the SRU’s sugarcane breeding program assign “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers to varieties advanced for further testing. These newly assigned varieties are planted in replicated nursery trials at the SRU’s Ardoyne Farm in Schrie...

  7. 2011 Louisiana “Ho” nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists with the Sugarcane Research Unit (SRU)’s sugarcane breeding program assign permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers to varieties advanced for further testing three years after selection from single-stools in the seedling stage. Researchers then plant these varieties in replicated nursery trials a...

  8. Issues in the Study of Intonation in Language Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Some key issues in the study of intonation in language varieties are presented and discussed with reference to recent research on the intonation of New Zealand English. The particular issues that are highlighted include the determination of the intonational phonological categories of a language variety, and the attribution of varietal differences…

  9. REGISTER OF NEW FRUIT AND NUT VARIETIES LIST 42.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This register of new fruit varieties includes these crops: apple, apricot, blackberry and hybrid berries, blueberry, grape, grape rootstock, nectarine, paw-paw, peach, pecan, plum and plum hybrids, Prunus rootstock, raspberry, strawberry, and tropical fruits avocado and kiwifruit. For each variety t...

  10. Field evaluation of rice varieties for resistance to major diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and use of improved disease resistant rice varieties remains of foremost importance to rice producers, with field evaluation under local environments essential. In this study, we evaluated new and existing varieties, potential releases, and Texas elite breeding lines for resistance t...

  11. A report on the 2009 outfield variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outfield variety tests are conducted each year on grower farms that represent different regions and soils of the Louisiana sugarcane industry. These tests are conducted during the final three years of the 12 year Louisiana sugarcane variety improvement program. This report is a summary of the yi...

  12. A report on the 2010 outfield variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outfield variety tests are conducted each year on grower farms that represent different regions and soils of the Louisiana sugarcane industry. These tests are conducted during the final three years of the 12 year Louisiana sugarcane variety improvement program. This report is a summary of the yiel...

  13. Language Attitudes toward Spanish and English Varieties: A Chicano Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, D. Letticia

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 30 Chicano adolescents in 2 Austin barrios examined the varieties of English and Spanish used by respondents and their Anglo and African American peers, functions of the language varieties, maintenance of Spanish, language shift toward English, Spanish-accented English, and ethnic and social identity. Contains 43 references.…

  14. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  15. Problems of youth in Africa.

    PubMed

    Muriuki, P

    1981-12-01

    Young people constitute a large and rapidly growing proportion of the population in most countries of Africa and in many parts of the world as a whole. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. Young people on the whole experience discomforting confusion, disquieting irritations and perplexities, and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in drug and alcohol use among youth leading to vandalism and disrespect toward their elders and authority. There also are teenage pregnancies and school dropouts. Illegal abortion is being practiced by many girls which sometime lead to premature death. Urbanization also has accentuated various kinds of evils and crimes. Modernization and western influences have helped to erode traditional Africa values. The family system has lost ground rapidly, and the indigenous systems of education have largely disappeared. The passing away of old Africa has contributed to laxity in morals. The current socioeconomic conditions in Africa block the progress of the Africa youth. Early marriages complicate matters for youth and increase the burdens of youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about fertility regulation methods all have helped to increase early childbearing. These are reinforced by African traditional values attached to childbearing. Furthermore, in traditional African society, the young people depended for guidance in behavior and personal relationships on some member of the family. This teaching was gradual and continued until the child was an adult. Today, the family has had to relinquish much of the responsibility of guiding youth on these concerns. Much of the task has been left to formal education and to chance. Problems relating to young people should be attacked at their roots. Such an effort should aim to inform, teach, educate, and orient youth so that they can face the reality of their sexual life. Family Life and Sex Education

  16. INVESTIGATING THE LONGITUDINAL RELATION BETWEEN OFFENDING FREQUENCY AND OFFENDING VARIETY

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in longitudinal patterns of criminal offending have paid close attention to several dimensions of criminal careers. Although it might be expected that several dimensions are strongly linked to one another, research has not explored their joint distribution. The study uses trajectory-based methodology to examine the joint relation between offending variety and offending frequency in a large sample of serious offenders from adolescence to early adulthood and also tests how several risk factors relate to the joint covariation between variety and frequency. Results indicate strong concordance between low and high rate variety and frequency trajectories but a more modest concordance among moderate rate variety and frequency trajectories. Criminal history, individual, parent, and peer characteristics predict differences in concordance between variety and frequency trajectories. Theoretical implications and directions for further research are outlined. PMID:20037667

  17. INVESTIGATING THE LONGITUDINAL RELATION BETWEEN OFFENDING FREQUENCY AND OFFENDING VARIETY.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Piquero, Alex R

    2009-07-01

    Researchers interested in longitudinal patterns of criminal offending have paid close attention to several dimensions of criminal careers. Although it might be expected that several dimensions are strongly linked to one another, research has not explored their joint distribution. The study uses trajectory-based methodology to examine the joint relation between offending variety and offending frequency in a large sample of serious offenders from adolescence to early adulthood and also tests how several risk factors relate to the joint covariation between variety and frequency. Results indicate strong concordance between low and high rate variety and frequency trajectories but a more modest concordance among moderate rate variety and frequency trajectories. Criminal history, individual, parent, and peer characteristics predict differences in concordance between variety and frequency trajectories. Theoretical implications and directions for further research are outlined. PMID:20037667

  18. Nutritional quality evaluation of eighteen date pit varieties.

    PubMed

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2009-01-01

    The pits from date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are nutrient dense but the nutrient composition across varieties has not been extensively studied. In the present study, 18 leading varieties of date pits from date fruits cultivated in the United Arab Emirates (Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit Saif, Jabri, Kodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe) were analyzed and compared for their chemical and physical properties. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients, and physical properties (weight, length, and density) were determined. Significant differences (P<0.05) in the measured parameters were observed among the different varieties. The results show that date pits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, but all varieties are excellent sources of dietary fiber and may therefore serve as important constituents of functional foods. PMID:18925479

  19. [Epidemic characteristics and security implications of Africa schistosomiasis on people who go to Africa].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Yang, Ya; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2015-08-01

    With the economic globalization, and the economic and trade cooperation and cultural communication between China and African countries, more and more Chinese people go to Africa for work or travel. However, there is a quick increase of imported schistosomiasis patients who return from Africa. This paper analyzes the security implications of epidemic characteristics of Africa schistosomiasis on the people who go to Africa, and put forward several suggestions to help them to prevent from schistosomiasis. PMID:26767275

  20. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  1. The Sociolinguistics of Variety Identification and Categorisation: Free Classification of Varieties of Spoken English Amongst Non-Linguist Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the examination of non-linguists' evaluations of different speech varieties, in recent years sociolinguists and sociophoneticians have afforded greater attention towards the ways in which naïve listeners perceive, process, and encode spoken language variation, including the identification of language varieties as regionally or…

  2. A perspective on the impact of reproductive technologies on food production in Africa.

    PubMed

    van Marle-Köster, Esté; Webb, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Africa for the largest part is still regarded as part of the developing world and has a history of political instability, natural disasters, floods and droughts that all had an effect on the development of livestock production systems and the potential application of biotechnologies. It is expected that the human population in sub Saharan Africa will experience a growth of 1.2 % per year over the next 30 years. There is therefore pressure to increase sustainable productivity of livestock. Reproductive technologies such as Artificial Insemination in Africa were driven primarily by the need to control or prevent venereal diseases like Trichomoniases and Campylobacter fetus in cattle. Reproductive biotechnology had a limited impact in Africa due to several factors including a lack of infrastructure and animal recording systems, clear breeding objectives and continuously changing production systems and markets. Africa has a large variety of genetic resources adapted to the diverse environment and production systems and biotechnology should be applied within this context for an increase in food production. PMID:24170361

  3. [Discrimination of varieties of peony in Huangqin decoction].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-ming; Hao, Jin-da

    2015-11-01

    By studying the varieties of peony and analyzing the prescription of Huangqin decoction, the authors explored the differences between Paeoniae Radix Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra in varieties, origin, processing method and clinical efficacy and compare their efficacies to define Paeoniae Radix Alba or Paeoniae Radix Rubra in Huangqin decoction recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases. In the study, the authors clarified the development and change of the variety in various historical periods according to the earliest ancient herbal book recording the variety and the development sequence of main herbs, and made clear the relations between Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. The modern application of Paeoniae Radix Alba started in the Song Dynasty. Although it was processed in different ways from Paeoniae radix Rubra, they shared the same original plant varieties. On the basis of the historical origin, botanical origin, producing place and processing method, the authors made clear the evolvement of peony varieties, discussed and analyzed the developments and changes for the combined to the separate administration of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra and defined the peony variety in Huangqin decoction. Through the textual research on ancient herbal books, the authors confirmed that more than 2 000 years ago, Paeoniae Radix Alba didn't appear when Treatise on Febrile Diseases was written. According to the records in Miscellaneous Records of Famous Physicians that "its roots were collected and dried in February and August", it was inferred that the use of Paeoniae Radix Rubra conformed to the historical facts. PMID:27097432

  4. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  5. [Suppurative intracranial infections in Africa].

    PubMed

    Loembe, P M; Okome-Kouakou, M; Alliez, B

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review recent African literature on suppurative intracranial infection and its implications for neurosurgery. In order of decreasing frequency the main lesions are brain abscess, subdural empyema, and epidural abscess. Despite progress in diagnostic imaging and availability of antibiotic therapy, these lesions still cause disturbingly high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa where diagnosis is often delayed. The male-to-female ratio was 3.6:1 and 70 to 80% of patients were under the age of 20 years. Spread from the paranasal sinus or ear was the most common mechanism of infection. Hematogenous processes accounted for 22% of cases and the origin was undetermined in 11% to 26% of cases. Staphylococcus aureus and enteric gram-negative bacilli were the most common bacteria identified but cultures were reported as sterile in 30% to 50% of cases. While ultrasonography can be useful in newborns with an open fontanelle, arteriography is often the only feasible procedure for diagnosis in Black Africa. The diagnostic modality of choice is computed tomography which allows precise mapping prior to neurosurgery. Introduction of computed tomography in some African cities has led to a decrease in mortality ranging from 4.7% to 43%. The most effective treatment is a combination of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and surgical decompression of expanding lesions. The main procedures are aspiration through burr holes and craniotomy. Use of this combined strategy requires close cooperation between the neurosurgeon, infectious disease specialist, and microbiologist. Therapeutic indications are discussed within the context of Black Africa. PMID:9304016

  6. PPP insights in South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals. PMID:12743881

  7. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  8. Molding procedure for casting a variety of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontes, M. J.; Kourtides, D.; Leibfritz, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    General procedure and molding sand composition for preparing molds usable for casting variety of alloys are developed. Molds are prepared from mixture of sand, sodium silicate binder, and organic liquid ester. Castings of radiographic quality are produced from various alloys.

  9. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  10. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  11. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  12. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  13. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  14. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  15. Reversing Africa's Decline. Worldwatch Paper 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.; Wolf, Edward C.

    This paper highlights some of the themes that any successful strategy to reverse the decline of Africa must embrace. Africa is a continent experiencing a breakdown in the relationship between people and their natural support systems. Famine and the threat of famine are among the manifestations of this breakdown. This decline can be reversed. To do…

  16. Western Perspectives in Applied Linguistics in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree; Meinhof, Ulrike H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the nature of the historical and contemporary social contexts within which applied linguistics in Africa emerged, and is currently practiced. The article examines the challenges "local" applied Linguistics in Africa is confronted with as it tries to amplify applied linguistic programs emanating from…

  17. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  18. Africa in Classical Antiquity: A Curriculum Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    This curriculum resource is intended primarily to assist teachers of Latin and Greek to infuse material on Africa in classical antiquity into the curriculum at all levels. It gathers together background information on the role of Africa in classical antiquity that has not been treated in traditional classical language courses. The resource guide…

  19. Moko Jumbies: Dancing Spirits from Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, S. A.; Phillips, Claire; Moore, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The original Moko Jumbie was a spirit dancer from West Africa. "Moko" is a West African word that refers to gods and "Jumbie" means ghost. In West Africa, Moko Jumbies are known to kidnap and eat disobedient children, steal dreams and see into evildoers' hearts and terrorize them. They walk through villages on 10- to 15-foot-high stilts wearing…

  20. Ubuntu research values needed for Africa.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Ex Africa semper aliquid novi. Africa's health researchers last month took greater collective responsibility for cultivating their continent's historically neglected and under-funded work when an international forum in Cape Town agreed on co-operative strategies to translate their findings into improving more lives on the ground. PMID:22668897

  1. Africa's Infrastructure Gathering: A Report Card

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Reinier

    2006-12-15

    This conference's high turnout and buoyant mood was a tribute to the progress that the Corporate Council on Africa, and the constituencies represented at the conference, have made in focusing on Africa's real development challenges and in persuading U.S. corporations and institutions to do so. (author)

  2. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  3. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  4. The Problems of Science in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medupe, Rodney T.; Kaunda, Loveness

    1997-01-01

    Growing numbers of people in South Africa see technology as the key to economic prosperity and science as the key to technology. However, unemployment rates in many African countries remain high which leads to cynicism about investing in scientific research. Reviews and discusses culture, myths, and challenges faced in Africa. (DKM)

  5. OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngugi, Catherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher…

  6. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  7. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  8. Africa's Expanding Population: Old Problems, New Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goliber, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a historic challenge: to achieve economic and social progress while experiencing extraordinary population growth. With an estimated 1989 population of 512 million, the 42 countries of sub-Saharan Africa have the highest birth and death rates of any major world region. Throughout the region, population has outstripped…

  9. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in Africa" was…

  10. South Africa Divestiture. Target Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Joel

    This student resource guide prepared by the South Africa Catalyst Project for the United States Student Association (USSA) focuses on the student anti-apartheid movement and divestiture activities of American students. Divestiture of university-held stock in U.S. corporations operating in South Africa is the major focus of the student…

  11. Evaluating Materials About Africa for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    Choosing texts, media, and literature about Africa is a difficult task for school librarians who have not studied Africa in detail; however it is possible to evaluate the available materials on the basis of several important criteria. These include the authority of the author, the dates of preparation and publication, and the accuracy of…

  12. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  13. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  14. Intercultural and Transcultural Literacy in Contemporary Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…

  15. The Africa Madagascar connection and mammalian migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitz, Philip D.; Woods, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    Madagascar separated from Africa in the Middle-Late Jurassic and has been in its present position relative to Africa since the Early Cretaceous (˜120-130 my). Several Early Eocene to Late Oligocene (˜50-26 my) terrestrial mammalian groups are observed on Madagascar that have a similar ancestral lineage to those found in Africa. These mammalian groups means of transport across the Mozambique Channel from Africa to Madagascar was either by traversing on exposed land masses across a land bridge or by swimming/rafting, since (1) Madagascar has been separated from mainland Africa for at least 70 my before their arrival, and (2) it is unlikely that similar ancestral lineage's evolved simultaneously in separated regions. No evidence has been found for a land bridge across the Mozambique Channel. The mammals thus either swam or have been swept away on vegetation mats from rivers flowing out of Mozambique or Tanzania.

  16. French oil companies in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum interest in Africa is fairly recent: the first exploration in 1947, Hassi Messaoud (Algeria) in 1957, and more serious interest on the part of French companies in the early 1960s. Two major French companies active in Africa are Elf Aquitaine and CIE Francaise des Petroles (CFP). Elf Aquitaine intends to maintain its effort in Gabon with 9 exploratory wells in 1980 and investments of 50 billion francs, and intends to lessen the production decline in the Congo, particularly after the discovery of the Emeraude offshore field. The difficulties here are the shallow depth forcing high angle directional drilling, high viscosity oil, and a very complex reservoir. Investments in the Congo include 45 billion francs including a terminal and an electric plant. CFP is active mainly in Tunisia, Sudan, and Egypt. In Tunisia, 6 fields are of interest, with investments in the order of 110 million francs. More recently, the effort in Egypt has seen further exploration and production from a well, with the investment of 80 million francs in 1980, probably doubling in 1981.

  17. Human origins: Out of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  18. South Africa: a toxicologist's goldmine.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    The emerging nation of South Africa, in common with some other countries, notably Eastern Europe, is heir to decades of neglect with regards to the exposure of the majority of its population to toxic materials. In this short review, the major toxic health hazards are described. For most of these risks there are now programs in place to improve the situation, but co-ordination and financial constraints, along with the fact that the majority of the population neither live, nor work, in a controlled environment, mean that much remains to be done. The recent formation of a South African Toxicology society, which strives to bring together environmental, industrial, forensic and clinical toxicology should assist in an improvement, both in the epidemiology of toxicity in South Africa and in improved measures to reduce the incidence of preventable noncommunicable diseases related to both acute and chronic exposure to toxins. The South African scene also provides a "window' of opportunity to study the more fundamental aspects of exposure in human subjects and to couple these to animal and in vitro studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms where these are unknown. PMID:11805740

  19. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  20. Dietary variety increases the probability of nutrient adequacy among adults.

    PubMed

    Foote, Janet A; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea

    2004-07-01

    Despite guidance to consume a variety of foods, the role of dietary variety in ensuring nutrient adequacy is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether a commodity-based measure of dietary variety was associated with the probability of nutrient adequacy after adjusting for energy and food group intakes. Subjects were 4969 men and 4800 women >/= 19 y old who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes for Individuals 1994-1996. Using 24-h recall data, the mean probability of adequacy across 15 nutrients was calculated using the Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary variety was defined using a commodity-based method similar to that used for the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Associations were examined in gender-specific multivariate regression models. Energy intake was a strong predictor of the mean probability of adequacy in models controlled for age, BMI, education level, and ethnicity (model R(2) = 0.60 and 0.54 for men and women, respectively). Adding the number of servings from each of the 5 Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) groups to the models significantly improved the model fit (R(2) = 0.69 and 0.66 for men and women). Adding dietary variety again significantly improved the model fit for both men and women (R(2) = 0.73 and 0.70, respectively). Variety counts within the dairy and grain groups were most strongly associated with improved nutrient adequacy. Dietary variety as defined by the HEI contributes an additional component of dietary quality that is not captured by FGP servings or energy intake. PMID:15226469

  1. Proteomic analysis of high yield rice variety mutated from spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Wang, W.; Sun, Y.

    Seeds of pure rice varieties were flown on Chinese recoverable satellite, JB-1, for a 15-day flight in 1996. Many mutant rice varieties with various phenotypes were generated after continuous selection and breeding. Among the mutants, a variety 971-5 showed a significant increase in grain yield compared to its control (971ck). In this study, proteomic analysis of both mutant variety 971-5 and control variety 971ck were carried out to investigate the changes of protein expression level in their leaves at three different growth stages (early and middle stage of tillering, and booting stage). Results showed that (1) almost all differentially expressed proteins were down-regulated in 971-5 with only one exception, (2) the percentages of differentially expressed proteins were 3.1%, 2.1% and 3.1% at the three stages, respectively, and (3) one protein showed a significant alteration in its molecular weight (MW). These data demonstrated that the space environment can alter the expression level of rice proteins both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  2. Genetic variation in biomass traits among 20 diverse rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Courtney E; Mckay, John K; Mauleon, Ramil; Stephens, Janice; McNally, Kenneth L; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels provide a promising route of producing energy while reducing reliance on petroleum. Developing sustainable liquid fuel production from cellulosic feedstock is a major challenge and will require significant breeding efforts to maximize plant biomass production. Our approach to elucidating genes and genetic pathways that can be targeted for improving biomass production is to exploit the combination of genomic tools and genetic diversity in rice (Oryza sativa). In this study, we analyzed a diverse set of 20 recently resequenced rice varieties for variation in biomass traits at several different developmental stages. The traits included plant size and architecture, aboveground biomass, and underlying physiological processes. We found significant genetic variation among the 20 lines in all morphological and physiological traits. Although heritability estimates were significant for all traits, heritabilities were higher in traits relating to plant size and architecture than for physiological traits. Trait variation was largely explained by variety and breeding history (advanced versus landrace) but not by varietal groupings (indica, japonica, and aus). In the context of cellulosic biofuels development, cell wall composition varied significantly among varieties. Surprisingly, photosynthetic rates among the varieties were inversely correlated with biomass accumulation. Examining these data in an evolutionary context reveals that rice varieties have achieved high biomass production via independent developmental and physiological pathways, suggesting that there are multiple targets for biomass improvement. Future efforts to identify loci and networks underlying this functional variation will facilitate the improvement of biomass traits in other grasses being developed as energy crops. PMID:21062890

  3. Identification of barley varieties tolerant to cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2008-02-01

    Two successive hydroponic experiments were carried out to identify barley varieties tolerant to Cd toxicity via examining Soil-Plant Analyses Development (SPAD) value, plant height, leaves and tillers per plant, root number and volume, and biomass accumulation. The results showed that SPAD values (chlorophyll meter readings), plant height, leaf number, root number and volume, and biomass accumulation of shoot/root were significantly reduced in the plants grown in 20 microM Cd nutrient solution compared with control, and the uptake and translocation of Zn, Mn, and Cu was also strictly hindered. Furthermore, there was a highly significant difference in the reduction in these growth parameters among varieties, and varieties "Weisuobuzhi" and "Jipi 1" showed the least reduction both in the two experiments, suggesting their high tolerance to Cd toxicity, while "Dong 17" and "Suyinmai 2" with the greatest reduction and the toxicity symptoms appeared rapidly and severely, denoting as Cd-sensitive varieties. Significant variety difference in Cd concentration was also found, with Weisuobuzhi containing the highest and Jipi 1 the lowest Cd concentration in shoots. PMID:17952384

  4. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable. PMID:15283786

  5. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  6. ANTIMALARIAL DRUG QUALITY IN AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Amin, AA; Kokwaro, GO

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective There are several reports of sub-standard and counterfeit antimalarial drugs circulating in the markets of developing countries; we aimed to review the literature for the African continent. Methods A search was conducted in PubMED in English using the medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: “Antimalarials/analysis”[MeSH] OR “Antimalarials/standards”[MeSH] AND “Africa”[MeSH]” to include articles published up to and including 26/02/07. Data were augmented with reports on the quality of antimalarial drugs in Africa obtained from colleagues in the World Health Organization. We summarised the data under the following themes: content and dissolution; relative bioavalability of antimalarial products; antimalarial stability and shelf life; general tests on pharmaceutical dosage forms; and the presence of degradation or unidentifiable impurities in formulations. Results and discussion The search yielded 21 relevant peer-reviewed articles and three reports on the quality of antimalarial drugs in Africa. The literature was varied in the quality and breadth of data presented, with most bioavailability studies poorly designed and executed. The review highlights the common finding in drug quality studies that 1) most antimalarial products pass the basic tests for pharmaceutical dosage forms, such as the uniformity of weight for tablets 2) most antimalarial drugs pass the content test 3) in vitro product dissolution is the main problem area where most drugs fail to meet required pharmacopoeial specifications, especially with regard to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine products. In addition, there are worryingly high quality failure rates for artemisinin monotherapies such as dihydroartemisin (DHA); for instance all five DHA sampled products in one study in Nairobi, Kenya, were reported to have failed the requisite tests. Conclusions There is an urgent need to strengthen pharmaceutical management systems such as post-marketing surveillance and the

  7. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  8. Characterization of Wheat Varieties Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hongyi; Jiang, Yuying; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis were explored to discriminate eight wheat varieties. The absorption spectra were measured using THz time-domain spectroscopy from 0.2 to 2.0 THz. Using partial least squares (PLS), a regression model for discriminating wheat varieties was developed. The coefficient of correlation in cross validation (R) and root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) were 0.985 and 1.162, respectively. In addition, interval PLS was applied to optimize the models by selecting the most appropriate regions in the spectra, improving the prediction accuracy (R = 0.992 and RMSECV = 0.967). Results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis can provide rapid, nondestructive discrimination of wheat varieties. PMID:26024421

  9. Genetic modification; the development of transgenic ornamental plant varieties.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Stephen F; Sanchez, Cory

    2012-10-01

    Plant transformation technology (hereafter abbreviated to GM, or genetic modification) has been used to develop many varieties of crop plants, but only a few varieties of ornamental plants. This disparity in the rate and extent of commercialisation, which has been noted for more than a decade, is not because there are no useful traits that can be engineered into ornamentals, is not due to market potential and is not due to a lack of research and development activity. The GM ornamental varieties which have been released commercially have been accepted in the marketplace. In this article, progress in the development of transgenic ornamentals is reviewed and traits useful to both consumers and producers are identified. In considering possible factors limiting the release of genetically modified ornamental products it is concluded that the most significant barrier to market is the difficulty of managing, and the high cost of obtaining, regulatory approval. PMID:22537268

  10. First derivative versus absolute spectral reflectance of citrus varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.

    1996-06-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.

  11. Mean surface water balance over Africa and its interannual variability

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, S.E.; Kim, J.; Ba, M.B.; Lare, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    This article presents calculations of surface water balance for the African continent using a revised version of the Lettau climatonomy. Calculations are based on approximately 1400 rainfall stations, with records generally covering 60 yr or longer. Continental maps of evapotranspiration. runoff, and soil moisture are derived for January, July, and the annual mean. The model is also used to provide a gross estimate of the interannual variability of these parameters over most of the continent and local water balance calculations for a variety of locations in Africa. The results are compared with four other comprehensive global water balance studies. The results of this study are being used to produce a gridded dataset for the continent, with potential applications for numerical modeling studies. 50 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Retinitis pigmentosa in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J; Bartmann, L; Ramesar, R; Beighton, P

    1993-11-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal disorders which are a common cause of genetic blindness. The relative frequencies of the different forms of RP in South Africa, as determined from the register at the DNA banking centre for RP at the Department of Human Genetics, University of Cape Town, are presented and discussed. Of the 125 families analysed, 29 (23%) showed autosomal dominant, 33 (27%) autosomal recessive and 3 (3%) X-linked inheritance. In 10 families the pedigree data were insufficient to allow accurate genetic subtyping and a further 50 patients were sporadic without a family history of RP or other syndromic features which would allow categorization. PMID:8313621

  13. Reprivatizing pharmaceutical supplies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Turshen, M

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps no part of the health system is as imperiled by neoliberal economic reforms as the public drug sector. The national bill for pharmaceuticals can claim one-third of a developing country's annual health budget. This article describes the essential drugs program created by WHO in the 1980s to protect financially reduced ministries of health from the high prices charged by multinational pharmaceutical companies. It describes the backlash from the World Bank and UNICEF, which launched the Bamako Initiative and other community financing schemes and revolving drug plans in which individuals, families or community groups buy drugs above the wholesale purchase price; clinics use the proceeds to maintain drug supplies and subsidize other health services. When this plan failed, the Bank proposed outright privatization of drug purchase and supply, returning power to the multinational suppliers. The article ends with a consideration of patents and the new intellectual property rights as they pertain to pharmaceutical production in Africa. PMID:11469153

  14. Geological remote sensing in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  15. Physics and Development in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingu, Edmund

    2003-03-01

    Scientific research is an essential investment in the welfare of a country. Some developing countries have made important contributions to the development of science and technology, and have enjoyed the economic benefits of their investments in science and technology. Several developing countries have been treating science as a marginal activity. Most developing countries are aware of the importance of science and technology, but inadequate infrastructure and resources create strong barriers to their path of advancement. Notable achievements in physics have played a major role in the development of technologies which currently drive the economy of the world e.g. electronics, lasers, internet, molecular biology and nuclear power. The significant role that physics continues to play in the technological development clearly demonstrates the crucial need to develop physics and physicists in the developing world. An analysis of the economic and technological development of the countries in Africa will be presented and the impact of development in physics in those countries will be assessed. A number of development projects in physics in Africa, both current and planned, will be analysed to identify the characteristics of successful projects. The particular value of North-South and South-South partnerships in development will be reviewed. Many of the projects that have relied on partnerships and development-aid funding have failed to yield substantial results because of the failure to link technology transfer to skills development. Practicing physics is costly, especially when one considers multi-billion dollar projects in physics that have been initiated, and sometimes abandoned, around the world. While developing countries have an obligation to release some of their limited resources for development, well-resourced countries have a global and moral responsibility to participate in the development of physics in the developing world.

  16. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  17. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: Effects of variety and tuber storage time

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, J. Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T.; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G.; Mottram, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed. PMID:25842300

  18. Africa's natural gas: potentialities and letdowns

    SciTech Connect

    Baladian, K.

    1983-11-01

    Although Africa has experienced 10 times less hydrocarbon exploration than Western Europe, its proved gas reserves already amount to 220-223 trillion CF or 7% of world reserves, while Europe holds 6% or 167 TCF. Yet Africa marketed only 1.3 TCF in 1982 against Europe's 6.5 TCF. Because of the lack of domestic demand for gas, Africa flares up to 21% of its gas output. Algeria is the continent's primary gas consumer, with Egypt, Libya, and Nigeria trying to expand local gas markets. The vast majority of marketed African gas goes to Europe, either as gas sent through the Trans-Med pipeline or as LNG via tanker.

  19. Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties Currently, there is a shift world-wide from the harvesting of burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane. With increased pressure from public and environmental agencies to further restrict or curtail burning in the U.S. and many ...

  20. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  1. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  4. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  5. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  7. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  8. Interventions to reduce microbiological contamination of beef variety meats.

    PubMed

    Delmore, R J; Sofos, J N; Schmidt, G R; Belk, K E; Lloyd, W R; Smith, G C

    2000-01-01

    Hot water and solutions of acetic acid, lactic acid, or trisodium phosphate applied by immersion or spraying, chlorine solution applied by immersion, and exposure to steam in a pasteurization system, in a cabinet, or in combination with vacuum were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing levels of bacterial contamination on samples of beef cheek meat, large intestine, lips, liver, oxtail, and tongue. Treated samples (five per treatment) and controls were analyzed for aerobic plate counts (APCs) on tryptic soy agar and for total coliform counts (TCCs) and Escherichia coli counts (ECCs) on Petrifilm. Acetic acid (2%) immersion and trisodium phosphate (12%) spraying and immersion for 10 s were among the most effective treatments in 16, 15, and 14, respectively, of 18 comparisons for reducing APCs, TCCs, and ECCs on four or more of the six variety meats tested. Acetic acid (2%) spraying, lactic acid (2%) immersion, and hot water (78 to 80 degrees C) spraying for 10 s were among the most effective treatments for reducing APCs, TCCs, and ECCs on four or more of the six variety meats. Chlorine (0.005%) immersion and steam were among the least effective treatments for reducing APCs, TCCs, and ECCs on variety meats. The results indicated that interventions applied to decontaminate beef carcasses can also be considered for decontamination of variety meats. PMID:10643768

  9. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  10. Diversity in a Collection of Heirloom Tomato Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heirloom tomato varieties are appealing through their diverse range of color, size, shape, texture and flavor. Heirlooms are largely unimproved for traits such as yield or disease resistance; as such they have attracted efforts of breeders and other researchers who are targeting niche markets. The N...

  11. Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 45

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 45th edition, 7 newly released apricot cultivars and 11 pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are descri...

  12. Varieties of combat stress reaction. An immunological metaphor.

    PubMed

    Garb, R; Kutz, I; Bleich, A; Solomon, Z

    1987-08-01

    The use of an immunological metaphor allows the incorporation of established theoretical ideas about trauma and stress in an integrative way which enables delineation and illustration of several varieties of combat stress reaction, including subtle forms of that condition which do not often appear in post-traumatic stress disorder literature. PMID:3690116

  13. Primary pulmonary blastoma of monophasic variety- diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary blastoma is a rare primary lung neoplasm, in that monophasic variety is far too rare. There are no specific clinical features seen for pulmonary blastoma; computed tomography and histopathology are diagnostic. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice; however, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be required in large and aggressive tumors. PMID:23758909

  14. Notice of release of sugarcane variety Ho 05-961

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The release of high-yielding varieties to growers is important to the sustainability of all commodity industries. To that end, the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station of the LSU Agricultural Center, and the Amer...

  15. Apricot variety development in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial apricot production began in California's mild coastal valleys during the early part of the 20th century. Varieties such as 'Blenheim,' 'Derby,' 'Hemskirke,' 'Moorpark,''Newcastle,''Steward,''Tilton' and 'Wiggins' were all cultivated commercially throughout the growing regions for fresh m...

  16. Characterizing the citrus variety Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus production is of global importance both in economic impact and significance to nutrition. The number of natural citrus species appears extremely limited. The genome size is small (haploid approximately 367 Mb), arranged on 18 chromosomes. The citrus variety Carrizo, generated by a ‘Washingt...

  17. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyehyun; Seo, Boyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Jo, Euna; Park, Jin-Kyoung; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848 bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854 bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales. PMID:26104156

  18. Comparison of minor anthocyanins in different varieties of blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins consist of a 2-phenylbenzopyrylium moiety with a variety of polyhydroxyl, polymethoxyl, and glycosolated substituents. Their presence is responsible for the red to purplish colors associated with fresh fruits and berries. There is currently a strong interest in these compounds because...

  19. 7 CFR 201.7 - Purity (including variety).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7 Purity (including variety). The complete record for any lot of seed shall include (a) records of analyses, tests, and examinations...

  20. RORSCHACH'S TEST. VOLUME II, A VARIETY OF PERSONALITY PICTURES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BECK, SAMUEL J.; MOLISH, HERMAN B.

    REVISED AND REWRITTEN FROM THE 1945 EDITION, THE TEXT DESCRIBES AND ANALYZES THE RORSCHACH TEST. PART 1 OF THE VOLUME WAS WRITTEN BY SAMUEL J. BECK AND PRESENTS A VARIETY OF PERSONALITY PICTURES DRAWN FROM RORSCHACH PROTOCOLS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION. EXCERPTS FROM 29 CASE STUDIES ARE INCLUDED ON FIVE DIMENSIONS--THE INTELLIGENCE CURVE, YOUNG…

  1. Chinese Perceptions of Inner Circle Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Betsy E.

    2010-01-01

    Research from populations around the world on attitudes to varieties of English is essential in order to have a better understanding of how the complexities of globalization play a role in the form of English as a world language. To that end, university students in China were asked to name countries around the world where they believe English is…

  2. Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 44

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world but with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 44th edition, 11 newly released apricot cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important...

  3. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF POTATO VARIETIES AND BREEDING LINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Just what vitamins and phytonutrients are in potatoes? Do some varieties have significantly more than others? Can new varities be developed that have even more? These are questions we are interested in answering. Recent scientific advances including better instrumentation, genomics and new medical r...

  4. PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF CARTRIDGE AND SHELL CASINGS. THIS DEPARTMENT WAS TRANSFORMED FROM A MONEY-LOSING OPERATION TO A PROFIT CENTER UNDER THE FIRST WORKER-MANAGED QUALITY CIRCLE IN THE PLANT. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almond, J. C.

    1966-01-01

    Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.

  6. Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Citrus Varieties Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to detect molecular polymorphisms among 370 Citrus accessions from the Citrus Variety Collection located at The University of California, Riverside. The number of alleles detected per locus ranged from three to thirty. A total of 298 alle...

  7. Phenotypic and molecular variation in 44 vintage tomato varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important goal of tomato breeding is to create varieties that will provide high quality product for fresh consumption. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acidity (TA) are major components of fruit flavor and quality. Although several-thousand genotypes a...

  8. 7 CFR 201.7 - Purity (including variety).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7 Purity (including variety). The complete record for any lot of seed shall include (a) records of analyses, tests, and examinations...

  9. Spectroscopic fingerprint of tea varieties by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buyukgoz, Guluzar Gorkem; Soforoglu, Mehmet; Basaran Akgul, Nese; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-03-01

    The fingerprinting method is generally performed to determine specific molecules or the behavior of specific molecular bonds in the desired sample content. A novel, robust and simple method based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed to obtain the full spectrum of tea varieties for detection of the purity of the samples based on the type of processing and cultivation. For this purpose, the fingerprint of seven different varieties of tea samples (herbal tea (rose hip, chamomile, linden, green and sage tea), black tea and earl grey tea) combined with silver colloids was obtained by SERS in the range of 200-2000 cm(-1) with an analysis time of 20 s. Each of the thirty-nine tea samples tested showed its own specific SERS spectra. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also applied to separate of each tea variety and different models developed for tea samples including three different models for the herbal teas and two different models for black and earl grey tea samples. Herbal tea samples were separated using mean centering, smoothing and median centering pre-processing steps while baselining and derivatisation pre-processing steps were applied to SERS data of black and earl grey tea. The novel spectroscopic fingerprinting technique combined with PCA is an accurate, rapid and simple methodology for the assessment of tea types based on the type of processing and cultivation differences. This method is proposed as an alternative tool in order to determine the characteristics of tea varieties. PMID:27570296

  10. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 46

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 46th edition, 5 newly released apricot cultivars and 3 pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are descr...

  11. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 47th edition, one newly released apricot cultivar and five pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are des...

  12. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 48

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 48th edition, one newly released apricot cultivar is described in terms of its origin, important fruit ...

  13. Cued American English: A Variety in the Visual Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portolano, Marlana

    2008-01-01

    Cued American English (CAE) is a visual variety of English derived from a mode of communication called Cued Speech (CS). CS, or cueing, is a system of communication for use with the deaf, which consists of hand shapes, hand placements, and mouth shapes that signify the phonemic information conventionally conveyed through speech in spoken…

  14. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  15. A Report on the 2006 Outfield Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the USDA-ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugar Cane League of the USA cooperatively evaluated the performance of candidate sugarcane varieties on eight grower fields located throughout the sugarcane growing region of Louis...

  16. Grain and Flour Characterization of Four Different Sorghum Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an increasing number of people with celiac disease, the need for gluten-free products is on the rise. Sorghum is a grain tolerated by celiac patients which can be used in gluten-free foods. The grain and flour of four sorghum varieties were characterized through physical and chemical means. ...

  17. A report on the 2012 outfield variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dependable and sustainable source of new sugarcane varieties is the life-blood of the Louisiana Sugarcane Industry. To that end, the American Sugarcane League, the Louisiana State University AgCenter, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service have joined forces to insure that life-blood continues...

  18. 7 CFR 201.7 - Purity (including variety).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7 Purity (including variety). The complete record for any lot of seed shall include (a) records of analyses, tests, and examinations...

  19. 7 CFR 201.7 - Purity (including variety).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7 Purity (including variety). The complete record for any lot of seed shall include (a) records of analyses, tests, and examinations...

  20. 7 CFR 201.7 - Purity (including variety).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7 Purity (including variety). The complete record for any lot of seed shall include (a) records of analyses, tests, and examinations...

  1. Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica) varieties.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Bertoldi, Michele C; Krenek, Kimberley; Talcott, Stephen T; Stringheta, Paulo C; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2010-04-14

    Many polyphenolics contained in mango have shown anticancer activity. The objective of this study was to compare the anticancer properties of polyphenolic extracts from several mango varieties (Francis, Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Haden) in cancer cell lines, including Molt-4 leukemia, A-549 lung, MDA-MB-231 breast, LnCap prostate, and SW-480 colon cancer cells and the noncancer colon cell line CCD-18Co. Cell lines were incubated with Ataulfo and Haden extracts, selected on the basis of their superior antioxidant capacity compared to the other varieties, where SW-480 and MOLT-4 were statistically equally most sensitive to both cultivars followed by MDA-MB-231, A-549, and LnCap in order of decreasing efficacy as determined by cell counting. The efficacy of extracts from all mango varieties in the inhibition of cell growth was tested in SW-480 colon carcinoma cells, where Ataulfo and Haden demonstrated superior efficacy, followed by Kent, Francis, and Tommy Atkins. At 5 mg of GAE/L, Ataulfo inhibited the growth of colon SW-480 cancer cells by approximately 72% while the growth of noncancer colonic myofibroblast CCD-18Co cells was not inhibited. The growth inhibition exerted by Ataulfo and Haden polyphenolics in SW-480 was associated with an increased mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic biomarkers and cell cycle regulators, cell cycle arrest, and a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, polyphenolics from several mango varieties exerted anticancer effects, where compounds from Haden and Ataulfo mango varieties possessed superior chemopreventive activity. PMID:20205391

  2. Drought Monitoring and Forecasting: Experiences from the US and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Justin; Chaney, Nate; Yuan, Xing; Wood, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Drought has important but very different consequences regionally due to differences in vulnerability. These differences derive from variations in exposure related to climate variability and change, sensitivity of local populations, and coping capacity at all levels. Managing the risk of drought impacts relies on a variety of measures to reduce vulnerability that includes forewarning of drought development through early-warning systems. Existing systems rely on a variety of observing systems from satellites to local observers, modeling tools, and data dissemination methods. They range from sophisticated state-of-the-art systems to simple ground reports. In some regions, systems are virtually non-existent due to limited national capacity. This talk describes our experiences in developing and implementing drought monitoring and seasonal forecast systems in the US and sub-Saharan Africa as contrasting examples of the scientific challenges and user needs in developing early warning systems. In particular, early warning can help improve livelihoods based on subsistence farming in sub-Saharan Africa; whist reduction of economic impacts is generally foremost in the US. For the US, our national drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system has been operational for over 8 years and provides near real-time updates on hydrological states at ~12km resolution and hydrological forecasts out to 9 months. Output from the system contributes to national assessments such as from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the US National Drought Monitor (USDM). For sub-Saharan Africa, our experimental drought monitoring system was developed as a translation of the US system but presents generally greater challenges due to, for example, lack of ground data and unique user needs. The system provides near real-time updates based on hydrological modeling and satellite based precipitation estimates, and has recently been augmented by a seasonal forecast component. We discuss the

  3. Characterizing virulence phenotypes among U.S. isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae using IRRI NILs, US germplasm, and NERICA lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is a major constraint to rice production in most rice production areas, including the Southern U.S. In continued efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of resistance (R) genes, a total of 33 field and 12 U.S. reference isolates of M. oryzae were eval...

  4. The Problems of Science in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Rodney T.; Kaunda, Loveness

    1997-11-01

    What good is science for a developing country? Will it vanquish flimsy schooling, inappropriate technology, and unresponsive elites? Well, it might, and it must. In today's South Africa, the problems of education are the problems of science.

  5. U. S. Foreign Policy and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierce, Milfred C.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that United States foreign policy toward South Africa has been "found wanting" since 1948. Focuses on the failure of President Reagan's policy of "constructive engagement," and details what must be done to bring about an end to apartheid. (JDH)

  6. Some Environmental Education Activities in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyasi, Hubert M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes approaches to the implementation of environmental education in African countries. Emphasized are student activities and teacher education strategies associated with the Science Education Program for Africa (SEPA). (WB)

  7. Black Consciousness and American Policy in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obatala, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    An account of increased pressure for a change in American foreign policy toward the white racist regimes in South Africa as a result of a rise in awareness and the level of participation by blacks in the political process. (EH)

  8. Population Explosion in Africa: Further Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidore, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains that population growth in Africa has caused a deterioration of vegetation and soil resources. This deterioration has resulted from overgrazing, too frequent and too extensive burning of the vegetation, and overcultivation. (Author/AV)

  9. Tutorials for Africa - Malaria: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    Tutorials for Africa: Malaria In Uganda, the burden of malaria outranks that of all other diseases. This tutorial includes information about how malaria spreads, the importance of treatment and techniques for ...

  10. Conscientious Objectives: Campuses Respond to South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexter, Holly

    1985-01-01

    In the wake of political pressures and deteriorating conditions in South Africa, many campuses are reviewing their investment policies and considering other contributions. The rising interest in educational initiatives is discussed including establishment of scholarships for South African students. (MLW)

  11. Factors Contributing to Urban Malaria Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Prathiba M.; Marshall, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas. Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. Objective. This paper aims to collate and analyse risk factors for urban malaria transmission throughout sub-Saharan Africa and to discuss their implications for control. Methods. A systematic search on malaria and urbanisation was carried out focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. Particular interest was taken in vector breeding sites in urban and periurban areas. Results. A variety of urban vector breeding sites were catalogued, the majority of which were artificial, including urban agriculture, tyre tracks, and ditches. Natural breeding sites varied according to location. Low socioeconomic status was a significant risk factor for malaria, often present in peri-urban areas. A worrying trend was seen in the adaptation of malaria vector species to the urban environment. Urban malaria is highly focused and control programs should reflect this. Conclusion. As urbanisation continues and vector species adapt, continued monitoring and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is essential. PMID:23125863

  12. Produce from Africa's Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations.

    PubMed

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa's populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa's resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  13. Factors contributing to urban malaria transmission in sub-saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Prathiba M; Marshall, John M

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas. Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. Objective. This paper aims to collate and analyse risk factors for urban malaria transmission throughout sub-Saharan Africa and to discuss their implications for control. Methods. A systematic search on malaria and urbanisation was carried out focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. Particular interest was taken in vector breeding sites in urban and periurban areas. Results. A variety of urban vector breeding sites were catalogued, the majority of which were artificial, including urban agriculture, tyre tracks, and ditches. Natural breeding sites varied according to location. Low socioeconomic status was a significant risk factor for malaria, often present in peri-urban areas. A worrying trend was seen in the adaptation of malaria vector species to the urban environment. Urban malaria is highly focused and control programs should reflect this. Conclusion. As urbanisation continues and vector species adapt, continued monitoring and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is essential. PMID:23125863

  14. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  15. Improved Phytophthora resistance in commercial chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties negatively impacts symbiotic gene signalling and symbiotic potential in some varieties.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Plett, Krista L; Bithell, Sean L; Mitchell, Chris; Moore, Kevin; Powell, Jeff R; Anderson, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Breeding disease-resistant varieties is one of the most effective and economical means to combat soilborne diseases in pulse crops. Commonalities between pathogenic and mutualistic microbe colonization strategies, however, raises the concern that reduced susceptibility to pathogens may simultaneously reduce colonization by beneficial microbes. We investigate here the degree of overlap in the transcriptional response of the Phytophthora medicaginis susceptible chickpea variety 'Sonali' to the early colonization stages of either Phytophthora, rhizobial bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. From a total of 6476 genes differentially expressed in Sonali roots during colonization by any of the microbes tested, 10.2% were regulated in a similar manner regardless of whether it was the pathogenic oomycete or a mutualistic microbe colonizing the roots. Of these genes, 49.7% were oppositely regulated under the same conditions in the moderately Phytophthora resistant chickpea variety 'PBA HatTrick'. Chickpea varieties with improved resistance to Phytophthora also displayed lower colonization by rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi leading to an increased reliance on N and P from soil. Together, our results suggest that marker-based breeding in crops such as chickpea should be further investigated such that plant disease resistance can be tailored to a specific pathogen without affecting mutualistic plant:microbe interactions. PMID:27103212

  16. The Role of the Colloquial Varieties in the Acquisition of the Standard Variety: The Case of Arabic Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the acquisition of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by second language (L2) learners and by heritage speakers of the colloquial varieties of Arabic. The study focused on three questions: (1) whether heritage speakers who enroll in college-level elementary MSA classes have an advantage over their L2 counterparts, (2) whether any…

  17. South Africa and the affordable bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-07-01

    F.W. de Klerk`s announcement in March 1993 that South Africa has secretly developed a small nuclear arsenal, and junked it, was starting in its candor. The bedrock question is why South Africa developed and built seven fission weapons in the first place. The scientists, engineers, and policy-makers claim that weapons were never intended for military use or integration into the country`s military forces. Instead they claim that the strategy was bombs for political purposes. The strategy was designed to bring Western governments to South Africa`s aid in the event of an over-whelming attack by Soviet inspired military forces then in southern Africa. Shortly after de Klerk became president in 1989, the ordered a halt to the nuclear weapons program in anticipation of acceding to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). On July 10, 1991, South Africa became a member of the NPT. The program developing the seven nuclear weapons is discussed in some detail for various phases of the project. 13 refs.

  18. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease. PMID:23179518

  19. Utilization of implantable defibrillators in Africa.

    PubMed

    Millar, R N Scott; Mayosi, B M

    2003-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is dominated by diseases of poverty. HIV/AIDS affects 28.5 out of a total of 600 million in the region. South Africa is the only country in sub-Saharan Africa in which implantable cardiovertor defibrillators (ICDs) are implanted (0.8/million in 2001). Only 3 of the 35 new ICDs were implanted in state-funded public hospitals. The pacemaker implantation rate for South Africa was 41/million in 2001. Approximately 20% of the population consume 56% of the health care expenditure, mainly funded by Medical Insurance. A tax-funded state health care system serves the rest of the population, but is concentrated on improving sanitation and primary health care. Diversion of funds from academic tertiary hospitals has reduced specialised services, particularly cardiology and cardiac surgery, and has resulted in an exodus of skilled personnel to the private sector. In the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, tertiary health care is mainly privately funded. Cardiology and cardiac surgery is not widely available. Many countries are crippled by debt and chronic local conflicts. Only one state hospital (Groote Schuur, Cape Town) provides an electrophysiology (EP) service including catheter ablation and ICD implantation, and training in EP, by two electrophysiologists. EP services are available privately in 3 centres. No EP service exists in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:12766510

  20. Topological Polaritons and Excitons in Garden Variety Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardyn, Charles-Edouard; Karzig, Torsten; Refael, Gil; Liew, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Topological polaritons (aka topolaritons) present a new frontier for topological behavior in solid-state systems. They combine light and matter, which allows to probe and manipulate them in a variety of ways. They can also be made strongly interacting, due to their excitonic component. Here we present a scheme which allows to realize topolaritons in garden variety zinc-blende quantum wells. Our proposal requires a moderate magnetic field and a potential landscape which can be implemented, e.g., via surface acoustic waves or patterning. We identify indirect excitons in double quantum wells as a particularly appealing alternative for topological states in exciton-based systems. Indirect excitons are robust and long lived (with lifetimes up to milliseconds), and, therefore, provide a flexible platform for the realization, probing, and utilization of topological coupled light-matter states. Funded by: Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Swiss National Science Foundation, Packard Foundation, NSF.

  1. Mathematical modeling of biological growth for some Vicia faba varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    Vicia faba is one of the legume species of importance for human and animal nutrition. Over the past decade, the areas cultivated with this species have significantly increased. Given that the levels of the yield and quality obtained from this species depend largely on the specific soil and climate conditions, the present paper focuses on the study of the morpho-productive features under the conditions in Banat Plain, in the west of Romania. A collection of varieties and genetic lines was studied, with focus on the interdependence between plant height, characteristics of the foliage and in the end the foliar surface of the leaf and of the entire plant. The observations led to the conclusion that variety Melodie has the best response of biological growth on the plain.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of different tea varieties available in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zakir, Muhammad; Sultan, Khush Bakht; Khan, Haroon; Ihsaanullah; Khan, Murad Ali; Fazal, Hina; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-11-01

    In this antimicrobial study, various extracts of Green and Black tea (Camellia sinensis) and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates) were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against six bacterial strains including both human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi) and plant pathogenic bacteria (Erwinia carotovora, Agro bacterium tumifaciens) and one fungal strain Candida albicans by disc diffusion susceptibility method. Of human pathogens, P. aeruginosa was most susceptible to all three different tea varieties; though rest of the strains also demonstrated prominent sensitivity. In comparison, black tea extracts were less activities than green tea and lemon grass. However, all the three tea varieties illustrated profound activity against plant pathogenic bacteria. Similarly, when extracts of tea were tested against C. albicans, green tea and lemon grass exhibited significant activity while black tea was mostly inactive. PMID:26639502

  3. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  4. Variety of neutron sensors based on scintillating glass waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.

    1995-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has fabricated cerium-activated lithium silicate glass scintillating fiber waveguide neutron sensors via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have a transmission length (e-1 length) of greater than 2 meters. The underlying physics of, the properties of, and selected devices incorporating these fibers are described. These fibers constitute an enabling technology for a wide variety of neutron sensors.

  5. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  6. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  7. o-Carborane-based anthracene: a variety of emission behaviors.

    PubMed

    Naito, Hirofumi; Morisaki, Yasuhiro; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2015-04-20

    An o-carborane-based anthracene was synthesized, and single crystals, with incorporated solvent molecules, were obtained from the CHCl3 , CH2 Cl2 , and C6 H6 solutions. The anthracene ring in the crystal is highly distorted by the formation of a π-stacked dimer between the anthracene units. The crystals exhibited a variety of emission behaviors such as aggregation-induced emission (AIE), crystallization-induced emission (CIE), aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ), and multichromism. PMID:25729004

  8. A variety of neutron sensors based on scintillating glass waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has fabricated cerium-activated, lithium-silicate glass scintillating fiber neutron sensors via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have a transmission length (e{sup {minus}1} length) of greater than 2 meters. The underlying physics of, the properties of, and selected devices incorporating these fibers are described. These fibers constitute an enabling technology for a wide variety of neutron sensors.

  9. Crystal structures of low-symmetry cancrinite and cancrisilite varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Rozenberg, K. A.; Olysych, L. V.

    2007-09-01

    The high-sodium variety of cancrinite [Si6.3Al5.7O24][Na2(H2O)2][Na5.7(CO3)0.9(SO4)0.1(H2O)0.6] (Kovdor Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia) and the calcium-containing variety of cancrisilite [Si6.6Al5.4O24][(Na1.2Ca0.4)(H2O)1.6][Na6(CO3)1.3(H2O)1.2] (Khibiny Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia) are studied. The trigonal unit cell parameters of the crystal structures under investigation are as follows: a = 12.727(4) Å, c = 5.186(2) Å, and space group P3 for the former mineral and a = 12.607(4) Å, c = 5.111(1) Å, and space group P3 for the latter mineral. The reduced symmetry of the new varieties as compared to the symmetry of typical cancrinite and typical cancrisilite is associated with the specific features in the arrangement of the carbonate groups and water molecules in channels. This inference is confirmed by the IR spectroscopic data.

  10. Interdisciplinarity and Impact: Distinct Effects of Variety, Balance, and Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Thijs, Bart; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research is increasingly recognized as the solution to today’s challenging scientific and societal problems, but the relationship between interdisciplinary research and scientific impact is still unclear. This paper studies the association between the degree of interdisciplinarity and the number of citations at the paper level. Different from previous studies compositing various aspects of interdisciplinarity into a single indicator, we use factor analysis to uncover distinct dimensions of interdisciplinarity corresponding to variety, balance, and disparity. We estimate Poisson models with journal fixed effects and robust standard errors to analyze the divergent relationships between these three factors and citations. We find that long-term (13-year) citations (1) increase at an increasing rate with variety, (2) decrease with balance, and (3) increase at a decreasing rate with disparity. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity also affects the process of citation accumulation: (1) although variety and disparity have positive effects on long-term citations, they have negative effects on short-term (3-year) citations, and (2) although balance has a negative effect on long-term citations, its negative effect is insignificant in the short run. These findings have important implications for interdisciplinary research and science policy. PMID:26001108

  11. Interdisciplinarity and impact: distinct effects of variety, balance, and disparity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Thijs, Bart; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research is increasingly recognized as the solution to today's challenging scientific and societal problems, but the relationship between interdisciplinary research and scientific impact is still unclear. This paper studies the association between the degree of interdisciplinarity and the number of citations at the paper level. Different from previous studies compositing various aspects of interdisciplinarity into a single indicator, we use factor analysis to uncover distinct dimensions of interdisciplinarity corresponding to variety, balance, and disparity. We estimate Poisson models with journal fixed effects and robust standard errors to analyze the divergent relationships between these three factors and citations. We find that long-term (13-year) citations (1) increase at an increasing rate with variety, (2) decrease with balance, and (3) increase at a decreasing rate with disparity. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity also affects the process of citation accumulation: (1) although variety and disparity have positive effects on long-term citations, they have negative effects on short-term (3-year) citations, and (2) although balance has a negative effect on long-term citations, its negative effect is insignificant in the short run. These findings have important implications for interdisciplinary research and science policy. PMID:26001108

  12. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers. PMID:27257604

  13. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J.C.B.; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J.; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L. Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M.; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

  14. Occurrences and Effects of Drought across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Drought is a common occurrence in Africa and its effects vary temporally and spatially across the continent. The objective of this paper is to synthesize available information on droughts in Africa in order to discern emerging trends vis-à-vis spatiotemporal occurrences, impacts and adaptation. Drought forcings in the Sahelian region and southern Africa are predominately related to the passage of mid-latitude air masses while in locations near the equator is strongly linked to the position of ITCZ, except perhaps in the deserts where albedo may predominate. The review shows that drought occurrences have increased both temporally and spatially; its effects on the society vary across scales, and are influenced by political, economic, social, cultural, and ecological factors. The drought occurrence and its impacts varied spatially and temporally. The effect of drought also varied with socioeconomic sector; agriculture and pastoralism were the widely reported. The greater horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, has the most continuous record of droughts. The synthesis also reveals that a suite of drought adaptation strategies exists at the local scale; in contrasts, at the aggregate scale, coping strategies are scarce. Drought management tailored for specific livelihood system or societies are non-existent. The study found that occurrence of drought alongside issues related to the multiscale political economy affect the viability of most adaptation strategies used by societies across Africa. Drought management has been silent on the social, political, and economic dimensions that reasonably aggravate the vulnerability of lives and livelihood systems to this climatic hazard. The effect of drought and social pressures is relational and simultaneous to such a degree that differential vulnerability among communities across Africa is to be expected. Although scenarios about rainfall and drought vis-à-vis Africa are largely contested there is a general indication that most

  15. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Helden, P D; Parsons, S D C; Gey van Pittius, N C

    2009-12-01

    Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus), the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis) the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta), a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly. PMID:20458859

  16. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  17. International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa: Strengthening Africa's Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Established in 1999, the UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA) is one of six UNESCO Institutes and Centers under the direction of the UNESCO Secretariat. The only UNESCO Institute in Africa, it is mandated to strengthen the capacities of the teacher education institutions of its 53 member states, and promote…

  18. Step Into Africa: Elementary Level Activities Using Africa Is Not a Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Bahrenburg, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This book takes student inside the vast continent of Africa. The goal of these lessons is to provide young students with a look at contemporary Africa and to give them a feeling for the rich diversity of the many different nations of the continent. The lessons integrate language arts and geography, and some lessons include math. This book…

  19. South Africa: Distance Higher Education Policies for Access, Social Equity, Quality, and Social and Economic Responsiveness in a Context of the Diversity of Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badat, Saleem

    2005-01-01

    The principal concern of this paper is the implication of the increasing diversity of higher education provision in South Africa for equity of access and opportunity for historically disadvantaged social groups, high-quality provision, and social and economic responsiveness in distance higher education. This diversity is signalled by a variety of…

  20. The Impact of the Implementation of Technology Education on In-Service Teacher Education in South Africa (Impact of Technology Education in the RSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Calvyn

    2004-01-01

    In this article the impact of technology education, as a new learning area (subject) in the curriculum, on in-service teacher education in South Africa is described in order to ascertain the extent of the impact. The research on which this article is based draws on a variety of experiences and observations in the field at grassroots level (in…

  1. Grazing lands in Sub-Saharan Africa and their potential role in climate change mitigation: What we do and don’t know

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazinglands cover much of sub-Saharan Africa. When well-managed, these lands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, many of which are positively correlated with increase in soil carbon. Pastoralists and other land managers are currently rewarded primarily for the production of animal product...

  2. First Ground-based Observation of Transient Luminous Events over Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnadih, Ogechukwu; Kosch, Michael; Martinez, Peter

    2016-07-01

    We present the first ground-based observations in southern Africa of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) in the summer of 2015/16 over convective thunderstorms. For the months of December to February, South Africa has one of the highest lightning stroke rates in the world. This was part of the AfriSprite campaign initiated by the South African National Space Agency. These observations show a variety of fine structures such as tree-like shaped, carrot, angel and jellyfish-shaped sprites. The South African Weather Service array of VLF receivers is used to locate and quantify the magnitude and polarity of the lightning strikes associated with TLEs. We plan to make bi-static as well as multi-wavelength observations in future.

  3. Africa's inevitable walk to genetically modified (GM) crops: opportunities and challenges for commercialization.

    PubMed

    Okeno, James A; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Misra, Manjit K; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2013-01-25

    High relative poverty levels in Africa are attributed to the continent's under performing agriculture. Drought, low-yielding crop varieties, pests and diseases, poor soils, low fertilizer use, limited irrigation and lack of modern technologies are among the problems that plague African agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) crops may possess attributes that can help overcome some of these constraints, but have yet to be fully embraced in the mix of technology solutions for African agriculture. Cognizant of this, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt are steadily growing GM crops on a commercial scale. Countries like Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda are increasingly field-testing these crops with the view to commercialize them. These countries show strong government support for GM technology. Progress by these first adopter nations provides an insight as to how GM crops are increasingly being viewed as one of the ways in which the continent can invigorate the agriculture sector and achieve food security. PMID:22985799

  4. Plague in Africa from 1935 to 1949

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D. H. S.

    1953-01-01

    The history of plague in Africa during the period 1935-49 is reviewed. Much of the information derives from a questionnaire sent to all African territories in 1950. The annual incidence of plague in Africa declined, particularly from 1946 onwards. In 1949, under 400 cases were reported, as compared with over 6,000 in 1935. By the end of 1949, plague was still active in the Belgian Congo, Kenya and Tanganyika, Madagascar, and southern Africa. No cases were reported from Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, or Uganda during 1949. A comparison of the seasonal incidence of plague with prevailing atmospheric conditions (temperature and rainfall) in African territories shows that human plague is more frequent in warm moist weather—60°-80°F (15°-27°C)—than in hot dry, or cold, weather—over 80°F (27°C) or under 60°F (15°C). The highlands of equatorial Africa and of Madagascar appear to provide the optimum environment for the persistence of plague on the domestic (murine) plane and the high-veld and Kalahari of southern Africa on the sylvatic plane. The rat (Rattus rattus) and the multimammate mouse (R. (Mastomys) natalensis) and their fleas Xenopsylla brasiliensis and X. cheopis appear to be mainly responsible for the persistence of the reservoir in the East African highlands; R. rattus and X. cheopis play this role in Madagascar. The gerbils (Tatera and Desmodillus) and their burrow fleas X. philoxera and X. piriei are the main reservoirs of plague in southern Africa. Within these areas, Pasteurella pestis finds an environment suitable for its continued survival; the conditions seem to be comparable to those defined as obtaining in endemic centres in India. Elsewhere in Africa such endemic centres do not appear to exist. PMID:13115987

  5. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    PubMed

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  6. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geyang; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Texture differences of cooked quinoa were studied among 13 different varieties. Correlations between the texture parameters and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking quality, flour pasting properties, and flour thermal properties were determined. The results showed that texture of cooked quinoa was significantly differed among varieties. 'Black,' 'Cahuil,' and 'Red Commercial' yielded harder texture, while '49ALC,' '1ESP,' and 'Col.#6197' showed softer texture. '49ALC,' '1ESP,' 'Col.#6197,' and 'QQ63' were more adhesive, while other varieties were not sticky. The texture profile correlated to physical--chemical properties in different ways. Protein content was positively correlated with all the texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters. Seed hardness was positively correlated with TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness at P ≤ 0.09. Seed density was negatively correlated with TPA hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness, whereas seed coat proportion was positively correlated with these TPA parameters. Increased cooking time of quinoa was correlated with increased hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. The water uptake ratio was inversely related to TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Rapid Visco Analyzer peak viscosity was negatively correlated with the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (P < 0.07); breakdown was also negatively correlated with those TPA parameters (P < 0.09); final viscosity and setback were negatively correlated with the hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness (P < 0.05); setback was correlated with the adhesiveness as well (r = -0.63, P = 0.02). Onset gelatinization temperature (To ) was significantly positively correlated with all the texture profile parameters, and peak temperature (Tp ) was moderately correlated with cohesiveness, whereas neither conclusion temperature (Tc ) nor enthalpy correlated with the texture of cooked quinoa. PMID:25308337

  7. [The differentiation and vicissitude of variety of Aucklandiae Radix].

    PubMed

    Ma, B; Zhao, B L

    2016-01-28

    Aucklandiae Radix is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine. Historically, the varieties of Aucklandiae Radix for its medicinal use are complicated. Early Radix Aucklandiae was produced domestically, and it began to be imported since the Northern and Southern Dynasties. The two families, four genera, including Saussure Aucklandiae Radix of Compositae, Inula Inulae Radix, Vladimiria Vladimiriae Radix, dali Aucklandiae Radix and Aristolochiaceae Aristolochic aristolochia debilis, are all applied for medicinal purposes. In modern time, there are 3 major classes of crude drugs of Aucklandiae Radix, namely, Aucklandiae Radix, Inulae Radix, root of common Vladimiriae Radix. PMID:27049740

  8. [Biologically active substances of black currant of new varieties].

    PubMed

    Miasishcheva, N V; Artemova, E N

    2013-01-01

    The assortment of black currant actively replenishes and is constantly updated as a result of successful work of domestic and foreign selectors. New grades of black currant are characterized by the raised content of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, P-active agents, pectin and are of special interest for studying. Fresh berries of seven grades (Azhurnaya, Arapka, Iskushenie, Kreolka, Ladushka, Orel serenade, Ocharovanie) of black currant which were selected by the All-Russian research institute of selection of fruit crops and are perspective for cultivation in the Central Chernozem Region of Russia were chosen as objects for research. The nutritional value of fresh berries was found to vary. Average content of soluble solids was 14.1%, while those below the average were observed in Kreolka (12.1%). The maximum amount of sugars characterized Ladushka grade (11.05%), minimum--Kreolka (9.00%). It has been found that most varieties have fairly high acidity. It is worth noting grade Ladushka, which had the highest sugar-acid index (4.39), with the lowest acidity (2.51%). The highest content of ascorbic acid was found in varieties Orel Serenade--183.7 mg/100 g, the smallest--Ocharovanie--110 mg/100 g, grade Azhurnaya, Kreolka, Ladushka exceeded this indicator average value (144.9 mg/100 g). In terms of the amount of P-active substances stood grades having values above the average (722.2 mg/100 g): Azhurnaya (789.8 mg/100 g), Kreolka (864.5 mg/100 g), Oryol serenade (765.6 mg/100 g). The average content of pectin in the studied berries of black currant was 7.92%, with a minimum of 6.30% was observed in grades Azhurnaya, maximum 9.90%--the kind Oryol serenade. High values of this index were characterized by grade Ladushka, Ocharovanie. Azhurnaya varieties, Creole, Orel serenade had high levels of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. Sort Ladushka marked as a dessert due to the largest sugar-acid ratio. Ladushka, Orel Serenade, Ocharovanie have the

  9. Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hakala, K; Jauhiainen, L; Himanen, S J; Rötter, R; Salo, T; Kahiluoto, H

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is predicted to shift seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. An increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and prolonged droughts is predicted, but there are high levels of uncertainty about the nature of local changes. Crop adaptation will be important in reducing potential damage to agriculture. Crop diversity may enhance resilience to climate variability and changes that are difficult to predict. Therefore, there has to be sufficient diversity within the set of available cultivars in response to weather parameters critical for yield formation. To determine the scale of such 'weather response diversity' within barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important crop in northern conditions, the yield responses of a wide range of modern and historical varieties were analysed according to a well-defined set of critical agro-meteorological variables. The Finnish long-term dataset of MTT Official Variety Trials was used together with historical weather records of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The foci of the analysis were firstly to describe the general response of barley to different weather conditions and secondly to reveal the diversity among varieties in the sensitivity to each weather variable. It was established that barley yields were frequently reduced by drought or excessive rain early in the season, by high temperatures at around heading, and by accelerated temperature sum accumulation rates during periods 2 weeks before heading and between heading and yellow ripeness. Low temperatures early in the season increased yields, but frost during the first 4 weeks after sowing had no effect. After canopy establishment, higher precipitation on average resulted in higher yields. In a cultivar-specific analysis, it was found that there were differences in responses to all but three of the studied climatic variables: waterlogging and drought early in the season and temperature sum accumulation rate before heading

  10. Conserved sequence pattern in a wide variety of phosphoesterases.

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, E. V.

    1994-01-01

    A unique sequence pattern, designated the GD/GNH signature, was shown to be conserved in a wide variety of phosphoesterases. The enzymes containing this signature cleave phosphoester bonds in such different substrates as (1) phosphoserine and phosphothreonine in polypeptides; (2) bis(5'-nucleosidyl)-tetraphosphates; (3) nucleoside 5' phosphates; (4) 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphates; (5) polynucleotides; (6) 2'-5' phosphodiesters in RNA (intron) lariats; (7) sphingomyelin; and (7) various phosphomonoesters. Two conserved acidic amino acid residues and a conserved histidine residue may be directly involved in phosphoester bond cleavage. PMID:8003970

  11. Topological polaritons and excitons in garden-variety systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardyn, Charles-Edouard; Karzig, Torsten; Refael, Gil; Liew, Timothy C. H.

    2015-04-01

    We present a practical scheme for creating topological polaritons in garden-variety systems based, for example, on zinc-blende semiconductor quantum wells. Our proposal requires a moderate magnetic field and a potential landscape which can be implemented, e.g., via surface acoustic waves or patterning. We identify indirect excitons in double quantum wells as an appealing alternative for topological states in exciton-based systems. Topological polaritons and indirect excitons open a new frontier for topological states in solid-state systems, which can be directly probed and manipulated while offering a system with nonlinear interactions.

  12. Challenge of pediatric oncology in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Larry G P; Rouma, Bankole S; Saad-Eldin, Yasser

    2012-05-01

    The care of children with malignant solid tumors in sub-Saharan Africa is compromised by resource deficiencies that range from inadequate healthcare budgets and a paucity of appropriately trained personnel, to scarce laboratory facilities and inconsistent drug supplies. Patients face difficulties accessing healthcare, affording investigational and treatment protocols, and attending follow-up. Children routinely present with advanced local and metastatic disease and many children cannot be offered any effective treatment. Additionally, multiple comorbidities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV when added to acute on chronic malnutrition, compound treatment-related toxicities. Survival rates are poor. Pediatric surgical oncology is not yet regarded as a health care priority by governments struggling to achieve their millennium goals. The patterns of childhood solid malignant tumors in Africa are discussed, and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. Three pediatric surgeons from different regions of Africa reflect on their experiences and review the available literature. The overall incidence of pediatric solid malignant tumor is difficult to estimate in Africa because of lack of vital hospital statistics and national cancer registries in most of countries. The reported incidences vary between 5% and 15.5% of all malignant tumors. Throughout the continent, patterns of malignant disease vary with an obvious increase in the prevalence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Kaposi sarcoma in response-increased prevalence of HIV disease. In northern Africa, the most common malignant tumor is leukemia, followed by brain tumors and nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. In sub-Saharan countries, BL is the commonest tumor followed by nephroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The overall 5-years survival varied between 5% (in Côte d'Ivoire before 2001) to 34% in Egypt and up to 70% in South Africa. In many reports, the survival rate of

  13. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R

    2009-03-01

    The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone) is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1) implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2) amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African

  14. The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2013-04-01

    Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

  15. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher A; Hanan, Niall P; Neff, Jason C; Scholes, Robert J; Berry, Joseph A; Denning, A Scott; Baker, David F

    2007-01-01

    The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought) induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century. PMID:17343752

  16. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium: A Key to Developing the Future Geoscience Workforce in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkhonjera, E.

    2011-12-01

    Africa is facing serious challenges in geoscience education. This has been as a result of absence of or very young/small Earth Science Departments in some universities (e.g., Mauritius, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Malawi): Limited capacity (staff and equipment needed for practicals) to cope with the growing number of students, compounded by brain drain of academic staffs and the fact that current tertiary programmes do not seem to produce graduates suitable for the industry are some of the contributing factors to the challenges, (UNESCO-AEON Report, 2009). As such Earth Science studies in Africa have been one of the career paths that has not been promoted or highly preferred by many students. In January 2011, the YES Network African chapter was launched through the YES Africa 2011 Symposium that took place at the University of Johannesburg South Africa in Conjunction with the 23rd Colloquium of Africa Geology from the 08-14th January 2011. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium was organized by five YES African National networks from Southern, Central, Eastern and Northern Africa to bring young geoscientists from all regions of Africa together to present their research about African geoscience topics. The symposium also included roundtable discussions about increasing the involvement of youth's participation in geoscience issues in Africa, about how to increase the number of youths in African geosciences education university programs, and about how to promote geoscience careers to university students in Africa c. Roundtable discussions revealed that many African colleges and universities do not provide adequate infrastructure and resources to support the students studying in the department. As such, most students graduate with poor preparation for geoscience careers, having gained a theoretical understanding of geology, but not the practical application of the discipline. The recommendations from the YES Africa 2011 Symposium also highlighted on the best ways of

  17. 'Africa Alive Corridors': Forging a new future for the people of Africa by the people of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix Toteu, Sadrack; Malcolm Anderson, John; de Wit, Maarten

    2010-11-01

    ' Africa Alive Corridors' (AAC) addresses major stewardship goals in Africa through a selection of 20 heritage Corridors (varying from 1000 to 4000 km in length and 50 to 100 km wide). These include more than 400 heritage nodes (World Heritage Sites, Biosphere Reserves, biodiversity hotspots, Geoparks, etc.). AAC tracks Africa's journey from around 4 billion years ago to the present day through these chronologically sequenced Corridors. And so, the 4-billion-year autobiography of the continent is told. It encompasses the geological, biological and anthropological/cultural history of Africa's 54 nations - a (hi-) story without borders. The wealth of scientific and biographical knowledge archived in this network of Corridors tells the story of continental drift, mega-geohazards, climate variability and change, and the origin and extinction of biodiversity; and includes our human roots, culture and spirituality, our impact on the Earth and our potential to influence its future. In telling this story of Africa, new research avenues will be discovered and new learning methodologies will be experienced and developed and shared. In this way, the AAC provide loci along which the eight UN-Millennium Development Goals may be readily and realistically achieved. In concert, they can form the basis for a new collective endeavour - of Pan African Earth Stewardship Science. In this, the final - 2010 - phase of IYPE (the International Year of Planet Earth), we aim to make a start at bringing the ' Africa Alive Corridors' into real-life context. Whilst the concept of the Corridors has been formulated and presented at various international forums—most recently in Africa at the launch of IYPE in Arusha, Tanzania, in May 2008—here we present in brief their conceptual framework, and summarize the rationale behind the selection of the 20 African Corridors. Then, we describe, for the first time, how the AAC concept might evolve. To achieve the latter, we focus on an exploratory

  18. [Genetic studies of blast resistance of indica variety Zhefu 802].

    PubMed

    Wang, J L; Lei, C L; Jiang, W R; Ling, Z Z

    2000-01-01

    One indica variety, Zhefu 802, was studied for its inheritance of blast resistance by inoculation of two strains Ken54-04 and 95-t2. The B1F1 and F2 populations from cross of Zhefu 802(R) x Lijiangxintuanheigu (S) and related parents were inoculated by spray inoculation method with the two above mentioned strains to determine R:S ratio of segregating populations of this cross. The results indicated that Zhefu 802 has two dominant resistance genes to strain Ken 54-04. One of the two genes showed resistant reaction and the other is susceptible to strain 95-t2. The allelism test indicated that one gene in Zhefu 802, which showed resistant reaction to strain 95-t2, is allelic to Pi-i gene locus and non-allelic to loci of Pi-a, Pi-sh, Pi-k, Pi-z, Pi-ta, Pi-b, Pi-t. The other gene in this variety was also estimated to be different from all of the known genes. So it may be an unknown gene. But this point needs to be confirmed further. PMID:10887695

  19. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Maximal Variety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Lee

    2016-03-01

    Quantum mechanics is derived from the principle that the universe contain as much variety as possible, in the sense of maximizing the distinctiveness of each subsystem. The quantum state of a microscopic system is defined to correspond to an ensemble of subsystems of the universe with identical constituents and similar preparations and environments. A new kind of interaction is posited amongst such similar subsystems which acts to increase their distinctiveness, by extremizing the variety. In the limit of large numbers of similar subsystems this interaction is shown to give rise to Bohm's quantum potential. As a result the probability distribution for the ensemble is governed by the Schroedinger equation. The measurement problem is naturally and simply solved. Microscopic systems appear statistical because they are members of large ensembles of similar systems which interact non-locally. Macroscopic systems are unique, and are not members of any ensembles of similar systems. Consequently their collective coordinates may evolve deterministically. This proposal could be tested by constructing quantum devices from entangled states of a modest number of quits which, by its combinatorial complexity, can be expected to have no natural copies.

  20. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Maximal Variety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Lee

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics is derived from the principle that the universe contain as much variety as possible, in the sense of maximizing the distinctiveness of each subsystem. The quantum state of a microscopic system is defined to correspond to an ensemble of subsystems of the universe with identical constituents and similar preparations and environments. A new kind of interaction is posited amongst such similar subsystems which acts to increase their distinctiveness, by extremizing the variety. In the limit of large numbers of similar subsystems this interaction is shown to give rise to Bohm's quantum potential. As a result the probability distribution for the ensemble is governed by the Schroedinger equation. The measurement problem is naturally and simply solved. Microscopic systems appear statistical because they are members of large ensembles of similar systems which interact non-locally. Macroscopic systems are unique, and are not members of any ensembles of similar systems. Consequently their collective coordinates may evolve deterministically. This proposal could be tested by constructing quantum devices from entangled states of a modest number of quits which, by its combinatorial complexity, can be expected to have no natural copies.

  1. Blue glass: A new impactite variety from Zhamanshin crater, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C. )

    1988-03-01

    A new variety of impact glass has been discovered at Zhamanshin impact crater (USSR). The crater has been known as the source of different impact glasses such as irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites (Si-rich varieties) and Si-poor (andesitic) zhamanshinites. The newly discovered impact glass is of distinct blue color and shows a layered structure with numerous small vesicles. The blue color ranges between the layers from opaque turquoise to very dark blue. The layers of blue glass are usually connected with layers of greyish or brownish color showing normal Si-rich zhamanshinite composition. The major and trace element chemistry of the blue glass differs from the chemistry of other Si-rich impact glasses from the Zhamanshin crater in several ways. One of the most distinct features is the high CaO content (up to about 7 wt.%), and the different CaO/MgO ratios. Volatile trace elements are generally intermediate between irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites, or even higher than in Si-rich zhamanshinites, reflecting the inhomogeneity of the blue glass. REE abundances are slightly larger than in Si-rich zhamanshinites and irghizites and show a less pronounced Eu anomaly. Impact mixing of country rocks present at the crater seems capable of explaining the chemistry of the blue glass.

  2. Biochemical Analyses of Sorghum Varieties Reveal Differential Responses to Drought

    PubMed Central

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C.; Stepien, Piotr; Dyson, Beth C.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Ellis, David I.; Goodacre, Royston; Johnson, Giles N.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the biochemical responses of two sorghum cultivars of differing drought tolerance, Samsorg 17 (more drought tolerant) and Samsorg 40 (less drought tolerant), to sustained drought. Plants were exposed to different degrees of drought and then maintained at that level for five days. Responses were examined in terms of metabolic changes and the expression of drought induced proteins—Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and dehydrins (DHNs). Generalised phenotypic changes were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and non-targeted Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to detect changes in metabolites, while changes in protein expression were examined using Western blot analysis. Different response profiles of metabolites, HSPs and DHNs were observed in the two cultivars. Metabolic changes involved variation in amino acids, polysaccharides and their derivatives. A total of 188 compounds, with 142 known metabolites and 46 unknown small molecules, were detected in the two sorghum varieties. Under water deficit conditions, Samsorg 17 accumulated sugars and sugar alcohols, while in Samsorg 40 amino acids increased in concentration. This study suggest that the two Sorghum varieties adopt distinct approaches in response to drought, with Samsorg 17 being better able to maintain leaf function under severe drought conditions. PMID:27153323

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly of Setatria italica variety Taejin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) belonging to the family Poaceae is an important millet that is widely cultivated in East Asia. Of the cultivated millets, the foxtail millet has the longest history and is one of the main food crops in South India and China. Moreover, foxtail millet is a model plant system for biofuel generation utilizing the C4 photosynthetic pathway. In this study, we carried out de novo transcriptome assembly for the foxtail millet variety Taejin collected from Korea using next-generation sequencing. We obtained a total of 8.676 GB raw data by paired-end sequencing. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRR3406552. The Trinity program was used to de novo assemble 145,332 transcripts. Using the TransDecoder program, we predicted 82,925 putative proteins. BLASTP was performed against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of identified proteins, resulting in 20,555 potentially novel proteins. Taken together, this study provides transcriptome data for the foxtail millet variety Taejin by RNA-Seq. PMID:27257606

  4. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:19156736

  5. Obtaining informed consent for genomics research in Africa: analysis of H3Africa consent documents

    PubMed Central

    Munung, Nchangwi Syntia; Marshall, Patricia; Campbell, Megan; Littler, Katherine; Masiye, Francis; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Seeley, Janet; Stein, D J; Tindana, Paulina; de Vries, Jantina

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in genomic and biobanking research worldwide has led to the development of different informed consent models for use in such research. This study analyses consent documents used by investigators in the H3Africa (Human Heredity and Health in Africa) Consortium. Methods A qualitative method for text analysis was used to analyse consent documents used in the collection of samples and data in H3Africa projects. Thematic domains included type of consent model, explanations of genetics/genomics, data sharing and feedback of test results. Results Informed consent documents for 13 of the 19 H3Africa projects were analysed. Seven projects used broad consent, five projects used tiered consent and one used specific consent. Genetics was mostly explained in terms of inherited characteristics, heredity and health, genes and disease causation, or disease susceptibility. Only one project made provisions for the feedback of individual genetic results. Conclusion H3Africa research makes use of three consent models—specific, tiered and broad consent. We outlined different strategies used by H3Africa investigators to explain concepts in genomics to potential research participants. To further ensure that the decision to participate in genomic research is informed and meaningful, we recommend that innovative approaches to the informed consent process be developed, preferably in consultation with research participants, research ethics committees and researchers in Africa. PMID:26644426

  6. Socioeconomic differentials and availability of domestic water in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungumaro, Esther W.

    The past few decades has seen massive efforts to increasing provision of domestic water. However, water is still unavailable to many people most of them located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia. Furthermore, availability of water varies greatly both spatially and temporary. While other people pay so dearly for domestic water others have an easy access to adequate clean water and sanitation. Accessibility and affordability of domestic water and sanitation is determined by a great variety of factors including socioeconomic status of households. The main objective of the paper is to inform on factors which need to be taken into account when coming up with projects to provide domestic water. It is more critical when the issue of water pricing comes into the equation. Water pricing has many facets, including equity, willingness to pay and affordability. In this premise, it is deemed important to understand the socioeconomic characteristics of the people before deciding on the amount of money they will have to pay for water consumption. It is argued that understanding people’s socioeconomic situation will greatly help to ensure that principles of sustainability and equity in water allocation and pricing are achieved. To do so, the paper utilized 2002 South Africa General Household Survey (GHS), to analyze socioeconomic variables and availability of domestic water. Analysis was mainly descriptive. However, logistic regression analysis was also utilized to determine the likelihood of living in a household that obtain water from a safe source. The study found that there is a strong relationship between availability of domestic water and socioeconomic conditions. Economic status, household size and to a lesser extent gender of head of household were found to be strong predictors of living in a household which obtained water from a safe source. The paper recommends that needs and priorities for interventions in water provision should take into account

  7. Separate Schools and Separate People of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1972-01-01

    After reviewing the historical and legal background of race relations in South Africa, the author reviews his experiences at a recent conference on Accelerated Development in Southern Africa,'' held in Johannesburg. (JM)

  8. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed

    Karikari, Thomas K

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  9. Applications of the IRI in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    The IRI forms the basis of the Single Site Location Direction Finding networks of the South African Defence Force as well as theNational Intelligence Agency. It is also used in "Path Analysis" applications where the possible transmitter coverage is calculated. Another application of the IRI is in HF frequency predictions, especially for the South African Defence Force involved in peace keeping duties in Africa. The IRI is either used independently or in conjunction with vertical ionosondes. In the latter case the scaled F2 peak parameters (foF2, hmF2) are used as inputs to the IRI. The IRI thus gets "calibrated" to extend the area covered by the ionosonde(s). The IRI has proved to be a very important tool in South Africa and Africa in the fight against crime, drug trafficking, political instability and maintaining the peace in potentially unstable countries.

  10. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  11. Asbestos-Related Disease in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered—and continue to suffer—from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

  12. Children in Africa: Key Statistics on Child Survival, Protection and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report presents key statistics relating to: (1) child malnutrition in Africa; (2) HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Africa; (3) child marriage, birth registration and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C); (4) education in Africa; (5) child mortality in Africa; (6) Drinking water and sanitation in Africa; and (7) maternal health in Africa.…

  13. 78 FR 27855 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Species and Varieties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...We are amending the black stem rust quarantine and regulations by adding two varieties to the list of rust-resistant Berberis species and varieties and one variety to the list of rust-resistant Mahonia species and varieties. This action will allow for the interstate movement of these newly developed varieties without unnecessary...

  14. Nephrology in Africa--not yet uhuru.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-10-01

    Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling. PMID:23958719

  15. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    PubMed

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171

  16. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J. G.; Raupach, M. R.; Houghton, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y-1 for the period 2000 2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y-1) and land use change (240 TgC y-1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000 2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y-1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y-1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y-1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/, close to the world average of 199 gC/. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  17. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J. G.; Raupach, M. R.; Houghton, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 Tg C y-1 for the period 2000-2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 Tg C y-1) and land use change (240 Tg C y-1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 Tg C accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000-2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y-1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 t C y-1 compared to the global average of 1.2 t C y-1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US{} of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa was 187 g C/ in 2005, close to the world average of 199 g C/. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  18. AfricaArray: Building science capacity and improving seismic networks in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Dirks, P.; Graham, G.

    2007-05-01

    AfricaArray is a long-term initiative to promote coupled training and research programs in geophysics for building and maintaining a scientific workforce for Africa's natural resource sector. The main goals of AfricaArray are to: 1) maintain and develop further geophysical training programs in Africa, in response to industry, government and university needs, 2) promote geophysical research in Africa, and establish an Africa-to-Africa research support system, 3) obtain geophysical data, through a network of shared observatories, to study scientific targets of economic and societal interest, as well as fundamental geological processes shaping the African continent. AfricaArray is supported by a public-private partnership consisting of many government organizations in the US and Africa, and mining and oil companies. AfricaArray has been built on existing programs and expertise within partner institutions and is being implemented in three phases over ten years. During Phase 1 (1/2005 - 12/2007), the educational program at the University of the Witwatersrand is being expanded and improved to provide B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degree training in geophysics for students from across Africa. Seismic stations are being installed or upgraded in participating countries to form a network of shared scientific observatories, and technical personnel are being trained to operate and maintain the seismic equipment. Data from the seismic stations are being used for student thesis research projects, and the seismic network is helping to catalyze scientific community building through educational and research collaborations. During subsequent phases (2007-2014), the in-situ education and research program will grow to provide B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. training for many more African students, the network of shared scientific observatories will be expanded, temporary networks of seismic stations will be installed, sustainable centers of excellence in geophysics will be established at other

  19. SERVIR-Africa: Developing an Integrated Platform for Floods Disaster Management in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.

  20. The health and wealth of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klopper, J M; Taylor, S P

    1987-12-01

    The per capita gross national product (GNP) in South Africa is examined as it relates to life expectancy and the infant mortality rate. Despite South Africa's relative wealth in per capita GNP terms, life expectancy at birth is 63-65 years and the national infant mortality rate according to Unicef, is unlikely to reach the target of 50/1,000 live births by the year 2000. The distribution of expenditure on health is contrasted between the former provincial administrations, the major local authorities, the national states and the homelands. The health resources allocation distribution is unlikely to ensure health for all by the year 2000. PMID:3120325

  1. River Knick Points of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, R.; Markwick, P.

    2005-12-01

    Successful interpretation of the longitudinal profiles of rivers in southern Africa requires identification of the relative roles of bedrock geology, tectonics, river capture history, climatic change and eustasy. Knick points, expressed as waterfalls or as changes in gradient, are examined for the Kunene, Orange, Zambezi and Shire Rivers utilising Shuttle Imaging Radar topographic data, Gtopo 30 topographic data, Hydro 1K drainage data, satellite imagery, zoogeography and fieldwork. The results provide insights into what can, and cannot, be inferred about the uplift history of Africa.

  2. Tele-Education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. Method: A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Conclusion: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained

  3. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  4. Variety and intensity of emotions in nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu; Donderi, Don C

    2006-04-01

    Nightmares are usually defined as frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper. This study uses the waking criterion to distinguish between nightmares and bad dreams and investigated the variety and intensity of emotions reported in each form of disturbing dream. Ninety participants recorded their dreams for 4 consecutive weeks and, for each dream recalled, noted the emotions present and their intensities on a 9-point scale. Thirty-six participants reported at least one nightmare and one bad dream over the 4 weeks covered by the log, while 29 reported having had at least one bad dream but no nightmares. Nightmares were rated as being significantly (p < 0.001) more intense than bad dreams. Thirty percent of nightmares and 51% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. The findings support the claim that awakening can serve as an indirect measure of nightmare intensity and raise important implications for the operational definition of nightmares. PMID:16614545

  5. Geometric descriptions of entangled states by auxiliary varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Holweck, Frederic; Luque, Jean-Gabriel; Thibon, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the paper is to propose geometric descriptions of multipartite entangled states using algebraic geometry. In the context of this paper, geometric means each stratum of the Hilbert space, corresponding to an entangled state, is an open subset of an algebraic variety built by classical geometric constructions (tangent lines, secant lines) from the set of separable states. In this setting, we describe well-known classifications of multipartite entanglement such as 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign (n+ 1), for n Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1, quantum systems and a new description with the 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 quantum system. Our results complete the approach of Miyake and make stronger connections with recent work of algebraic geometers. Moreover, for the quantum systems detailed in this paper, we propose an algorithm, based on the classical theory of invariants, to decide to which subvariety of the Hilbert space a given state belongs.

  6. HADES, A Code for Simulating a Variety of Radiographic Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M B; Henderson, G; von Wittenau, A; Slone, D M; Barty, A; Martz, Jr., H E

    2004-10-28

    It is often useful to simulate radiographic images in order to optimize imaging trade-offs and to test tomographic techniques. HADES is a code that simulates radiography using ray tracing techniques. Although originally developed to simulate X-Ray transmission radiography, HADES has grown to simulate neutron radiography over a wide range of energy, proton radiography in the 1 MeV to 100 GeV range, and recently phase contrast radiography using X-Rays in the keV energy range. HADES can simulate parallel-ray or cone-beam radiography through a variety of mesh types, as well as through collections of geometric objects. HADES was originally developed for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications, but could be a useful tool for simulation of portal imaging, proton therapy imaging, and synchrotron studies of tissue. In this paper we describe HADES' current capabilities and discuss plans for a major revision of the code.

  7. Opportunities for CD-ROM Information Services in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Anne W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of CD-ROMs in Africa based on experiences of the Population Information Program (PIP) at Johns Hopkins University. Topics addressed include available CD-ROM hardware; how CD-ROMs can help alleviate information problems in Africa; and how to market CD-ROMs in Africa. (10 references) (LRW)

  8. The State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indabawa, Sabo A., Ed.; Oduaran, Akpovire, Ed.; Afrik, Tai, Ed.; Walters, Shirley, Ed.

    This document contains 21 papers examining the state of adult and continuing education in Africa. The following papers are included: "Introduction: An Overview of the State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Akpovire Oduaran); "Setting the Tone of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Michael A. Omolewa); "Significant Post…

  9. The H3Africa policy framework: negotiating fairness in genomics.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jantina; Tindana, Paulina; Littler, Katherine; Ramsay, Michèle; Rotimi, Charles; Abayomi, Akin; Mulder, Nicola; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2015-03-01

    Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) research seeks to promote fair collaboration between scientists in Africa and those from elsewhere. Here, we outline how concerns over inequality and exploitation led to a policy framework that places a firm focus on African leadership and capacity building as guiding principles for African genomics research. PMID:25601285

  10. Afro-American Linkages with Africa in Transnational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert A.

    Afro-American relations with Africa have had significant effects on the identity of Black people in the United States since the Revolutionary period. This paper presents an historical analysis of the linkages between Africa and Afro-Americans in an attempt to clarify the changing self-image of Blacks in the United States. When Africa was…

  11. The H3Africa policy framework: negotiating fairness in genomics

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jantina; Tindana, Paulina; Littler, Katherine; Ramsay, Michèle; Rotimi, Charles; Abayomi, Akin; Mulder, Nicola; Mayosi, Bongani M.

    2015-01-01

    Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) research seeks to promote fair collaboration between scientists in Africa and those from elsewhere. Here, we outline how concerns over inequality and exploitation led to a policy framework that places a firm focus on African leadership and capacity building as guiding principles for African genomics research. PMID:25601285

  12. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes. PMID:27374520

  13. Theoretical Perspectives on Gender in Education: The Case of Eastern and Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannathoko, Changu

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, throughout Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been a proliferation of research on gender in education. It is possible to point to a wide variety of publications, courses and programmes planned and organized by universities, national governments, international organizations, non-governmental organizations and the private sector relating to this field. This article examines the feminist and gender theories underpinning all these endeavors. The theories are assessed for their potential capacity to assist in elucidating the complex relationship between gender and development within the region.

  14. Coal and peat in the sub-Saharan region of Africa: alternative energy options?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Landis, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Coal and peat are essentially unused and in some cases unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. However, they might comprise valuable alternative energy sources in some or all of the developing nations of the region. The 11 countries considered in this appraisal reportedly contain coal and peat. On the basis of regional geology, another five countries might also contain coal-bearing rocks. If the resource potential is adequate, coal and peat might be utilized in a variety of ways including substituting for fuelwood, generating electricity, supplying process heat for local industry and increasing agricultural productivity. -from Author

  15. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. PMID:22392794

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  17. Children's Fiction About Africa in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    Children's fiction about Africa which has been either written in English or translated from other languages into English is discussed in this book. Covered are 542 novels and volumes of short stories written for children that were collected and read by the author before July 1977. Part I outlines several major elements of the cultural background…

  18. It's about TIME: engendering AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses how TIME magazine represents sub-Saharan African women in its coverage of HIV/AIDS. As rates of infection escalate across the continent, researchers are increasingly emphasising the need to understand the socioeconomic and cultural contexts that make women particularly vulnerable to infection. Yet popular media representations of AIDS continue to rely on older colonial imageries of Africa as the feminised, diseased 'dark continent'. This article identifies three major themes in TIME's representation of sub-Saharan African women and HIV/AIDS: the metaphor of Africa as a woman in crisis, the construction of women as the means of transmission, and the engendered nature of the debate about the impact of international development policies. It is argued that the reliance on familiar cultural narratives often obscures the epidemiological, economic and cultural realities within which sub-Saharan women live. Not merely a consequence of unprotected sex, AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is also the result of global economics and politics, reflecting the inequities between the West and Africa, male and female, white and black. The paper concludes with a call for further research on the role of representations of HIV/AIDS and its actual routes of transmission. PMID:17612957

  19. South Africa: Challenge and Hope. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Lyle, Ed.

    In South Africa, racial identification determines all facets of a person's life--political, economic, and social. Divided into ten chapters, this book was prepared to increase public awareness of black South Africans' struggle for freedom. Chapter one discusses how the system of apartheid is built on the official identification of all citizens by…

  20. Seismotectonics and crustal deformation in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2016-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events, and harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures, seismic anisotropy tomography and gravity anomaly, into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies obtained from the analysis of late Quaternary faulting and geodetic data will serve as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map will be useful for the seismic hazard assessment and earthquake risk mitigation for significant infrastructures and their socio-economic implications in Africa. The constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of this map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014, now extended to 2016).

  1. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  2. Toward Nutritional Enhancement of Sorghum for Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is the fifth most important cereal worldwide. Sorghum is used primarily for animal feed in the developed world but, particularly in semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia, it is a principal source of energy and protein for millions of the poorest people. While...

  3. Cancer of the Oesophagus in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Paula

    1971-01-01

    The oesophagus is the most common site of tumour development in men in parts of eastern and southern Africa. In West Africa cancer of the oesophagus is practically unknown. In the areas where it is common, the frequency is not uniformly high but shows sharp gradients within short distances. Most of the present high frequencies seem to have developed from a negligible incidence 30 or forty years ago. In all areas the disease is more common in men than women but the sex ratio varies from less than 2: 1 to 12: 1. Alcohol has been shown to be implicated in the development of cancer of the oesophagus elsewhere in the world. Home-made beer and spirit are common in many parts of Africa but there is no geographical association between frequency of consumption and the occurrence of oesophageal cancer. Evidence exists which suggests that both the geographical and temporal distributions in Africa could reflect the use of maize as a major ingredient of alcoholic drinks. PMID:5144546

  4. Authoritarianism and Race Attitudes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Andrew M.; Lambley, Peter

    1970-01-01

    Low correlations were found between authoritarianism and prejudice against non-whites. It is suggested that in South Africa, in comparison to America, prejudice serves a utilitarian rather than an ego-defense function, and is thus more amenable to change. (DB)

  5. Evaluating the MBA in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Mala; Lange, Lis; Naidoo, Prem

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Quality Committee of the Council on Higher Education in South Africa recently carried out an evaluation of all MBA programmes offered in the country by South African as well as foreign higher education institutions. The MBA review is located within the context of the implementation of a comprehensive external quality assurance…

  6. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  7. The Image of Africa in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Angene H.

    1980-01-01

    To support the hypothesis that much misinformation and many stereotypic attitudes are presented about Africa to elementary school pupils, the article analyzes 10 readers for African content and assesses effects of an African content intervention strategy on elementary school students. (DB)

  8. Africa's elephants and rhinos: Flagships in crisis.

    PubMed

    Western, D

    1987-11-01

    Despite extensive conservation measures over the last two decades, populations of elephants and rhinos in Africa continue to decline. The plight of the black rhino is especially acute. Poaching for rhino horn and ivory, rather than habitat loss, remains the principal threat to these species. The only long-term hope may lie in the effective protection of small, isolated populations. PMID:21227879

  9. Africa Curriculum. World Neighbors in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This collection of lessons about the geography, languages, and social issues of several African countries is intended for use with students in grades 6-12. The collection contains five lesson plans: (1) "Africa Physically" (Mark Stahl); (2) "Comparisons of Education in Burkina Faso, Kenya, and Oklahoma" (Rita Geiger) (Handout 1: Comparisons of…

  10. Directory of Adult Education Centres in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Dakar (Senegal). Regional Office for Education in Africa.

    The Bureau Regional pour L'Education en Afrique (BREDA) survey, published partly in French, assembled data on the activities of adult education institutions in Africa in order to identify and develop future regional documentation centers. This draft copy of the survey is the first step towards improving international collaboration among…

  11. Processes Affecting Tropospheric Ozone over Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diab, Roseanne D.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    This is a Workshop Report prepared for Eos, the weekly AGU magazine, The workshop took place between 26-28 January 2004 at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa and was attended by 26 participants (http//www.geography.und.ac.za). Considerable progress has been made in ozone observations except for northern Africa (large data gaps) and west Africa (to be covered by the French-sponsored AMMA program). The present-day ozone findings were evaluated and reviewed by speakers using Aircraft data (MOZAIC program), NASA satellites (MOPITT, TRMM, TOMS) and ozone soundings (SHADOZ). Besides some ozone gaps, there are challenges posed by the need to assess the relative strengths of photochemical and dynamic influences on the tropospheric ozone budget. Biogenic, biofuels, biomass burning sources of ozone precursors remain highly uncertain. Recent findings (by NASA's Chatfield and Thompson, using satellite and sounding data) show significant impact of Indian Ocean pollution on African ozone. European research on pollutants over the Mediterranean and the middle east, that suggests that ozone may be exported to Africa from these areas, also needs to be considered.

  12. Language and Learning Science in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probyn, Margie

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is a multilingual country with 11 official languages. However, English dominates as the language of access and power and although the Language-in-Education Policy (1997) recommends school language policies that will promote additive bilingualism and the use of learners' home languages as languages of learning and teaching, there has…

  13. Teaching Community Psychology in Postapartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Aaronette M.; Potgieter, Cheryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines a community psychology course that stresses community empowerment, the myth of neutrality and objectivity in community psychology, and democratic accountability to the community. The course includes a brief history of race, class, and gender oppression in South Africa and concludes with a unit on converting social theory into practice.…

  14. Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Materu, Peter; Righetti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the status and practice of higher education quality assurance in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on degree-granting tertiary institutions. A main finding is that structured national-level quality assurance processes in African higher education are a very recent phenomenon and that most countries face major capacity constraints.…

  15. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  16. Sub-Saharan Africa at a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a wealth of statistical, geographic, and economic information on Sub-Saharan Africa arranged and displayed for easy and immediate access. Lists all of the countries of the region along with pertinent information including religious affiliation, capital, Gross National Product, main exports, population growth, education, and literacy. (MJP)

  17. Effective programmes in Africa for improving nutrition.

    PubMed

    1997-07-01

    The general nutrition situation in Africa is deteriorating due to extreme poverty, severe drought, and conflict. The quality of diets in many parts of the continent is poor and inadequate, and there are underlying problems of chronic malnutrition due to marginal access to food, seasonality problems, and the chronic lack of basic services in many countries. A symposium on effective programs in Africa for improving nutrition held at the UN Administrative Committee on Coordination's Sub-Committee on Nutrition's (SCN) 23rd session in Accra, Ghana, in February 1996, coincided with the launch of Ghana's National Plan of Action for Nutrition. A summary and main conclusions of the proceedings are presented. The major theme of the symposium, effective programs in Africa for improving nutrition, focused mainly upon household food security, a problem of major concern to African countries. The overall goal was to develop conclusions which will help Africa's search for suitable solutions to ensure food security and improved nutrition for all. PMID:12321584

  18. Gender is another hurdle for S. Africa.

    PubMed

    Hill, M

    1993-11-01

    Gender equality remains an unacceptable concept to traditional tribal leaders in the new South Africa. Representative of this opposition to an equality for women provision in the new Constitution is Mwelo Nonkonyana, chief of the Amabhala clan of the Xhosa tribe in South Africa's Transkei region. Chief Nonkonyana has insisted, "Women are not inferior. It's just that they perform a special function." A ban on sex discrimination in South Africa would enable daughters to sue the eldest son for the right to assume power and pose many challenges to the institution of polygamy. Traditional leaders have proposed a separate parliamentary body composed of kings and chiefs to examine instances where proposed laws conflict with tribal practices, a step that could delay action on the gender equality plank for 5 years. They are being opposed by the African National Congress, which insists on the inclusion of human rights for all in the new Constitution. The Congress is committed to accommodating the tribal rulers, many of whom received financial support from the apartheid government, but is determined to avoid the existence of two parallel ruling structures in the new South Africa. PMID:12318516

  19. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  20. A Sense of Water. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…