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Sample records for africa north america

  1. Mineralogical maturity in dunefields of North America, Africa and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of dunefields in central and western North America show that mineralogical maturity can provide new insights into the origin and evolution of aeolian sand bodies. Many of the world's great sand seas in Africa, Asia and Australia are quartz-dominated and thus can be considered to be mineralogically mature. The Algodones (California) and Parker (Arizona) dunes in the southwestern United States are also mature, but have inherited a high degree of mineralogical maturity from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks drained by the Colorado River. In Libya, sediments of the Zallaf sand sea, which are almost pure quartz, may have originated in a similar fashion. The Fort Morgan (Colorado) and Casper (Wyoming) dunefields in the central Great Plains of North America, and the Namib sand sea of southern Africa have an intermediate degree of mineralogical maturity because their sources are large rivers that drained both unweathered plutonic and metamorphic rocks and mature sedimentary rocks. Mojave Desert dunefields in the southwestern United States are quite immature because they are in basins adjacent to plutonic rocks that were their sources. Other dunefields in the Great Plains of North America (those in Nebraska and Texas) are more mature than any possible source sediments and therefore reflect mineralogical evolution over time. Such changes in composition can occur because of either of two opposing long-term states of the dunefield. In one state, dunes are stable for long periods of time and chemical weathering depletes feldspars and other weatherable minerals in the sediment body. In the other state, which is most likely for the Great Plains, abrasion and ballistic impacts deplete the carbonate minerals and feldspars because the dunes are active for longer periods than they are stable. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  3. North America

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Christopher B.; Mortsch, Linda D.; Brklacich, Michael; Forbes, Donald L.; Kovacs, Paul; Patz, Jonathan A.; Running, Steven W.; Scott, Michael J.

    2007-08-06

    The United States (U.S.) and Canada will experience climate changes through direct effects of local changes (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events), as well as through indirect effects, transmitted among regions by interconnected economies and migrations of humans and other species. Variations in wealth and geography, however, lead to an uneven distribution of likely impacts, vulnerabilities, and capacities to adapt. This chapter reviews and synthesizes the state of knowledge on both direct and indirect impacts, vulnerability and adaptations for North America 9 (comprising Canada and the U.S).

  4. Degeneration of aflatoxin gene clusters in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bishwo N; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Cotty, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the most common causal agent of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed. However, aflatoxin-producing potential varies widely among A. flavus genotypes with many producing no aflatoxins. Some non-aflatoxigenic genotypes are used as biocontrol agents to prevent contamination. Aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are tightly clustered in a highly conserved order. Gene deletions and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are often associated with A. flavus inability to produce aflatoxins. In order to identify mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in non-aflatoxigenic genotypes of value in aflatoxin biocontrol, complete cluster sequences of 35 A. flavus genotypes from Africa and North America were analyzed. Inability of some genotypes to produce aflatoxin resulted from deletion of biosynthesis genes. In other genotypes, non-aflatoxigenicity originated from SNP formation. The process of degeneration differed across the gene cluster; genes involved in early biosynthesis stages were more likely to be deleted while genes involved in later stages displayed high frequencies of SNPs. Comparative analyses of aflatoxin gene clusters provides insight into the diversity of mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in A. flavus genotypes used as biological control agents. The sequences provide resources for both diagnosis of non-aflatoxigenicity and monitoring of biocontrol genotypes during biopesticide manufacture and in the environment. PMID:27576895

  5. Extracting Uplift Rate Histories From Longitudinal River Profiles: Examples From North America and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Gareth G.; White, Nicky; Paul, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    The physiography of the Earth's surface is a manifestation of vertical motions, erosion, and deposition of sediment. We show that a history of uplift rate of the continents during the last ~ 100 million years can be determined by jointly inverting the longitudinal profiles of rivers. We assume that the shape of a river profile is controlled by the history of uplift rate and moderated by the erosional process. We have parameterized fluvial erosion using a nonlinear advective-diffusive formulation. A river profile per se contains no information about the erosional timescale; values of erosional parameters must be calibrated. If either vertical incision rate or knickzone retreat rate is known independently, for example when palaeo-river profiles are preserved, we can calibrate the erosional model directly. Independent spot measurements of uplift offer another way to calibrate a regional model. In our inverse model, uplift rate is allowed to vary smoothly as a function of space and time, and upstream drainage area is invariant. Using this inverse methodology, we show that there exist time-correlative commonalities in the shapes of river profiles draining uplifted regions. We find that the rate at which knickzones propagate upstream is linearly dependent on slope in nearly all cases (i.e. n = 1 in the detachment-limited erosional model for ~ 600 North American and African rivers). The exponent on upstream drainage, m, which controls knickzone retreat rate, is typically < 0.5. Calculated retreat rates are therefore insensitive to large changes in upstream drainage area. Simultaneous inversion of profiles from the Colorado, Columbia, Mississippi and Rio Grande catchments shows that western North America experienced three regional phases of uplift during the last 100 Ma. The first phase of uplift occurred between 80-50 Ma, which generated ~ 1 km of topography at a rate of ~ 0.03 mm/yr. A second phase of uplift generated ~ 1.5 km of topography between 35-15 Ma at a rate of

  6. MOPITT Views North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere, MOPITT, measures two important pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere-carbon monoxide (CO) and methane. This MOPITT image shows the relative amount of CO over North America from March 5-7, 2000. The animation (2.9MB) (high-res (5MB)) shows the global distribution of carbon monoxide. Industrial activity produced the large amount of CO present in the Northern Hemisphere, and brush fires in Central Africa created the plume of CO stretching from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean. For more information: MOPITT images through Visible Earth MOPITT Web Site at the Canadian Space Agency MOPITT Web Site at the University of Toronto Image courtesy of the MOPITT instrument team

  7. The development of the continental margin of eastern North America-conjugate continental margin to West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Schlee, J.S.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1988-01-01

    The continental margin of eastern North America was initiated when West Africa and North America were rifted apart in Triassic-Early Jurassic time. Cooling of the crust and its thinning by rifting and extension caused subsidence. Variation in amounts of subsidence led to formation of five basins. These are listed from south to north. (1) The Blake Plateau Basin, the southernmost, is the widest basin and the one in which the rift-stage basement took longest to form. Carbonate platform deposition was active and persisted until the end of Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous, deposition slowed while subsidence persisted, so a deep water platform was formed. Since the Paleocene the region has undergone erosion. (2) The Carolina Trough is narrow and has relatively thin basement, on the basis of gravity modeling. The two basins with thin basement, the Carolina Trough and Scotian Basin, also show many salt diapirs indicating considerable deposition of salt during their early evolution. In the Carolina Trough, subsidence of a large block of strata above the flowing salt has resulted in a major, active normal fault on the landward side of the basin. (3) The Baltimore Canyon Trough has an extremely thick sedimentary section; synrift and postrift sediments exceed 18 km in thickness. A Jurassic reef is well developed on the basin's seaward side, but post-Jurassic deposition was mainly non-carbonate. In general the conversion from carbonate to terrigenous deposition, characteristics of North American Basins, occurred progressively earlier toward the north. (4) The Georges Bank Basin has a complicated deep structure of sub-basins filled with thick synrift deposits. This may have resulted from some shearing that occurred at this offset of the continental margin. Postrift sediments apparently are thin compared to other basins-only about 8 km. (5) The Scotian Basin, off Canada, contains Jurassic carbonate rocks, sandstone, shale and coal covered by deltaic deposits and Upper

  8. Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

  9. Migrations of European honey bee lineages into Africa, Asia, and North America during the Oligocene and Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Wappler, Torsten; Engel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Today honey bees, principally the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, represent a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. Through the efforts of humans they have become established well outside of their modern native ranges, having been introduced multiple times into the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and many areas of Oceania. The native, i.e., non-human influenced, distribution and migration of honey bee species and populations has been a matter of serious and continued debate. Apicultural dogma informs us that the center of origin of honey bees (genus Apis) resides in Asia, with subsequent migration and diversification into Europe and Asia. Recent population genetic studies of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, slightly modified this received wisdom by suggesting that this species originated in Africa and subsequently reinvaded Eurasia. Research into the historical biogeography of honey bees has ignored entirely the abundant fossil evidence distributed through a variety of Late Paleogene (Oligocene) and Early Neogene (Miocene) deposits, a diversity which is predominantly European in origin, particularly among the most basal species of the genus. We have examined the morphological disparity and affinities of the full living and fossil diversity of honey bees ranging from their earliest origins to the present day. This analysis indicates that honey bees exhibited a greater morphological disparity during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, a time when the principal lineages were established, and that Apis apparently originated in Europe, spreading from there into Asia, Africa, and North America, with subsequent diversification in the former two regions and extinction in the latter. During the human migrations and colonization honey bees were once again introduced multiple times into the Americas, as well as into Australia and Asia.

  10. POPULATION FREQUENCIES OF THE TRIALLELIC 5HTTLPR IN SIX ETHNICIALLY DIVERSE SAMPLES FROM NORTH AMERICA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, AND AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew; Williams, Redford B.; Bishop, George D.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Thornberry, Terence P; Conger, Rand; Siegler, Ilene C.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Boardman, Jason D; Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Stallings, Michael C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Genetic differences between populations are a potentially an important contributor to health disparities around the globe. As differences in gene frequencies influence study design, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the natural variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest. Along these lines, we characterized the variation of the 5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ in their racial and ethnic composition. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for 24,066 participants. Results indicated higher frequencies of the rs25531 G-allele among Black and African populations as compared with White, Hispanic and Asian populations. Further, we observed a greater number of ‘extra-long’ (‘XL’) 5HTTLPR alleles than have previously been reported. Extra-long alleles occurred almost entirely among Asian, Black and Non-White Hispanic populations as compared with White and Native American populations where they were completely absent. Lastly, when considered jointly, we observed between sample differences in the genotype frequencies within racial and ethnic populations. Taken together, these data underscore the importance of characterizing the L-G allele to avoid misclassification of participants by genotype and for further studies of the impact XL alleles may have on the transcriptional efficiency of SLC6A4. PMID:25564228

  11. Late Paleozoic Orogenies in western Africa and eastern North America: The diachronous closure of Theic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, Alain; Skehan, James W.

    1992-04-01

    The Carboniferous evolution in western Morocco, southeastern Canada, and New England was dominated by intracontinental processes: the subsidence of pull-apart sedimentary basins, and their subsequent deformation during middle Carboniferous to Early Permian times, with the development of autochthonous structures and mainly low- to medium-grade metamorphism. On the other hand, the structural style of the late Carboniferous deformation in the southern Appalachians, and to a substantial degree also in New England, that is related to a continental collision is characterized by deep-seated northwest-vergent thrusts and medium- to high-grade metamorphism. The Mauritanides structures are symmetrically east-vergent thrusts. This pattern is explained by the diachronous closure of the Theic ocean that separated the Avalon and Carolina microcontinental blocks from paleo-Gondwana. The closure of the Theic ocean occurred during Devonian times between the northern Appalachians and the northwestern edge of paleo-Gondwana (Morocco), whereas it was achieved only at the end of Carboniferous times between the southern Appalachians and western Africa (Mauritania-Senegal). The Late Devonian to early Carboniferous counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana induced the opening of the pull-apart basins of Canada, New England, and Morocco as well as, later, the oblique collision in the southern Appalachians and the generalized late Paleozoic dextral transcurrent faulting along the northern edge of paleo-Gondwana.

  12. Interactive effects of grazing, drought, and fire on grassland plant communities in North America and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Sally E; Collins, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Grazing, fire, and climate shape mesic grassland communities. With global change altering all three factors, understanding how grasslands respond to changes in these combined drivers may aid in projecting future changes in grassland ecosystems. We manipulated rainfall and simulated grazing (clipping) in two long-term fire experiments in mesic grasslands in North America (NA) and South Africa (SA). Despite their common drivers, grasslands in NA and SA differ in evolutionary history. Therefore, we expected community structure and production in NA and SA to respond differently to fire, grazing, and drought. Specifically, we hypothesized that NA plant community composition and production would be more responsive than the SA plant communities to changes in the drivers and their interactions, and that despite this expected stability of SA grasslands, drought would be the dominant factor controlling production, but grazing would play the primary role in determining community composition at both sites. Contrary to our hypothesis, NA and SA grasslands generally responded similarly to grazing, drought, and fire. Grazing increased diversity, decreased grass cover and production, and decreased belowground biomass at both sites. Drought alone minimally impacted plant community structure, and we saw similar treatment interactions at the two sites. Drought was not the primary driver of grassland productivity, but instead drought effects were similar to or less than grazing and fire. Even though these grasslands differed in evolutionary history, they responded similarly to our fire, grazing, and climate manipulations. Overall, we found community and ecosystem convergence in NA and SA grasslands. Grazing and fire are as important as climate in controlling mesic grassland ecosystems on both continents.

  13. North America Mosaic

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... diversity of geological features, ecological systems and human landscapes across North America is indicated within the image, which ... from 56°N, 136°W at the upper left to 16°N 48°W at lower right. In addition to the contiguous United States, the scene spans from ...

  14. North America: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  15. Anaglyph, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.

    Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).

    Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.

    To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and

  16. Anaglyph, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.

    Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).

    Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.

    To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and

  17. French Expansion in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenen, Cornelius J.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the French colonization in North America. Presents background information on New France, focusing on the French in Canada. Covers topics, such as how the French became interested in North American expansion, the French in Louisiana, colonial economics, and the reasons for the collapse of New France. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  18. The Carnian Pluvial Event in Western Europe: New data from Iberia and correlation with the Western Neotethys and Eastern North America-NW Africa regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arche, Alfredo; López-Gómez, José

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of the Late Triassic, a period of increased precipitation occurred over large tracts of Central Pangea, the "Carnian Pluvial Event". It was a short-lived event (> 1 Ma), coeval with a marked sea-level fall and active rifting. New and classical sections of Carnian age in the Iberian Peninsula have been studied and a new correlation scheme is proposed for the Iberian domain, integrating field data and subsurface electric log data. This is the first time that the Portuguese and Spanish Late Triassic (Carnian) sediments are correlated. The "Carnian Pluvial Event" is identified in the Iberian Peninsula as a continental clastic wedge (Manuel Fm. and coeval sediments) in between marine evaporite formations during a marked sea-level drop event; its age is considered to be Julian (early Carnian) by palynological and paleogeographic considerations. A new correlation of the Late Triassic sediments of the Iberian Peninsula with coeval sediments of Western Europe, NW Africa and Eastern North America is proposed and a new paleogeographical map of Central Eastern Pangea for this period is presented in order to demonstrate that the geographical extent of the siliciclastic sediments related to the "Carnian Pluvial Event" was much larger than accepted before.

  19. Closure of the Africa-Eurasia-North America plate motion circuit and tectonics of the Gloria fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.; Demets, Charles; Stein, Seth

    1989-01-01

    The current motions of the African, Eurasian, and North American plates are examined. The problems addressed include whether there is resolvable motion of a Spitsbergen microplate, the direction of motion between the African and North American plates, whether the Gloria fault is an active transform fault, and the implications of plate circuit closures for rates of intraplate deformation. Marine geophysical data and magnetic profiles are used to construct a model which predicts about 4 mm/yr slip across the Azores-Gibraltar Ridge, and west-northwest convergence near Gibraltar. The analyzed data are consistent with a rigid plate model with the Gloria fault being a transform fault.

  20. An ictidosaur fossil from north america.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S

    1983-06-10

    Teeth of a North American ictidosaur, Pachygenelus milleri, n. sp., found in the Upper Triassic Dockum Group of Texas, indicate that it is very similar to Pachygenelus monus of South Africa and Chaliminia musteloides of South America. The presence of a Gondwana element in the Northern Hemisphere attests to the ease of dispersal of the Late Triassic vertebrates through Pangea. Ictidosaurs are small, highly advanced, carnivorous cynodonts that display a mosaic of reptilian and mammalian features in the masticatory apparatus. They were contemporaneous with early mammals and probably closely related to them.

  1. The Flooding of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennert, James W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a game, designed for use with primary grade level children, which uses a raised plastic relief map of North America to demonstrate the effect of a rising sea level in order to help the students focus on the variety and location of elevation changes in Canada and the northern United States. (JDH)

  2. Conservation Agriculture in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is a production paradigm that groups reduced tillage, mulching with crop residues or cover crops, and diversified crop rotations, especially those that incorporate leguminous crops. In North America, reduced tillage is the most widely-adopted practice that seeks the ide...

  3. Resolving North America`s environmental disputes

    SciTech Connect

    Mauseth, M.

    1998-12-31

    Seventeen years ago John E. Carroll and Newell B. Mack analyzed the then-current status of environmental protection mechanisms used between Canada and the United States. They criticized the ad hoc nature of North America`s history of environmental dispute resolution, which they dubbed ``ad hockery,`` and believed the present ambiguity hurt business, diplomatic relations, and the citizenry`s environment. Since that publication, increasing efforts to incorporate environmental concerns into Conventions have resulted in several multilateral agreements focusing on environmental protection and dispute resolution. Part 2 of this paper introduces a few of these recent agreements and the mechanisms they have established to monitor environmental damage and to enforce the goals of the agreements. The agreements discussed include: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer; Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; Canada-United States: Agreement on Air Quality; Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Convention on Biological Diversity; and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. Part 3 discusses the general concern related to economic development (with the need to maintain ``sustainable development``), the possible environmental impact of NAFTA, and the Supplemental Agreement`s strengths and weaknesses.

  4. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes.

  5. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes. PMID:25107991

  6. North America plate is driven westward by lower mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Bird, Peter

    2002-12-01

    The sense of shear traction which the deeper mantle exerts on the North America plate is controversial. To test this, we compute laterally-varying thin-shell models. Fault elements are used to outline the plate, so the velocity of North America is not fixed. The basal boundary condition is set in one of three ways: (a) for resistive drag, we assume that the lower mantle is static with respect to Africa; (b) we test models with no basal traction; (c) for active drag, we assume that the lower mantle moves as a rigid plate but 10% faster than North America. Each model is scored by comparison with sea-floor spreading rates, geodetic velocities, stress directions, and NUVEL-1A. Only models with active drag are successful. While these results do not determine the exact azimuth or pattern of basal drag on the North America plate, they establish the modal sense as active.

  7. Canada geese in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusch, Donald H.; Malecki, Richard E.; Trost, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Market hunting and poor stewardship led to record low numbers of geese in the early 1900's, but regulated seasons including closures, refuges, and law enforcement led to restoration of most populations. Winter surveys were begun to study population trends and set responsible harvest regulations for these long-lived and diverse birds. Winter surveys begun in 1936-37 probably represent the oldest continuing index of migratory birds in North America.

  8. Heart failure in North America.

    PubMed

    Blair, John E A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering

  9. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  10. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  11. Integrative oncology in North America.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Stephen M

    2006-01-01

    Integrative oncology is an evolving evidence-based specialty that uses complementary therapies in concert with medical treatment to enhance its efficacy, improve symptom control, alleviate patient distress and reduce suffering. In North America the evolution of research into complementary therapies was delayed by the narrow focus of the Flexner Report. A government-funded research agenda and incorporation of complementary therapies into medical school curricula have been driven by early evidence of efficacy and patient demand. Integrative oncology focuses on the role of natural health products (botanicals, vitamins, and minerals), nutrition, acupuncture, meditation and other mind-body approaches, music therapy, touch therapies, fitness therapies, and more. Some natural health products, such as herbs and their constituent phytochemicals, may be biologic response modifiers that could increase cancer control. Current research stretches from the laboratory to health services. Institutions are exploring the effectiveness gap in their clinical services and are determining efficacy of complementary therapies through randomized controlled trials. Eventually, the goal is to establish practice guidelines through determining relative effectiveness and value through cost-utility studies. The aim of integrative oncology should be one medicine, not alternative; it should be patient-focused; it should be evidence-based; and it should provide the best care for cancer cure, prevention, symptom control, and quality of life.

  12. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  13. Introduced species, zebra mussels in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nierenberg, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The discovery of zebra mussels in North America in 1988 raised concern for water users because the species became abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water in human-made structures such as pipes and screens. This work reviews the biology, distribution, and impacts of zebra mussels in the context of its discovery in the Laurentian Great Lakes and its impending spread to most surface waters of North America.

  14. Lutheran Higher Education in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Richard W.

    An overview is provided of the history and mission of Lutheran higher education in North America. The contributions of Lutheran colleges and universities to the church, to society and to higher education are discussed in the following chapters: (1) "Reformation Roots"; (2) "Foothold in America"; (3) "Early Ventures in Lutheran Higher Education";…

  15. The Asian in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    Articles, essays, and book reviews on Asian Americans are included in this anthology. The articles focus on some of the following topics: (1) the Chinese diaspora in America from 1850 to 1943, (2) the significance of Asians in American society, (3) the Chinese on the urban frontier, (4) marriage and the family among Chinese immigrants to America…

  16. 78 FR 2287 - Daimler Buses North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 62260). ] At the request of New York State Department of Labor, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Daimler Buses North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Daimler North... Buses North America, Inc. a subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp., including leased workers...

  17. Coaching Education in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Tom, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Because of increasingly large numbers of nonteacher elementary and secondary coaches, there is concern about the effect on participants and on the future of athletics. Nine articles highlight five North American national coaching education programs, three states with secondary coaching education programs, and a directory of U.S. sport…

  18. Tall Tales of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    Designed for use in junior high school language arts classes, this learning activity packet introduces students to North American folklore. Selected readings cover Indian tales, real folk heroes (Davy Crockett and John Henry), imaginary folk heroes (Paul Bunyan and Pecos Bill), Black folk stories (Brer Rabbit), and tales of Washington Irving. Each…

  19. The genus Sipha in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of the aphid genus Sipha are reported in North America and are reviewed herein. Of these species, three are adventive: Sipha elegans del Guercio, Sipha glyceriae (Kaltenbach), and Sipha maydis Passerini. Sipha maydis was discovered in California in 2007 and now has been found in Georgia...

  20. The beginnings of seismology in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1979-01-01

    The study of earthquakes advanced somewhat more slowly in North America than it did in Europe and Japan. J.D. Whitney, professor of geology at Harvard University and former State Geologist of California, studied the Owens Valley, Calif., earthquake of 1872 and reported on it that same year.

  1. Mapping the Llano Estacado of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Llano Estacado is a commonly recognized physiographic region in North America. Renowned for its remarkably level surface and the towering escarpments along its outer margins, the elevated plains of the Llano Estacado form an immense tableland that stands in high relief at the southern end of the...

  2. Is Mexico part of North America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    This question was raised by AGU Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer during an honors banquet at a recent AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. It is an interesting question, hard to answer, or perhaps with too many individual answers.We are not geographically a part of Central America or South America, although we do share language, Indian culture, Spanish heritage, and other characteristics, and these factors do play a role, as do economics and politics. However, geographically, Mexico is part of the North American continent.

  3. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  4. Killdeer population trends in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzenbacher, Peter; Haig, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    Killdeers (Charadrius vociferus) are considered a common species that inhabits a wide range of wetland and upland habitats throughout much of North America, yet recent information suggests that they may be declining regionally, if not throughout much of their range. To address this issue, we examined population trends of this species at multiple spatial and temporal scales using data from two major avian survey efforts, the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC). A summary of BBS trends indicates significant long-term (1966a??1996) declines in breeding populations across North America. Geographic regions driving this decline were Canada, western survey regions of the continent, and select southeastern states. In contrast, over the same time period, Killdeer populations increased in some midwestern states, particularly those in the Great Lakes region. Recent BBS trends (1986a??1996) indicate highly significant declines across most areas of North America surveyed. Trends from CBC data (1959a??1988) indicate declines at a smaller spatial scale. While the ability of current major avian survey efforts to detect population trends for Killdeer and other shorebird species warrants further examination, significant negative trends in Killdeer populations indicates the need to further investigate the status of this species.

  5. Distribution patterns of three sodium channel mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations from North and South America, South Africa and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lovis, Leonore; Guerrero, Felix D.; Miller, Robert J.; Bodine, Deanna M.; Betschart, Bruno; Sager, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (SP) in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is widespread throughout its distribution area. Three single nucleotide substitutions identified in Domains II and III of the sodium channel gene of R. (B.) microplus are known to be associated with target site pyrethroid resistance. We developed a multiplex PCR using allele-specific primers to amplify wild type or mutated genotypes of the three mutations simultaneously. This assay was used to screen tick samples originating from Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, South Africa and Australia whose phenotype to flumethrin and cypermethrin had been determined by the use of the Larval Tarsal test (LTT) or the Larval Packet Test (LPT). These mutations were found to have distinct geographical distributions and result in different resistance phenotypes. The L64I Domain II mutation conferring resistance to several SP compounds was found in all the Brazilian, Argentinean and Australian populations and in one South African population, with frequencies between 38% and 100% in flumethrin and cypermethrin resistant populations. In contrast, this mutation was not found in samples from Mexico, while the Domain III mutation was found exclusively in this country. The G72V Domain II flumethrin-specific mutation was found in a single Australian population, with a very low resistant allele frequency (3%). The homozygous resistant RR genotype of the L64I Domain II mutation correlated significantly with the survival rates at the discriminating doses of flumethrin and cypermethrin. This survey shows the widespread distribution of the L64I Domain II mutation and provides evidence of its geographic separation from the Domain III mutation. PMID:24533283

  6. Impact of emergence of avian influenza in North America and preventative measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1959, the world has experienced 39 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootics with the largest beginning in 1996 in China that spread to affect 70 countries in Asia, Europe and Africa, and recently North America. Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 HPAI viruses were identified in USA. ...

  7. Intraseasonal teleconnections between South America and southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice

    2013-04-01

    Teleconnections are detected for different seasons in the intraseasonal precipitation variability of South America and southern Africa. Observed daily precipitation data from both continents in the period 1979-1999 are gridded to 1°, and a bandpass Lanczos filter is applied to each grid point, retaining only intraseasonal oscillations. Correlation analysis is carried out between filtered precipitation series in each 1° x 1° grid box with data over South America and precipitation averaged over several relatively homogeneous regions in southern Africa. Lags from 0 up to 5 days are applied to the African data, in order to disclose convective anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with the precipitation anomalies over southern Africa. The atmospheric conditions associated with the beginning of a positive (or negative) phase of intraseasonal oscillations in each selected region in southern Africa are assessed through the composites of 200 hPa streamfunction anomalies observed in the first days of these phases, when the daily precipitation anomaly starts exceeding 1 standard deviation in the filtered series. These composite fields show wavetrains connecting both continents, with strongest cyclonic anomaly centered southwest of the African regions under focus, as expected. An influence function analysis of the target points in the center of these cyclonic anomalies indicates that perturbations of the upper level divergence associated with anomalous convection over South America are able to produce the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with enhanced precipitation in those regions of southern Africa. Simulations with a vorticity equation model that includes the divergence of the basic state and the vorticity advection by the anomalous divergent wind confirm the observed connection. Therefore, although internal atmospheric variability may be associated with the intraseasonal oscillations of precipitation in South

  8. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Methods Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for ‘current smoking’ and ‘current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products’ among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Findings Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Conclusion Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries. PMID:26131888

  9. The thrust belts of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  10. Status of soil acidification in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenn, M.E.; Huntington, T.G.; Mclaughlin, S.B.; Eagar, C.; Gomez, A.; Cook, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Forest soil acidification and depletion of nutrient cations have been reported for several forested regions in North America, predominantly in the eastern United States, including the northeast and in the central Appalachians, but also in parts of southeastern Canada and the southern U.S. Continuing regional inputs of nitrogen and sulfur are of concern because of leaching of base cations, increased availability of soil Al, and the accumulation and ultimate transmission of acidity from forest soils to streams. Losses of calcium from forest soils and forested watersheds have now been documented as a sensitive early indicator and a functionally significant response to acid deposition for a wide range of forest soils in North America. For red spruce, a clear link has been established between acidic deposition, alterations in calcium and aluminum supplies and increased sensitivity to winter injury. Cation depletion appears to contribute to sugar maple decline on some soils, specifically the high mortality rates observed in northern Pennsylvania over the last decade. While responses to liming have not been systematically examined in North America, in a study in Pennsylvania, restoring basic cations through liming increased basal area growth of sugar maple and levels of calcium and magnesium in soil and foliage. In the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California near the west coast, the pH of the A horizon has declined by at least 2 pH units (to pH 4.0-4.3) over the past 30 years, with no detrimental effects on bole growth; presumably, because of the Mediterranean climate, base cation pools are still high and not limiting for plant growth.

  11. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  12. Epidemiology of invasive mycoses in North America.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of invasive mycoses is increasing, especially among patients who are immunocompromised or hospitalized with serious underlying diseases. Such infections may be broken into two broad categories: opportunistic and endemic. The most important agents of the opportunistic mycoses are Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and Aspergillus spp. (although the list of potential pathogens is ever expanding); while the most commonly encountered endemic mycoses are due to Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis/posadasii, and Blastomyces dermatitidis. This review discusses the epidemiologic profiles of these invasive mycoses in North America, as well as risk factors for infection, and the pathogens' antifungal susceptibility. PMID:20088682

  13. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  14. Directory of Engineering Education Institutions: Africa, Asia, Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This directory presents data on 458 degree-awarding engineering education institutions in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Data include the general educational pattern of the country and specific institutional information such as: structure, staff, enrollment, research, specializations offered, address, academic period, admissions…

  15. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Springs, Kentucky. The workers are engaged in the production of automobile parts and component parts. The notice was published in the Federal Register on February 10, 2011 (76 FR 7590). At the request of the... production of automobile parts at the Russell Springs, Kentucky location of Bruss North America. The...

  16. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  17. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  18. Status of RNB facilities in North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.

    1998-09-16

    This paper presents the status of accelerator facilities in North America that are involved in research using radioactive nuclear beams (RNB), including existing and operating facilities, ones currently under construction or undergoing major upgrades, and ones being planned or proposed for the future. Existing RNB facilities are located at TRIUMF (TISOL) in Vancouver, B.C., the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) at Argonne National Laboratory, the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University, the Nuclear Structure Laboratory at The University of Notre Dame, the 88 Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M University. Currently, there are two major RNB facility upgrades in progress in North America, one at TRIUMF, the ISAC project, and one at NSCL the Intensity Upgrade project. For the future the U. S. Nuclear Science Advisory Committee has given high priority for an advanced RNB facility of the ISOL type. Concepts for such a facility, currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are presented. Plans are also being developed in Canada at TRIUMF for a major upgrade of the ISAC facility.

  19. BETR North America: A regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model for North America

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.; Woodfine, D.G.; Mackay, D.; McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.; Maddalena, R.L.

    2001-03-01

    We present the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America), a regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model based on the fugacity concept. The model is built on a framework that links contaminant fate models of individual regions, and is generally applicable to large, spatially heterogeneous areas. The North American environment is modeled as 24 ecological regions, within each region contaminant fate is described using a 7 compartment multimedia fugacity model including a vertically segmented atmosphere, freshwater, freshwater sediment, soil, coastal water and vegetation compartments. Inter-regional transport of contaminants in the atmosphere, freshwater and coastal water is described using a database of hydrological and meteorological data compiled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Steady-state and dynamic solutions to the 168 mass balance equations that make up the linked model for North America are discussed, and an illustrative case study of toxaphene transport from the southern United States to the Great Lakes Basin is presented. Regionally segmented models such as BETR North America can provide a critical link between evaluative models of long-range transport potential and contaminant concentrations observed in remote regions. The continent-scale mass balance calculated by the model provides a sound basis for evaluating long-range transport potential of organic pollutants, and formulation of continent scale management and regulatory strategies for chemicals.

  20. Enteric fever in Mediterranean north Africa.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Franka, Ezzedin; Tawil, Khaled; Wasfy, Momtaz O; Ahmed, Salwa F; Rubino, Salvatore; Klena, John D

    2009-01-01

    Typhoid fever is endemic in the Mediterranean North African countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) with an estimated incidence of 10-100 cases per 100,000 persons. Outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are common and mainly due to the consumption of untreated or sewage-contaminated water. Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B is more commonly involved in nosocomial cases of enteric fever in North Africa than expected and leads to high mortality rates among infants with congenital anomalies. Prevalence among travellers returning from this region is low, with an estimate of less than one per 100,000. Although multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi are prevalent in this region, the re-emergence of chloramphenicol- and ampicillin-susceptible strains has been observed. In order to better understand the epidemiology of enteric fever in the Mediterranean North African region, population-based studies are needed. These will assist the health authorities in the region in preventing and controlling this important disease.

  1. History of Eidophor projection in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Scott A.

    1997-05-01

    The influence of the Eidophor projection system has been felt for over fifty years, providing users with extreme brightness and unique capabilities in a wide variety of applications. The Eidophor, manufactured by Gretag AG, Switzerland, is an oil layer light valve system invented in 1943 and is still unsurpassed in brightness by any other technology. Although the technology is over 50 years old, there are still many viable uses for the system, particularly in North America. This paper will review the history, technology, applications and outlook for the Eidophor projection system. The applications include permanent locations such as sports arenas and television studios as well as a continuing impact in the large screen display rental community.

  2. Systematics of wolves in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.; Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Cranial morphology of Recent wolves throughout northern and western North America is remarkably consistent. Statistical analysis indicates the presence of four subspecies of gray wolf (Canis lupus) there, which are always distinguishable from the sympatric coyote (C. latrans). A fifth gray wolf subspecies, lycaon, occurs in southeastern Canada, and the red wolf (C. rufus), is found in the southeast. During the early 1900s the coyote moved east of the prairies and hybridized with the native wolves, thereby creating much confusion. Nonetheless, analysis of every available specimen of wild Canis, dating from before the coyote invasion in the region east of the Mississippi River and south of Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York, does indicate the presence of a small wolf, distinct from the coyote and showing the statistical consistency of other wolf populations. That series also has close affinity to specimens of the red wolf collected in Louisiana and Missouri prior to 1925, and to Pleistocene fossils from the east. There was a sharp line of morphological distinction between the wolves of the eastern United States and those of the prairies, but a closer approach by the former to the subspecies lycaon, which in turn intergrades with gray wolf populations in western Ontario and Minnesota. Although gaps in our knowledge remain, a reasonable hypothesis is that the entire forested region from southeastern Canada to the Gulf Coast originally was inhabited by populations of small wolves, with a subspecific or specific line just south of the eastern Great Lakes. There is no evidence that southeastern North America ever was occupied by large gray wolves and coyotes that hybridized to form the red wolf.

  3. Natural Color Mosaic of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This natural-color image combines cloud-free data from over 500 Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) orbits with shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and other sources. An astonishing diversity of geological features, ecological systems and human landscapes across North America is indicated within the image, which spans from 56N, 136W at the upper left to 16N 48W at lower right.

    In addition to the contiguous United States, the scene spans from British Columbia in the northwest to Newfoundland in the northeast, and extends eastward to the lonely Bermuda Islands and southward to the Bahamas, Cuba and Mexico. Draped in green, the eastern and central United States and Canada contrast with the vibrant geology that is laid bare across the arid portions of the southwestern United States and central Mexico. Along Mexico's east coast, the lush vegetation to the east of the Sierra Madre mountain range indicates the orographic rainfall gradient along this subtropical-tropical coast. In the high Rocky Mountains and in British Columbia's Coast Range, many peaks remain snow-covered year-round.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 north and 82 south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during years 2000 - 2004. The image is displayed in an Albers Conic Equal Area projection with the projection center at 36 North, 92 West.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  4. The Mesozoic rift basins of eastern North America: Potential reservoir or Explorationist's folly

    SciTech Connect

    Pyron, A.

    1991-08-01

    Mesozoic rift basins are found on the East Coast of North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia. The basins formed as a result of extensional activity associated with the breakup of Pangaea. The internal geometry of the basins includes a depositional sequence ranging from coarse fanglomerates to fine-grained siltstones and argillites. Since these Mesozoic rift basins were first studied, they have not been considered to be likely spots for hydrocarbon accumulations. Recently, geologists have reconsidered these Mesozoic basins and have developed a more synergistic approach that suggests that many of these rift basins might be suitable targets for exploration. By analogy, these Mesozoic basins are correlative to similar basins in northwestern Africa, where significant reserved of oil and natural gas have been developed. The similarity between the productive basins in northwestern Africa and the Mesozoic basins of North America and their proximity to major markets provides sufficient rationale to further investigate these basins.

  5. 78 FR 60270 - BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy Company; Notice of Designation of Commission Staff as Non-Decisional With respect to an order issued by the Commission...

  6. Hemoglobinopathies in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Haj Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Leban, Nadia; Daimi, Houria; Lakhdhar, Ramzi; Lefranc, Gérard; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Perrin, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Hemolytic anemias are very common diseases. Among these diseases, hemoglobinopathies are widely spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin, including North Africa (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco). Their severity and disabling nature make them a major public health problem. This study includes our data on the Tunisian hemoglobinopathies together with all the reports concerning epidemiological, clinical and molecular aspects in Algerian and Moroccan populations. Investigation methods begin with the application of several techniques for hemoglobin (Hb) analyses [electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF), micro-chromatography assay] of anemic patients in various hospital departments. Molecular investigation by DNA analyses completes the hematological and biochemical studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by enzymatic digestion and/or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing. These methods offer screening for a large number of families affected by sickle cell disease and thalassemia. In Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, more than 45 mutations have been identified on the beta-globin gene. The most common in Tunisia and in Algeria are codon 39 (C>T) and IVS-I-110 (G>A), which together account for more than 50% of all mutations. In Morocco, the predominant mutations are codon 39 and frameshift codon (FSC) 8 (-AA). The identification of molecular defects in the betagene contributes to the development of diagnostic tests (prenatal diagnosis), and gives us the opportunity to help many couples. Our studies of the haplotypes of the beta(S), codon 39 and IVS-I-110 origins allowed the hypothesis of a Benin origin for beta(S), a local North African origin for codon 39 and an Eastern Mediterranean origin for IVS-I-110. The analysis of polymorphisms associated with a moderate phenotype of beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) and sickle cell disease in North Africa has shown, in several cases, a strong

  7. Using Archaeology To Explore Cultures of North America through Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the reasons for introducing archaeology into the elementary classroom focusing on the cultures of North America. Offers wild maize, or corn, as one area of investigation into North American cultures providing books and Internet sites. Lists resources for archaeology education and lesson plans for exploring North American cultures though…

  8. Fire and amphibians in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, D.S.; Bury, R.B.; Hyde, E.J.; Pearl, C.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Information on amphibian responses to fire and fuel reduction practices is critically needed due to potential declines of species and the prevalence of new, more intensive fire management practices in North American forests. The goals of this review are to summarize the known and potential effects of fire and fuels management on amphibians and their aquatic habitats, and to identify information gaps to help direct future scientific research. Amphibians as a group are taxonomically and ecologically diverse; in turn, responses to fire and associated habitat alteration are expected to vary widely among species and among geographic regions. Available data suggest that amphibian responses to fire are spatially and temporally variable and incompletely understood. Much of the limited research has addressed short-term (1-3 years) effects of prescribed fire on terrestrial life stages of amphibians in the southeastern United States. Information on the long-term negative effects of fire on amphibians and the importance of fire for maintaining amphibian communities is sparse for the majority of taxa in North America. Given the size and severity of recent wildland fires and the national effort to reduce fuels on federal lands, future studies are needed to examine the effects of these landscape disturbances on amphibians. We encourage studies to address population-level responses of amphibians to fire by examining how different life stages are affected by changes in aquatic, riparian, and upland habitats. Research designs need to be credible and provide information that is relevant for fire managers and those responsible for assessing the potential effects of various fuel reduction alternatives on rare, sensitive, and endangered amphibian species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiocarbon dating and archeology in North America.

    PubMed

    Johnson, F

    1967-01-13

    The history of the development of a radiocarbon chronology shows how the establishment of the times of events and the order of them has greatly improved the understanding of prehistory in North America. This is true also of other parts of the world. Too little has been said of existing discordance between archeologically determined sequences, and interregional associations, and the radiocarbon chronology. It does appear that these will be resolved as additional dates are added and as the results become more finely calibrated so that secular variations may be accounted for. The collaborative aspect of the venture was apparent at the outset. Nevertheless no one expects an archeologist to delve into nuclear physics and geochemistry, and vice versa. There is great need, nevertheless, for the man in the laboratory to comprehend the difficulties of sample collecting and of judgement of the significance of the source of organic matter to be dated. At the same time, the archeologist must become more familiar with the importance of the various steps in the processing of the sample and with, what is most vital, interpretation of the significance of the numbers that appear on the counters.

  10. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; La Mont, Stephen P; Eisele, William F; Fresquez, Philip R; Mc Naughton, Michael; Whicker, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  11. Simulation of summertime ozone over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Yevich, Rose M.; Gardner, Geraldine M.; Spivakovsky, Clarisa M.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Munger, J. W.; Sillman, Sanford; Prather, Michael J.; Rogers, Michael O.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of O3 and its precursors over North America are simulated for three summer months with a 3D, continental-scale photochemical model using meteorological input from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. The model has 4 x 5 deg grid resolution and represents nonlinear chemistry in urban and industrial plumes with a subgrid nested scheme. Simulated median afternoon O3 concentrations at rural U.S. sites are within 5 ppb of observations in most cases, except in the south central U.S., where concentrations are overpredicted by 15-20 ppb. The model captures successfully the development of regional high-O3 episodes over the northeastern United States on the back side of weak, warm, stagnant anticyclones. Simulated concentrations of CO and nonmethane hydrocarbons are generally in good agreement with observations, concentrations of NO(x) are underpredicted by 10-30 percent, and concentrations of PANs are overpredicted by a factor of 2 to 3. The overprediction of PANs is attributed to flaws in the photochemical mechanism, including excessive production from oxidation of isoprene, and may also reflect an underestimate of PANs deposition. Subgrid nonlinear chemistry as captured by the nested plumes scheme decreases the net O3 production computed in the U.S. boundary layer by 8 percent on average.

  12. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tschudy, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of

  13. Ice Age Geomorphology of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, A. D.; Anderson, R. S.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Picard, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Last Glacial Cycle in North America dramatically modified drainage patterns and geomorphology on a continental scale. As a consequence, the evolution of river systems holds information on the patterns of glaciation and isostatic response. This information can, in principle, be used to reconstruct the volumes of ice sheet sectors and eroded material by connecting the upstream ice sheets with stable isotope and other sedimentary records in offshore basins. Here we integrate this coupled geomorphic-hydrologic-glacial-sedimentary-paleoceanographic system to solve both the forward problem, how rivers evolve in response to Ice Age forcing, as well as the inverse problem, how fluvial systems record Quaternary history. The connections that define this system provide a link between climate and geomorphology that extends beyond the traditionally considered watershed-to-landscape scale by incorporating solid Earth deformations, large-scale shoreline migration, and the high amplitude changes in climate that drive the growth and decay of major ice sheets and water delivery to the bounding river systems. We address this continental scale problem using a valley-resolving drainage reconstruction that incorporates a realistic ice sheet history, a gravitationally self-consistent treatment of ice-age sea-level changes that includes shoreline migration, and precipitation and evapotranspiration retrodicted using general circulation model (GCM) runs. Drainage divides over the flat-lying North American interior migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers in response to dynamic interactions between ice sheets and solid Earth response, and these changes coupled with post last glacial maximum (LGM) ice sheet melting drive high-amplitude variability in water and sediment discharge to the oceans. The Mackenzie River Delta records a sedimentary record produced by a highly non-eustatic sea level history and massive glacial sediment inputs routed along the axis that divided the Cordilleran

  14. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  15. A Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    This quarterly bibliography of Italian studies in North America includes books, bibliographies, and reviews of comparative literature studies, translations, and publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology, which are closely related to literature. (SW)

  16. The Hispanic Heritage of North America: Commemorating 500 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013, Florida will commemorate Juan Ponce de Leon's historic voyage. Yet Ponce de Leon's arrival was, in several important ways, not just the beginning of Spain's presence in Florida, but in North America as a whole. Today, the historical Spanish influence on America is palpable--in culture, language, politics, and more. This year marks…

  17. Trypanosomiasis vector control in Africa and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Chris J; Kabayo, John P

    2008-01-01

    Vectors of trypanosomiasis – tsetse (Glossinidae) in Africa, kissing-bugs (Triatominae) in Latin America – are very different insects but share demographic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to available control methods. For both, the main operational problems relate to re-invasion of treated areas, and the solution seems to be in very large-scale interventions covering biologically-relevant areas rather than adhering to administrative boundaries. In this review we present the underlying rationale, operational background and progress of the various trypanosomiasis vector control initiatives active in both continents. PMID:18673535

  18. High-resolution Neogene and Quaternary estimates of Nubia-Eurasia-North America Plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C.; Iaffaldano, G.; Merkouriev, S.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstructions of the history of convergence between the Nubia and Eurasia plates constitute an important part of a broader framework for understanding deformation in the Mediterranean region and the closing of the Mediterranean Basin. Herein, we combine high-resolution reconstructions of Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America Plate motions to determine rotations that describe Nubia-Eurasia Plate motion at ˜1 Myr intervals for the past 20 Myr. We apply trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian inference to the Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America rotation sequences in order to reduce noise in the newly estimated Nubia-Eurasia rotations. The noise-reduced rotation sequences for the Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America Plate pairs describe remarkably similar kinematic histories since 20 Ma, consisting of relatively steady seafloor spreading from 20 to 8 Ma, ˜20 per cent opening-rate slowdowns at 8-6.5 Ma, and steady plate motion from ˜7 Ma to the present. Our newly estimated Nubia-Eurasia rotations predict that convergence across the central Mediterranean Sea slowed by ˜50 per cent and rotated anticlockwise after ˜25 Ma until 13 Ma. Motion since 13 Ma has remained relatively steady. An absence of evidence for a significant change in motion immediately before or during the Messinian Salinity Crisis at 6.3-5.6 Ma argues against a change in plate motion as its causative factor. The detachment of the Arabian Peninsula from Africa at 30-24 Ma may have triggered the convergence rate slowdown before 13 Ma; however, published reconstructions of Nubia-Eurasia motion for times before 20 Ma are too widely spaced to determine with confidence whether the two are correlated. A significant discrepancy between our new estimates of Nubia-Eurasia motion during the past few Myr and geodetic estimates calls for further investigation.

  19. Soybean Cyst Nematode in North America - 55 Years Later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was first discovered in North America in 1954 in Hanover County, North Carolina, USA, when it was found on soybean in a field that had been planted to Easter lilies obtained from Japan prior to World War II. The nematode is now distributed throughout soybe...

  20. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  1. Expansion of student activities in Africa: from south to north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Rim; Ben Salem, Amine; Gueddana, Amor; Zghal, Mourad; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Heidt, Alexander M.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2014-07-01

    Optics and photonics research in Africa has gradually grown in the past ten years with a very active optical community involved in state-of-the-art research. Despite relatively low resources, optics research in the continent is competitive with many international benchmarks and has had a significant impact within the African continent. In the past five years, a group of dynamic students have developed the student chapter network from Tunisia to South Africa. The first student chapters of the optical society of America (OSA) and the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE) were established in South Africa (in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and in the University of Stellenbosch), followed by a chapter in Tunisia (Engineering school of communications of Tunis, Sup'Com). In this paper, we will present the major activities of the student chapters of Tunisia and South Africa, and how they are promoting optics and photonics in Africa.

  2. The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglass, Raymond Charles

    1960-01-01

    The foraminiferal genus Orbitolina has been useful as an index fossil in the Cretaceous rocks of the circumglobal equatorial belt for nearly a century. In Europe and the Near and Middle East enough work has been done on the species to allow their use for approximate correlations within the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The study of American specimens of Orbitolina, had been almost neglected although they were used in a rather cursory fashion for markers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity strata. Three species had been described and assigned to Orbitolina in the United States, but the validity of each of the species had been questioned. A study of the genus Orbitolina, its type species, its morphology and the stratigraphic and geographic distribution in North America are presented in this report. Stratigraphic sections were measured throughout the area of Lower Cretaceous outcrop in Texas, New Mexico. and Arizona, and samples of Orbitolina were taken from these measured sections. Several thousand thin sections were prepared from which 8 species of Orbitolina, 7 of them new, were recognized. Orbitolina texana (Roemer) was found to be confined to the lower part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Orbitolina, minuta n. sp. is essentially confined to the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Four of the species are known only from the Arizona and New Mexico region. The species of Orbitolina are useful stratigraphically, but all their characters-internal as well as external-must be considered. The use of thin sections for the study of Orbitolina is essential. One of the first things that had to be determined was the correct concept of the genus Orbitolina. The type species had not been determined by earlier authors, although four species had been suggested at various times. With careful study of the early literature, it became apparent that the type species is Orbitulites lenticulata Lamarck, 1816=Madreporites lenticularis Blumenbach, 1805

  3. The Development of North America CORDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, L. O.; Gutowski, W. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Buja, L.; Garfin, G. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Leung, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) is an international program that will provide regional climate scenarios covering the period 1950 - 2100 for most of the populated land (and some ocean) regions of the globe. It also provides a generalized framework for testing and applying regional climate models and other downscaling techniques to current and future climate. We are in the process of developing North America CORDEX (NA-CORDEX), which will expand on work performed in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). To be relevant in a decision context, the design of NA-CORDEX must address several sources of uncertainty in climate projections. The experience of NARCCAP and ENSEMBLES regional experiments dictates that both the uncertainty of the driving global model, and that of the high-resolution model be considered. We propose to use a regional climate model (GCM-RCM) matrix of simulations, similar in statistical design to that used in NARCCAP, but with a) higher spatial resolution, and b) greater sampling of uncertainty. While increasing computer power means that both of these goals can be accomplished to some degree, these competing goals necessitate some tradeoffs. To address this, we are producing scenarios of experimental designs that will allow funders and participants to choose options based on resource levels and scientific questions that can be addressed with each design. Spatial resolutions of the simulations will include both 25 km and 12 km. One additional aspect of the NA-CORDEX runs will entail how the GCMs for nesting are selected. This will include some combination of sampling the sensitivity range of the GCMs from the CMIP5 suite of simulations and evaluating the quality of boundary conditions from the GCMs. Based on the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) performed for seasonal temperature and precipitation of the NARCCAP simulations we anticipate including approximately the same number of

  4. Atlas of Relations Between Climatic Parameters and Distributions of Important Trees and Shrubs in North America - Ecoregions of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Climate is the primary factor controlling the continental-scale distribution of plant species, although the relations between climatic parameters and species' ranges are only now beginning to be quantified. This volume examines the relations between climate and the distributions of (1) Kuchler's 'potential natural vegetation' categories for the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America, (2) Bailey's ecoregions of North America, and (3) World Wildlife Fund's ecoregions of North America. For these analyses, we employed a 25-kilometer equal-area grid of modern climatic and bioclimatic parameters for North America, coupled with presence-absence data for the occurrence of each ecoregion under the three classification systems under consideration. The resulting relations between climate and ecoregion distributions are presented in graphical and tabular form. Presentation of ecoregion-climate relations here is intended to be useful for a greater understanding of ecosystem evolution, ecosystem dynamics, and potential effects of future climate change on ecoregions.

  5. Ecology and management of the soybean aphid in North America.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, David W; Landis, Douglas A; Brodeur, Jacques; Heimpel, George E; Desneux, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has become the single most important arthropod pest of soybeans in North America. Native to Asia, this invasive species was first discovered in North America in July 2000 and has rapidly spread throughout the northcentral United States, much of southeastern Canada, and the northeastern United States. In response, important elements of the ecology of the soybean aphid in North America have been elucidated, with economic thresholds, sampling plans, and chemical control recommendations widely adopted. Aphid-resistant soybean varieties were available to growers in 2010. The preexisting community of aphid natural enemies has been highly effective in suppressing aphid populations in many situations, and classical biological control efforts have focused on the addition of parasitoids of Asian origin. The keys to sustainable management of this pest include understanding linkages between the soybean aphid and other introduced and native species in a landscape context along with continued development of aphid-resistant varieties.

  6. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  7. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America. PMID:26131767

  8. Space Radar Image of Safsaf, North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degree north latitude, 29 degrees east longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock; the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. On the ground and in optical photographs, this big valley and the channels in it are invisible because they are entirely covered by windblown sand. Some of these same channels were observed in SIR-A images in 1981. It is hypothesized that the large valley was carved by one of several ancient predecessor rivers that crossed this part of North Africa, flowing westward, tens of millions of years before the Nile River existed. The Nile flows north about 300 kilometers (200 miles) to the east. The small channels are younger, and probably formed during relatively wet climatic periods within the past few hundred thousand years. This image shows that the channels are in a river valley located in an area where U.S. Geological Survey geologists and archeologists discovered an unusual concentration of hand axes (stone tools) used by Early Man (Homo erectus) hundreds of thousands of years ago. The image clearly shows that in wetter times, the valley would have supported game animals and vegetation. Today, as a result of climate change, the area in uninhabited and lacks water except fora few scattered oases. This color composite image was produced from C-band and L-band horizontal polarization images. The C-band image was assigned red, the L-band (HH) polarization image is shown in green, and the ratio of these two images (LHH/CHH) appears in blue. The primary and composite colors on the image indicate the degree to which the C-band, H-band, their

  9. Space Radar Image of Safsaf, North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degree north latitude, 29 degrees east longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock; the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. On the ground and in optical photographs, this big valley and the channels in it are invisible because they are entirely covered by windblown sand. Some of these same channels were observed in SIR-A images in 1981. It is hypothesized that the large valley was carved by one of several ancient predecessor rivers that crossed this part of North Africa, flowing westward, tens of millions of years before the Nile River existed. The Nile flows north about 300 kilometers (200 miles) to the east. The small channels are younger, and probably formed during relatively wet climatic periods within the past few hundred thousand years. This image shows that the channels are in a river valley located in an area where U.S. Geological Survey geologists and archeologists discovered an unusual concentration of hand axes (stone tools) used by Early Man (Homo erectus) hundreds of thousands of years ago. The image clearly shows that in wetter times, the valley would have supported game animals and vegetation. Today, as a result of climate change, the area in uninhabited and lacks water except fora few scattered oases. This color composite image was produced from C-band and L-band horizontal polarization images. The C-band image was assigned red, the L-band (HH) polarization image is shown in green, and the ratio of these two images (LHH/CHH) appears in blue. The primary and composite colors on the image indicate the degree to which the C-band, H-band, their

  10. The timing of kimberlite magmatism in North America: implications for global kimberlite genesis and diamond exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaman, L. M.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Creaser, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    Based on a compilation of more than 100 kimberlite age determinations, four broad kimberlite emplacement patterns can be recognized in North America: (1) a northeast Eocambrian/Cambrian Labrador Sea province (Labrador, Québec), (2) an eastern Jurassic province (Ontario, Québec, New York, Pennsylvania), (3) a Cretaceous central corridor (Nunavut, Saskatchewan, central USA), and (4) a western mixed (Cambrian-Eocene) Type 3 kimberlite province (Alberta, Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Colorado/Wyoming). Ten new U-Pb perovskite/mantle zircon and Rb-Sr phlogopite age determinations are reported here for kimberlites from the Slave and Wyoming cratons of western North America. Within the Type 3 Slave craton, at least four kimberlite age domains exist: I-a southwestern Siluro-Ordovician domain (˜450 Ma), II-a SE Cambrian domain (˜540 Ma), III-a central Tertiary/Cretaceous domain (48-74 Ma) and IV-a northern mixed domain consisting of Jurassic and Permian kimberlite fields. New U-Pb perovskite results for the 614.5±2.1 Ma Chicken Park and 408.4±2.6 Ma Iron Mountain kimberlites in the State Line field in Colorado and Wyoming confirm the existence of at least two periods of pre-Mesozoic kimberlite magmatism in the Wyoming craton. A compilation of robust kimberlite emplacement ages from North America, southern Africa and Russia indicates that a high proportion of known kimberlites are Cenozoic/Mesozoic. We conclude that a majority of these kimberlites were generated during enhanced mantle plume activity associated with the rifting and eventual breakup of the supercontinent Gondwanaland. Within this prolific period of kimberlite activity, there is a good correlation between North America and Yakutia for three distinct short-duration (˜10 my) periods of kimberlite magmatism at 48-60, 95-105 and 150-160 Ma. In contrast, Cenozoic/Mesozoic kimberlite magmatism in southern Africa is dominated by a continuum of activity between 70-95 and 105-120 Ma with additional less

  11. Characteristics of Extreme Summer Convection over equatorial America and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, M. D.; Houze, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fourteen years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) version 7 data for June-August show the temporal and spatial characteristics of extreme convection over equatorial regions of the American and African continents. We identify three types of extreme systems: storms with deep convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes extending ≥10 km in height), storms with wide convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes with areas >1,000 km2) and storms with broad stratiform regions (stratiform echo >50,000 km2). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis is used to describe the environmental conditions around these forms of extreme convection. Storms with deep convective cores occur mainly over land: in the equatorial Americas, maximum occurrence is in western Mexico, Northern Colombia and Venezuela; in Africa, the region of maximum occurrence is a broad zone enclosing the central and west Sudanian Savanna, south of the Sahel region. Storms with wide convective radar echoes occur in these same general locations. In the American sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation regions (typifying robust mesoscale convective systems) occur mainly over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Colombia-Panama bight. In the African sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation areas occur primarily over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean near the coast of West Africa. ECMWF reanalyses show how the regions of extreme deep convection associated with both continents are located mainly in regions affected by diurnal heating and influenced by atmospheric jets in regions with strong humidity gradients. Composite analysis of the synoptic conditions leading to the three forms of extreme convection provides insights into the forcing mechanisms in which these systems occur. These analyses show how the monsoonal flow directed towards the Andes slopes is mainly what concentrates the occurrence of extreme

  12. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  13. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  14. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  15. Perceptions and Images of North Africa: What American Schools Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Examined descriptions of North Africa (particularly Tunisia) found in U.S. high school social studies textbooks, noting the resulting perceptions and images these descriptions created in the minds of teachers and students. Data from examination of textbooks and interviews with teachers indicated that few high school students were exposed to images…

  16. Weed Community Response to No-Till in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and producers in Ukraine are interested in no-till crop production, but are concerned about weed management. In North America, producers have used no-till systems for several decades without increasing weed community density in croplands. Initially, weed density escalated with no-till, ...

  17. The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Kate E.; Howell, David G.; Vigil, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain (1:8,000,000 scale) is a product of the US Geological Survey in the I-map series (I-2781). This map was prepared in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Mexican Consejo Recursos de Minerales. This cartographic Tapestry is woven from a geologic map and a shaded relief image. This digital combination reveals the geologic history of North America through the interrelation of rock type, topography and time. Regional surface processes as well as continent-scale tectonic events are exposed in the three dimensions of space and the fourth dimension, geologic time. The large map shows the varying age of bedrock underlying North America, while four smaller maps show the distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic. This map expands the original concept of the 2000 Tapestry of Time and Terrain, by Jose F. Vigil, Richard J. Pike and David G. Howell, which covered the conterminous United States. The U.S. Tapestry poster and website have been popular in classrooms, homes, and even the Google office building, and we anticipate the North America Tapestry will have a similarly wide appeal, and to a larger audience.

  18. History of Crested Wheatgrass (Agropyron) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crested wheatgrass is indigenous to the Steppe region of European Russia and southwestern Siberia. It was first introduced into North America in 1892, by N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station. Dr. Hansen obtained five accessions, designated Pls 835, 837, 838, 1010, and 1012, from Val...

  19. Geographic Range Expansion for Rat Lungworm in North America

    PubMed Central

    Creecy, James P.; Lord, Wayne D.; Caire, William

    2015-01-01

    Using quantitative PCR analysis and DNA sequencing, we provide evidence for the presence of rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in Oklahoma, USA, and identified a potentially novel rat host (Sigmodon hispidus). Our results indicate a geographic range expansion for this medically and ecologically relevant parasite in North America. PMID:26079818

  20. Major Threats to Environmental Quality in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogl, Robert; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports study findings of environmental educators' opinions on issues which pose threats to environmental quality in North America and the status of the availability of educational materials for the issues. Identified as priority items were hazardous wastes management, water contamination, and acid deposition. Compares responses of American and…

  1. Implementing large-scale ENU mutagenesis screens in North America

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Amander T.; Goldowitz, Daniel; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Siepka, Sandra M.; Peters, Luanne L.; Frankel, Wayne N.; Carlson, George A.; Rossant, Janet; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Justice, Monica J.

    2013-01-01

    A step towards annotating the mouse genome is to use forward genetics in phenotype-driven screens to saturate the genome with mutations. The purpose of this article is to highlight the new projects in North America that are focused on isolating mouse mutations after ENU mutagenesis and phenotype screening. PMID:15619961

  2. The microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, S.R.; Harris, S.C.; Slusark, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and taxonomy of the microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton in North America is reviewed. Males and females of I. clavata Morton, I. mazon Ross, and I. mexicana Harris and Contreras-Ramos are illustrated, and a key is provided for their separation. Females of I. mazon and I. mexicana are described for the first time; the female of I. clavata is redescribed.

  3. European cretaceous flints on the coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, K.O.; Kaye, C.A.; Loring, D.H.; Nota, D.J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Flint pebbles and nodules from the Upper Cretaceous chalks of Europe occur offshore and at many seaports along the Atlantic coast of North America, where they were brought as ship's ballast. Isolated pieces imported from Europe as gunflints also are present.

  4. Glass Walls in North America. Technical Paper No. 179.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheon, N. B.

    Solar heat gains (radiation) and its effects on the building environment are discussed, in conjunction with the proper and improper use of large glass areas in the exterior walls of buildings in North America. The difficulties of solar heat gain and of controlling natural light and glare are outlined and said to influence building comfort and air…

  5. Neutron sources in North America: Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Thomas; Krawitz, Aaron D.; Anderson, Ian

    2006-03-01

    Six neutron sources are available for research in North America. The facilities are funded by their respective governments as user-facilities. User proposals are accepted on a regular basis and if they are success ful in competition with all the other proposals, time is allocated for the experiments. This paper describes the neutron sources and their capabilities.

  6. North America Today: A Reproducible Atlas. 1995 Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This book contains illustrative maps, tables and graphs depicting North America's: size; population; resources; commodities; trade; languages; religions; cities; environment; food and agriculture; schooling; jobs; energy; industry, demographic statistics; women; aspects of government; and territorial disputes. Sections of the book include: (1)…

  7. Reading Recovery in North America: An Illustrated History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    On the occasion of the 15th anniversary of Reading Recovery in North America, this booklet reviews the history of Reading Recovery's "extensive growth, compelling research, and unprecedented success." The booklet tells a story of individuals whose vision, dedication, and untiring efforts have changed school systems and early literacy instruction,…

  8. Key Challenges to Collegiate Music Education Programs in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is the linchpin of music education in North America. It is primarily in collegiate institutions that music teachers are educated throughout the life cycles of their careers. This begins with preservice programs, typically at the baccalaureate level, and continues with in-service professional development and graduate degree…

  9. Plains Indians of North America. Grade Level: Fourth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Beth

    This is a fourth-grade teaching unit on the Plains Indians of North America. It is composed of a content outline, statement of unit goals, unit behavioral objectives, initiating activities, developmental activities, closing activities, unit evaluation plan, and a bibliography. The content outline shows that the unit covers the Plains Indian's…

  10. Risk of ricin from commercial castor production in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial production of castor, as a source of highly valuable hydroxyl fatty acids, has been limited by both the real and perceived risks of commercial castor production in North America. Crop commodity groups, regulatory governmental agencies, and much of the general public may have reservations ...

  11. Academic Talent Development in North America and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvin, Linda; Subotnik, Rena F.

    2015-01-01

    First we describe one particular model of talent development (Jarvin and Subotnik in The handbook of secondary gifted education. Prufrock Press, Waco, 2006) and situate it in perspective to other models developed in North America and Europe. We then discuss the implications of this view of giftedness on education and review related resources and…

  12. New digital magnetic anomaly database for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, C.A.; Pilkington, M.; Cuevas, A.; Hernandez, I.; Urrutia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico (CRM) are compiling an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly database and map for North America. This trinational project is expected to be completed by late 2002.

  13. Recent Literature on Slavery in Colonial North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a review of literature published on slavery in colonial North America, focusing on how this literature has changed over the years. Includes literature in topical areas, such as the Atlantic slave trade, African American culture, and race. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  14. International energy outlook. Volume 3. North and South America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum, coal, and hydropower resources are found, in varying degrees, throughout the Americas. Struggling to maintain or achieve energy self-sufficiency, many North and South American countries are undertaking major projects to develop these, and other, energy sources. This volume, Volume 3 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the development projects and energy trends in 12 countries of North and South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States and Venezuela. The range and detail of country coverage varies, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations and provides some historical background, its main emphasis is on estimates of future consumption and production, and descriptions of energy programs and plans. Plans in the Americas call for exploiting oil and gas where possible, and making major efforts to develop sources such as coal and hydropower that can be alternatives to imported petroleum. 33 references, 1 figure, 73 tables.

  15. Rainfall variability and predictability issues for North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, B. G.

    2016-04-01

    A multi-millennial simulation with a coupled global climatic model has been used to investigate extreme rainfall events, mainly droughts, over North America. A rainfall index, based on the US Dust Bowl region, was used to generate a time series from which the extreme events could be identified. A very wide range of drought and pluvial multiyear sequences was obtained, all attributable to internal climatic variability. This time series reproduced the basic characteristics of the corresponding observed time series. Composites of years with negative rainfall anomalies over North America from the simulation replicated the observed rainfall composite for the Dust Bowl era, both in spatial character and intensity. Examination of individual years of a simulated composite revealed not only a wide range of rainfall anomaly patterns, dominated by drought conditions, but also ENSO distributions that included El Niño events as well as the expected La Niña events. Composites for pluvial conditions over North America were associated with composited El Niño events, as expected. Correlation of the simulated Dust Bowl rainfall with global surface temperatures identified a principal connection with the ENSO region. No systematic relationship was obtained in the simulation between the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and Dust Bowl region rainfall, with the simulated oscillation having a much more variable periodicity than that found in the limited observations. However, a marked connection was found for SST anomalies adjacent to the northeast coast of North America, but this appears to be forced by ENSO events. A scatter diagram of NINO3.4 SST anomalies with the Dust Bowl region rainfall anomalies, for observations and the simulation, revealed inconsistencies between the occurrence of an ENSO event and the "expected" rainfall anomaly. This, and other analysis, resulted in the conclusion that annual or longer term rainfall predictions over North America, with any systematic

  16. Synchronous extinction of North America's Pleistocene mammals.

    PubMed

    Faith, J Tyler; Surovell, Todd A

    2009-12-01

    The late Pleistocene witnessed the extinction of 35 genera of North American mammals. The last appearance dates of 16 of these genera securely fall between 12,000 and 10,000 radiocarbon years ago (approximately 13,800-11,400 calendar years B.P.), although whether the absence of fossil occurrences for the remaining 19 genera from this time interval is the result of sampling error or temporally staggered extinctions is unclear. Analysis of the chronology of extinctions suggests that sampling error can explain the absence of terminal Pleistocene last appearance dates for the remaining 19 genera. The extinction chronology of North American Pleistocene mammals therefore can be characterized as a synchronous event that took place 12,000-10,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Results favor an extinction mechanism that is capable of wiping out up to 35 genera across a continent in a geologic instant.

  17. Wood-rotting fungi of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The biology of wood-rotting fungi is reviewed. Discussions are presented in taxonomy, species diversity, North American distribution, developmental response to environmental factors, edibility and toxicity, medical uses, relationships of fungi with insects and birds, the role of fungi as mycorrhiza, pathological relationships with trees, role in wood decay, and ecology. Threats to the continuing existence of these fungi as a result of increased utilization of wood as fuel are also discussed. (ACR)

  18. Spatiotemporal distribution of Holocene populations in North America

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Michelle A.; Kriesche, Björn; Betts, Matthew; Martindale, Andrew; Kulik, Rafal; Schmidt, Volker; Gajewski, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    As the Cordilleran and Laurentide Ice Sheets retreated, North America was colonized by human populations; however, the spatial patterns of subsequent population growth are unclear. Temporal frequency distributions of aggregated radiocarbon (14C) dates are used as a proxy of population size and can be used to track this expansion. The Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database contains more than 35,000 14C dates and is used in this study to map the spatiotemporal demographic changes of Holocene populations in North America at a continental scale for the past 13,000 y. We use the kernel method, which converts the spatial distribution of 14C dates into estimates of population density at 500-y intervals. The resulting maps reveal temporally distinct, dynamic patterns associated with paleodemographic trends that correspond well to genetic, archaeological, and ethnohistoric evidence of human occupation. These results have implications for hypothesizing and testing migration routes into and across North America as well as the relative influence of North American populations on the evolution of the North American ecosystem. PMID:26351683

  19. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.

  20. Lianas as invasive species in North America: Chapter 28

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Liana diversity is typically low in the temperate zones; however, the influx of non-native invasive liana species in North America has increased local diversity at the expense of native habitats and species. Some of the most illustrative studies of invasive lianas in temperate North America compared the biological traits of invasive lianas with native congeners or ecological analogs. The majority of these studies focused on two species, Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle). Temperate zone lianas generally have higher photosynthetic rates than other early successional species and their host trees. Invasive lianas are having an increasing impact on the dynamics and trajectories of North American plant communities. They often exhibit superior growth and survival compared to their native counterparts, and in some cases, invasive lianas may directly contribute to the decline of their native correlates.

  1. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bruce D

    2006-08-15

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world's independent centers of domestication.

  2. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  3. The mantle flow field beneath western North America.

    PubMed

    Silver, P G; Holt, W E

    2002-02-01

    Although motions at the surface of tectonic plates are well determined, the accompanying horizontal mantle flow is not. We have combined observations of surface deformation and upper mantle seismic anisotropy to estimate this flow field for western North America. We find that the mantle velocity is 5.5 +/- 1.5 centimeters per year due east in a hot spot reference frame, nearly opposite to the direction of North American plate motion (west-southwest). The flow is only weakly coupled to the motion of the surface plate, producing a small drag force. This flow field is probably due to heterogeneity in mantle density associated with the former Farallon oceanic plate beneath North America. PMID:11834831

  4. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  5. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  6. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Alfio Alessandro; Cau, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We describe the partially preserved femur of a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian "Kem Kem Compound Assemblage" (KKCA) of Morocco. The fossil is housed in the Museo Geologico e Paleontologico "Gaetano Giorgio Gemmellaro" in Palermo (Italy). The specimen is compared with the theropod fossil record from the KKCA and coeval assemblages from North Africa. The combination of a distally reclined head, a not prominent trochanteric shelf, distally placed lesser trochanter of stout, alariform shape, a stocky shaft with the fourth trochanter placed proximally, and rugose muscular insertion areas in the specimen distinguishes it from Carcharodontosaurus, Deltadromeus and Spinosaurus and supports referral to an abelisaurid. The estimated body size for the individual from which this femur was derived is comparable to Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus (up to 9 meters in length and 2 tons in body mass). This find confirms that abelisaurids had reached their largest body size in the "middle Cretaceous," and that large abelisaurids coexisted with other giant theropods in Africa. We review the taxonomic status of the theropods from the Cenomanian of North Africa, and provisionally restrict the Linnean binomina Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis and Spinosaurus aegyptiacus to the type specimens. Based on comparisons among the theropod records from the Aptian-Cenomanian of South America and Africa, a partial explanation for the so-called "Stromer's riddle" (namely, the coexistence of many large predatory dinosaurs in the "middle Cretaceous" record from North Africa) is offered in term of taphonomic artifacts among lineage records that were ecologically and environmentally non-overlapping. Although morphofunctional and stratigraphic evidence supports an ecological segregation between spinosaurids and the other lineages, the co-occurrence of abelisaurids and carcharodontosaurids, two groups showing several craniodental convergences that suggest direct resource competition

  7. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Alfio Alessandro; Cau, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We describe the partially preserved femur of a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian "Kem Kem Compound Assemblage" (KKCA) of Morocco. The fossil is housed in the Museo Geologico e Paleontologico "Gaetano Giorgio Gemmellaro" in Palermo (Italy). The specimen is compared with the theropod fossil record from the KKCA and coeval assemblages from North Africa. The combination of a distally reclined head, a not prominent trochanteric shelf, distally placed lesser trochanter of stout, alariform shape, a stocky shaft with the fourth trochanter placed proximally, and rugose muscular insertion areas in the specimen distinguishes it from Carcharodontosaurus, Deltadromeus and Spinosaurus and supports referral to an abelisaurid. The estimated body size for the individual from which this femur was derived is comparable to Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus (up to 9 meters in length and 2 tons in body mass). This find confirms that abelisaurids had reached their largest body size in the "middle Cretaceous," and that large abelisaurids coexisted with other giant theropods in Africa. We review the taxonomic status of the theropods from the Cenomanian of North Africa, and provisionally restrict the Linnean binomina Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis and Spinosaurus aegyptiacus to the type specimens. Based on comparisons among the theropod records from the Aptian-Cenomanian of South America and Africa, a partial explanation for the so-called "Stromer's riddle" (namely, the coexistence of many large predatory dinosaurs in the "middle Cretaceous" record from North Africa) is offered in term of taphonomic artifacts among lineage records that were ecologically and environmentally non-overlapping. Although morphofunctional and stratigraphic evidence supports an ecological segregation between spinosaurids and the other lineages, the co-occurrence of abelisaurids and carcharodontosaurids, two groups showing several craniodental convergences that suggest direct resource competition

  8. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We describe the partially preserved femur of a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian “Kem Kem Compound Assemblage” (KKCA) of Morocco. The fossil is housed in the Museo Geologico e Paleontologico “Gaetano Giorgio Gemmellaro” in Palermo (Italy). The specimen is compared with the theropod fossil record from the KKCA and coeval assemblages from North Africa. The combination of a distally reclined head, a not prominent trochanteric shelf, distally placed lesser trochanter of stout, alariform shape, a stocky shaft with the fourth trochanter placed proximally, and rugose muscular insertion areas in the specimen distinguishes it from Carcharodontosaurus, Deltadromeus and Spinosaurus and supports referral to an abelisaurid. The estimated body size for the individual from which this femur was derived is comparable to Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus (up to 9 meters in length and 2 tons in body mass). This find confirms that abelisaurids had reached their largest body size in the “middle Cretaceous,” and that large abelisaurids coexisted with other giant theropods in Africa. We review the taxonomic status of the theropods from the Cenomanian of North Africa, and provisionally restrict the Linnean binomina Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis and Spinosaurus aegyptiacus to the type specimens. Based on comparisons among the theropod records from the Aptian-Cenomanian of South America and Africa, a partial explanation for the so-called “Stromer’s riddle” (namely, the coexistence of many large predatory dinosaurs in the “middle Cretaceous” record from North Africa) is offered in term of taphonomic artifacts among lineage records that were ecologically and environmentally non-overlapping. Although morphofunctional and stratigraphic evidence supports an ecological segregation between spinosaurids and the other lineages, the co-occurrence of abelisaurids and carcharodontosaurids, two groups showing several craniodental convergences that suggest direct

  9. Charophytes as lacustrine biomarkers during the quaternary in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulié-Märsche, I.

    The use of charophytes as biomarkers is discussed with emphasis on the differences in study methods for cosmopolitan and ecotype species. A first extensive inventory of Quaternary deposits of charophytes in Africa north of the equator comprising 18 sites from Senegal to the Sudan is drawn up with data on spatial and temporal distribution. The existence of relatively deep cold lakes in the Holocene is shown by the frequent presence of specimens of cold flora no longer present in Africa today. All the original data show the complementary nature of the study of fossil Charophyta for the multidisciplinary reconstitution of palaeoenvironments.

  10. Research, management, and status of the osprey in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Chancellor, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Osprey populations were studied throughout North America during the last decade as a result of dramatic declines reported along the North Atlantic Coast in the1950s and early 1960s. Researchers used banding, localized studies, aerial surveys, and pesticide analyses to identify factors influencing regional populations. Declining populations showed extremely poor production, contamination by environmental pollutants (including DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls) and thin-shelled eggs. Following the reduced use and eventual ban of DDT and dieldrin, productivity began to improve. Improvement in affected populations, mainly those along the Atlantic Coast and in the Great Lakes region, began in the late 1960s and is continuing in the 1970s. Most populations in the South Atlantic region, in Western North America, and in Florida and the Gulf of California appeared to be producing at normal or near-normal rates in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Although some of the most severely affected populations are still not producing at normal rates, the pattern of improvement and an increase in management activities, including provision of nesting platforms and establishment of Osprey management zones, allow cautious optimism about the future of the species in North America. With its low recruitment potential, however, recovery will be slow.

  11. A refugee's perspective on their neurosurgical care in North America

    PubMed Central

    Honey, C. Michael; Poologaindran, Anujan; Mayhew, Maureen; Steen, Laura Vander; Gillis, Christopher Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing population of refugees within North America and an increasing awareness of their unique medical requirements. These requirements include both a well-recognized need to understand the different pathologies that can present in these patients as well as the rarely described need to understand their unique perspective and how this can impact their medical care, especially for routine neurosurgical conditions. This paper highlights a refugee's perspective toward the medical system in North America and documents how several aspects of this unique perspective hindered or delayed the care for the management of this patient with a cervical cord tumor. Case Description: A 34-year-old female Somalian refugee presented with an ependymoma to Vancouver General Hospital 3 days after arriving in North America. The tumor was removed through a standard posterior cervical laminectomy approach. The patient and her care workers were interviewed 6 months postoperatively to determine if any aspects of care were negatively impacted by her refugee status. Problems related to communication, medical history, mistrust of care workers, familial support, and access to follow-up care were recognized and recommendations for improvements provided. Conclusions: It is well known that the North American physicians must be familiar with the unique spectrum of medical conditions within the refugee community. This paper highlights that physicians must also be aware that refugees may have a unique perspective on our health care system that can negatively influence their care for even routine neurosurgical conditions. PMID:26629394

  12. Population trends of quails in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, K.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Church, K.E.; Daley, T.V.

    1993-01-01

    We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data (1966-91) to estimate distribution, relative abundance, and populatiori trends of quails. Population trends in grassland/shrub birds sympatric with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were also examined. Northern bobwhite and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) populations have declined since 1966. Rates of decline for these quails have increased during the past decade. California quail (C. californica), Gambel's quail (C. gambeliI), and mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) populations have been stable over the long-term (1966-91). However, the short-term (1982-91) trend for California quail is positive, whereas Gambel's quail appear to be declining. Patterns in trends indicate similar factors may be negatively affecting breeding populations of grassland/shrub birds throughout the bobwhite's range. We discuss plausible hypotheses to explain population trends and recommend future action.

  13. A magmatic probe of dynamic topography beneath western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.

    2014-12-01

    A region centered on the Yellowstone hotspot and encompassing the Colorado Plateau sits at an elevation 2 km higher than the cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with tomographically observed variations in lithospheric thickness: ~120 km beneath western North America, ~240 km beneath the craton. Thermochronology of the Grand Canyon area, sedimentary flux to the Gulf of Mexico, and river profile inversion all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two separate stages. High resolution seismic tomographic models, using USArray data, have identified a ring of low velocity material beneath the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows distinct phases: an overall increase in volume around 40 Ma and a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signatures around 5 Ma. Volcanism is also observed to migrate north-east with time. Here, we attempt to integrate these different observations with lithospheric thickness. A dynamic topography model of progressive lithospheric erosion over a hot mantle plume might account for uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America. Thinning of the lithosphere around the edges of the Colorado Plateau in combination with the hotter mantle potential temperature of a plume could create isostatic and dynamic uplift as well as allowing for melt production. To test this model, we have analysed around 100 samples from volcanic centers across western North America by ICP-MS for rare earth elements (REE). Most of the samples are younger than 5 Ma, and all of them have previously been analysed by XRF. Using trace element ratios such as La/Yb and Nb/Y we assess depth of melting and melt fraction, respectively. In addition, we use REE inversion modelling to estimate melt fractions as a function of depth and temperature of melting. The results are compared to existing constraints on lithospheric thickness and mantle potential

  14. Projected Future Climate Analogues and Climate "Velocities" in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Future climate changes may have significant effects on many North American ecosystems. One way of assessing the potential impacts of future climate change is to use future climate analogues of present climate to evaluate the spatial extent and rates of future climate change. We used a set of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future climate simulations (2006-2100) produced under representative concentration pathway scenario RCP8.5. We regridded these data to a 10-km equal-area grid of North America. Modern climate data (1961-1990 30-year mean) were interpolated to the same 10-km grid. The projected future climate data were analyzed using 10-year mean values of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation and a set of derived annual bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) considered to be ecologically significant. Potential future climate analogues were calculated for each grid cell using Euclidean distances to identify similar climates occurring elsewhere in North America. We identify regions that are projected to retain climates similar to present in the future (e.g., parts of the southeastern United States) and regions where present climates are projected to become less common or to disappear in the future (e.g., high elevation sites in western North America). We also calculate the rates of change in locations of similar climates (i.e., climate analogue velocities) and compare our results with simulated paleoclimate velocities over the past 22 kyr (from TraCE-21ka transient climate simulations for 22 ka-present). We discuss the implications of these results for conservation and natural resource management in North America. We also describe a web application being developed to allow researchers, decision makers, and members of the public, to visualize, explore, and use the climate analogue data.

  15. Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Sebacher, D. I.; Gregory, G. L.; Hinton, R. R.; Beck, S. M.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Shipley, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based measurements strongly support the hypothesis that pollutant materials of anthropogenic origin are being transported over long distances in the midtroposphere and are a significant source of acid rain, acid snow, trace metal deposition, ozone and visibility-reducing aerosols in remote oceanic and polar regions of the Norhern Hemisphere. Atmospheric sulphur budget calculations and studies of acid rain on Bermuda indicate that a large fraction of pollutant materials emitted into the atmosphere in eastern North America are advected eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean. The first direct airborne measurements of the vertical distribution of tropospheric aerosols over the western North Atlantic is reported here. A newly developed airborne differential adsorption lidar system was used to obtain continuous, remotely sensed aerosol distributions along its flight path. The data document two episodes of long-distance transport of pollutant materials from North America over the North Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ennafaa, Hajer; Cabrera, Vicente M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; González, Ana M; Amor, Mohamed B; Bouhaha, Rym; Dzimiri, Nduna; Elgaaïed, Amel B; Larruga, José M

    2009-01-01

    Background The Strait of Gibraltar separating the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa is thought to be a stronger barrier to gene flow for male than for female lineages. However, the recent subdivision of the haplogroup H at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) level has revealed greater genetic differentiation among geographic regions than previously detected. The dissection of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa, and its comparison with the Iberian Peninsula and Near-East profiles would help clarify the relative affinities among these regions. Results Like the Iberian Peninsula, the dominant mtDNA haplogroup H subgroups in North Africa are H1 (42%) and H3 (13%). The similarity between these regions is stronger in the North-West edge affecting mainly Moroccan Arabs, West Saharans and Mauritanians, and decreases eastwards probably due to gene flow from Near East as attested for the higher frequencies of H4, H5, H7, H8 and H11 subgroups. Moroccan Berbers show stronger affinities with Tunisian and Tunisian Berbers than with Moroccan Arabs. Coalescence ages for H1 (11 ± 2 ky) and H3 (11 ± 4 ky) in North Africa point to the possibility of a late Palaeolithic settlement for these lineages similar to those found for other mtDNA haplogroups. Total and partial mtDNA genomic sequencing unveiled stronger mtDNA differentiation among regions than previously found using HVSI mtDNA based analysis. Conclusion The subdivision of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa has confirmed that the genetic differentiation found among Western and Eastern populations is mainly due to geographical rather than cultural barriers. It also shows that the historical Arabian role on the region had more a cultural than a demic effect. Whole mtDNA sequencing of identical H haplotypes based on HVSI and RFLP information has unveiled additional mtDNA differences between North African and Iberian Peninsula lineages, pointing to an older mtDNA genetic flow between regions than previously thought. Based on this

  17. Emigrated neuroscientists from Berlin to North America.

    PubMed

    Holdorff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The highest number of German scholars and physicians, forced by the National Socialist regime to emigrate for "race" or political reasons, were from Berlin. Language and medical exams were requested differently in their new host country-the United States-leading to a concentration of immigrants in the New York and Boston areas. Very early Emergency Committees in Aid of German Scholars and Physicians were established. Undergraduate students (like F. A. Freyhan, H. Lehmann, and H.-L. Teuber) from Berlin seemed to integrate easily, in contrast to colleagues of more advanced age. Some of the former chiefs and senior assistants of Berlin's neurological departments could achieve a successful resettlement (C. E. Benda, E. Haase, C. F. List, and F. Quadfasel) and some a minor degree of success (F. H. Lewy and K. Goldstein). A group of neuropsychiatrists from Bonhoeffer's staff at the Berlin Charité Hospital could rely on the forceful intercession of their former chief. The impact of the émigré colleagues on North American neuroscience is traced in some cases. Apart from the influential field of psychoanalysis, a more diffuse infiltration of German and European neuropsychiatry may be assumed. The contribution to the postwar blossoming of neuropsychology by the émigré neuroscientists K. Goldstein, F. Quadfasel, and H.-L. Teuber is demonstrated in this article. PMID:26853762

  18. Emigrated neuroscientists from Berlin to North America.

    PubMed

    Holdorff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The highest number of German scholars and physicians, forced by the National Socialist regime to emigrate for "race" or political reasons, were from Berlin. Language and medical exams were requested differently in their new host country-the United States-leading to a concentration of immigrants in the New York and Boston areas. Very early Emergency Committees in Aid of German Scholars and Physicians were established. Undergraduate students (like F. A. Freyhan, H. Lehmann, and H.-L. Teuber) from Berlin seemed to integrate easily, in contrast to colleagues of more advanced age. Some of the former chiefs and senior assistants of Berlin's neurological departments could achieve a successful resettlement (C. E. Benda, E. Haase, C. F. List, and F. Quadfasel) and some a minor degree of success (F. H. Lewy and K. Goldstein). A group of neuropsychiatrists from Bonhoeffer's staff at the Berlin Charité Hospital could rely on the forceful intercession of their former chief. The impact of the émigré colleagues on North American neuroscience is traced in some cases. Apart from the influential field of psychoanalysis, a more diffuse infiltration of German and European neuropsychiatry may be assumed. The contribution to the postwar blossoming of neuropsychology by the émigré neuroscientists K. Goldstein, F. Quadfasel, and H.-L. Teuber is demonstrated in this article.

  19. Swimbladder Leiomyosarcoma in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in North America.

    PubMed

    Bowser, Paul R; Casey, James W; Casey, Rufina N; Quackenbush, Sandra L; Lofton, Larry; Coll, John A; Cipriano, Rocco C

    2012-07-01

    Leiomyosarcoma with associated retrovirus were found in North America for the first time in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) held in a quarantine facility at the North Attleboro National Fish Hatchery (NANFH), Massachusetts, USA. The fish had been collected as age 1-2 yr animals from the Pleasant River, Maine, and were to be used as brood stock in a population augmentation program for that river. Neoplastic disease was observed at NANFH initially in older (age 4 yr) fish, followed by age 3 yr fish. Disease was not observed in age 2 yr fish. The mortality pattern was chronic.

  20. New Eclipidrilus species (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae) from southeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae from southeastern North America are attributed to Eclipidrilus Eisen. All are small worms (diameter 0.2–0.5 mm), having semi-prosoporous male ducts with the atria in X, and spermathecae in IX. Eclipidrilus breviatriatus n. sp. and E. microthecus n. sp. have crosshatched atrial musculature, similar to some E. (Eclipidrilus) species, but they differ from congeners in having small, compact spermathecal ampullae. Eclipidrilus macphersonae n. sp. has a single, median atrium and spermatheca. The new species have been collected only in Sandhills and Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain streams of North Carolina.

  1. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  2. A Bayesian modelling framework for tornado occurrences in North America.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vincent Y S; Arhonditsis, George B; Sills, David M L; Gough, William A; Auld, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Tornadoes represent one of nature's most hazardous phenomena that have been responsible for significant destruction and devastating fatalities. Here we present a Bayesian modelling approach for elucidating the spatiotemporal patterns of tornado activity in North America. Our analysis shows a significant increase in the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains during the summer, indicating a clear transition of tornado activity from the United States to Canada. The linkage between monthly-averaged atmospheric variables and likelihood of tornado events is characterized by distinct seasonality; the convective available potential energy is the predominant factor in the summer; vertical wind shear appears to have a strong signature primarily in the winter and secondarily in the summer; and storm relative environmental helicity is most influential in the spring. The present probabilistic mapping can be used to draw inference on the likelihood of tornado occurrence in any location in North America within a selected time period of the year.

  3. Opportunities and prospects for Maglev in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Eastham, T.R.; Coffey, H.T. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1989-01-01

    As a result of early research in many countries, including the USA and Canada, and developments particularly in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Japan, the technologies of magnetic suspension and linear electric drives have matured to the stage at which low-speed systems are operational and high-speed systems have reached prototype test and demonstration. Maglev is now recognized as a realistic option for the 1990s and is being assessed in parallel with high-speed rail service in many corridor studies. Maglev is becoming available at a time when both road and air congestion is threatening the mobility that North America has come to expect. The fast, clean, energy-efficient characteristics should allow Maglev systems to contribute to the solution of impending transportation problems. This paper reviews the opportunities and prospects for the implementation of Maglev in North America. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Tick-borne relapsing fever in North America.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Mark S; Schwan, Tom G; Anderson, Donald E

    2002-03-01

    Relapsing fever is characterized by recurring episodes of fever and nonspecific symptoms (e.g., headache, myalgia, arthralgia, shaking chills, and abdominal complaints). The illness is caused by an infection from the Borrelia species (spirochetes) that may be acquired through the bite of an infected tick (Ornithodoros species) or contact with the hemolymph of an infected human body louse (Pediculus humanus). In North America, most cases have been acquired in the western United States, southern British Columbia, and few cases have been reported from Mexico. Most cases have been acquired from exposure to rustic tick-infested cabins and caves. This article reviews relapsing fever, especially tick-borne relapsing fever in North America. PMID:11982310

  5. Book review: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2005-01-01

    As stated in the preface of this new guide, shorebirds are among our most engaging birds. Their ecology and behavior are the subjects of numerous ornithological studies, their identification can challenge the skills of the most serious birdwatchers, and people with a casual interest in birds are captivated by the antics of Sanderlings (Calidris alba) chasing waves along a beach. While some books provide a worldwide perspective on shorebird identification, this book is the first guide devoted solely to identifying every species occurring in North America. Its coverage is truly continental, extending from Alaska to Panama and including the West Indies.Review info: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide. By Dennis R. Paulson, 2005. ISBN: 0691102740, 384 pp.

  6. Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dominguez, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Holmes, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

  7. A Bayesian modelling framework for tornado occurrences in North America.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vincent Y S; Arhonditsis, George B; Sills, David M L; Gough, William A; Auld, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Tornadoes represent one of nature's most hazardous phenomena that have been responsible for significant destruction and devastating fatalities. Here we present a Bayesian modelling approach for elucidating the spatiotemporal patterns of tornado activity in North America. Our analysis shows a significant increase in the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains during the summer, indicating a clear transition of tornado activity from the United States to Canada. The linkage between monthly-averaged atmospheric variables and likelihood of tornado events is characterized by distinct seasonality; the convective available potential energy is the predominant factor in the summer; vertical wind shear appears to have a strong signature primarily in the winter and secondarily in the summer; and storm relative environmental helicity is most influential in the spring. The present probabilistic mapping can be used to draw inference on the likelihood of tornado occurrence in any location in North America within a selected time period of the year. PMID:25807465

  8. Oil shales of Europe, North Africa, and the Near East

    SciTech Connect

    Troger, U.

    1984-04-01

    Oil shale deposits are known from almost all countries in Europe and range in age from Paleozoic to Eocene. The geology of Europe is well known, and the discovery of new and significant oil shale deposits is not anticipated. A considerably different situation exists in North Africa and the Near East, where sparsely tested areas in the Sahara and desert fringe might contain important oil shale deposits. Most of the oil shale deposits in these areas (1) are of Cretaceous age, (2) occur with phosphate deposits, and (3) owe their origin to sedimentary processes associated with upwelling. Oil shales can be found from Turkey to Morocco along a paleocoastline, and better definition of this feature could result in new discoveries. In contrast to the US, oil shale deposits in Europe are being used as energy sources and will probably serve the same purpose in North Africa and the Near East.

  9. Oil and gas developments in north Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, B.M.

    1988-10-01

    The recovery of international petroleum activity in 1987 was reflected slightly in the 6 North Africa countries covered in this report (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia). Licensed area increased marginally to about 2,594,000 km/sup 2/ (up 0.5% from 1986), whereas surface exploration and drilling decreased significantly (about 30% and 20%, respectively, from 1986 levels). The two OPEC-member countries adhered to imposed quotas, recording somewhat lower production levels in 1987 than in 1986; however, total production of the North Africa countries increased to 3,025,000 BOPD (up 2% from 1986) as Egypt recorded all-time highs for both liquids and natural gas production. 7 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    Licensed oil acreage in the 6 North Africa countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) totaled 1,500,000 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1986, down 290,000 km/sup 2/ from 1985. About 50% of the relinquishments were in Libya. Most oil and gas discoveries were made in Egypt (16 oil and 2 gas). Several oil finds were reported in onshore Libya, and 1 was reported in Algeria in the southeastern Sahara. According to available statistics, development drilling decreased from 1985 levels, except in Tunisia. A 6.3% decline in oil production took place in 1986, falling below the 3 million bbl level (2,912,000 b/d). Only sparse data are released on the gas output in North Africa. 6 figures, 27 tables.

  11. Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction, dispersal and establishment of West Nile virus in North America were reviewed, focusing on factors that may have enhanced receptivity and enabled the invasion process. The overwintering persistence of this tropical virus within temperate latitudes was unexpected, but was key in the transition from invasion to endemic establishment. The cascade of temporal events allowing sporadic amplification to outbreak levels was discussed within a future perspective. PMID:24008376

  12. Helminth parasites of the osprey, Pandion haliaetus, in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Forrester, Donald J.; Roderick, Constance L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 28 species of helminths (17 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 7 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan) was recovered from 17 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from the United States. Intensities of infection were low and no lesions were attributed to the parasites. Seven species appear to be specialists in ospreys, 2 species generalists in raptors, and the remainder generalists in other orders of fish-eating birds. Pandiontrema rjikovi, Diasiella diasi, and Contracaecum pandioni are reported for the first time from North America.

  13. The Trenton Group (Upper Ordovician Series) of eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Trenton Group of eastern North America is a predominately carbonate series of sedimentary rocks that contains major oil and gas deposits. The 18 papers contained in this volume discuss the stratigraphy, depositional environment, tectonics, and petroleum and natural gas exploration in this sedimentary sequence. Each of the papers has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Data Base.

  14. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, I.T.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The highly variable timing of streamflow in snowmelt-dominated basins across western North America is an important consequence, and indicator, of climate fluctuations. Changes in the timing of snowmelt-derived streamflow from 1948 to 2002 were investigated in a network of 302 western North America gauges by examining the center of mass for flow, spring pulse onset dates, and seasonal fractional flows through trend and principal component analyses. Statistical analysis of the streamflow timing measures with Pacific climate indicators identified local and key large-scale processes that govern the regionally coherent parts of the changes and their relative importance. Widespread and regionally coherent trends toward earlier onsets of springtime snowmelt and streamflow have taken place across most of western North America, affecting an area that is much larger than previously recognized. These timing changes have resulted in increasing fractions of annual flow occurring earlier in the water year by 1-4 weeks. The immediate (or proximal) forcings for the spatially coherent parts of the year-to-year fluctuations and longer-term trends of streamflow timing have been higher winter and spring temperatures. Although these temperature changes are partly controlled by the decadal-scale Pacific climate mode [Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)], a separate and significant part of the variance is associated with a springtime warming trend that spans the PDO phases. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  15. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; Mildrexler, David; Goward, Samuel; Smith, W. Brad

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  16. Monitoring the Earthquake source process in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Robert B.; Benz, H.; Ammon, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the implementation of the USGS National Earthquake Information Center Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response system (PAGER), rapid determination of earthquake moment magnitude is essential, especially for earthquakes that are felt within the contiguous United States. We report an implementation of moment tensor processing for application to broad, seismically active areas of North America. This effort focuses on the selection of regional crustal velocity models, codification of data quality tests, and the development of procedures for rapid computation of the seismic moment tensor. We systematically apply these techniques to earthquakes with reported magnitude greater than 3.5 in continental North America that are not associated with a tectonic plate boundary. Using the 0.02-0.10 Hz passband, we can usually determine, with few exceptions, moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w as small as 3.7. The threshold is significantly influenced by the density of stations, the location of the earthquake relative to the seismic stations and, of course, the signal-to-noise ratio. With the existing permanent broadband stations in North America operated for rapid earthquake response, the seismic moment tensor of most earthquakes that are M w 4 or larger can be routinely computed. As expected the nonuniform spatial pattern of these solutions reflects the seismicity pattern. However, the orientation of the direction of maximum compressive stress and the predominant style of faulting is spatially coherent across large regions of the continent.

  17. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  18. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures.

  20. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  2. A revised estimate of Pacific-North America motion and implications for Western North America plate boundary zone tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth; Argus, Donald F.

    1987-01-01

    Marine magnetic profiles from the Gulf of Californa are studied in order to revise the estimate of Pacific-North America motion. It is found that since 3 Ma spreading has averaged 48 mm/yr, consistent with a new global plate motion model derived without any data. The present data suggest that strike-slip motion on faults west of the San Andreas is less than previously thought, reducing the San Andreas discrepancy with geodetic, seismological, and other geologic observations.

  3. Population size of snowy plovers breeding in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Susan M.; Lyons, James E.; Andres, Brad A.; T-Smith, Elise Elliot; Palacios, Eduardo; Cavitt, John F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Fellows, Suzanne D.; Maty, Kendra; Howe, William H.; Mellink, Eric; Melvin, Stefani; Zimmerman, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus) may be one of the rarest shorebirds in North America yet a comprehensive assessment of their abundance and distribution has not been completed. During 2007 and 2008, 557 discrete wetlands were surveyed and nine additional large wetland complexes sampled in México and the USA. From these surveys, a population of 23,555 (95% CI = 17,299 – 29,859) breeding Snowy Plovers was estimated. Combining the estimate with information from areas not surveyed, the total North American population was assessed at 25,869 (95% CI = 18,917 – 32,173). Approximately 42% of all breeding Snowy Plovers in North America resided at two sites (Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma), and 33% of all these were on wetlands in the Great Basin (including Great Salt Lake). Also, coastal habitats in central and southern Texas supported large numbers of breeding plovers. New breeding sites were discovered in interior deserts and highlands and along the Pacific coast of México; approximately 9% of the North American breeding population occurred in México. Because of uncertainties about effects of climate change and current stresses to breeding habitats, the species should be a management and conservation priority. Periodic monitoring should be undertaken at important sites to ensure high quality habitat is available to support the Snowy Plover population.

  4. Red pandas (Mammalia, Carnivora: Parailurus) in the biomes of North Eurasia and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Kalmykov, N. P.

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of the Pliocene red panda ( Parailurus) in the West Transbaikal area, as well as Asian raccoons in North Eurasia and North America, indicates that forested areas with bamboo bushes were wide-spread in the Holarctic during the Neogene. During the Late Pliocene, due to a gradual cooling of the climate, altiplanation, and other factors, their habitat started disintegrating, and red pandas began dying out, surviving only in China.

  5. Future Changes in Snowpack over North America from NARCCAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, R. R.; Mearns, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    As global temperatures rise, snow resources over North America are predicted to change in significant ways. Long-term changes in the timing of the snow season and amount of snow will negatively impact natural ecosystems and the human use of snow resources for water storage, hydroelectric power production, irrigation and recreation. Here we examine future changes in snowpack (snow water equivalent, SWE) using the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP, Mearns et al. 2013) suite of regional climate models (RCMs). These models are intended for use in climate process studies as well as climate change impacts and adaptation studies. SWE from the current climate simulations of the NARCCAP models is compared against an ensemble of off-the-shelf, gridded "observation based" SWE products compiled from a number of sources (satellite, reanalysis, snow-pack models, gridded observations). During winter, the RCMs are found to overestimate SWE in the mountains of western North America. Also, simulated snow tends to stay on the ground for longer than observed in mountainous regions. By mid-Century, the NARCCAP RCMs predict that winter SWE amounts will decrease dramatically over most of North America. The only exception to this is in northern Canada, where warmer temperatures mean it is no longer "too cold to snow" and SWE amounts increase. In some regions, such as the Southern Rockies, the models suggest that decreases in SWE are linked to changes in both precipitation type (transition from snow to rain) and an increase in snowmelt. In other areas, such as New England, the processes driving changes in SWE are less clear. In addition to changes in winter snowpack amounts, the NARCCAP models show that the snow season (defined here as the time with measurable snow on the ground) will decrease substantially. In the future peak snow amounts are expected to occur earlier in the season, and significant snowmelt will happen earlier in spring. These changes will

  6. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  7. North America carbon dioxide sources and sinks: magnitude, attribution, and uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthony W.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    North America is both a source and sink of atmospheric CO2. Sources, predominately fossil-fuel combustion in the United States along with contributions from deforestation in Mexico, add CO2 to the atmosphere. Most North America ecosystems, particularly regrowing forests in the United States, are sinks for atmospheric CO2. CO2 is removed from the atmosphere in photosynthesis, converted into biomass and stored as carbon in vegetation, soil and wood products. Fossil-fuel emissions dominate the North American source-sink balance. North America is a net source of atmospheric CO2 with ecosystem sinks balancing approximately 35% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from North America.

  8. Causes of Decadal Climate Variability over the North Pacific and North America.

    PubMed

    Latif, M; Barnett, T P

    1994-10-28

    The cause of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Ocean and North America is investigated by the analysis of data from a multidecadal integration with a state-of-the-art coupled ocean-atmosphere model and observations. About one-third of the low-frequency climate variability in the region of interest can be attributed to a cycle involving unstable air-sea interactions between the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Pacific and the Aleutian low-pressure system. The existence of this cycle provides a basis for long-range climate forecasting over the western United States at decadal time scales. PMID:17793457

  9. Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, M. ); Barnett, T.P. )

    1994-10-28

    The cause of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Ocean and North America is investigated by the analysis of data from a multidecadal integration with a state-of-the-art coupled ocean-atmosphere model and observations. About one-third of the low-frequency climate variability in the region of interest can be attributed to a cycle involving unstable air-sea interactions between the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Pacific and the Aleutian low-pressure system. The existence of this cycle provides a basis for long-range climate forecasting over the western United States at decadal time scales. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Regional variations in shear wave anisotropy beneath western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, C.; Cassidy, J.; Hyndman, R.; Bostock, M.

    2003-04-01

    We have examined shear wave splitting of SKS phases at 25 broadband stations in western North America to constrain regional trends in anisotropy at the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and adjacent regions. At most stations, well-constrained shear wave splitting parameters (delay time and fast direction) were obtained for data from a wide range of azimuths. Delay times of 1.0 to 1.5 s indicate a mantle source for the anisotropy, most likely strain-induced lattice preferred orientation of anisotropic mantle minerals. The fast directions at the CSZ are in good agreement with models for mantle deformation associated with subduction. Within the forearc, fast directions at stations above the Juan de Fuca Plate are parallel to the subduction direction (N70E), suggesting deformation in the mantle beneath the plate due to plate motion. Above the Explorer Plate at the northern end of the CSZ, fast directions are N30E. This may reflect either the more northerly subduction direction of that plate, or a transition from subduction-related deformation to along-margin flow parallel to the transcurrent Queen Charlotte Fault to the north. At four stations in the central backarc, fast directions are parallel to the Juan de Fuca-North America convergence direction, consistent with models of subduction-induced mantle wedge flow. No clear splitting was observed at the two most northern backarc stations, indicating little to no horizontal anisotropy beneath these stations, possibly due to vertical mantle flow around the northern edge of the subducted plate. At a station near the western edge of the North America craton, the splitting parameters show significant azimuthal variations with a 90° periodicity, characteristic of multiple layers of anisotropy. The observations were fit using a two-layer model with an upper anisotropic layer with a fast direction of N12E and delay time of 1.4 s, and a lower layer with a fast direction of N81E and delay time of 2.0 s. The North America craton is

  11. Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Joseph A.; Jackman, Jennifer; Li, Naiyi; Osborne, Richard J.; Powell, Bob R.; Sklad, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

  12. Echinococcus multilocularis in North America: the great unknown

    PubMed Central

    Massolo, Alessandro; Liccioli, Stefano; Budke, Christine; Klein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have begun to shed light on the distribution and genetic characterization of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), in North America. Recent findings indicate that the parasite is likely expanding its range in the central region of the United States and Canada and that invasions of European strains might have occurred. In our review, we present the available data on E. multilocularis infections in wild and domestic animals and humans in North America and emphasize the lack of knowledge on the distribution of the parasite in wild and domestic hosts. Furthermore, we stress the need to better understand the complexity of host communities and their roles in shaping the transmission and distribution of the parasite. We hypothesize that a lack of knowledge about AE by North American physicians might result in the misdiagnosis of cases and an underestimation of disease incidence. The endemic presence of the parasite in urban areas and a recent human case in Alberta, Canada, suggest that the scientific community may need to reconsider the local public health risks, re-assess past cases that might have been overlooked and increase surveillance efforts to identify new cases of human AE. PMID:25531581

  13. Arctic-North Pacific coupled impacts on the late autumn cold in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Baek-Min; Baek, Eun-Hyuk; Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2016-08-01

    The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is known to bring an anomalously cold (warm) period to southeastern (northwestern) North America during the cold season of its positive phase through a Rossby wave linkage. This study provides evidence that the remote connection between the North Pacific and the downstream temperature over central North America is strengthened by the warm arctic conditions over the Chukchi and East Siberian Sea, especially in the late autumn season. The modulation effect of the Arctic manifests itself as an altered Rossby wave response to a transient vorticity forcing that results from an equatorward storm track shift, which is induced collaboratively by the PDO and the warm Arctic. This observational finding is supported by two independent modeling experiments: (1) an idealized coupled GCM experiment being nudged toward the warm arctic surface condition and (2) a simple stationary wave model experiment forced by transient eddy forcing.

  14. Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera, Adephaga) of America, north of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract All scientific names of Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, and Carabidae (including cicindelines) recorded from America north of Mexico are catalogued. Available species-group names are listed in their original combinations with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, type locality, location of the name-bearing type, and etymology for many patronymic names. In addition, the reference in which a given species-group name is first synonymized is recorded for invalid taxa. Genus-group names are listed with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, type species with way of fixation, and etymology for most. The reference in which a given genus-group name is first synonymized is recorded for many invalid taxa. Family-group names are listed with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, and type genus. The geographical distribution of all species-group taxa is briefly summarized and their state and province records are indicated. One new genus-group taxon, Randallius new subgenus (type species: Chlaenius purpuricollis Randall, 1838), one new replacement name, Pterostichus amadeus new name for Pterostichus vexatus Bousquet, 1985, and three changes in precedence, Ellipsoptera rubicunda (Harris, 1911) for Ellipsoptera marutha (Dow, 1911), Badister micans LeConte, 1844 for Badister ocularis Casey, 1920, and Agonum deplanatum Ménétriés, 1843 for Agonum fallianum (Leng, 1919), are proposed. Five new genus-group synonymies and 65 new species-group synonymies, one new species-group status, and 12 new combinations (see Appendix 5) are established. The work also includes a discussion of the notable private North American carabid collections, a synopsis of all extant world geadephagan tribes and subfamilies, a brief faunistic assessment of the fauna, a list of valid species-group taxa, a list of North American fossil Geadephaga (Appendix 1), a list of North American Geadephaga larvae described or illustrated (Appendix 2), a list of Geadephaga species

  15. Hepatitis C Virus in North Africa: An Emerging Threat.

    PubMed

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Ahmed, Mohamed O; Dau, Aghnyia A; Agnan, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major public health threat associated with serious clinical consequences worldwide. North Africa is a unique region composed of seven countries that vary considerably in the predisposing factors to microbial diseases both historically and at the present time. The dynamics of HCV in the region are not well documented. The data are both limited and controversial in most of the countries in the region. In North Africa, the epidemiology of HCV is disparate and understanding it has been hampered by regional "epidemiological homogeneity" concepts. As the dynamics of HCV vary from country to country, context-specific research is needed. In this review, we assess studies performed in each country in the general populations as well as among blood donors and groups exposed to the HCV infection. The reported prevalence of HCV ranges from 0.6% to 8.4% in the Maghreb countries and is predominated by genotype 1. In the Nile valley region, it ranges from 2.2% to 18.9% and is dominated by genotype 4. In North African countries, HCV seems to be a serious problem that is driven by different vectors even in different geographical locations within the same country. Efforts should be combined at both the national and regional levels to implement efficient preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:27610403

  16. Hepatitis C Virus in North Africa: An Emerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnyia A.; Agnan, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major public health threat associated with serious clinical consequences worldwide. North Africa is a unique region composed of seven countries that vary considerably in the predisposing factors to microbial diseases both historically and at the present time. The dynamics of HCV in the region are not well documented. The data are both limited and controversial in most of the countries in the region. In North Africa, the epidemiology of HCV is disparate and understanding it has been hampered by regional “epidemiological homogeneity” concepts. As the dynamics of HCV vary from country to country, context-specific research is needed. In this review, we assess studies performed in each country in the general populations as well as among blood donors and groups exposed to the HCV infection. The reported prevalence of HCV ranges from 0.6% to 8.4% in the Maghreb countries and is predominated by genotype 1. In the Nile valley region, it ranges from 2.2% to 18.9% and is dominated by genotype 4. In North African countries, HCV seems to be a serious problem that is driven by different vectors even in different geographical locations within the same country. Efforts should be combined at both the national and regional levels to implement efficient preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:27610403

  17. Hepatitis C Virus in North Africa: An Emerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnyia A.; Agnan, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major public health threat associated with serious clinical consequences worldwide. North Africa is a unique region composed of seven countries that vary considerably in the predisposing factors to microbial diseases both historically and at the present time. The dynamics of HCV in the region are not well documented. The data are both limited and controversial in most of the countries in the region. In North Africa, the epidemiology of HCV is disparate and understanding it has been hampered by regional “epidemiological homogeneity” concepts. As the dynamics of HCV vary from country to country, context-specific research is needed. In this review, we assess studies performed in each country in the general populations as well as among blood donors and groups exposed to the HCV infection. The reported prevalence of HCV ranges from 0.6% to 8.4% in the Maghreb countries and is predominated by genotype 1. In the Nile valley region, it ranges from 2.2% to 18.9% and is dominated by genotype 4. In North African countries, HCV seems to be a serious problem that is driven by different vectors even in different geographical locations within the same country. Efforts should be combined at both the national and regional levels to implement efficient preventive and treatment strategies.

  18. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  19. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  20. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  1. 75 FR 33663 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... America's (Volvo) exemption from the Agency's requirement for certain drivers of commercial motor...

  2. PAGES-Powell North America 2k database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, N.

    2014-12-01

    Syntheses of paleoclimate data in North America are essential for understanding long-term spatiotemporal variability in climate and for properly assessing risk on decadal and longer timescales. Existing reconstructions of the past 2,000 years rely almost exclusively on tree-ring records, which can underestimate low-frequency variability and rarely extend beyond the last millennium. Meanwhile, many records from the full spectrum of paleoclimate archives are available and hold the potential of enhancing our understanding of past climate across North America over the past 2000 years. The second phase of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) North America 2k project began in 2014, with a primary goal of assembling these disparate paleoclimate records into a unified database. This effort is currently supported by the USGS Powell Center together with PAGES. Its success requires grassroots support from the community of researchers developing and interpreting paleoclimatic evidence relevant to the past 2000 years. Most likely, fewer than half of the published records appropriate for this database are publicly archived, and far fewer include the data needed to quantify geochronologic uncertainty, or to concisely describe how best to interpret the data in context of a large-scale paleoclimatic synthesis. The current version of the database includes records that (1) have been published in a peer-reviewed journal (including evidence of the record's relationship to climate), (2) cover a substantial portion of the past 2000 yr (>300 yr for annual records, >500 yr for lower frequency records) at relatively high resolution (<50 yr/observation), and (3) have reasonably small and quantifiable age uncertainty. Presently, the database includes records from boreholes, ice cores, lake and marine sediments, speleothems, and tree rings. This poster presentation will display the site locations and basic metadata of the records currently in the database. We invite anyone with interest in

  3. Ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus: Newly introduced in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Dennis M.; Blust, William H.; Selgeby, James H.

    1992-01-01

    The Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, was collected from the lower St. Louis River, Lake Superior's westernmost tributary, in late summer 1987. This is the first known occurrence of the ruffe in North America. The likely vector for this species was ballast water of a transoceanic vessel dumped into the international port of Duluth-Superior located on the lower end of the St. Louis River. The ruffe is increasing in abundance and expanding its range into other tributaries and nearshore areas of Lake Superior.

  4. Bat white-nose syndrome in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2011-01-01

    * The newly described fungus, Geomyces destructans, causes an invasive skin infection in bats and is the likely agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS). * With immune system functions and body temperatures reduced during hibernation, bats may be unusually susceptible to a pathogenic fungus such as G. destructans. * WNS was first observed in a popular show cave near Albany, New York, leading some investigators to suspect that a visitor inadvertently introduced G. destructans at this site, triggering a wider WNS outbreak in North America. * Biologists trying to manage WNS within North American bat populations face major challenges, including the variety of susceptible host species, incredible dispersal capabilities of bats, difficulties in treating such populations, and persistence of the pathogen in their vulnerable underground habitats.

  5. Behavioral economic analysis of demand for fuel in North America.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Partington, Scott W; Kaplan, Brent A; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research clearly indicates that human behavior is contributing to climate change, notably, the use of fossil fuels as a form of energy for everyday behaviors. This dependence on oil in North America has led to assertions that the current level of demand is the social equivalent to an "addiction." The purpose of this study was to apply behavioral economic demand curves-a broadly applicable method of evaluating relative reinforcer efficacy in behavioral models of addiction-to North American oil consumption to examine whether such claims of oil addiction are warranted. Toward this end, we examined government data from the United States and Canada on per capita energy consumption for transportation and oil prices between 1995 and 2008. Our findings indicate that consumption either persisted or simultaneously increased despite sharp increases in oil price per barrel over the past decade.

  6. New digital data base helps to map North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol A.; Pilkington, Mark; Cuevas, Alejandro; Urrutia, Jaime

    A new effort is underway to compile an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly data base and map for the North American continent by 2002. This program is a joint effort by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales de Mexico (CRM). An integrated, readily accessible, modern digital data base of magnetic anomaly data spanning North America will be a powerful tool for evaluating the structure, geologic processes, and tectonic evolution of the continent, and may also be used to help resolve societal and scientific issues that span national boundaries. Maps derived from the digital data base will provide a view of continentalscale trends not available in individual data sets, help link widely separated areas of out-crop, and unify disparate geologic studies.

  7. 75 FR 11921 - Daimler Trucks North America, LLC, A Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corporation Gastonia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 3935). At the request of the State Agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Federal Register on April 26, 2007 (72 FR 20873). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage... issued for all workers of Freightliner LLC, Parts Manufacturing Plant (PMP), Gastonia, North...

  8. Who Pioneered the Use of Antipsychotics in North America?

    PubMed Central

    Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Neuroleptics were introduced into North America 60 years ago. The credit for this advance is generally accorded to Heinz Lehmann. I sought to explore whether Lehmann really was the first North American psychiatrist to study the effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and to provide a more balanced view of its application in a clinical context. Method: I searched for historical documents and published articles in several libraries and interviewed psychiatrists active from 1952–1970. Results: The first article in English was published in the July volume of the Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry in 1954 (n = 71). Another article, written in French by Roland Saucier and published in a journal called Le Saguenay Médical, also described the effects of CPZ on a Canadian psychiatric population in August 1954 (n > 200). However, the first prescription for CPZ was written by Roland Saucier, who brought the product back from Paris after a fellowship there. Ruth Kajander, in Ontario, was also one of the first prescribers of this drug, following her study of its use in anesthesia and a publication in the proceedings of a symposium. Conclusion: The contents of the 2 naturalistic studies were compared. Lehmann’s study started 1 month before that of Saucier. Lehmann was the first North American psychiatrist to publish an article on CPZ, but Roland Saucier nevertheless made an important contribution, being the first to prescribe this drug in North America and reporting results for a study with a sample size 3 times that of Lehmann’s study. PMID:25886681

  9. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  10. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    INTEX-NA is an integrated atmospheric chemistry field experiment to be performed over North America using the NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft as its primary platforms. It seeks to understand the exchange of chemicals and aerosols between continents and the global troposphere. The constituents of interest are ozone and its precursors (hydrocarbons, NOX and HOX), aerosols, and the major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). INTEX-NA will provide the observational database needed to quantify inflow, outflow, and transformations of chemicals over North America. INTEX-NA is to be performed in two phases. Phase A will take place during the period of May-August 2004 and Phase B during March-June 2006. Phase A is in summer when photochemistry is most intense and climatic issues involving aerosols and carbon cycle are most pressing, and Phase B is in spring when Asian transport to North America is at its peak. INTEX-NA will coordinate its activities with concurrent measurement programs including satellites (e. g. Terra, Aura, Envisat), field activities undertaken by the North American Carbon Program (NACP), and other U.S. and international partners. However, it is being designed as a 'stand alone' mission such that its successful execution is not contingent on other programs. Synthesis of the ensemble of observation from surface, airborne, and space platforms, with the help of global/regional models is an important It is anticipated that approximately 175 flight hours for each of the aircraft (DC-8 and P-3B) will be required for each Phase. Principal operational sites are tentatively selected to be Bangor, ME; Wallops Island, VA; Seattle, WA; Rhinelander, WI; Lancaster, CA; and New Orleans, LA. These coastal and continental sites can support large missions and are suitable for INTEX-NA objectives. The experiment will be supported by forecasts from meteorological and chemical models, satellite observations, surface networks, and enhanced O3,-sonde releases. In addition to

  11. Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

    The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

  12. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,839,817 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1985, a decrease of 3% from the 1,896,446 km/sup 2/ held at the end of 1984. This decrease mainly is due to significant relinquishments made in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Morocco, however, had an increase of 18,087 km/sup 2/. Oil discoveries were reported in Algeria (possibly 5), Libya (at least 2), and Egypt (16). Only 1 gas find was made (in Morocco). According to sparse information, development drilling may have decreased markedly during 1985. Oil and condensate production increased by 3.1% to approximately 3,054,000 b/d compared to about 2,963,400 b/d in 1984. No statistics are currently available on gas production in North Africa. 8 figures, 27 tables.

  13. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L; Hanner, Robert H; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-06-28

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required.

  14. Coding and traceability: cells and tissues in North America.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Scott A; Wilson, Diane

    2010-11-01

    Cell and tissue banking professionals in North America have long understood the value of labeling their allografts with descriptive names that make them easily recognized. They have also understood that advantages exist in possessing the capability to track them internally and externally to better understand tissue handling from donation through distribution. An added insight that can assist with strategic planning is to know who uses them, how many, and for what purpose or application. Uniquely coding allografts naturally aids tracking in event of recall or the rare need to link them if implicated in an adverse outcome report. These values relate to an ability or inability to sufficiently track specific cell/tissue types throughout the allograft's lifetime. These concepts easily fit into the functions of a Quality Program and promote recipient safety. It is management oversight that drives the direction taken and either optimizes this knowledge or limits it. How concepts related to coding and tracing human cells and tissues for transplantation have evolved in North America, and where they may be headed, are described in this manuscript. Many protocols are in place but they exist in numerous operational silos. Quality Management System concepts should drive decision-making and include considerations for future planning beyond our own professional lifetimes. PMID:20740378

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Powassan virus in North America.

    PubMed

    Pesko, Kendra N; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Hjelle, Brian L; Ebel, Gregory D

    2010-11-01

    Powassan virus (POW) is a tick-borne flavivirus distributed in Canada, the northern USA and the Primorsky region of Russia. POW is the only tick-borne flavivirus endemic to the western hemisphere, where it is transmitted mainly between Ixodes cookei and groundhogs (Marmota monax). Deer tick virus (DTV), a genotype of POW that has been frequently isolated from deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis), appears to be maintained in an enzootic cycle between these ticks and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). DTV has been isolated from ticks in several regions of North America, including the upper Midwest and the eastern seaboard. The incidence of human disease due to POW is apparently increasing. Previous analysis of tick-borne flaviviruses endemic to North America have been limited to relatively short genome fragments. We therefore assessed the evolutionary dynamics of POW using newly generated complete and partial genome sequences. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inferences showed two well-supported, reciprocally monophyletic lineages corresponding to POW and DTV. Bayesian skyline plots based on year-of-sampling data indicated no significant population size change for either virus lineage. Statistical model-based selection analyses showed evidence of purifying selection in both lineages. Positive selection was detected in NS-5 sequences for both lineages and envelope sequences for POW. Our findings confirm that POW and DTV sequences are relatively stable over time, which suggests strong evolutionary constraint, and support field observations that suggest that tick-borne flavivirus populations are extremely stable in enzootic foci. PMID:20631087

  16. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  17. Parasites of freshwater fishes in North America: why so neglected?

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, Anindo

    2014-02-01

    Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish

  18. North America's Midcontinent Rift: when Rift MET Lip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Keller, G. R., Jr.; Bollmann, T. A.; Wolin, E.; Zhang, H.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Ola, K.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; Alequabi, G.; Waite, G. P.; Blavascunas, E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Flesch, L. M.; Rooney, T. O.; Moucha, R.; Brown, E.

    2015-12-01

    Rifts are segmented linear depressions, filled with sedimentary and igneous rocks, that form by extension and often evolve into plate boundaries. Flood basalts, a class of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), are broad regions of extensive volcanism due to sublithospheric processes. Typical rifts are not filled with flood basalts, and typical flood basalts are not associated with significant crustal extension and faulting. North America's Midcontinent Rift (MCR) is an unusual combination. Its 3000-km length formed as part of the 1.1 Ga rifting of Amazonia (Precambrian NE South America) from Laurentia (Precambrian North America) and became inactive once seafloor spreading was established, but contains an enormous volume of igneous rocks. MCR volcanics are significantly thicker than other flood basalts, due to deposition in a narrow rift rather than a broad region, giving a rift geometry but a LIP's magma volume. Structural modeling of seismic reflection data shows an initial rift phase where flood basalts filled a fault-controlled extending basin, and a postrift phase where volcanics and sediments were deposited in a thermally subsiding basin without associated faulting. The crust thinned during rifting and rethickened during the postrift phase and later compression, yielding the present thicker crust. The coincidence of a rift and LIP yielded the world's largest deposit of native copper. This combination arose when a new rift associated with continental breakup interacted with a mantle plume or anomalously hot or fertile upper mantle. Integration of diverse data types and models will give insight into questions including how the magma source was related to the rifting, how their interaction operated over a long period of rapid plate motion, why the lithospheric mantle below the MCR differs only slightly from its surroundings, how and why extension, volcanism, and compression varied along the rift arms, and how successful seafloor spreading ended the rift phase. Papers

  19. Decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America: Dynamics and predictability

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, M.; Barnett, T.P.

    1996-10-01

    The dynamics and predictability of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America are investigated by analyzing various observation datasets and the output of a state of the art coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model that was integrated for 125 years. Both the observations and model results support the picture that the decadal variability in the regional of interest is based on a cycle involving unstable ocean-atmosphere interactions over the North Pacific. The period of this cycle is of the order of a few decades. The cycle involves the two major circulation regimes in the North Pacific climate system, the subtropical ocean gyre, and the Aleutian low. 41 refs., 18 figs.

  20. Diversity of birds in eastern North America shifts north with global warming.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kenneth W; McClure, Christopher J W; Rolek, Brian W; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of diversity along latitudinal and elevation gradients, and the coupling of this phenomenon with climate, is a pattern long recognized in ecology. Hypothesizing that climate change may have altered this pattern over time, we investigated whether the aggregate of reported northward shifts of bird ranges in North America is now detectable in community-level indices such as richness and diversity. Here, we report that bird diversity in North America increased and shifted northward between 1966 and 2010. This change in the relationship of diversity to the latitudinal gradient is primarily influenced by range expansions of species that winter in the eastern United States as opposed to species which migrate to this area from wintering grounds in the tropics. This increase in diversity and its northward expansion is best explained by an increase in regional prebreeding season temperature over the past 44 years.

  1. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. October 1973 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  2. [CO2 Budget and Atmospheric Rectification (COBRA) Over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne (COBRA) study was to assess terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon dioxide using an air-borne study. The study was designed to address the measurement gap between plot-scale direct flux measurements and background hemispheric-scale constraints and to refine techniques for measuring terrestrial fluxes at regional to continental scales. The initial funded effort (reported on here) was to involve two air-borne campaigns over North America, one in summer and one in winter. Measurements for COBRA (given the acronym C02BAR in the initial proposal) were conducted from the University of North Dakota Citation 11, a twin-engine jet aircraft capable of profiling from the surface to 12 km and cruising for up to 4 hours and 175m/s. Onboard instrumentation measured concentrations of CO2, CO, and H2O, and meteorological parameters at high rates. In addition, two separate flask sampling systems collected discrete samples for laboratory analysis of CO2,CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, H2, 13CO2, C18O16O,O2/N2, and Ar/N2. The project involved a collaboration between a number of institutions, including (but not limited to) Harvard, NOAA-CMDL, the University of North Dakota, and Scripps.

  3. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Both MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina. Preliminary interpretations were discussed. A synopsis tectonic map of South America was completed. Semi-final modeling of northern South America was initiated.

  4. World's highest tides: Hypertidal coastal systems in North America, South America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Allen W.

    2013-02-01

    Hypertidal systems can be defined as areas where spring tides have ranges greater than 6 m. These very high tidal ranges results in unique patterns of sedimentation within hypertidal estuaries. Such systems are not common but they do occur on a number of continents. This report will discuss six areas that have the highest tides in the world. North America hypertidal systems occur within Cook Inlet in Alaska, USA, Leaf Basin in Ungava Bay, Quebec Province, Canada, and the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada. In South America, the Straits of Magellan and associated Atlantic coastal settings exhibit hypertidal conditions. European hypertidal systems include Bristol Channel and Severn estuary in southwest England and the Gulf of St. Malo in Normandy, France. These six areas have the highest tides in the world and spring tidal ranges that regularly exceed 10 m. All the six areas can be divided into intertidal sedimentological zones. Zone 1 is the outermost zone and contains longitudinal bars. Zone 2 exhibits laterally extensive sand flats. Zone 3 includes the innermost extent of tides and estuarine point bars. Annual and neap-spring cycles have been documented in Zone 3 and are probably the most indicative features of hypertidal systems. The North American systems occur in high-latitude cold climates where winter ice can have a minor or major impact on the development of sedimentary facies. Conversely, the European and Patagonia systems have climates minimal ice formation.

  5. New oil and gas plays, Morocco and Tunisia, North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pratsch, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    Modern integrated exploration concepts have defined two new oil and gas plays in onshore North Africa: The Prerif Basin in Morocco and the Central Basin in Tunisia. The Moroccan Prerif Basin is somewhat similar to Rocky Mountain basins, the Tunisian Central Basin to West Texas. In Morocco, two major gravity-indicated depocenters lie along the contact between the northern Tertiary Rif Fold- and Thrust Belt and southern Prerif Foreland Basin. No deep drilling or seismic data have been reported over these depocenters. They probably contain thick Jurassic oil source beds known from the southern basin flank; regional hydrocarbon migration was mainly north to south. Reservoirs will include sandstones and carbonates of Triassic, Jurassic, and Miocene ages. Some small oil production from Jurassic and Tertiary reservoirs at the southern edge of the basin is now shut-in. In Tunisia, a large (over 60,000 sqkm) regional structurally low area is indicated by gravity and regional geological data. Geochemistry shows a huge gas an oil potential from Paleozoic source beds. Main hydrocarbon migration most likely was from west to east. Reservoirs will include Paleozoic and Triassic sandstones, similar to those in the many producing fields in the North African Sahara Region. This play has not yet been initiated. Attractive legislation and market possibilities exist in both areas.

  6. Combining MISR and MODIS data to automatically catalogue smoke plumes in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoni, Dominic; Tong, Lingling; Diner, David

    2005-01-01

    We are in the early stages of work on EPA task to investigate the effects of fires on air quality in North America, led by Jennifer Logan of Harvard University. JPL's contribution to this study is to find thousands of smoke plumes in satellite images of North America, and derive statistics about their geographic distribution, extent, orientation, and injection height.

  7. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Laura M.; Wallace, Roberta S.; Clyde, Victoria L.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sibley, Samuel D.; Stuchin, Margot; Lauck, Michael; O’Connor, David H.; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia. PMID:26983004

  8. 76 FR 35249 - Allianz Life Insurance Company of North America, et al; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... COMMISSION Allianz Life Insurance Company of North America, et al; Notice of Application June 10, 2011... Section 17(b) of the Act from Section 17(a) of the Act. Applicants: Allianz Life Insurance Company of North America (``Allianz Life'') and Allianz Life Insurance Company of New York (``Allianz...

  9. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Laura M; Wallace, Roberta S; Clyde, Victoria L; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sibley, Samuel D; Stuchin, Margot; Lauck, Michael; O'Connor, David H; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia. PMID:26983004

  10. Progress in the classical biological control of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovered in North America in 2002, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a phloem-feeding beetle from Asia that attacks and kills ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) populations surveyed for natural enemies in North America reveal low prevalence of native larva...

  11. Dung of Mammuthus in the arid Southwest, North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Davis, Owen K.; Martin, Paul S.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of a unique organic deposit in a dry cave on the Colorado Plateau, southern Utah, permits the first comparison of the physical characteristics and the diet of the dung of the extinct mammoths from the arid Southwest, North America, with that of mammoths from Siberia and northern China, the only other known locations of such remains. The deposit buried beneath sand and rockfall is composed primarily of mammoth dung, estimated at over 300 m 3. Radiocarbon dates on dung boluses indicate that the mammoths frequented the cave between approximately 14,700 and 11,000 yr B.P. (the range of ages at 2σ). The desiccated boluses, measuring approximately 230 × 170 × 85 mm, are nearly identical in size to dung from extant elephants. The largest contents in the dung are stalks measuring 60 × 4.5 mm. Grasses and sedges dominated the diet, although woody species were commonly eaten.

  12. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  13. Acanthocephala of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D J; Cole, R A

    1997-06-01

    Examination of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from several locations in North America contributed new information concerning the acanthocephalan fauna of this host. Representatives of Arythmorhynchus brevis, representing a new host record, were collected from eagles in Florida, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. Plagiorhynchus sp. was collected from an eagle in Florida. Corynosoma strumosum was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Andracantha phalacrocoracis, representing a new host record, was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Southwellina hispida, representing a new host record, was collected from eagles in Maine and Virginia. The occurrence of gravid or mature females of A. brevis, Plagiorhynchus sp., and S. hispida suggests that the bald eagle may serve as a competent definitive host for these species.

  14. The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, Donald R.; Emry, Robert J.

    1996-06-01

    The transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene epoch, occurring approximately 47 to 30 million years ago, was the most dramatic episode of climatic and biotic change since the demise of the dinosaurs. The mild tropical climates of the Paleocene and early Eocene were replaced by modern climatic conditions and extremes, including glacial ice in Antarctica. The first part of this book summarizes the latest information in the dating and correlation of the strata of late middle Eocene through early Oligocene age in North America. The second part reviews almost all the important terrestrial reptiles and mammals found near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, in the White River Chronofauna--from the turtles, snakes and lizards to the common rodents, carnivores, oreodonts and deer of the Badlands. This is the first comprehensive treatment of these topics in over sixty years, and will be invaluable to vertebrate paleontologists, geologists, mammalogists and evolutionary biologists.

  15. Optimizing Large Scale Carbon Fluxes for North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Ulliasz, M.; Parazoo, N. C.

    2008-12-01

    We combine the SiB3 biosphere model with the RAMS mesoscale meteorology model and associated Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) and use CO2 observations from a 8-tower network in 2004 to correct a priori ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross primary productivity (GPP) fluxes for a domain consisting of most of North America. Results are presented as weekly corrections to ER and GPP for 2004. A sink is recovered from the inversion but is smaller than expected due to the limited constraint imposed by the sampling footprint of the 8-tower observing network. The sensitivities of the inversion to independently derived boundary conditions, different fossil fuel sources, and various parameters in the inversion are analyzed and discussed.

  16. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A.; Troyer, Ryan M.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Anderson, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323 IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8.6 %, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture.

  17. Acanthocephala of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, D.J.; Cole, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Examination of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from several locations in North America contributed new information concerning the acanthocephalan fauna of this host. Representatives of Arythmorhynchus brevis, representing a new host record, were collected from eagles in Florida, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. Plagiorhynchus sp. was collected from an eagle in Florida. Corynosoma strumosum was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Andracantha phalacrocoracis, representing a new host record, was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Southwellina hispida, representing a new host record, was collected from eagles in Maine and Virginia. The occurrence of gravid or mature females of A. brevis, Plagiorhynchus sp., and S. hispida suggests that the bald eagle may serve as a competent definitive host for these species.

  18. Distributions of exotic plants in eastern Asia and North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Qian, H.; Ricklefs, R.E.; Xi, W.

    2006-01-01

    Although some plant traits have been linked to invasion success, the possible effects of regional factors, such as diversity, habitat suitability, and human activity are not well understood. Each of these mechanisms predicts a different pattern of distribution at the regional scale. Thus, where climate and soils are similar, predictions based on regional hypotheses for invasion success can be tested by comparisons of distributions in the source and receiving regions. Here, we analyse the native and alien geographic ranges of all 1567 plant species that have been introduced between eastern Asia and North America or have been introduced to both regions from elsewhere. The results reveal correlations between the spread of exotics and both the native species richness and transportation networks of recipient regions. This suggests that both species interactions and human-aided dispersal influence exotic distributions, although further work on the relative importance of these processes is needed. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Cloudwater chemistry from ten sites in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Weathers, K.C.; Likens, G.E.; Bormann, F.H.; Bicknell, S.H.; Bormann, B.T.; Daube, B.C. Jr.; Eaton, J.S.; Galloway, J.N.; Keene, W.C.; Kimball, K.D.

    1988-09-01

    Cloudwater and rainwater samples were collected at 2.5 m above ground during 2 years from 10 nonurban sites in North America. On the average, cloudwater collected from sites in the eastern United States was more acidic and had higher concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ than that at sites in the western United States and Puerto Rico. Of all the sites in the network, cloudwater from Maine had the highest concentrations of these ions. Concentrations of hydrogen ion, nitrate, and sulfate were significantly higher in cloudwater than in rainwater at most sites; however, on a paired-event basis, enrichment factors for cloud vs rain varied greatly. In contrast to distributions of inorganic anions, the concentrations of formate and acetate in cloudwater and rainwater were similar at sites in the western and eastern United States, suggesting that these compounds originated primarily with natural rather than anthropogenic sources.

  20. New Heat Flow Map of North and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, D.; Lewis, T. J.; Majorowicz, J.; Mareschal, J.

    2004-05-01

    A new heat flow map of North and Central America has been compiled. The map is based on all the available standard heat flow measurements on land and marine heat flow data, as well as on bottom hole temperature data, and constraints from geothermal springs. This new map confirms many established trends and improves the information on small scale heat flow variations. Both on the continent and in the oceans, there is a strong contrast between the eastern and the western parts of North America. For the oceanic part, the heat flow is high in the Pacific and heat flow contours closely follow the age of the sea floor. The heat flow is lower in the Atlantic than in the Pacific, but it also follows the age of the sea floor. There are small scale heat flow variations in the Labrador Sea and on the margin of Nova Scotia that do not fit a clear pattern. On the continent, heat flow variations occur at many different scales with a strong contrast between the low heat flow in the stable eastern provinces (30-60 {mW~m-2}) and high heat flow in the active western provinces (>60 {mW~m-2}) . The very low heat flow (<40 {mW~m-2}) on the east slopes of the Appalachians, Florida, and in the Gulf of Mexico are possibly due to the effect of groundwater flow and sediment deposition. There are small scale variations in heat flow within the Appalachians, the Canadian Shield, and the stable platform due to variations in crustal heat generation. In the dominantly high heat flow regions of Mexico, the western US and Canada, and Alaska, a striking contrast is formed by a low heat flow band (<45 {mW~m-2}) parallel to the present and past subduction zones. The map and CD Rom containing all the relevant information are available from the American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

  1. Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D. Smith,; Dan Jaffe,; Michele Birmele,; Griffin, Dale W.; Andrew Schuerger,; Hee, J.; Michael Roberts,

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are abundant in the troposphere and can be transported vast distances on prevailing winds. This study measures the abundance and diversity of airborne bacteria and fungi sampled at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (located 2.7 km above sea level in North America) where incoming free tropospheric air routinely arrives from distant sources across the Pacific Ocean, including Asia. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentrations for microorganisms in the free troposphere, derived from quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, averaged 4.94 × 10(-5) ng DNA m(-3) for bacteria and 4.77 × 10(-3) ng DNA m(-3) for fungi. Aerosols occasionally corresponded with microbial abundance, most often in the springtime. Viable cells were recovered from 27.4 % of bacterial and 47.6 % of fungal samples (N = 124), with 49 different species identified by ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The number of microbial isolates rose significantly above baseline values on 22-23 April 2011 and 13-15 May 2011. Both events were analyzed in detail, revealing distinct free tropospheric chemistries (e.g., low water vapor, high aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone) useful for ruling out boundary layer contamination. Kinematic back trajectory modeling suggested air from these events probably originated near China or Japan. Even after traveling for 10 days across the Pacific Ocean in the free troposphere, diverse and viable microbial populations, including presumptive plant pathogens Alternaria infectoria and Chaetomium globosum, were detected in Asian air samples. Establishing a connection between the intercontinental transport of microorganisms and specific diseases in North America will require follow-up investigations on both sides of the Pacific Ocean.

  2. Relationship of ozone and carbon monoxide over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Jacob, Daniel J.; Munger, J. William; Parrish, David D.; Doddridge, Bruce G.

    1994-01-01

    Observations at sites in eastern North America show a strong correlation between O3 and CO concentrations in summer, with a consistent slope DeltaO3/DeltaCO approximately = 0.3. Observations in the aged Denver plume at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, also show a strong correlation but with DeltaO3/DeltaCO = 0.15. These data offer a sensitive test for evaluating the ability of photochemical models to simulate production of O3 over North America and its export to the global atmosphere. Application to the Harvard/Goddard Institute for Space Studies three-dimensional, continental-scale model shows that the model gives a good simulation of the observed O3-CO correlations and of the associated DeltaO3/DeltaCO. This successful simulation lends support to model estimates of 6 Gmol/d for the net O3 production in the U.S. boundary layer in summer (corresponding to a net O3 production efficiency of 5.5, which is the number of O3 molecules produced per molecule of NOx consumed) and 70% for the fraction of the net production that is exported to the global atmosphere. Export of U.S. pollution appears to make a significant contribution to total tropospheric O3 over the northern hemisphere in summer. Simple interpretation of observed DeltaO3/DeltaCO as an O3/CO anthropogenic enhancement ratio is shown to underestimate substantially anthropogenic O3 production, because O3 and CO concentrations are negatively correlated in the absence of photochemistry. It is also shown that concurrent observations of DeltaO3/DeltaCO and DeltaO3/Delta(NO(y)-NO(x)) ratios can be used to impose lower and upper limits on the net O3 production efficiency.

  3. Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J; Jaffe, Daniel A; Birmele, Michele N; Griffin, Dale W; Schuerger, Andrew C; Hee, Jonathan; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    Microorganisms are abundant in the troposphere and can be transported vast distances on prevailing winds. This study measures the abundance and diversity of airborne bacteria and fungi sampled at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (located 2.7 km above sea level in North America) where incoming free tropospheric air routinely arrives from distant sources across the Pacific Ocean, including Asia. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentrations for microorganisms in the free troposphere, derived from quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, averaged 4.94 × 10(-5) ng DNA m(-3) for bacteria and 4.77 × 10(-3) ng DNA m(-3) for fungi. Aerosols occasionally corresponded with microbial abundance, most often in the springtime. Viable cells were recovered from 27.4 % of bacterial and 47.6 % of fungal samples (N = 124), with 49 different species identified by ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The number of microbial isolates rose significantly above baseline values on 22-23 April 2011 and 13-15 May 2011. Both events were analyzed in detail, revealing distinct free tropospheric chemistries (e.g., low water vapor, high aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone) useful for ruling out boundary layer contamination. Kinematic back trajectory modeling suggested air from these events probably originated near China or Japan. Even after traveling for 10 days across the Pacific Ocean in the free troposphere, diverse and viable microbial populations, including presumptive plant pathogens Alternaria infectoria and Chaetomium globosum, were detected in Asian air samples. Establishing a connection between the intercontinental transport of microorganisms and specific diseases in North America will require follow-up investigations on both sides of the Pacific Ocean.

  4. Organic nitrogen in precipitation over Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keene, W. C.; Montag, J. A.; Maben, J. R.; Southwell, M.; Leonard, J.; Church, T. M.; Moody, J. L.; Galloway, J. N.

    A measurement technique was developed to reliably quantify organic nitrogen (ON) in ambient, wet-only precipitation. Samples were frozen during collection and subsequently divided into two aliquots. One set was stored at -170°C and analyzed for total N (TN) via high-temperature combustion to NO and detection by chemiluminescence; the other set was sterilized with CHCl 3, stored refrigerated, and analyzed for NH 4+ by automated colorimetry and for NO 3-, and NO 2- by ion chromatography. ON was inferred by difference. Analysis of paired, untreated aliquots stored for 30 and 41 days at different temperatures revealed substantial conversion of NH 4+ to ON at room temperature and significant losses (16% and 23%) of NH 4+ (presumably to biota growing on bottle walls) in refrigerated samples. Analytes in frozen and sterilized samples were stable. Volume-weighted ON concentrations for precipitation sampled at Charlottesville, Virginia (VA), Newark, Delaware (DE), and New Castle, New Hampshire (NH; 3.1, 4.2, and 0.6 μM N, respectively) and corresponding contributions to volume-weighted TN (6.5%, 7.8%, and 2.6%, respectively) are at the lower limit of published values for eastern North America and elsewhere. Methodological differences contribute to the apparent variability among these reported sample statistics. Volume-weighted ON concentrations were generally highest during spring and were lowest during summer. Due to the combined influence of unmeasured ON and loss of NH 4+ from inadequately preserved samples, current estimates for the wet deposition of atmospheric N to eastern North America based on data from national networks may be underestimated by 10-20%.

  5. Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J; Jaffe, Daniel A; Birmele, Michele N; Griffin, Dale W; Schuerger, Andrew C; Hee, Jonathan; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    Microorganisms are abundant in the troposphere and can be transported vast distances on prevailing winds. This study measures the abundance and diversity of airborne bacteria and fungi sampled at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (located 2.7 km above sea level in North America) where incoming free tropospheric air routinely arrives from distant sources across the Pacific Ocean, including Asia. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentrations for microorganisms in the free troposphere, derived from quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, averaged 4.94 × 10(-5) ng DNA m(-3) for bacteria and 4.77 × 10(-3) ng DNA m(-3) for fungi. Aerosols occasionally corresponded with microbial abundance, most often in the springtime. Viable cells were recovered from 27.4 % of bacterial and 47.6 % of fungal samples (N = 124), with 49 different species identified by ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The number of microbial isolates rose significantly above baseline values on 22-23 April 2011 and 13-15 May 2011. Both events were analyzed in detail, revealing distinct free tropospheric chemistries (e.g., low water vapor, high aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone) useful for ruling out boundary layer contamination. Kinematic back trajectory modeling suggested air from these events probably originated near China or Japan. Even after traveling for 10 days across the Pacific Ocean in the free troposphere, diverse and viable microbial populations, including presumptive plant pathogens Alternaria infectoria and Chaetomium globosum, were detected in Asian air samples. Establishing a connection between the intercontinental transport of microorganisms and specific diseases in North America will require follow-up investigations on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. PMID:22760734

  6. A Sharp Edge of the Cratonic Lithosphere of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, T. B.; Skryzalin, P. A.; Menke, W. H.; Levin, V. L.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using teleseismic travel time delays, we develop a tomographic model of the lithosphere beneath northeastern North America, from the shore of James Bay in Quebec to the Atlantic coast of New England and to a depth of 300 km. Three major terranes lie within this cratonic margin: the 2.7 Ga Superior province, the 1 Ga Grenville orogenic belt and the 0.3-0.4 Ga Appalachian terranes, which are bounded by the Grenville Front (GF) and Appalachian Front (AF), respectively. Additionally, the 0.8 Ga Avalon terrain was accreted to coastal New England by strike-skip faulting during the Appalachian orogeny. Our tomographic model uses earthquake seismograms recorded by permanent US and Canadian stations, the Transportable Array and the temporary QMIII deployment. All data were corrected for instrument response and record sections were examined visually to identify gross errors in response and timing. Differential arrival times of P and PKP waves were determined by cross-correlation and have a maximum amplitude of about ±1 second. In our model, lithospheric boundaries do not correlate well with geological boundaries, nor do they strike parallel to them. The seismically-fast (by 5% relative to AK135) cratonic lithosphere of North America is much thicker than that of the younger terranes, extending to 200 km or more depth but with a sharp east-dipping eastern edge located (at Moho depths) 100-250 km northwest of the GF. The lithosphere beneath the Grenville and Appalachian terranes, which were affected by subduction during the Grenville and Appalachian orogenies, is slower (by 4%). A sliver of seismically-fast lithosphere, extending to ~150 km depth, occurs along the Atlantic coast and is interpreted as the Avalonian lithosphere.

  7. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.

    Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).

    Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.

    To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan

  8. Pre-Islamic Religious Monuments in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, César

    I review data on the orientations of pre-Islamic religious monuments in North Africa dating from the 5th century BC to the 7th century AD and covering most of the present-day Maghreb, from Western Libya to Morocco. A sample of more than 100 Roman temples shows a rather random orientation pattern except for those dedicated to Saturn, which follow a clear relation to the rising sun or moon. This group of temples were built over previous sanctuaries dedicated to the Punic god Baal Hammon. In fact, a sample of genuine Punic sanctuaries presents a similar orientation pattern. I also discuss evidence of remarkable astronomical markers found in several of the temples. Christian churches of this area, among the earliest ones erected in the Mediterranean, also show a clear lunisolar orientation pattern.

  9. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  10. North America as an exotic terrane'' and the origin of the Appalachian--Andean Mountain system

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D; Gahagan, L.M. . Inst. for Geophysics); Dalla Salda, L.H. . Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas)

    1992-01-01

    North America was sutured to Gondwana in the terminal Alleghanian event of Appalachian orogenesis, thus completing the late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The suggestion that the Pacific margins of East Antarctica-Australia and Laurentia may have been juxtaposed during the Neoproterozoic prompts reevaluation of the widely held assumptions that the ancestral Appalachian margin rifted from northwestern Africa during the earliest Paleozoic opening of Iapetus, and remained juxtaposed to that margin, even though widely separated from it at times, until the assembly of Pangea. The lower Paleozoic carbonate platform of northwestern Argentina has been known for a long time to contain Olenellid trilobites of the Pacific or Columbian realm. Although normally regarded as some kind of far-travelled terrane that originated along the Appalachian margin of Laurentia, it has recently been interpreted as a fragment detached from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia following Taconic-Famatinian collision with Gondwana during the Ordovician. The Oaxaca terrane of Mexico, on the other hand, contains a Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Argentine-Bolivian affinities, and appears to have been detached from Gondwana following the same collision. The Wilson cycle'' of Iapetus ocean basin opening and closing along the Appalachian and Andean orogens may have involved more than one such continental collision during clockwise drift of Laurentia around South America following late Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian separation. Together with the collisions of baltic and smaller terranes with Laurentia, this could explain the protracted Paleozoic orogenic history of both the Appalachian and proto-Andean orogens.

  11. Monitoring the quality of medicines: results from Africa, Asia, and South America.

    PubMed

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M; Lukulay, Patrick H

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003-2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines.

  12. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Some MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina who then expressed interest in collaborating on linking computer modeling of MAGSAT data to tectionic and metallogenic interpretation for South America and in making the final interpretation. Modeling continues with the preparation of a synopsis tectonic map of South America and the initiation of semi-final modeling of northern South America.

  13. Forest losses predict bird extinctions in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Pimm, S L; Askins, R A

    1995-09-26

    Claims that there will be a massive loss of species as tropical forests are cleared are based on the relationship between habitat area and the number of species. Few studies calibrate extinction with habitat reduction. Critics raise doubts about this calibration, noting that there has been extensive clearing of the eastern North American forest, yet only 4 of its approximately 200 bird species have gone extinct. We analyze the distribution of bird species and the timing and extent of forest loss. The forest losses were not concurrent across the region. Based on the maximum extent of forest losses, our calculations predict fewer extinctions than the number observed. At most, there are 28 species of birds restricted to the region. Only these species would be at risk even if all the forests were cleared. Far from providing comfort to those who argue that the current rapid rate of tropical deforestation might cause fewer extinctions than often claimed, our results suggest that the losses may be worse. In contrast to eastern North America, small regions of tropical forest often hold hundreds of endemic bird species.

  14. Forest losses predict bird extinctions in eastern North America.

    PubMed Central

    Pimm, S L; Askins, R A

    1995-01-01

    Claims that there will be a massive loss of species as tropical forests are cleared are based on the relationship between habitat area and the number of species. Few studies calibrate extinction with habitat reduction. Critics raise doubts about this calibration, noting that there has been extensive clearing of the eastern North American forest, yet only 4 of its approximately 200 bird species have gone extinct. We analyze the distribution of bird species and the timing and extent of forest loss. The forest losses were not concurrent across the region. Based on the maximum extent of forest losses, our calculations predict fewer extinctions than the number observed. At most, there are 28 species of birds restricted to the region. Only these species would be at risk even if all the forests were cleared. Far from providing comfort to those who argue that the current rapid rate of tropical deforestation might cause fewer extinctions than often claimed, our results suggest that the losses may be worse. In contrast to eastern North America, small regions of tropical forest often hold hundreds of endemic bird species. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607581

  15. Large-scale studies of marked birds in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tautin, J.; Metras, L.; Smith, G.

    1999-01-01

    The first large-scale, co-operative, studies of marked birds in North America were attempted in the 1950s. Operation Recovery, which linked numerous ringing stations along the east coast in a study of autumn migration of passerines, and the Preseason Duck Ringing Programme in prairie states and provinces, conclusively demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale projects. The subsequent development of powerful analytical models and computing capabilities expanded the quantitative potential for further large-scale projects. Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship, and Adaptive Harvest Management are current examples of truly large-scale programmes. Their exemplary success and the availability of versatile analytical tools are driving changes in the North American bird ringing programme. Both the US and Canadian ringing offices are modifying operations to collect more and better data to facilitate large-scale studies and promote a more project-oriented ringing programme. New large-scale programmes such as the Cornell Nest Box Network are on the horizon.

  16. The role of broadcasting in health promotion in North America.

    PubMed

    Haslam, C

    1986-01-01

    The range in the choice of viewing available to the British public by the end of the century could, and probably will, look much like that currently available to American viewers. This paper examines the implications to be drawn from American experience in determining future strategies for health promotion broadcasting in the UK. During a visit to the United States and Canada, sponsored by the King Edward's Hospital Fund for London, the author looked at the historical development and background to broadcasting services across North America and Canada, and at current policies and practice in broadcasting for the promotion of health. The first section provides an overview of the North American broadcasting systems, both the United States and Canada. The role of commercial interests is explored, particularly in relation to the existence and form of health promotion programming. The involvement of health professionals and community activists in the production of audio-visual material is discussed, particularly in the light of the competitive and pluralist nature of the television industry. The interests of the media professionals in promoting high audience ratings by attracting the attention of the public and holding it have their pros and cons for medical policy-makers. The shortcomings of the present situation in the United States where health and media professionals act not as educational partners but as business colleagues (so that viewers and patients are treated as consumers) forms a recurrent theme in the second section of the survey.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Pollution Transport From North America to Greenland During Summer 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, K. S.; Marelle, L.; Ancellet, G.; Ravetta, F.; Fast, Jerome D.; Pfister, G.; Emmons, L.; Diskin, G. S.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.

    2013-04-10

    Ozone pollution transported to the Arctic is a significant concern because of the rapid, enhanced warming in high northern latitudes, which is caused, in part, by short lived climate forcers, such as ozone. Long range transport of pollution contributes to background and episodic ozone levels in the Arctic. However, the extent to which plumes are photochemically active during transport, particularly during the summer, is uncertain. Regional chemical transport model simulations are used to examine photochemical production of ozone in air masses originating from boreal fire and anthropogenic emissions over North America and during their transport toward the Arctic during early July 2008. Model results shows good agreement with aircraft data collected over boreal fire source regions in Canada and several days downwind over Greenland during the study period. Pollutant plumes were transported east and north towards the Arctic and show significant ozone enhancements downwind of source regions. Anthropogenic plumes were more photochemically active than fire plumes. Together, both sources made an important contribution to ozone in pollution plumes transported to the Arctic.

  18. Pollution transport from North America to Greenland during summer 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, K. S.; Marelle, L.; Ancellet, G.; Ravetta, F.; Fast, Jerome D.; Pfister, G.; Emmons, L.; Diskin, G. S.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.

    2013-04-10

    Ozone pollution transported to the Arctic is a significant concern because of the rapid, enhanced warming in high northern latitudes, which is caused, in part, by short lived climate forcers, such as ozone. Long range transport of pollution contributes to background and episodic ozone levels in the Arctic. However, the extent to which plumes are photochemically active during transport, particularly during the summer, is uncertain. Regional chemical transport model simulations are used to examine photochemical production 8 of ozone in air masses originating from boreal fire and anthropogenic emissions over North America and during their transport toward the Arctic during early July 2008. Model results shows good agreement with aircraft data collected over boreal fire source regions in Canada and several days down-wind over Greenland during the study period. Pollutant plumes were transported east and north towards the Arctic and show significant ozone enhancements downwind of source regions. Anthropogenic plumes were more photochemically active than fire plumes. Together, both sources made an important contribution to ozone in pollution plumes transported to the Arctic.

  19. A short history of pediatric endocrinology in North America.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Delbert A

    2004-04-01

    Pediatric endocrinology evolved as a subspecialty from the era of biochemical and metabolic clinical investigation led by John Howland, Edwards Park, and James Gamble at Johns Hopkins; Allan Butler at Boston University and Harvard University; Daniel Darrow at Yale University; and Irving McQuarrie at the University of Rochester and the University of Minnesota during the early 20th century. The father of the new subspecialty was Lawson Wilkins, a private pediatric practitioner in Baltimore, Maryland, who was invited by Dr. Edwards Park to establish an endocrine clinic at the Harriet Lane Home at Johns Hopkins in 1935. Dr. Wilkins managed his practice and the clinic until 1946, when, at the age of 52, he accepted a full-time position at the University. Dr. Nathan Talbot was invited to develop a pediatric endocrine clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital by Allan Butler in 1942. These units and their associated subspecialty training programs during the 1950s and 1960s provided the large majority of the second-generation pediatric endocrinologists who went on to establish endocrine subspecialty programs in university medical centers in North America as well as Europe and South America. Diabetes as a clinical pediatric discipline evolved in parallel from the early clinics of Elliott Joslin and Priscilla White in Boston, M.C. Hardin and Robert Jackson at the University of Iowa, George Guest at the University of Cincinnati Children's Hospital, and Alex Hartman at the St. Louis Children's Hospital. The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society was founded in 1971, and the Council on Diabetes and Youth was established within the American Diabetes Association in 1980. Medical and economic factors led to increasing integration of pediatric diabetes and general endocrine care and training, and diabetes care now is a major activity within the subspecialty of pediatric endocrinology. The growth of pediatric endocrinology in North America has paralleled the growth of academic

  20. Continental fossil vertebrates from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Brazil, and their relationship with contemporaneous faunas from North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Fanti, Federico; Therrien, François; Lamanna, Matthew C.

    2011-05-01

    The Albian-Cenomanian Alcântara Formation of northeastern Brazil preserves the most diverse continental vertebrate fauna of this age yet known from northern South America. The Alcântara vertebrate assemblage, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs, displays close similarities to contemporaneous faunas from North Africa. The co-occurrence of as many as eight freshwater or estuarine fish taxa ( Onchopristis, Bartschichthys, Lepidotes, Stephanodus, Mawsonia, Arganodus, Ceratodus africanus, and possibly Ceratodus humei) and up to seven terrestrial archosaur taxa ( Sigilmassasaurus, Rebbachisauridae, Baryonychinae, Spinosaurinae, Carcharodontosauridae, possibly Pholidosauridae, and doubtfully Bahariasaurus) suggests that a land route connecting northeastern Brazil and North Africa existed at least until the Albian. Interestingly, most components of this mid-Cretaceous northern South American/North African assemblage are not shared with coeval southern South American faunas, which are themselves characterized by a number of distinct freshwater and terrestrial vertebrate taxa (e.g., chelid turtles, megaraptoran and unenlagiine theropods). These results suggest that, although mid-Cretaceous faunal interchange was probably possible between northern South America and North Africa, paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, and/or paleoenvironmental barriers may have hindered continental vertebrate dispersal between northern and southern South America during this time.

  1. Early Jurassic Dikes as Tectonic Features in Northeastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, J. G.

    2001-05-01

    Five great dolerite dike systems extend for hundreds of km through northeastern North America. Each dike system contains a distinct tholeiite magma that was generated during the massive igneous paroxysm of 201 Ma (near the Tr-J boundary), and which is part of the enormous central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP) that preceded the breakup of Pangaea. The individual dike basalts formed via mantle melting and fractionation processes that remain somewhat mysterious, but magmatic pulses of more than 50,000 km3 are evidenced by surface lavas, sills, and large dikes. The dikes crossed several active Mesozoic rift basins and interacted with some extensional basin faults, and they also produced large sills and lava flows within and above Triassic basin strata. Both the basins and the dikes show local trend changes that apparently reflect lithospheric-orogenic fabrics and/or Mesozoic stress systems, as understood from surface observations (maps and measurements). However, the regional trends and distribution of the dikes do not correspond well with the geography and geometry of basin structures. How can rift-dike fractures be independent of contemporaneous rift-basin faults? Unlike the upper-crustal structures that are mapped as basin controls, the dikes represent much deeper lithospheric fractures that were initiated by upper-mantle dynamics. The process of dike propagation should be similar to hydrofracturing, in which the confining stress pattern is more influential than the anisotropy of the surrounding rock. The dikes intruded both vertically and laterally through the lithosphere as their infilling magmas moved rapidly from individual (?) mantle or deep-lithospheric source zones, a process rarely observed but which is modelled through geophysics and experimental petrology. Despite only small age differences, North American dike systems formed in overlapping swarms with variable trends from NW-SE to N-S to NE-SW along 2500 km of eastern North America. These trends must

  2. How do Biomass Burning Carbon Monixide Emissions from South America influence Satellite Observed Columns over Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, M. C.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.

    2015-12-01

    Large amounts of Carbon Monoxide (CO) are emitted during biomass burning events. These emissions severely perturb the atmospheric composition. For this reason, satellite observations of CO can help to constrain emissions from biomass burning. Other sources of CO, such as the production of CO from naturally emitted non-methane hydrocarbons, may interfere with CO from biomass burning and inverse modeling efforts to estimate biomass burning emissions have to account for these CO sources. The atmospheric lifetime of CO varies from weeks to months, depending on the availability of atmospheric OH for atmospheric oxidation of CO to carbon dioxide. This means that CO can be transported over relatively long distances. It also implies that satellite-observed CO does not necessarily originate from the underlying continent, but may be caused by distant emissions transported to the observation location. In this presentation we focus on biomass burning emissions from South America and Southern Africa during 2010. This year was particularly dry over South America with a large positive anomaly in biomass burning in the 2010 burning season (July-October). We will adress the question how CO plumes from South America biomass burning influence satellite observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument over Southern Africa. For this we employ the TM5 atmospheric chemistry model, with 1x1 degree zoom resolutions over Africa and South America. Also, we use the TM5-4DVAR code to estimate CO biomass burning emissions using IASI CO observations. The accompanying image shows IASI CO oberservations over Africa on August 27, 2010, compared to the columns simulated with TM5. Clear signs of intercontinental transport from South America are visible over the Southermost region.

  3. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North... application to voyages on the Great Lakes or portions thereof unless specifically provided otherwise in...

  4. Evaluating the Old World Drought Atlas in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchan, Ramzi; Kherchouche, Dalila; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Slimani, Said; Krcmaric, Jordan A.; Meko, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Drought is a focal point in the assessment of hydroclimatic variability in the Mediterranean Basin. The Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA) by Cook et al. (2015) was the starting point for understanding several centuries of drought occurrence, duration, and severity over all of Europe including the Mediterranean Basin. Here, we investigate the extension of the OWDA to North Africa (NA), specifically Algeria, since droughts there can have drastic social and economic impacts. Pearson correlations were used to gauge strength of the relationship of gridded reconstructed series from OWDA (-0.25° W-34°.25N, 34°.75N, 35°.25N, and 35°.75N) with 27 tree-ring chronologies from various species from Algeria. Correlations range from 0.35 (p < 0.0001) to 0.025 (p >0.627), and suggest the OWDA does not fully reflect the regional drought patterns in parts of Algeria and nearby NA. Lower correlations between local tree-ring chronologies and OWDA grids are related to the lack of tree-ring chronologies from Algeria within the OWDA. Work is ongoing to blend existing chronologies from the Mediterranean region with newly developed chronologies from currently under-sampled parts of NA and generate a Mediterranean Basin Drought Atlas (MBDA) that chronicles spatiotemporal drought variability over the past few centuries to millennium. The MBDA will complement the OWDA, the existing 'North American Drought Atlas' (NADA), and the 'Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas' (MADA) in charting drought history of the Northern Hemisphere.

  5. Geological Society of America Special Paper 297: Archaeological Geology of the Archaic Period in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalan, R. A.

    The Archaic was the longest cultural period in the prehistory of North America. Although the timing and duration of the period vary regionally, it spans roughly the six millennia between 8,000 and 2,000 years before present. A number of important cultural changes took place during the Archaic period, including a move toward sedentism, the refinement of a sophisticated hunting and gathering economy coupled with the cultivation of indigenous plants, and interaction and trade among people in distant areas.Given the length of this period and the significance of the cultural transitions that occurred, one would expect that archaeological understanding of Archaic cultures would be thorough. This is not the case, however, and this volume underscores one of the primary reasons why our knowledge is so fragmentary: physical changes that occurred in the land during the Holocene make it difficult to identify Archaic sites.

  6. 75 FR 20390 - Robert Bosch LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital, Huffmaster Inc., and Williamson Employment... Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital, Huffmaster Inc., and Williamson Employment..., including on-site leased workers of Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community...

  7. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.Ch.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984, an increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North Africa ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was up 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries.

  8. Sedimentary basins on the connugate margins of South America and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T. )

    1990-05-01

    An Early Cretaceous spreading system formed the South Atlantic by separating South America from Africa along two subparallel major transform fault systems. The distribution of major sedimentary depocenters is controlled by the complex interplay of two factors: the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of sea-floor spreading and the legacy of a Precambrian collage of ancient cores that comprised western Gondwana. Three spreading modes created this configuration: rift, transform, and subduction. Each produces a different geometry and tectonic framework for the accumulation of sediment. Rifted margins (60%) contain basins that are elongate, form with their depocenter axes inboard of the ocean-continent transition, and rest on a tectonically complex, foundered basement. Transform margins have abrupt ocean-continent transitions. Such margins (30%) may be sediment starved or contain a thick sedimentary section controlled by the volcanic ridges of transform faults. Off Tierra del Fuego, Burdwood Bank is bounded on the north by a fossil (aseismic) subduction zone. The associated basin is an elongate, deformed accretionary prism of sediments on a gently dipping, faulted oceanic plate. The South Atlantic margins are divisible into 68 basins or segments that collectively contain over 33 {times} 106 km{sup 3} of syn- and postbreakup sediments. The South American margin contains 22 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 3} in 46 basins, and the African margin, 11 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 3} in 22 basins. Over 65% of the basins have a sediment column greater than 5 km with some depocenters that locally exceed 10 km. The source rock quality and character vary along both margins. The top of the oil generation window averages about 3.3 km; however, due to differing thermal histories, individual basins can depart significantly from this average.

  9. Proposal for a comprehensive vertical datum for North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Roman, D. R.; Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.; Youngman, M.

    2013-05-01

    As part of its Ten Year Strategic Plan (2013-2023), the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) of the USA is planning to replace the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) by the year 2022. The replacement vertical datum will be defined through a gravimetric geoid model and accessed via GNSS technology, in direct contrast to the definition and access of NAVD 88, which is through passive, generally unmonitored benchmarks connected through geodetic leveling. A USA-Canada-Mexico joint effort is underway to compute a single geoid model by 2022 for the entire region, which can be adopted as the vertical datum reference surface by all countries within the area. The proposed area ranges from the North Pole to the Equator and from the Aleutian Islands (in the west) to the islands of Newfoundland (in the east). As such, the entirety of the Caribbean Sea, all of Central America, all of Hawaii, plus parts of Greenland and South America will be covered. This will allow one singular, unified vertical datum to be accessible to every country in the region, alleviating the need for island-by-island vertical datums as is currently the case. A major component of the geoid modeling effort is NGS's GRAV-D project (Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum). That project has a two-fold approach: First, to collect a static, accurate "snapshot" of the entire gravity field. This is primarily being done through airborne gravity collection over the USA and its territories, as well as through improvements in and additions to terrestrial data holdings. A second, long-term effort of GRAV D is to monitor the geoid over time. This talk will discuss the prospects of improving the static gravity field holdings outside of the USA and its territories, including a discussion on existing holdings, data gaps and NGS's desire for potential collaborations with interested countries in the region both before and after the 2022 datum change.

  10. Mercury and methylmercury in aquatic sediment across western North America.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Jacob A; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Lutz, Michelle A; Tate, Michael; Alpers, Charles N; Hall, Britt D; Krabbenhoft, David P; Eckley, Chris S

    2016-10-15

    Large-scale assessments are valuable in identifying primary factors controlling total mercury (THg) and monomethyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations, and distribution in aquatic ecosystems. Bed sediment THg and MeHg concentrations were compiled for >16,000 samples collected from aquatic habitats throughout the West between 1965 and 2013. The influence of aquatic feature type (canals, estuaries, lakes, and streams), and environmental setting (agriculture, forest, open-water, range, wetland, and urban) on THg and MeHg concentrations was examined. THg concentrations were highest in lake (29.3±6.5μgkg(-1)) and canal (28.6±6.9μgkg(-1)) sites, and lowest in stream (20.7±4.6μgkg(-1)) and estuarine (23.6±5.6μgkg(-1)) sites, which was partially a result of differences in grain size related to hydrologic gradients. By environmental setting, open-water (36.8±2.2μgkg(-1)) and forested (32.0±2.7μgkg(-1)) sites generally had the highest THg concentrations, followed by wetland sites (28.9±1.7μgkg(-1)), rangeland (25.5±1.5μgkg(-1)), agriculture (23.4±2.0μgkg(-1)), and urban (22.7±2.1μgkg(-1)) sites. MeHg concentrations also were highest in lakes (0.55±0.05μgkg(-1)) and canals (0.54±0.11μgkg(-1)), but, in contrast to THg, MeHg concentrations were lowest in open-water sites (0.22±0.03μgkg(-1)). The median percent MeHg (relative to THg) for the western region was 0.7%, indicating an overall low methylation efficiency; however, a significant subset of data (n>100) had percentages that represent elevated methylation efficiency (>6%). MeHg concentrations were weakly correlated with THg (r(2)=0.25) across western North America. Overall, these results highlight the large spatial variability in sediment THg and MeHg concentrations throughout western North America and underscore the important roles that landscape and land-use characteristics have on the MeHg cycle. PMID:27130329

  11. Magnitude and Carbon Consequences of Forest Management in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Kurz, W.; de Jong, B. H.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon balance of forests depends on the type, frequency and severity of recent disturbances (carbon source) and the rate of recovery from past disturbance (carbon sink). Harvest and land cover conversion represent significant forest disturbance agents over much of North America. For example, pine forests in the southeastern US are typically harvested at ~20 year intervals, and may occupy about half the regional landscape, resulting in regional landscape turnover rates of 2-3% per year. Inventory data are the primary source for quantifying information on harvest and conversion in the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Recent inventory data from these countries indicate timber production of 424 million cu m, 163 million cu m, and 7 million cu m, respectively, with significant year-to-year variability associated with wood products demand and timber price. Areas affected by harvest activity vary as well, with 3.97 Mha (million hectares) and 1.04 Mha affected by harvest in the US and Canada, respectively. Forest cover conversion (deforestation) is thought to be relatively minor in the US and Canada, but recent estimates suggest that forest and woodland cover in Mexico declined by 300-500 Kha/yr during the 1990’s. Recently, satellite remote sensing data products on forest change have been generated that complement the traditional inventory approach. These products are particularly useful for “wall-to-wall” estimates of forest conversion and tracking small disturbances. The type and severity of disturbance cannot be easily determined using satellite observations, however, and therefore some care must be taken to reconcile these products with ground-based data. In this talk we review available resources for characterizing “carbon relevant” information on the magnitude (area, type of activity) of forest management in North America, and attempt a first-order comparison between remote sensing and inventory estimates. We also discuss strategies that might be employed to

  12. Predicting Pleistocene climate from vegetation in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehle, C.

    2007-02-01

    Climates at the Last Glacial Maximum have been inferred from fossil pollen assemblages, but these inferred climates are colder for eastern North America than those produced by climate simulations. It has been suggested that low CO2 levels could account for this discrepancy. In this study biogeographic evidence is used to test the CO2 effect model. The recolonization of glaciated zones in eastern North America following the last ice age produced distinct biogeographic patterns. It has been assumed that a wide zone south of the ice was tundra or boreal parkland (Boreal-Parkland Zone or BPZ), which would have been recolonized from southern refugia as the ice melted, but the patterns in this zone differ from those in the glaciated zone, which creates a major biogeographic anomaly. In the glacial zone, there are few endemics but in the BPZ there are many across multiple taxa. In the glacial zone, there are the expected gradients of genetic diversity with distance from the ice-free zone, but no evidence of this is found in the BPZ. Many races and related species exist in the BPZ which would have merged or hybridized if confined to the same refugia. Evidence for distinct southern refugia for most temperate species is lacking. Extinctions of temperate flora were rare. The interpretation of spruce as a boreal climate indicator may be mistaken over much of the region if the spruce was actually an extinct temperate species. All of these anomalies call into question the concept that climates in the zone south of the ice were extremely cold or that temperate species had to migrate far to the south. An alternate hypothesis is that low CO2 levels gave an advantage to pine and spruce, which are the dominant trees in the BPZ, and to herbaceous species over trees, which also fits the observed pattern. Thus climate reconstruction from pollen data is probably biased and needs to incorporate CO2 effects. Most temperate species could have survived across their current ranges at lower

  13. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984. An increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North America ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries. 9 figures, 27 tables.

  14. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.

    Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).

    Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.

    To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan

  15. Two Boundaries Separate Borrelia burgdorferi Populations in North America

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jean I.; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Girard, Yvette A.; Hamer, Sarah A.; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Lane, Robert S.; Raper, Steve L.; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the spread of infectious diseases is crucial for implementing effective control measures. For this, it is important to obtain information on the contemporary population structure of a disease agent and to infer the evolutionary processes that may have shaped it. Here, we investigate on a continental scale the population structure of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis (LB), a tick-borne disease, in North America. We test the hypothesis that the observed population structure is congruent with recent population expansions and that these were preceded by bottlenecks mostly likely caused by the near extirpation in the 1900s of hosts required for sustaining tick populations. Multilocus sequence typing and complementary population analytical tools were used to evaluate B. burgdorferi samples collected in the Northeastern, Upper Midwestern, and Far-Western United States and Canada. The spatial distribution of sequence types (STs) and inferred population boundaries suggest that the current populations are geographically separated. One major population boundary separated western B. burgdorferi populations transmitted by Ixodes pacificus in California from Eastern populations transmitted by I. scapularis; the other divided Midwestern and Northeastern populations. However, populations from all three regions were genetically closely related. Together, our findings suggest that although the contemporary populations of North American B. burgdorferi now comprise three geographically separated subpopulations with no or limited gene flow among them, they arose from a common ancestral population. A comparative analysis of the B. burgdorferi outer surface protein C (ospC) gene revealed novel linkages and provides additional insights into the genetic characteristics of strains. PMID:22729536

  16. Projected Spatial and Temporal Hydroclimatic Variations Across Southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. M.; Gutzler, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate across Southwestern North America (SWNA) is influenced by two distinct precipitation regimes. In much of the northern portion of the Southwest (roughly corresponding to the southwestern United States), midlatitude winter storm systems contribute the majority of total precipitation received each year. The southern portion of SWNA (roughly northwest Mexico) receives most of its total annual precipitation during the summer season via moist convection associated with the North American Monsoon. SWNA is projected to become drier throughout the 21st century as elevated temperatures force changes in the rates of evaporation and precipitation. This study uses climate model output to examine the relative roles of precipitation and evaporation, in the warm and cold seasons, to diagnose the cause(s) of the projected drying trend in the northern and southern halves of SWNA. We present an analysis of projected trends and variability of precipitation (P), evaporation (E), and the surface water budget (P-E) using output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five (CMIP5) archive. We split SWNA into northern and southern halves corresponding to the precipitation regimes described above, and show that both subregions become drier (i.e., negative trend in P-E) in CMIP5 projections of 21st century climate. The drying trend in the northern half of SWNA is primarily driven by an increase in evaporation during the extended winter season. Summer season drying is primarily a function of decreased precipitation. The drying trend for the southern portion of SWNA is driven by a decrease in precipitation during both the summer and winter seasons, with E playing a secondary role. For both averaging boxes and seasons, precipitation appears to account for most of the interannual variability in the surface water budget. The role of temperature variability in modulating P-E is small for interannual fluctuations, but accounts for a large fraction of century-scale drying in the

  17. Lithosphere structure beneath the Phanerozoic intracratonic basins of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Edouard; Jaupart, Claude

    2000-05-01

    Four intracratonic basins of North America, the Hudson Bay, Michigan, Illinois and Williston basins, have similar ages and are close to one another. Yet, they exhibit different subsidence histories characterised by different time-scales and sediment thicknesses. They can be explained by local lithosphere thinning and by the cooling of the induced thermal anomaly. Within the framework of 1D thermal models for vertical heat transport, each basin requires a different lithosphere thickness or a different boundary condition at the base of the lithosphere. Heat flow and seismic studies show that, beneath the North American craton, the lithosphere is too thick for the assumption of purely vertical heat transfer to be valid. Thermal models are developed to account for finite thermal anomaly width and for two types of basal boundary conditions, fixed temperature or fixed heat flux. Different subsidence histories are explained by deep lithospheric anomalies of different sizes. The stability of thick continental roots requires the mantle part of the lithosphere to be compositionally buoyant with respect to 'normal' convecting mantle. Localised lithospheric thinning, due for example to plume penetration, results in the emplacement of compositionally denser mantle into the lithosphere. This represents a load which drives permanent flexure. The cooling time and the characteristics of flexure allow constraints on the dimensions of these deep lithospheric anomalies. There are no solutions for lithosphere thicknesses less than 170 km. The Williston and Illinois basins are associated with wide (˜200 km) and thin anomalies (˜100 km), whereas the Michigan and Hudson Bay are located on top of narrow (˜100 km) and tall (˜200 km) anomalies.

  18. Climate directly influences Eocene mammal faunal dynamics in North America

    PubMed Central

    Woodburne, Michael O.; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Stucky, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    The modern effect of climate on plants and animals is well documented. Some have cautioned against assigning climate a direct role in Cenozoic land mammal faunal changes. We illustrate 3 episodes of significant mammalian reorganization in the Eocene of North America that are considered direct responses to dramatic climatic events. The first episode occurred during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), beginning the Eocene (55.8 Ma), and earliest Wasatchian North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA). The PETM documents a short (<170 k.y.) global temperature increase of ≈5 °C and a substantial increase in first appearances of mammals traced to climate-induced immigration. A 4-m.y. period of climatic and evolutionary stasis then ensued. The second climate episode, the late early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 53–50 Ma), is marked by a temperature increase to the highest prolonged Cenozoic ocean temperature and a similarly distinctive continental interior mean annual temperature (MAT) of 23 °C. This MAT increase [and of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to 150 cm/y) promoted a major increase in floral diversity and habitat complexity under temporally unique, moist, paratropical conditions. Subsequent climatic deterioration in a third interval, from 50 to 47 Ma, resulted in major faunal diversity loss at both continental and local scales. In this Bridgerian Crash, relative abundance shifted from very diverse, evenly represented, communities to those dominated by the condylarth Hyopsodus. Rather than being “optimum,” the EECO began the greatest episode of faunal turnover of the first 15 m.y. of the Cenozoic. PMID:19666605

  19. Climate directly influences Eocene mammal faunal dynamics in North America.

    PubMed

    Woodburne, Michael O; Gunnell, Gregg F; Stucky, Richard K

    2009-08-11

    The modern effect of climate on plants and animals is well documented. Some have cautioned against assigning climate a direct role in Cenozoic land mammal faunal changes. We illustrate 3 episodes of significant mammalian reorganization in the Eocene of North America that are considered direct responses to dramatic climatic events. The first episode occurred during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), beginning the Eocene (55.8 Ma), and earliest Wasatchian North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA). The PETM documents a short (<170 k.y.) global temperature increase of approximately 5 degrees C and a substantial increase in first appearances of mammals traced to climate-induced immigration. A 4-m.y. period of climatic and evolutionary stasis then ensued. The second climate episode, the late early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 53-50 Ma), is marked by a temperature increase to the highest prolonged Cenozoic ocean temperature and a similarly distinctive continental interior mean annual temperature (MAT) of 23 degrees C. This MAT increase [and of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to 150 cm/y) promoted a major increase in floral diversity and habitat complexity under temporally unique, moist, paratropical conditions. Subsequent climatic deterioration in a third interval, from 50 to 47 Ma, resulted in major faunal diversity loss at both continental and local scales. In this Bridgerian Crash, relative abundance shifted from very diverse, evenly represented, communities to those dominated by the condylarth Hyopsodus. Rather than being "optimum," the EECO began the greatest episode of faunal turnover of the first 15 m.y. of the Cenozoic. PMID:19666605

  20. The bow and arrow in northern North America.

    PubMed

    Maschner, Herbert; Mason, Owen K

    2013-01-01

    There were at least four waves of bow and arrow use in northern North America. These occurred at 12000, 4500, 2400, and after about 1300 years ago. But to understand the role of the bow and arrow in the north, one must begin in the eighteenth century, when the Russians first arrived in the Aleutian Islands. At that time, the Aleut were using both the atlatl and dart and the bow and arrow (Fig. ). This is significant for two particular and important reasons. First, there are few historic cases in which both technologies were used concurrently; second, the bow and arrow in the Aleutian Islands were used almost exclusively in warfare. The atlatl was a critical technology because the bow and arrow are useless for hunting sea mammals. One cannot launch an arrow from a kayak because it is too unstable and requires that both hands remain on a paddle. To use an atlatl, it is necessary only to stabilize the kayak with a paddle on one side and launch the atlatl dart with the opposite hand. The Aleut on the Alaska Peninsula did indeed use the bow and arrow to hunt caribou there. However, in the 1,400 km of the Aleutian Islands, there are no terrestrial mammals except humans and the bow was reserved almost exclusively for conflicts among them. The most significant event in the history of the bow and arrow is not its early introduction, but rather the Asian War Complex 1300 years ago, when the recurve and backed bows first entered the region, altering regional and hemispheric political dynamics forever. [Figure: see text].

  1. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  2. Towards a high resolution, integrated hydrology model of North America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate feedbacks between groundwater dynamics, overland flow, land surface and vegetation processes, and atmospheric boundary layer development that significantly affect local and regional climate across a range of climatic conditions. Furthermore, the type and distribution of vegetation cover alters land-atmosphere water and energy fluxes, as well as runoff generation and overland flow processes. These interactions can result in significant feedbacks on local and regional climate. In mountainous regions, recent research has shown that spatial and temporal variability in annual evapotranspiration, and thus water budgets, is strongly dependent on lateral groundwater flow; however, the full effects of these feedbacks across varied terrain (e.g. from plains to mountains) are not well understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, integrated hydrology model that covers much of continental North America and encompasses the Mississippi and Colorado watersheds. The model is run in a fully-transient manner at hourly temporal resolution incorporating fully-coupled land energy states and fluxes with integrated surface and subsurface hydrology. Connections are seen between hydrologic variables (such as water table depth) and land energy fluxes (such as latent heat) and spatial and temporal scaling is shown to span many orders of magnitude. Using these transient simulations as a proof of concept, we present a vision for future integrated simulation capabilities.

  3. The first vineyard concert hall in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Rivera, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    The first vineyard or surround concert hall designed and built in the Western Hemisphere is the Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City. The Hall was completed in 1976 and is part of the Cultural Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The hall was named after a Toltec poet, architect, and musician who lived in the 15th century and was the Renaissance man of his day. In order to provide the familiar traditional sound of the rectangular (shoebox) European Hall, the acoustic designers set the criteria for reverberation times through the frequency spectrum and the Initial Time Delay Gap at every seat in the house to match the measurements taken at the Grosser Musik vereinssaal in Vienna and Boston Symphony Hall. In this paper we discuss the techniques used to create the traditional sound in a vineyard hall and the reaction of musicians and audiences to the completed facility. The Sala was the model for Suntory Hall in Japan which in turn spawned a number of vineyard halls in Japan. Most recently, the vineyard style seems to be appealing to more and more symphonic organizations in Europe and North America.

  4. Phylogeography of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Talbot, S.L.; Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, B. J.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution, we examined levels and partitioning of genetic variation for seven nominal subspecies (11 breeding populations) of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America. Gene trees constructed from mtDNA control region sequence data show that subspecies of Canada Geese do not have distinct mtDNA. Large- and small-bodied forms of Canada Geese were highly diverged (0. 077 average sequence divergence) and represent monophyletic groups. A majority (65%) of 20 haplotypes resolved were observed in single breeding locales. However, within both large- and small-bodied forms certain haplotypes occurred across multiple subspecies. Population trees for both nuclear (microsatellites) and mitochondrial markers were generally concordant and provide resolution of population and subspecific relationships indicating incomplete lineage sorting. All populations and subspecies were genetically diverged, but to varying degrees. Analyses of molecular variance, nested-clade and coalescence-based analyses of mtDNA suggest that both historical (past fragmentation) and contemporary forces have been important in shaping current spatial genetic distributions. Gene flow appears to be ongoing though at different rates, even among currently recognized subspecies. The efficacy of current subspecific taxonomy is discussed in light of hypothesized historical vicariance and current demographic trends of management and conservation concern.

  5. Neurospora in temperate forests of western North America.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, David J; Powell, Amy J; Dettman, Jeremy R; Saenz, Gregory S; Barton, Magdalen M; Hiltz, Megan D; Dvorachek, William H; Glass, N Louise; Taylor, John W; Natvig, Donald O

    2004-01-01

    The fungal genus Neurospora has a distinguished history as a laboratory model in genetics and biochemistry. The most recent milestone in this history has been the sequencing of the genome of the best known species, N. crassa. The hope and promise of a complete genome sequence is a full understanding of the biology of the organism. Full understanding cannot be achieved, however, in the absence of fundamental knowledge of natural history. We report that species of Neurospora, heretofore thought to occur mainly in moist tropical and subtropical regions, are common primary colonizers of trees and shrubs killed by forest fires in western North America, in regions that are often cold and dry. Surveys in 36 forest-fire sites from New Mexico to Alaska yielded more than 500 cultures, 95% of which were the rarely collected N. discreta. Initial characterization of genotypes both within a site and on a single tree showed diversity consistent with sexual reproduction of N. discreta. These discoveries fill important gaps in knowledge of the distribution of members of the genus on both large and small spatial scales and provide the framework for future studies in new regions and microhabitats. The overall result is that population biology and genetics now can be combined, placing the genus Neurospora in a unique position to expand its role in experimental biology as a useful model organism for ecology, population genetics and evolution.

  6. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  7. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  8. Paleoindian large mammal hunters on the plains of North America

    PubMed Central

    Frison, George C.

    1998-01-01

    From ≈11,200 to 8,000 years ago, the Great Plains of North America were populated by small Paleoindian hunting groups with well developed weaponry and the expertise to successfully hunt large mammals, especially mammoths and bison. Mammoths became extinct on the Plains by 11,000 years ago, and, although paleoecological conditions were worsening, their demise may have been hastened by human predation. After this, the main target of the Plains Paleoindian hunters consisted of subspecies of bison, Bison antiquus and Bison occidentalis. As bison populations gradually diminished, apparently because of worsening ecological conditions, by ≈8,000 years ago, human subsistence was forced into a greater dependence on small animal and plant foods. Human paleoecology studies of the Paleoindian time period rely heavily on multidisciplinary efforts. Geomorphologists, botanists, soil scientists, palynologists, biologists, and other specialists aid archaeologists in data recovery and analysis, although, with few exceptions, their contributions are derived from the fringes rather than the mainstream of their disciplines. PMID:9826742

  9. Conflict and societal change in late prehistoric eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Milner, George R; Chaplin, George; Zavodny, Emily

    2013-01-01

    As recently as the 1980s, archeologists focusing on prehistoric eastern North America paid little attention to intergroup conflict. Today the situation is quite different, as indicated by this Special Issue. Archeologists now face three principal challenges: to document the temporal and spatial distribution of evidence of conflict; to identify the cultural and environmental conditions associated with variation in the nature and frequency of warfare over long periods of time and large geographical areas; and to determine the extent to which intergroup tensions contributed to or resulted from changes in sociopolitical complexity, economic systems, and population size and distribution. We present data from habitation and mortuary sites in the Eastern Woodlands, notably the midcontinent, that touch on all three issues. Palisaded sites and victims of attacks indicate the intensity of conflicts varied over time and space. Centuries-long intervals of either high or low intergroup tensions can be attributed to an intensification or relaxation of pressure on resources that arose in several ways, such as changes in local population density; technological innovations, including subsistence practices; and the natural environment. PMID:23776045

  10. The Triassic-Jurassic boundary in eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Comet, B.

    1988-01-01

    Rift basins of the Atlantic passive margin in eastern North America are filled with thousands of meters of continental rocks termed the Newark Supergroup which provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine the fine scale structure of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction in continental environments. Time control, vital to the understanding of the mechanisms behind mass extinctions, is provided by lake-level cycles apparently controlled by orbitally induced climate change allowing resolution at the less than 21,000 year level. Correlation with other provinces is provided by a developing high resolution magnetostratigraphy and palynologically-based biostratigraphy. A large number of at least local vertebrate and palynomorph extinctions are concentrated around the boundary with survivors constituting the earliest Jurassic assemblages, apparently without the introduction of new taxa. The palynofloral transition is marked by the dramatic elimination of a relatively high diversity Triassic pollen assemblage with the survivors making up a Jurassic assemblage of very low diversity overwhelmingly dominated by Corollina. Based principally on palynological correlations, the hypothesis that these continental taxonomic transitions were synchronous with the massive Triassic-Jurassic marine extinctions is strongly corroborated. An extremely rapid, perhaps catastrophic, taxonomic turnover at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, synchronous in continental and marine realms is hypothesized and discussed.

  11. Perchlorate and nitrate in leafy vegetables of North America.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C A; Crump, K S; Krieger, R I; Khandaker, N R; Gibbs, J P

    2005-12-15

    In previous studies trace levels of perchlorate were found in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with Colorado River water, which is contaminated with low levels of perchlorate from aerospace and defense related industries. In this paper, we report the results of a survey conducted across North America to evaluate the occurrence of perchlorate in leafy vegetables produced outside the lower Colorado River region, and evaluate the relative iodide uptake inhibition potential to perchlorate and nitrate in these leafy vegetables. Conventionally and organically produced lettuce and other leafy vegetable samples were collected from production fields and farmers' markets in the central and coastal valleys of California, New Mexico, Colorado, Michigan, Ohio, New York, Quebec, and New Jersey. Results show that 16% of the conventionally produced samples and 32% of the organically produced samples had quantifiable levels of perchlorate using ion chromatography. Estimated perchlorate exposure from organically produced leafy vegetables was approximately 2 times that of conventional produce, but generally less than 10% of the reference dose recommended by the National Academy of Sciences. Furthermore, the iodide uptake inhibition potential of perchlorate was less than 1% of that of the nitrate present. These data are consistent with those of other reported perchlorate survey work with lettuce, bottled water, breast milk, dairy milk, and human urine, and suggest a wide national presence of perchlorate. PMID:16475313

  12. School and community relations in North America: Creative tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, E.; Reed, H. B.

    1980-09-01

    School and community relations in North America reflect creative tensions between the conserving forces of schooling and the changing forces of community. During crisis periods community development needs may modify the school's focus on individual learner growth, but generally schools use the community to extend and enrich the traditional modes. School and community interactions are chiefly characterized by such settings as community schools, community education, adult education, home and school (PTA) associations, work-study programs, curriculum-community resource programs. Recent social forces are creating heightened tensions: cultural pluralism, reduced resources, Third World influences, international conflicts, personal alienation, population concerns, energy problems, community power issues. These forces are gradually shifting school and community concepts towards ones of education and community. Education goes well beyond schooling, including all agencies having an organized influence on community development: libraries, voluntary groups, unions, business, human service agencies, government units, as well as schools. This shift requires research to develop nonformal concepts and practices, along with formal pedagogy, to increase the positive impacts of educational networks on community, as well as individual, development. These new directions have not yet significantly modified the traditional meaning of school and community relations.

  13. Wet sulfate and nitrate deposition patterns in eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemba, S. G.; Golomb, D.; Fay, J. A.

    Four year (1982-1985) averaged acid deposition (sulfate and nitrate ion) data obtained at 77 stations of the Acid Deposition System in Eastern North America (ENA) are analyzed for seasonal and spatial variations. Average sulfate concentrations over most of ENA range from 1.5-3 mg l-1. Highest sulfate depositions (>35kg ha -1y -1) occur over west Pennsylvania, the Virginias, east Michigan, and southern Ontario between Lakes Huron and Erie. Sulfate isopleths generally stretch along a SW-NE axis. In the northeast quadrant of ENA, 65-70% of the annual sulfate depositions occur in the April-September half year; some regions in southern Canada experience as much as 75% in that period. Average nitrate concentrations range from 1-2mg l-1 throughout much of ENA. Peak nitrate depositions (>20kg ha -1 y -1) fall between Lakes Michigan and Ontario; 15 kg ha -1y -1 or more cover most of the Midwest, New York, New England and south Ontario. Nitrate depositions are more evenly distributed throughout the year, with 55-65% occurring in the April-September half year. The average annual molar ratio of SO 42- to NO 3- varies from 0.8-1.5 over ENA. The ratio is highest at south-central receptors and lower at northern latitudes. Implications of these findings on strategies to mitigate acid deposition are discussed.

  14. Effects of pesticides on owls in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    A literature review of the effects of pesticides on owls in North America showed that relatively few studies have been undertaken. Owls used in experiments seem as sensitive to organochlorine pesticides (OCs) as other birds of prey, but wild owls experienced few serious problems, primarily because they were exposed to lower residues in their predominately mammalian or invertebrate prey. For example, the great horned owl ( Bubo virginianus ) and the common barn-owl ( Tyto alba ) neither experienced marked changes in mortality or recruitment rates nor was there any evidence of population decreases even during the maximum period of OC pesticide use. Also, eggshell thinning was not a widespread problem. There were adverse effects on individual owls including verified records of 74 owls of six species that died from secondary or tertiary poisoning related to strychnine, organochlorines, anticholinesterases (antiChEs) and anticoagulants in 16 states within the U.S. and one province in Canada. Most of the pesticide-related deaths occurred during the 1980s, although this probably does not represent a true temporal distribution. Verified mortalities of owls probably represent a small fraction of the actual number that died from pesticides. Incidence of mortality seems biased geographically toward areas such as New York that have active ecotoxicological programs. Burrowing owl ( Speotyto cunicularia ) populations currently are decreasing throughout much of the range in the U.S. and Canada. Studies in Canada indicate that antiChE pesticides, particularly carbofuran, were responsible for the declines there.

  15. Overview of acid rain monitoring activities in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, J.; Kinsman, J.D.

    1982-06-01

    Acid rain is known to acidify natural waters, resulting in damage to fish and other components of the aquatic ecosystem, degradation of drinking water supplies, deterioration of man-made structures, erosion of soils and damage to forests and crops. Recent monitoring devices and 71 studies conducted or on-going in North America are surveyed. Tables are presented that describe the name or title of the study, the organization or agency that funds each study, the chemical parameters monitored, the geographic extent and location of the study, the time period of operation, the types of samples used, where samples are analyzed, and a contact for further information. The Aerochem metrics wet-dry collector is the most widely used instrument for collection of wet deposition and appears to be reliable in collecting precipitation samples for chemical analysis. Much of the wet deposition monitoring focuses on the between-year differences in precipitation acidity. No simple method for monitoring dry deposition is available on an experimental or commercial basis. The frequency of special events needs to be analyzed using existing climatological data. 32 references, 3 tables.

  16. Conflict and societal change in late prehistoric eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Milner, George R; Chaplin, George; Zavodny, Emily

    2013-01-01

    As recently as the 1980s, archeologists focusing on prehistoric eastern North America paid little attention to intergroup conflict. Today the situation is quite different, as indicated by this Special Issue. Archeologists now face three principal challenges: to document the temporal and spatial distribution of evidence of conflict; to identify the cultural and environmental conditions associated with variation in the nature and frequency of warfare over long periods of time and large geographical areas; and to determine the extent to which intergroup tensions contributed to or resulted from changes in sociopolitical complexity, economic systems, and population size and distribution. We present data from habitation and mortuary sites in the Eastern Woodlands, notably the midcontinent, that touch on all three issues. Palisaded sites and victims of attacks indicate the intensity of conflicts varied over time and space. Centuries-long intervals of either high or low intergroup tensions can be attributed to an intensification or relaxation of pressure on resources that arose in several ways, such as changes in local population density; technological innovations, including subsistence practices; and the natural environment.

  17. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nicole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-08-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 "Quebec" storm and the 2003 "Halloween" storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  18. Pharmacovigilance in Europe and North America: divergent approaches.

    PubMed

    Wiktorowicz, Mary; Lexchin, Joel; Moscou, Kathy

    2012-07-01

    Although international medicines regulators adopt a common system to assess the safety and efficacy of new drugs, pre-market evaluation is recognized as incomplete given the much larger post-market experience to follow. Adverse drug reactions contribute to more than 100,000 deaths in the United States annually and are among the top 10 leading causes of death. Regulators are developing active surveillance approaches to assess the risks of medicines in the post-market phase to enhance passive adverse drug reaction reporting systems that capture only one to ten percent of ADRs. The objective of this study is to compare international approaches to active surveillance and the manner in which regulatory agencies access and use post-market evidence in their decisions. A conceptual framework is used to guide the comparative analysis of pharmacovigilance governance and policy in the United Kingdom, France, the European Union, the United States and Canada using data gathered from key informant interviews and document review. While research networks are emerging internationally, we found a greater reliance on industry funding and oversight of post-market research in Europe compared to an emphasis on publicly funded programs in North America.

  19. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  20. Diversity in shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, T.N.; Steinhilber, M.

    2002-01-01

    Shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) exhibit morphological variability across their geographic range in North America and could comprise more than one distinct morph or taxon. To investigate this, principal components analysis was applied to a data set that consisted of four variables from nine localities. All data were obtained from digital images of the specimens and the excised first gill arch. Confidence ellipses (95%) about the means of bivariate distributions of the principal components revealed that some populations were distinct from the others, but a continuity of overlap clouded understanding of pattern among the variation. Most populations had more and longer gillrakers than shortjaw cisco from George Lake (Manitoba) and Basswood Lake (Ontario) that had fewer and shorter gillrakers. This analysis supports the existence of a short- and few-rakered morph and a long- and many-rakered morph. However, most populations of shortjaw cisco from the Great Lakes across Canada to the Arctic share a similar morphology and likely represent a single, widespread species.

  1. Lincoln estimates of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) abundance in North America

    PubMed Central

    Alisauskas, Ray T; Arnold, Todd W; Leafloor, James O; Otis, David L; Sedinger, James S

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of range-wide abundance, harvest, and harvest rate are fundamental for sound inferences about the role of exploitation in the dynamics of free-ranging wildlife populations, but reliability of existing survey methods for abundance estimation is rarely assessed using alternative approaches. North American mallard populations have been surveyed each spring since 1955 using internationally coordinated aerial surveys, but population size can also be estimated with Lincoln's method using banding and harvest data. We estimated late summer population size of adult and juvenile male and female mallards in western, midcontinent, and eastern North America using Lincoln's method of dividing (i) total estimated harvest, , by estimated harvest rate, , calculated as (ii) direct band recovery rate, , divided by the (iii) band reporting rate, . Our goal was to compare estimates based on Lincoln's method with traditional estimates based on aerial surveys. Lincoln estimates of adult males and females alive in the period June–September were 4.0 (range: 2.5–5.9), 1.8 (range: 0.6–3.0), and 1.8 (range: 1.3–2.7) times larger than respective aerial survey estimates for the western, midcontinent, and eastern mallard populations, and the two population estimates were only modestly correlated with each other (western: r = 0.70, 1993–2011; midcontinent: r = 0.54, 1961–2011; eastern: r = 0.50, 1993–2011). Higher Lincoln estimates are predictable given that the geographic scope of inference from Lincoln estimates is the entire population range, whereas sampling frames for aerial surveys are incomplete. Although each estimation method has a number of important potential biases, our review suggests that underestimation of total population size by aerial surveys is the most likely explanation. In addition to providing measures of total abundance, Lincoln's method provides estimates of fecundity and population sex ratio and could be used in integrated population

  2. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  3. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  4. A project of a two meter telescope in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2015-03-01

    Site testing undertaken during the last 20 years by Moroccan researchers through international studies have shown that the Atlas mountains in Morocco has potentialities similar to those sites which host the largest telescopes in world. Given the quality of the sites and opportunities to conduct modern research, we believe that the installation of a 2m diameter telescope will open new horizons for Astronomy in Morocco and north Africa allowing our region to enter definitively into the very exclusive club of countries possessing an instrument of that size. A state of the art astrophysical observatory on any good astronomical observation site should be equipped with a modern 2m-class, robotic telescope and some smaller telescopes. Our plan should be to operate one of the most efficient robotic 2m class telescopes worldwide in order to offer optimal scientific opportunities for researchers and maintain highest standards for the education of students. Beside all categories of astronomical research fields, students will have the possibility to be educated intensively on the design, manufacturing and operating of modern state of the art computer controlled instruments. In the frame of such education and observation studies several PhD and dissertational work packages are possible. Many of the observations will be published in articles worldwide and a number of guest observers from other countries will have the possibility to take part in collaborations. This could be a starting point of an international reputation of our region in the field of modern astronomy.

  5. Surface Wind Observational Database in North Eastern North America: Quality Control Procedure and Climatological Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Hidalgo, Ángela; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. It also presents some insights of the long-term climatological variability over the region. The database consists of 527 sites (487 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions. The records span from 1940 to 2010 and cover an approximate spatial extension of 2.2 × 106 km2. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. Due to the size of the data set, a great effort has been made on the automation of the procedures. A number of problems are associated with data management and data conventions: unification of measurement units and recording times due to the variety of institutional sources; detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; and detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. From the other hand there is a variety of treated instrumental errors: problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; high variability related erroneous records; wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Around 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected. The already quality controlled database allows for subsequent climatological analyses. The intra and inter decadal variability of the monthly surface wind field in such a vast and orographically complex region as the North Eastern North America is explored. Several decades of quality

  6. STUDIES ON RARE AND POORLY KNOWN LEECHES (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE) IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three taxa within the leech family Glossiphoniidae, Actinobdella inequiannulata, Placobdella hollensis, and Theromyzon spp., though widespread in eastern North America, remain poorly known with respect to their biology and systematics. All three taxa have been collected in New E...

  7. European buckthorn and Asian soybean aphid as components of an extensive invasional meltdown in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We consider the possibility of an extensive invasional meltdown occurring in central North America involving ten Eurasian species. The scenario begins with the potential co-facilitation between the European earthworm LUMBRICUS TERRESTRIS and European buckthorn, RHAMNUS CATHARTICA. European bucktho...

  8. Holy smoke: tobacco use among native american tribes in North America.

    PubMed

    Godlaski, Theodore M

    2013-01-01

    The use of tobacco by Native Americans in North America seems to have ancient origins and significant spiritual meaning. This article reviews archeological and anthropological data about the use of tobacco and its sacred significance.

  9. WILD SALMON IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA; THE HISTORICAL AND POLICY CONTEXT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all of the participants in the Salmon 2100 Project concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, ...

  10. WILD SALMON IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA: FORECASTING THE MOST LIKELY STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    The future of wild salmon in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as current recovery efforts are, does not appear likely to realize sustain biologically significan...

  11. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  12. The known distribution and ecological preferences of the tick subgenus Boophilus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Africa and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A; Bouattour, A; Camicas, J-L; Guglielmone, A; Horak, I; Jongejan, F; Latif, A; Pegram, R; Walker, A R

    2006-01-01

    A compilation of the known distribution of Boophilus ticks in Africa and Latin America is presented, together with details on climate preferences. B. annulatus is recorded mainly in the western part of a strip from the equator to parallel 20 degrees N. It associates with woodlands and forests (lowland rain forest and secondary grassland). This species is also present in the Mediterranean region, associated to woodland and open areas. B. decoloratus extends southern to parallel 20 degrees N, in woodland with montane vegetation and Zambezian miombo; some records have been collected in the highveld grassland. B. geigyi is mainly collected in the western range of a stripe extending between parallels 5 degrees N and 18 degrees N, associated with Sudanian woodland, lowland rain forest with secondary grassland and woodland. Confirmed records of microplus in Africa are restricted to Malagasy region and south and eastern Africa, being predominant in the Zambezian miombo, deciduous forest with secondary grassland, and woodland. In Latin America, microplus is abundant in the Mesoamerican corridor to Venezuela and Colombia, and southern in Brazil and Argentina. The tick is mainly associated to the biomes of Chaco and Pampas in Argentina, the North-central moist Andes, the Atlantic forest (southern range) and the moist Meso-American vegetation (northern range). Most collections of B. annulatus and B. geigyi came from areas where winter minimum temperature is above 15 degrees C, maximum temperatures remain between 33 and 36 degrees C and maximum rainfall is recorded between June and September. B. decoloratus and African B. microplus are recorded in sites with low temperatures in May-September. Minimum temperature requirements are similar for both B. decoloratus and African B. microplus, and both are around 4 degrees C less than the value recorded for collections of Latin-American B. microplus. The rainfall pattern observed for decoloratus shows a minimum in May and June. The

  13. Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wool carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, is the most widely distributed unmanaged bee in the world. It was unintentionally introduced to North America in the late 1960s from Europe, and subsequently, into South America, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. We provide information on the local distr...

  14. Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wool carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, is the most widely distributed unmanaged bee in the world. It was unintentionally introduced to North America in the late 1960s from Europe, and subsequently, into South America, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. We provide information on the local distr...

  15. Strain partitioning along the western margin of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Christopher F.; Snay, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes an elastic block model for the interseismic horizontal crustal velocity field occurring in that part of the United States located west of longitude 100° W and between latitudes 31°N and 49°N. We developed the model by simultaneously inverting 6873 GPS-derived velocity vectors and 166 geological fault slip rates for the angular velocities (i.e. the Euler poles relative to the North America plate) of 46 elastic blocks, horizontal strain rate tensors for 38 of these blocks, and the spatially variable elastic coupling coefficients on faults that bound adjacent blocks. While the model covers all of the western United States located between Canada and Mexico, this paper focuses on the region residing south of Cape Mendocino where plate boundary deformation is accommodated predominantly by slip on the San Andreas fault system. Block strain rates (which account for deformation associated with distributed faults within blocks) are systematically higher in blocks located in the western part of the model and adjacent to the plate boundary. Strain rate magnitudes range from over 10-7/yr for some blocks adjacent to the San Andreas fault system to values of about 10-9/yr for blocks located in eastern Nevada and western Utah. Blocks adjacent to the San Andreas fault system are characterized by strain rate tensors that correspond to uniaxial contraction perpendicular to the local strike of the San Andreas. The highest rates of fault normal contraction are associated with the northern end of the fault (north of San Francisco) and in the southern end (south of Los Angeles). The central San Andreas (including the creeping segment of the fault) is characterized by strain rate tensors more consistent with dextral shear. Thus the northern and southern ends of the fault are consistent with a transpressional strain partitioning model with strike slip occurring on the San Andreas fault system and distributed shortening occurring within the blocks adjacent to this

  16. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  17. Mercury and methylmercury in aquatic sediment across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Jacob; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Lutz, Michelle A; Tate, Michael T.; Alpers, Charles N.; Hall, Britt D.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Eckley, Chris S.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale assessments are valuable in identifying primary factors controlling total mercury (THg) and monomethyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations, and distribution in aquatic ecosystems. Bed sediment THg and MeHg concentrations were compiled for > 16,000 samples collected from aquatic habitats throughout the West between 1965 and 2013. The influence of aquatic feature type (canals, estuaries, lakes, and streams), and environmental setting (agriculture, forest, open-water, range, wetland, and urban) on THg and MeHg concentrations was examined. THg concentrations were highest in lake (29.3 ± 6.5 μg kg− 1) and canal (28.6 ± 6.9 μg kg− 1) sites, and lowest in stream (20.7 ± 4.6 μg kg− 1) and estuarine (23.6 ± 5.6 μg kg− 1) sites, which was partially a result of differences in grain size related to hydrologic gradients. By environmental setting, open-water (36.8 ± 2.2 μg kg− 1) and forested (32.0 ± 2.7 μg kg− 1) sites generally had the highest THg concentrations, followed by wetland sites (28.9 ± 1.7 μg kg− 1), rangeland (25.5 ± 1.5 μg kg− 1), agriculture (23.4 ± 2.0 μg kg− 1), and urban (22.7 ± 2.1 μg kg− 1) sites. MeHg concentrations also were highest in lakes (0.55 ± 0.05 μg kg− 1) and canals (0.54 ± 0.11 μg kg− 1), but, in contrast to THg, MeHg concentrations were lowest in open-water sites (0.22 ± 0.03 μg kg− 1). The median percent MeHg (relative to THg) for the western region was 0.7%, indicating an overall low methylation efficiency; however, a significant subset of data (n > 100) had percentages that represent elevated methylation efficiency (> 6%). MeHg concentrations were weakly correlated with THg (r2 = 0.25) across western North America. Overall, these results highlight the large spatial variability in sediment THg and MeHg concentrations throughout western North America and underscore the important roles that landscape and land

  18. An early bothremydid (Testudines, Pleurodira) from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Utah, North America

    PubMed Central

    Lyson, Tyler R.; Kirkland, James I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bothremydidae is a clade of extinct pleurodiran turtles known from the Cretaceous to Paleogene of Africa, Europe, India, Madagascar, and North and South America. The group is most diverse during the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene of Africa. Little is known, however, about the early evolution of the group. Methods We here figure and describe a fossil turtle from early Late Cretaceous deposits exposed at MacFarlane Mine in Cedar Canyon, southwestern Utah, USA. The sediments associated with the new turtle are utilized to infer its stratigraphic provenience and the depositional settings in which it was deposited. The fossil is compared to previously described fossil pleurodires, integrated into a modified phylogenetic analysis of pelomedusoid turtles, and the biogeography of bothremydid turtles is reassessed. In light of the novel phylogenetic hypotheses, six previously established taxon names are converted to phylogenetically defined clade names to aid communication. Results The new fossil turtle can be inferred with confidence to have originated from a brackish water facies within the late Cenomanian Culver Coal Zone of the Naturita Formation. The fossil can be distinguished from all other previously described pleurodires and is therefore designated as a new taxon, Paiutemys tibert gen. et. sp. nov. Phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon as sister to the European Polysternon provinciale, Foxemys trabanti and Foxemys mechinorum at the base of Bothremydinae. Biogeographic analysis suggests that bothremydids originated as continental turtles in Gondwana, but that bothremydines adapted to near-shore marine conditions and therefore should be seen as having a circum-Atlantic distribution. PMID:27703852

  19. Potential Intercontinental Movement of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus into North America by Wild Birds: Application of a Rapid Assessment Framework.

    PubMed

    Miller, R S; Sweeney, S J; Akkina, J E; Saito, E K

    2015-12-01

    A critical question surrounding emergence of novel strains of avian influenza viruses (AIV) is the ability for wild migratory birds to translocate a complete (unreassorted whole genome) AIV intercontinentally. Virus translocation via migratory birds is suspected in outbreaks of highly pathogenic strain A(H5N1) in Asia, Africa and Europe. As a result, the potential intercontinental translocation of newly emerging AIV such as A(H7N9) from Eurasia to North America via migratory movements of birds remains a concern. An estimated 2.91 million aquatic birds move annually between Eurasia and North America with an estimated AIV prevalence as high as 32.2%. Here, we present a rapid assessment to address the likelihood of whole (unreassorted)-genome translocation of Eurasian strain AIV into North America. The scope of this assessment was limited specifically to assess the weight of evidence to support the movement of an unreassorted AIV intercontinentally by migratory aquatic birds. We developed a rapid assessment framework to assess the potential for intercontinental movement of avian influenzas by aquatic birds. This framework was iteratively reviewed by a multidisciplinary panel of scientific experts until a consensus was established. Our assessment framework identified four factors that may contribute to the potential for introduction of any AIV intercontinentally into North America by wild aquatic birds. These factors, in aggregate, provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of new forms of AIV from Eurasia to be introduced by aquatic birds into North America. Based on our assessment, we determined that the potential for introduction of A(H7N9) into North America through aquatic migratory birds is possible, but the likelihood ranges from extremely low to low.

  20. Predicting Grizzly Bear Density in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, Garth; Heard, Douglas C.; Schwarz, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is often controversial and the disagreement often is focused on the estimates of density used to calculate allowable kill. Many recent estimates of grizzly bear density are now available but field-based estimates will never be available for more than a small portion of hunted populations. Current methods of predicting density in areas of management interest are subjective and untested. Objective methods have been proposed, but these statistical models are so dependent on results from individual study areas that the models do not generalize well. We built regression models to relate grizzly bear density to ultimate measures of ecosystem productivity and mortality for interior and coastal ecosystems in North America. We used 90 measures of grizzly bear density in interior ecosystems, of which 14 were currently known to be unoccupied by grizzly bears. In coastal areas, we used 17 measures of density including 2 unoccupied areas. Our best model for coastal areas included a negative relationship with tree cover and positive relationships with the proportion of salmon in the diet and topographic ruggedness, which was correlated with precipitation. Our best interior model included 3 variables that indexed terrestrial productivity, 1 describing vegetation cover, 2 indices of human use of the landscape and, an index of topographic ruggedness. We used our models to predict current population sizes across Canada and present these as alternatives to current population estimates. Our models predict fewer grizzly bears in British Columbia but more bears in Canada than in the latest status review. These predictions can be used to assess population status, set limits for total human-caused mortality, and for conservation planning, but because our predictions are static, they cannot be used to assess population trend. PMID:24367552

  1. Wildfire responses to abrupt climate change in North America.

    PubMed

    Marlon, J R; Bartlein, P J; Walsh, M K; Harrison, S P; Brown, K J; Edwards, M E; Higuera, P E; Power, M J; Anderson, R S; Briles, C; Brunelle, A; Carcaillet, C; Daniels, M; Hu, F S; Lavoie, M; Long, C; Minckley, T; Richard, P J H; Scott, A C; Shafer, D S; Tinner, W; Umbanhowar, C E; Whitlock, C

    2009-02-24

    It is widely accepted, based on data from the last few decades and on model simulations, that anthropogenic climate change will cause increased fire activity. However, less attention has been paid to the relationship between abrupt climate changes and heightened fire activity in the paleorecord. We use 35 charcoal and pollen records to assess how fire regimes in North America changed during the last glacial-interglacial transition (15 to 10 ka), a time of large and rapid climate changes. We also test the hypothesis that a comet impact initiated continental-scale wildfires at 12.9 ka; the data do not support this idea, nor are continent-wide fires indicated at any time during deglaciation. There are, however, clear links between large climate changes and fire activity. Biomass burning gradually increased from the glacial period to the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Although there are changes in biomass burning during the Younger Dryas, there is no systematic trend. There is a further increase in biomass burning after the Younger Dryas. Intervals of rapid climate change at 13.9, 13.2, and 11.7 ka are marked by large increases in fire activity. The timing of changes in fire is not coincident with changes in human population density or the timing of the extinction of the megafauna. Although these factors could have contributed to fire-regime changes at individual sites or at specific times, the charcoal data indicate an important role for climate, and particularly rapid climate change, in determining broad-scale levels of fire activity.

  2. The Carbon Budget of Coastal Waters of Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Boyer, E. W.; Burdige, D.; Butman, D. E.; Cai, W. J.; Canuel, E. A.; Chen, R. F.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Kemp, W. M.; Kroeger, K. D.; Mannino, A.; McCallister, S. L.; McGillis, W. R.; Mulholland, M. R.; Salisbury, J.; Signorini, S. R.; Tian, H.; Tzortziou, M.; Vlahos, P.; Wang, A. Z.; Zimmerman, R. C.; Pilskaln, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and the output of numerical and statistical models are synthesized to construct a carbon budget of the coastal waters of eastern North America. The domain extends from the head of tide to (roughly) the continental shelf break and from southern Florida to southern Nova Scotia. The domain area is 2% tidal wetlands, 19% estuarine open water, and 78% shelf water. Separate budgets are constructed for inorganic and organic carbon; for tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters; and for three main subregions: the Gulf of Maine, the Mid-Atlantic Bight, and the South Atlantic Bight. Net primary production for the study region is about 150 Tg C yr-1, with 12% occurring in tidal wetlands and 7% in estuaries. Though respiration and photosynthesis are nearly balanced in most systems and regions, tidal wetlands and shelf waters are each found to be net autotrophic whereas estuaries are net heterotrophic. The domain as a whole is a sink of 5 Tg C yr-1 of atmospheric CO2, with tidal wetlands and shelf waters taking up 10 Tg C yr-1 (split roughly equally) and estuaries releasing 5 Tg C yr-1 to the atmosphere. Carbon burial is about 3 Tg C yr-1, split roughly equally among tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters. Rivers supply 6-7 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about 2/3 of which is organic. Tidal wetlands supply an additional 4 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about half of which is organic. Carbon in organic and inorganic forms is exported from estuaries to shelf waters and from shelf waters to the open ocean. In summary, tidal wetlands and estuaries, though small in area, contribute substantially to the overall carbon budget of the region.

  3. Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic evolution of Arctic North America

    SciTech Connect

    Embry, A.F.

    1987-05-01

    Correlation of the upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic successions of northern Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands has revealed close stratigraphic and tectonic links between these two petroliferous areas. Depositional and tectonic trends have been reconstructed for Arctic North America, and such interpretations can assist petroleum assessments of unexplored areas in the region. Five regional unconformities are recognized, and these allow the succession to be divided into four tectonic sequences: Carboniferous-Lower Permian, Lower Permian-lowest Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Cretaceous. The first sequence, Carboniferous-Lower Permian, developed during a phase of rifting when a series of pull-apart basins formed along the eroded Ellesmerian deformation belt. Fan deltas and shelf carbonates with equivalent basinal shales and evaporites characterize this sequence. An episode of uplift and faulting terminated the first sequence. The second sequence, Lower Permian-lowest Cretaceous, developed under conditions of thermal subsidence over the rifted areas. Clastic sedimentation was dominant with alternating shelf and deltaic deposition. Significant uplift reflecting the initiation of the Amerasian basin by rifting began in earliest Cretaceous. Sequence three, Lower Cretaceous, was deposited during the rifting phase of the Amerasian basin and consists of thick, deltaic, clastic wedges derived from either the craton or the uplifted Brooks Range. The onset of sea-floor spreading in the Amerasian basin in earliest Late Cretaceous resulted in widespread uplift. The fourth sequence, Upper Cretaceous, was deposited coincident with sea-floor spreading in the Amerasian basin. Initial deposits were bituminous shales which were followed by thick clastic wedges that prograded into the ocean basin. This sequence was terminated by uplift in Cretaceous-earliest Tertiary when sea-floor spreading switched to the Eurasian basin.

  4. Proterozoic history of the midcontinent region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, M. E.; van, W. R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1986-06-01

    Age and petrographic data from the buried basement of the midcontinent region of North America, integrated with information from exposed rocks and magnetic- and gravity-anomaly maps, allow much of the Proterozoic history of the region to be assembled. The Superior craton may be traced into the subsurface on the basis of characteristic magnetic patterns and limited age data. The region between the Superior craton and the Wyoming craton to the west is evidently underlain by southerly extension of the Trans-Hudson orogen of Canada. The Penokean orogen formed on the southern margin of the Superior craton 1890 1830 Ma, but is not inferred west of northwestern Iowa in the subsurface. Between 1780 and 1720 Ma, a major orogen developed along the southern margin of the continent and is exposed in Arizona and Colorado. These rocks are volcanogenic and, for the most part, juvenile additions to the crust; they can be traced beneath the plains as far as eastern Kansas and Nebraska. Another orogen formed farther to the south about 1700 1630 Ma and is exposed in southern Arizona and New Mexico; rocks of this age and type have beer, traced as far east as central Missouri but may extend as far as central Michigan. A major geophysical feature of the midcontinent is a system of northwest-trending magnetic and gravity anomalies in Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska; the origin of these is not currently understood. The tectonic history of the midcontinent between 1480 and 1340 Ma was dominated by extensional formation of two widespread granite-rhyolite terranes that evidently were formed from, and overlie, the orogenic provinces. The older, formed 1450 1480 Ma, underlies the eastern midcontinent, whereas the younger, formed 1340 1400 Ma, underlies the southwestern midcontinent. The latest Proterozoic events were the formation of the midcontinent rift system and the collisional Grenville and Llano provinces about 1100 Ma.

  5. Predicting grizzly bear density in western North America.

    PubMed

    Mowat, Garth; Heard, Douglas C; Schwarz, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is often controversial and the disagreement often is focused on the estimates of density used to calculate allowable kill. Many recent estimates of grizzly bear density are now available but field-based estimates will never be available for more than a small portion of hunted populations. Current methods of predicting density in areas of management interest are subjective and untested. Objective methods have been proposed, but these statistical models are so dependent on results from individual study areas that the models do not generalize well. We built regression models to relate grizzly bear density to ultimate measures of ecosystem productivity and mortality for interior and coastal ecosystems in North America. We used 90 measures of grizzly bear density in interior ecosystems, of which 14 were currently known to be unoccupied by grizzly bears. In coastal areas, we used 17 measures of density including 2 unoccupied areas. Our best model for coastal areas included a negative relationship with tree cover and positive relationships with the proportion of salmon in the diet and topographic ruggedness, which was correlated with precipitation. Our best interior model included 3 variables that indexed terrestrial productivity, 1 describing vegetation cover, 2 indices of human use of the landscape and, an index of topographic ruggedness. We used our models to predict current population sizes across Canada and present these as alternatives to current population estimates. Our models predict fewer grizzly bears in British Columbia but more bears in Canada than in the latest status review. These predictions can be used to assess population status, set limits for total human-caused mortality, and for conservation planning, but because our predictions are static, they cannot be used to assess population trend. PMID:24367552

  6. Oral Rabies Vaccination in North America: Opportunities, Complexities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Slate, Dennis; Algeo, Timothy P.; Nelson, Kathleen M.; Chipman, Richard B.; Donovan, Dennis; Blanton, Jesse D.; Niezgoda, Michael; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV). Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans) through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US. Progress continues

  7. Atmospheric wet deposition of mercury in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, C.W.; Prestbo, E.; Brunette, B.

    1999-07-01

    Currently, 39 states in the US and 5 Canadian provinces have issued advisories about the dangers of eating mercury-contaminated fish taken from waters within their boundaries. The problem is most severe in the Great Lakes region, the Northeast US states, the Canadian maritime provinces, and in south Florida where many lakes and streams contain fish with concentrations of 1 ppm or higher. For many rural and remote locations, atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury. In 1995, the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) initiated a program to monitor total mercury and methylmercury (MMHg) in wet deposition (rain and snow) in North America. In this program, the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), individual monitoring sites are funded and operated by a variety of local, state, and federal agencies. However, sampling and analysis are coordinated through a central laboratory so that all of the samples are collected and analyzed using the same protocols. Weekly wet-only precipitation samples are collected using an all-glass sampling train and special handling techniques. Analysis is by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry using USEPA Method 1631 for total mercury. Nearly 40 MDN sites are in operation in 1999. Most of the sites are in the eastern US and Canada. During 1996 and 1997, the volume-weighted mean concentration of total mercury in precipitation collected at 22 sites ranged from 6.0 to 18.9 ng/L. Annual deposition varied between 2.1 and 25.3 {micro} g/m{sup 2}. The average weekly wet deposition of total mercury is more than three times higher in the summer (June-August) than in the winter (December-February). This increase is due to both higher amounts of precipitation and higher concentrations of mercury in precipitation during the summer. The highest values for mercury concentration in precipitation and wet deposition of mercury were measured in the southeastern US.

  8. Knowledge exchange for climate adaptation planning in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, Gregg; Orr, Barron

    2015-04-01

    In western North America, the combination of sustained drought, rapid ecosystem changes, and land use changes associated with urban population growth has motivated concern among ecosystem managers about the implications of future climate changes for the landscapes which they manage. Through literature review, surveys, and workshop discussions, we assess the process of moving from concern, to planning, to action, with an emphasis on questions, such as: What are the roles of boundary organizations in facilitating knowledge exchange? Which practices lead to effective interactions between scientists, decision-makers, and knowledge brokers? While there is no "one size fits all" science communication method, the co-production of science and policy by research scientists, science translators, and decision-makers, as co-equals, is a resource intensive, but effective practice for moving adaptation planning forward. Constructive approaches make use of alliances with early adopters and opinion leaders, and make strong communication links between predictions, impacts and solutions. Resource managers need information on the basics of regional climate variability and global climate change, region-specific projections of climate changes and impacts, frank discussion of uncertainties, and opportunities for candid exploration of these topics with peers and subject experts. Research scientists play critical roles in adaptation planning discussions, because they assist resource managers in clarifying the cascade of interactions leading to potential impacts and, importantly, because decision-makers want to hear the information straight from the scientists conducting the research, which bolsters credibility. We find that uncertainty, formerly a topic to avoided, forms the foundation for constructive progress in adaptation planning. Candid exploration of the array of uncertainties, including those due to modeling, institutional, policy and economic factors, with practitioners, science

  9. Daymet: Gridded subdaily weather data for North America

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Michele M; Thornton, Peter E; Cook, Robert B; Wei, Yaxing; Eby, Pete I; Devarakonda, Ranjeet

    2011-01-01

    A core requirement for many ecosystem modeling approaches is surface weather fields, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, and incident solar radiation. Carbon dynamics and flux estimates from process models depend strongly on daily and subdaily weather conditions. One common obstacle to model implementation over continental scale regions is the difficulty of obtaining the relevant surface weather observations from in situ networks, and producing spatially interpolated (gridded) surfaces of the necessary weather fields at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. One approach that has been developed to overcome this obstacle is Daymet, a numerical method for producing gridded surfaces of subdaily temperature (daily maximum and minimum temperature), and daily precipitation, humidity, and radiation over large regions of complex terrain, using daily surface weather observations and an accurate elevation grid as input. We are providing a high-quality gridded surface weather product over North America for input to NACP process modeling studies by expanding on the conterminous U.S. Daymet domain to include Canada (south of 52N) and Mexico. Download Daymet Data: http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219. Input data requirements for the conterminous US, Mexico, and Canada for 1980 - 2008 have been used to produce the Daymet product for these areas; the data will be released in Fall 2010. MAST-DC is developing several ways to select and distribute the Daymet data: ftp download, single-pixel extraction, and access through THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). Periodic updates to the continental data set will be implemented as new years of surface observations become available.

  10. Predicting grizzly bear density in western North America.

    PubMed

    Mowat, Garth; Heard, Douglas C; Schwarz, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is often controversial and the disagreement often is focused on the estimates of density used to calculate allowable kill. Many recent estimates of grizzly bear density are now available but field-based estimates will never be available for more than a small portion of hunted populations. Current methods of predicting density in areas of management interest are subjective and untested. Objective methods have been proposed, but these statistical models are so dependent on results from individual study areas that the models do not generalize well. We built regression models to relate grizzly bear density to ultimate measures of ecosystem productivity and mortality for interior and coastal ecosystems in North America. We used 90 measures of grizzly bear density in interior ecosystems, of which 14 were currently known to be unoccupied by grizzly bears. In coastal areas, we used 17 measures of density including 2 unoccupied areas. Our best model for coastal areas included a negative relationship with tree cover and positive relationships with the proportion of salmon in the diet and topographic ruggedness, which was correlated with precipitation. Our best interior model included 3 variables that indexed terrestrial productivity, 1 describing vegetation cover, 2 indices of human use of the landscape and, an index of topographic ruggedness. We used our models to predict current population sizes across Canada and present these as alternatives to current population estimates. Our models predict fewer grizzly bears in British Columbia but more bears in Canada than in the latest status review. These predictions can be used to assess population status, set limits for total human-caused mortality, and for conservation planning, but because our predictions are static, they cannot be used to assess population trend.

  11. Earthquake ground-motion prediction equations for eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, G.M.; Boore, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    New earthquake ground-motion relations for hard-rock and soil sites in eastern North America (ENA), including estimates of their aleatory uncertainty (variability) have been developed based on a stochastic finite-fault model. The model incorporates new information obtained from ENA seismographic data gathered over the past 10 years, including three-component broadband data that provide new information on ENA source and path effects. Our new prediction equations are similar to the previous ground-motion prediction equations of Atkinson and Boore (1995), which were based on a stochastic point-source model. The main difference is that high-frequency amplitudes (f ??? 5 Hz) are less than previously predicted (by about a factor of 1.6 within 100 km), because of a slightly lower average stress parameter (140 bars versus 180 bars) and a steeper near-source attenuation. At frequencies less than 5 Hz, the predicted ground motions from the new equations are generally within 25% of those predicted by Atkinson and Boore (1995). The prediction equations agree well with available ENA ground-motion data as evidenced by near-zero average residuals (within a factor of 1.2) for all frequencies, and the lack of any significant residual trends with distance. However, there is a tendency to positive residuals for moderate events at high frequencies in the distance range from 30 to 100 km (by as much as a factor of 2). This indicates epistemic uncertainty in the prediction model. The positive residuals for moderate events at < 100 km could be eliminated by an increased stress parameter, at the cost of producing negative residuals in other magnitude-distance ranges; adjustment factors to the equations are provided that may be used to model this effect.

  12. Market opportunities for fly ash fillers in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.; Harris, T.; Gledhill, J. )

    1990-11-01

    Direct Acid Leaching (DAL) processed fly ash is derived from treating raw and beneficiated coal fly ash with hydrochloric acid. The DAL process allows for the production of fly ash with greater chemical purity and consistency than raw fly ash alone. In addition, DAL fly ash is similar to various minerals used in a wide range of applications that require filler minerals. This project investigates the feasibility of using three grades of DAL fly ash ranging from 10 microns to 30 microns in diameter as an alternative filler material to mineral fillers. Six major applications in North America, requiring large volumes of filler minerals were investigated by region including: (1) asphalt roofing shingles (2) carpet backing (3) joint compound and wallboard (4) industrial coatings (5) plastics (6) vinyl flooring. It is determined that calcium carbonate was the primary mineral filler DAL fly ash would be competing with in the applications investigated. Calcium carbonate is used in all applications investigated. The application which demonstrated the greatest potential for using DAL fly ash is asphalt shingles. Asphalt shingles were the largest calcium carbonate consuming application identified, consuming 4.8 million tons in 1988, and is the least sensitive to the dark color of the DAL fly ash. Although the DAL fly ash typically has a smaller particle size, in comparison to calcium carbonate, the asphalt shingle manufacturers felt it would be a good substitute. Other promising applications for DAL fly ash were industrial coatings and plastics where the calcium carbonate particle size requirements of 3 to 6 microns very closely matches the particle size of the DAL fly ash considered in this project. 17 figs., 36 tabs.

  13. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  14. Magnetic anomaly map of North America south of 50 degrees north from Pogo data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A magnetic anomaly map produced from Pogo data for North America and adjacent ocean areas is presented. At satellite elevations anomalies have wavelengths measured in hundreds of kilometers, and reflect regional structures on a large scale. Prominent features of the map are: (1) a large east-west high through the mid-continent, breached at the Mississippi Embayment; (2) a broad low over the Gulf of Mexico; (3) a strong gradient separating these features, which follows the Southern Appalachian-Ouachita curvature; and (4) a high over the Antilles-Bahamas Platform which extends to northern Florida. A possible relationship between the high of the mid-continent and the 38th parallel lineament is noted.

  15. Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Darina; Rahme, Maya; Hoteit, Maha; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region registers some of the highest rates of hypovitaminosis D worldwide.   Aim: We systematically reviewed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, rickets and osteomalacia, their predictors and impact on major outcomes, in the region. Methods: Medline, Pubmed and Embase search engines, entering keywords and concepts, combined with individual countries of interest, were used. Search was limited years 2000–2012; and review articles were used for the period preceding year 2000. Results: Rickets and osteomalacia still occur in this sunny region. Hypovitaminosis D prevails, with rates varying 30–90%, considering a desirable serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] of 20 ng/ml. Advancing age, female gender, multi-parity, clothing style, season, socio-economic status and urban living are recognized predictors of hypovitaminosis D in adults. Prolonged breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation and low dietary calcium intake are the recognized risk factors for rickets and hypovitaminosis D in children.. Associations with pain score and disease activity in rheumatologic disorders, viral load and interleukins in hepatitis C, BMI, lipids and insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, heart failure and mortality are described. Sun exposure in adults decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in one study. Few randomized vitamin D trials revealed that the majority of mothers or children failed to achieve a desirable 25(OH)D level, even with doses by far exceeding current recommendations. A trial in adolescent girls reveals substantial bone and lean mass increments. Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in MENA. The lack of populations based studies, gaps in studies in infants, pre-pubertal children and pregnant women, hinder the development of region specific guidelines and constitute a major obstacle to impact this chronic and most often subclinical disease. PMID:24194968

  16. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Nicod, M.A.

    1983-10-01

    Within the 2,044,851 km/sup 2/ area described in this paper, petroleum rights in force at the end of 1982 in the 6 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia) remained at about the same level (up 1%) as at the end of 1981. A large award in Sudan made up for a decrease in leased areas in other countries. Both onshore and offshore seismic activity decreased during 1982 in all countries described, except in Sudan, where a significant effort is continuing. Exploration drilling activity also decreased with 166 wells and 330,500 m drilled, compared with 169 wells and 473,000 m drilled in 1981. The success rate was about 36%, compared with 40% in 1981. No new petroleum provinces were discovered. Offshore exploratory drilling was less successful in 1982 (15 discoveries) than in 1981 (24 discoveries). In Sudan, Chevron continued to find oil with 6 discoveries, the most significant being the Heglig field. In Morocco, the Societe Cherifienne des Petroles resumed exploration after a long period of inactivity. Development drilling activity remained the same in most countries, except in Tunisia, where 13 development wells were drilled in 1982 compared with 3 in 1981. Oil production in North Africa decreased 1.4% during 1982, with an average of 2,610,500 BOPD compared with 2,648,500 in 1981. A new offshore field (Shell's Tazerka) was put on stream in Tunisia. This field is the deepest producing field in the Mediterranean (250 m (820 ft) water depth). Utilized natural gas production is estimated to about 2,000 MMCFGD.

  17. The spectrum of presumed tubercular uveitis in Tunisia, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Khochtali, Sana; Gargouri, Salma; Abroug, Nesrine; Ksiaa, Imen; Attia, Sonia; Sellami, Dorra; Feki, Jamel; Khairallah, Moncef

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the spectrum of presumed tubercular uveitis in Tunisia, North Africa. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 38 patients (65 eyes) diagnosed with presumed tubercular uveitis at two referral centers in Tunisia, between January 2009 and December 2011. Mean age at presentation was 42.7 years. Twenty-four patients were women (63.2%) and 14 (36.8%) were men. Twenty-three eyes (35.4%) had posterior uveitis, 21 eyes (32.3%) had intermediate uveitis, 13 eyes (20%) had panuveitis, and 8 eyes (12.3%) had anterior uveitis. Ocular findings included vitritis in 67.7% of eyes, posterior synechiae in 47.7%, multifocal non-serpiginoid choroiditis in 23.1%, multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis in 21.5%, periphlebitis in 21.5%, and mutton-fat keratic precipitates in 20%. Anti-tubercular treatment was prescribed in 33 patients (86.8%) and was associated with systemic corticosteroids in 20 patients (52.6%) and periocular injections of corticosteroids in four patients (10.5%). After a mean follow-up of 14.2 months (range, 10-58), inflammation was controlled, with a significant improvement in visual acuity (VA) (p = 0.028). However, recurrences developed in two patients (5.3%). Final VA was better than 20/40 in 27 eyes (41.5%) and less than 20/200 in five eyes (7.7%). In Tunisia, all anatomic types are possible in tuberculosis-associated uveitis, but posterior and intermediate uveitis are more frequent. Vitritis, posterior synechiae, multifocal serpiginoid or non-serpiginoid choroiditis, and periphlebitis are the most common manifestations.

  18. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

  19. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  20. Teaching about Women and Islam in North Africa: Integrating Postcolonial Feminist Theory in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayzafoon, Lamia Ben Youssef

    2011-01-01

    Using postcolonial feminist theory, the researcher attempts in this article to redefine the interpretive framework through which courses on Islam and North African women are being taught in American undergraduate classes. Several conceptual limitations have been identified: inadequate knowledge of the geography and history of North Africa; the…

  1. Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Zalloua, Pierre; Benammar Elgaaied, Amel; Comas, David

    2013-01-01

    The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete description of the region. In this study, we analyze uniparental and genome-wide markers examining similarities or contrasts in the results and consequently provide a comprehensive description of the evolutionary history of North Africa populations. Our results show that both males and females in North Africa underwent a similar admixture history with slight differences in the proportions of admixture components. Consequently, genome-wide diversity show similar patterns with admixture tests suggesting North Africans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to current Africans and Eurasians with more affinity towards the out-of-Africa populations than to sub-Saharan Africans. We estimate from the paternal lineages that most North Africans emerged ∼15,000 years ago during the last glacial warming and that population splits started after the desiccation of the Sahara. Although most North Africans share a common admixture history, the Tunisian Berbers show long periods of genetic isolation and appear to have diverged from surrounding populations without subsequent mixture. On the other hand, continuous gene flow from the Middle East made Egyptians genetically closer to Eurasians than to other North Africans. We show that genetic diversity of today's North Africans mostly captures patterns from migrations post Last Glacial Maximum and therefore may be insufficient to inform on the initial population of the region during the Middle Paleolithic period. PMID:24312208

  2. Assessing genetic diversity of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) in North America with microsatellites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) is a noxious weed worldwide with established populations throughout northern temperate North America. We examined genetic diversity among more than 2000 individuals representing nearly 100 North American populations of C. arvense using 7 different microsat...

  3. From select agent to established pathogen: The response to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (soybean rust) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogen causing soybean rust, Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd., was first described in Japan in 1902. The disease was important in the Eastern Hemisphere for many decades before the fungus was reported in Hawaii in 1994, which was followed by reports from countries in Africa and South America. In 200...

  4. Life Cycles of Agriculturally-Relevant ENSO Teleconnections in North and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. B.; Seager, R.; Baethgen, W.; Cane, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Studying ENSO teleconnections as a time-invariant phenomenon is often a useful conceptual framework. However, the seasonal and interannual progression of teleconnections is important for providing useful forecasts. In this study we analyze how climate sensitive portions of major crop growing regions and seasons relate to multi-year ENSO life-cycles in North and South America. We find that temperature and precipitation teleconnections forced directly by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies during boreal winter lead to soil moisture anomalies that persist through the spring to affect major growing seasons in both North and South America. Peak SST anomalies in ENSO life-cycles force atmospheric wave trains that lead to strong teleconnections during boreal winter. These teleconnections are concurrent with, and therefore critical for, South American growing seasons but less so for those of North America. Lagged teleconnections are of primary importance in North America, where the growing season often coincides with near-neutral SST anomalies. Major wheat producing regions of North America coincide with areas of significant soil moisture memory, such as the southern Great Plains, in which peak wintertime teleconnections force soil moisture anomalies that can persist through to early spring. Lagged soil moisture teleconnections also play a role in the late winter / early spring growing seasons of South America, particularly in Argentina.

  5. Human Population Decline in North America during the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. G.; Goodyear, A. C.; Stafford, T. W., Jr.; Kennett, J.; West, A.

    2009-12-01

    dates. The decline at the YD onset was more than 50%, similar in magnitude to the decline in Clovis-Folsom point ratios. While calibration and sampling factors may affect the trends, this abrupt decline is large and requires explanation. SUMMARY: Even though correlation does not equate with causation, the coeval YD decline in both points and 14C dates appears linked to significant changes in climate and biota, as represented by the megafaunal extinction. While the causes of the YD remain controversial, a human population decline appears to have occurred, at least across parts of North America. Furthermore, the YD onset is associated with the abrupt replacement of Clovis by regional or subregional scale cultural traditions, potentially reflecting decreased range mobility and increased population isolation. Projectile point distributions and summed probability analyses, we argue, are potentially useful approaches for exploring demographic changes at regional scales.

  6. Ochotona(Lagomorpha) from Late Quaternary Cave Deposits in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Grady, Frederick

    1996-01-01

    Pikas ( Ochtona)—small gnawing mammals, related to rabbits—range today throughout parts of the Northern Hemisphere, but had a wider distribution during the Pleistocene. Nine caves from northeastern North America (a region not occupied by pikas today) have Pleistocene deposits containing remains of Ochotona.We examine 526 fossil specimens (ranging in age from approximately 850,000 to 8670 yr B.P.) from five of these caves. Two morphological forms of Ochotonalived in northeastern North America during the late Pleistocene—a large species (probably O. whartoni) and a small species (probably O. princeps). Ochotonaof glacial age are not necessarily indicative of talus slopes and mesic communities. O. princeps-like of the Irvingtonian of West Virginia were living with an amphibian-reptilian assemblage found in the area today, implying winters not much, if at all, colder than at present. Late glacial and postglacial change in climate south of the ice sheets in effect would have isolated Ochotonain eastern North America, where they were unable to retreat to the west or north. Whereas western pika had the option of moving up in elevation, into boreal islands, eastern forms became restricted to ever-diminishing habitats, culminating in extinction and extirpation. Radiocarbon ages imply that Ochotonalived in eastern North America during the late Pleistocene (late Rancholabrean) and into the earliest Holocene. We describe the youngest remains of Ochotonain eastern North America and the youngest for the extinct large form, O. whartoni.

  7. Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven C; Wang, Xiaoming

    2004-09-30

    Late Cenozoic terrestrial fossil records of North America are biased by a predominance of mid-latitude deposits, mostly in the western half of the continent. Consequently, the biological history of eastern North America, including the eastern deciduous forest, remains largely hidden. Unfortunately, vertebrate fossil sites from this vast region are rare, and few pertain to the critically important late Tertiary period, during which intensified global climatic changes took place. Moreover, strong phylogenetic affinities between the flora of eastern North America and eastern Asia clearly demonstrate formerly contiguous connections, but disparity among shared genera (eastern Asia-eastern North America disjunction) implies significant periods of separation since at least the Miocene epoch. Lacustrine sediments deposited within a former sinkhole in the southern Appalachian Mountains provide a rare example of a late Miocene to early Pliocene terrestrial biota from a forested ecosystem. Here we show that the vertebrate remains contained within this deposit represent a unique combination of North American and Eurasian taxa. A new genus and species of the red (lesser) panda (Pristinailurus bristoli), the earliest and most primitive so far known, was recovered. Also among the fauna are a new species of Eurasian badger (Arctomeles dimolodontus) and the largest concentration of fossil tapirs ever recorded. Cladistical analyses of the two new carnivores strongly suggest immigration events that were earlier than and distinct from previous records, and that the close faunal affinities between eastern North America and eastern Asia in the late Tertiary period are consistent with the contemporaneous botanical record.

  8. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P.; van Oevelen, P. J.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Schlosser, C. A.; Wood, E. F.; Ek, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  9. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  10. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projective increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinative effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this is a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to-decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observationable and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing, and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the

  11. South-South Cooperation: Brazilian experiences in South America and Africa.

    PubMed

    Santos, Roberta de Freitas; Cerqueira, Mateus Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years Brazil has played an increasingly active role internationally, the result of its model of integration and its foreign policy directives. The health sector is a valuable and strategic area for Brazilian technical cooperation to achieve various objectives, including its development goals. This article describes the main directives of Brazilian foreign policy, conceptually defining and characterizing South-South Cooperation, illustrated through an analysis of two Brazilian technical cooperation initiatives in healthcare: one in South America, the other in Africa. The study concludes that, irrespective of the interests and power asymmetries existing in South-South Cooperation, the objectives of this cooperation were achieved through the technical work. PMID:25742098

  12. Secondary metabolites from the marine gastropod molluscs of Antarctica, southern Africa and South America.

    PubMed

    Davies-Coleman, M T

    2006-01-01

    Despite their perceived inaccessibility, the marine intertidal and benthic environments of Antarctica, southern Africa and South America have continued to provide marine natural products for chemists with unique opportunities to study the secondary metabolite constituents and chemical ecology of a diverse array of marine gastropod molluscs. This review covers the literature up to 31 January 2005 and describes the structures and, where applicable, biological activities of 100 secondary metabolites isolated from 21 species of marine gastropod molluscs. Not unexpectedly, the chemistry of chemically defended shell-less opisthobranchs dominates the natural product studies of molluscs collected from these regions of the southern hemisphere.

  13. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Rech, J.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods are commonly preserved in wetland, alluvial, loess, and glacial deposits, as well as in sediments at many archeological sites. These shells are composed largely of aragonite (CaCO3) and potentially could be used for radiocarbon dating, but they must meet two criteria before their 14C ages can be considered to be reliable: (1) when gastropods are alive, the 14C activity of their shells must be in equilibrium with the 14C activity of the atmosphere, and (2) after burial, their shells must behave as closed systems with respect to carbon. To evaluate the first criterion, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the 14C content of the most common small terrestrial gastropods in North America, including 247 AMS measurements of modern shell material (3749 individual shells) from 46 different species. The modern gastropods that we analyzed were all collected from habitats on carbonate terrain and, therefore, the data presented here represent worst-case scenarios. In sum, ~78% of the shell aliquots that we analyzed did not contain dead carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks even though it was readily available at all sites, 12% of the aliquots contained between 5 and 10% dead carbon, and a few (3% of the total) contained more than 10%. These results are significantly lower than the 20-30% dead carbon that has been reported previously for larger taxa living in carbonate terrain. For the second criterion, we report a case study from the American Midwest in which we analyzed fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods (7 taxa; 18 AMS measurements; 173 individual shells) recovered from late-Pleistocene sediments. The fossil shells yielded 14C ages that were statistically indistinguishable from 14C ages of well-preserved plant macrofossils from the same stratum. Although just one site, these results suggest that small terrestrial gastropod shells may behave as closed systems with respect to carbon over geologic

  14. Developments in Ground-Motion Modeling in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Boore, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent well-recorded earthquakes in Eastern North America (ENA) have led us to re-evaluate concepts that have been "standard fare" in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for ENA for decades, including all published GMPEs that are used in current practice (e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 2011, 2006, 1995; Pezeshk et al., 2011; Campbell, 2003; Toro et al., 1997, etc.). Assumptions common to all ENA GMPEs that may not be true include the following. (1) Typical ENA stress drops, in the context of a Brune model representation of the source spectrum, are in the range of 150-300 bars, with the exception of occasional high-stress events like the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. (2) Attenuation of ground motions can be modeled with a frequency-independent geometric spreading function, either bilinear or trilinear in shape (e.g. Street and Turcotte, 1975; Herrmann and Kijko, 1983; Atkinson and Mereu, 1992; Atkinson, 2004; Boatwright and Seekins, 2011), and an associated frequency-dependent anelastic attenuation term related to the regional Quality factor. The use of a bilinear or trilinear form models the transition from geometric spreading of body waves at close distances to slower surface-wave-type spreading at regional distances. We use ground-motion recordings from recent ENA events to re-examine these basic tenets of GMPE development, in light of constraints on the problem provided at low frequencies by seismic moment, and at high frequencies by stresses inferred from Empirical Greens Function (EGF) analysis. We find strong evidence, in both ground-motion data and from the constraints, that geometric attenuation may be frequency dependent. Moreover, EGF stress drops may be very high (>500 bars) - but they do not lead to particularly large high-frequency ground motions, at least at distances for which we have observations. More complex models of ENA source and attenuation processes appear to be required in order to reconcile our growing ground-motion database

  15. Earthquake source properties and wave propagation in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhaes de Matos Viegas Fernandes, Gisela Sofia

    The study of intraplate earthquakes is fundamental for the understanding of the physics of faulting, seismic hazard assessment, and nuclear monitoring, but large to moderate well recorded intraplate earthquakes are scarce. I use the best recorded earthquake in Eastern North America (ENA)---the Mw 5.0 20 April 2002, Au Sable Forks, NY, earthquake and its aftershock sequence to investigate wave propagation and earthquake source properties in ENA. The Au Sable Forks epicenter is located near the boundary of two distinct geological provinces Appalachian (New England) and Grenville (New York). Existing regional one-dimensional (1D) crustal models were derived from seismic surveys or from sparse ground-motions recordings from regional moderate earthquakes. I obtain improved 1D crustal models for these two provinces by forward modeling, for the first time, multi-path high-quality ground-motions of a moderate earthquake in ENA. Using Au Sable Forks earthquake records at 16 stations (epicentral distances < 400 km) at intermediate frequencies (<1 Hz), I generate synthetic seismograms using the frequency-wave number method. The new models improve the fit of synthetics to data at all 6 stations in the Grenville province and at 5 of the 10 stations in the Appalachian province. I identify complex wave paths along the boundary between the provinces, and 3% azimuthal anisotropy in the Appalachian crust. It is unknown how much earthquake source properties depend on the tectonic setting in which the earthquakes occur. Debate exists regarding the invariance of stress drop with earthquake size in ENA, and whether earthquakes in intraplate regions have higher stress drops than those in more tectonically active regions. I estimate source parameters for 22 earthquakes (M1-M5) of the Au Sable Forks sequence, using two alternative methods: a direct wave method (Empirical Green's Function) and a coda wave method (Coda Ratio) applied for the first time to small magnitude earthquakes. Both

  16. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  17. The physical demands of electrical utilities work in North America.

    PubMed

    Meade, Robert D; Lauzon, Martin; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the physical demands associated with electrical utilities work in North America and how they influence the level of thermal and cardiovascular strain experienced. Three common job categories were monitored as they are normally performed in thirty-two electrical utility workers: (i) Ground Work (n = 11), (ii) Bucket Work (n = 9), and (iii) Manual Pole Work (n = 12). Video analysis was performed to determine the proportion of the work monitoring period (duration: 187 ± 104 min) spent at different levels of physical effort (i.e., rest as well as light, moderate and heavy effort). Core and skin temperatures as well as heart rate were measured continuously. On average, workers spent 35.9 ± 15.9, 36.8 ± 17.8, 24.7 ± 12.8, and 2.6 ± 3.3% of the work period at rest and performing work classified as light, moderate, and heavy physical effort, respectively. Moreover, a greater proportion of the work period was spent performing heavy work in Ground Work (1.6 ± 1.4%) relative to Bucket Work (0.0 ± 0.0%; P<0.01) and in Manual Pole Climbing (5.5 ± 3.6%) in comparison to both other work job (both P≤0.03). Furthermore, the proportion of time spent during work classified as heavy physical effort was positively correlated to the mean (r = 0.51, P<0.01) and peak (r = 0.42, P = 0.02) core temperatures achieved during the work period as well as the mean heart rate response (presented as a percentage of heart rate reserve; r = 0.40, P = 0.03). Finally, mean and peak core temperatures and mean heart rate responses increased from the first to the second half of the work shift; however, no differences in the proportion of the work spent at the different intensity classifications were observed. We show that Manual Pole Work is associated with greater levels of physical effort compared to Ground or Bucket Work. Moreover, we suggest that the proportion of time spent performing work classified as heavy physical exertion is related to the level of thermal and

  18. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  19. Gulf of California analogue for origin of Late Paleozoic ocean basins adjacent to western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Murchey, B.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Ocean crust accreted to the western margin of North America following the Late Devonian to earliest Missippian Antler orogeny is not older than Devonian. Therefore, ocean crust all along the margin of western North America may have been very young following the Antler event. This situation can be compared to the present-day margin of North America which lies adjacent to young ocean crust as a result of the subduction of the Farallon plate and arrival of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Syn- and post-Antler rifting that occurred along the North American margin may well be analogous to the formation of the Gulf of California by the propagation of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Black-arc rifting associated with the subduction of very old ocean crust seems a less likely mechanism for the early stages of ocean basin formation along the late Paleozoic margin of western North America because of the apparent absence of old ocean crust to the west of the arc terranes. The eastern Pacific basins were as long-lived as any truly oceanic basins and may have constituted, by the earliest Permian, a single wedge-shaped basin separated from the western Pacific by rifted fragments of North American arc-terranes. In the Permian, the rifted arcs were once again sites of active magmatism and the eastern Pacific basins began to close, from south (Golconda terrane) to north. Final closure of the northernmost eastern Pacific basin (Angayucham in Alaska) did not occur until the Jurassic.

  20. Resolving the Evolutionary History of Campanula (Campanulaceae) in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Barry M.; Galbreath, Kurt E.; DeChaine, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic works have begun to address long-standing questions regarding the systematics of Campanula (Campanulaceae). Yet, aspects of the evolutionary history, particularly in northwestern North America, remain unresolved. Thus, our primary goal in this study was to infer the phylogenetic positions of northwestern Campanula species within the greater Campanuloideae tree. We combined new sequence data from 5 markers (atpB, rbcL, matK, and trnL-F regions of the chloroplast and the nuclear ITS) representing 12 species of Campanula with previously published datasets for worldwide campanuloids, allowing us to include approximately 75% of North American Campanuleae in a phylogenetic analysis of the Campanuloideae. Because all but one of North American Campanula species are nested within a single campanuloid subclade (the Rapunculus clade), we conducted a separate set of analyses focused specifically on this group. Our findings show that i) the campanuloids have colonized North America at least 6 times, 4 of which led to radiations, ii) all but one North American campanuloid are nested within the Rapunculus clade, iii) in northwestern North America, a C. piperi – C. lasiocarpa ancestor gave rise to a monophyletic Cordilleran clade that is sister to a clade containing C. rotundifolia, iv) within the Cordilleran clade, C. parryi var. parryi and C. parryi var. idahoensis exhibit a deep, species-level genetic divergence, and v) C. rotundifolia is genetically diverse across its range and polyphyletic. Potential causes of diversification and endemism in northwestern North America are discussed. PMID:21931605

  1. LLNL Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A

    2001-07-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB

  2. North Pacific seasonality and the glaciation of North America 2.7 million years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, G. H.; Ganopolski, A.; Sigman, D. M.; Rosell-Mele, A.; Swann, G. E.; Tiedemann, R.; Jaccard, S. L.; Bollmann, J.; Maslin, M. A.; Leng, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

    2006-12-01

    To initiate and sustain the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets of the Plio-Pleistocene ice ages, in particular the large Laurentide ice masses on North America, two requirements are broadly recognized. First, the more polar continental areas must be sufficiently cold for precipitation to fall as snow rather than rain and for snow and ice to survive the warm summer melting season. Second, adequate moisture must be introduced to high northern latitudes to promote the accumulation of glacial ice. In attempts to explain the initiation of major Northern Hemisphere Glaciation 2.7 Myr ago, much attention has been given to the temperature requirements of continental glaciation. The time interval between 4.5 and 3.1 Myr was dominated by a pronounced long-term minimum in the amplitude of the 41 kyr cycle in the obliquity of Earth's rotation which would have failed to produce particularly cold northern hemisphere summers, the key requirement posited by Milankovitch for the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation. During this time interval, there may have been several aborted shifts toward glaciation, for example between 4.1 - 3.9 Myr and 3.5 - 3.3 Myr. During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, a high amplitude in the obliquity cycle resulted in periods of low tilt angle, which, in turn, would have yielded periods with cold summers in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, it has been suggested that the progressive increase in the amplitude of the obliquity cycle tipped the scale between 3.1 - 2.5 Myr, allowing for long-term expansion of Northern Hemisphere ice. In short, our long-held view of the temperature requirement of glaciation is largely consistent with the timing of the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. However, the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation has proven to be inconsistent with ideas regarding the water vapor requirement. The subarctic Pacific represents a major source of water vapor to boreal North America yet has largely been overlooked in efforts

  3. A Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Western North America, and the Biogeography of Neoceratopsia

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.; Maxwell, W. Desmond; Cifelli, Richard L.; Wedel, Mathew J.

    2014-01-01

    The fossil record for neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs in the Lower Cretaceous of North America primarily comprises isolated teeth and postcrania of limited taxonomic resolution, hampering previous efforts to reconstruct the early evolution of this group in North America. An associated cranium and lower jaw from the Cloverly Formation (?middle–late Albian, between 104 and 109 million years old) of southern Montana is designated as the holotype for Aquilops americanus gen. et sp. nov. Aquilops americanus is distinguished by several autapomorphies, including a strongly hooked rostral bone with a midline boss and an elongate and sharply pointed antorbital fossa. The skull in the only known specimen is comparatively small, measuring 84 mm between the tips of the rostral and jugal. The taxon is interpreted as a basal neoceratopsian closely related to Early Cretaceous Asian taxa, such as Liaoceratops and Auroraceratops. Biogeographically, A. americanus probably originated via a dispersal from Asia into North America; the exact route of this dispersal is ambiguous, although a Beringian rather than European route seems more likely in light of the absence of ceratopsians in the Early Cretaceous of Europe. Other amniote clades show similar biogeographic patterns, supporting an intercontinental migratory event between Asia and North America during the late Early Cretaceous. The temporal and geographic distribution of Upper Cretaceous neoceratopsians (leptoceratopsids and ceratopsoids) suggests at least intermittent connections between North America and Asia through the early Late Cretaceous, likely followed by an interval of isolation and finally reconnection during the latest Cretaceous. PMID:25494182

  4. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association.

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association. PMID:24553081

  6. Hybridization of common reed in North America? The answer is blowing in the wind

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, L. A.; Lambertini, C.; McCormick, M. K.; Whigham, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims We review evidence for hybridization of Phragmites australis in North America and the implications for the persistence of native P. australis ssp. americanus populations in North America. We also highlight the need for an updated classification system, which takes P. australis intraspecific variation and hybridization into account. Methodology We reviewed available published, in press and in preparation literature to assess the likelihood of hybridization and interbreeding in genotypes of P. australis present in North America. Principal results Experimental results demonstrate that hybridization among introduced and native haplotypes is possible within the genus Phragmites, yet evidence that hybridization has occurred naturally is only starting to emerge. The lag in identifying hybridization in Phragmites in North America may be related to under-sampling in some parts of North America and to a lack of molecular tools that provide the capability to recognize hybrids. Conclusions Our understanding of the gene flow within and between species in the genus Phragmites is moving at a fast pace, especially on the east and Gulf coasts of North America. More attention should also be focused on the Great Lakes region, the southwestern and the west coast of the USA, where sympatry has created opportunities for hybridization. Where hybridizations have been detected, there are currently no published data on how hybridization affects plant vigour, morphology, invasiveness or conservation of the genetic integrity of the North American native subspecies. We conclude that the detection of more hybridization is highly likely and that there is a need to develop new markers for the different Phragmites species and lineages to fill current knowledge gaps. Finally, we suggest that the classification system for P. australis should be updated and published to help clarify the nomenclature. PMID:22993684

  7. On cold spells in North America and storminess in western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messori, Gabriele; Caballero, Rodrigo; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the dynamical and statistical links between cold extremes over eastern North America and storminess over western Europe, with a focus on the midlatitude jet stream, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA). The analysis is performed on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 20th Century Reanalysis. The large-scale circulation associated with the cold spells corresponds to advection of cold air from the Arctic region into North America and to a very zonal and intense North Atlantic jet, shifted persistently south of its climatological location. These features of the Atlantic jet are conducive to destructive windstorms and intense precipitation over a large part of southern and continental Europe and the British Isles. The cold spells are preceded by a negative NAO and followed by a positive PNA; however, we interpret the associated circulation anomalies as being distinct from these standard modes of climate variability.

  8. Quality Control Methodology Of A Surface Wind Observational Database In North Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. The database consists of 526 sites (486 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions with uneven measurement units and changing measuring procedures, instrumentation and heights. The records span from 1953 to 2010. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. The first phases deal with problems often related with data recording and management: (1) compilation stage dealing with the detection of typographical errors, decoding problems, site displacements and unification of institutional practices; (2) detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; (3) detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. The last phases are focused on instrumental errors: (4) problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; (5) high variability related erroneous records; (6) standardization of wind speed record biases due to changing measurement heights, detection of wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales, and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Additionally, around 15.9% wind speed records and 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected.

  9. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P < 0.0001) indicated high genetic variation within regions (81.7%) and low variation across regions (18.3%). A high level of genetic variation was found on early growth traits and on components of the relative growth rate (specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and net assimilation rate) as indicated by significant differences between accessions and by the high heritability values (50–88%). The fatty acid composition of jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as

  10. Metallogeny of the midcontinent rift system of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, S.W.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1.1 Ga Midcontinent rift system of North America is one of the world's major continental rifts and hosts a variety of mineral deposits. The rocks and mineral deposits of this 2000 km long rift are exposed only in the Lake Superior region. In the Lake Superior region, the rift cuts across Precambrian basement terranes ranging in age from ??? 1850 Ma to more than 3500 Ma. Where exposed, the rift consists of widespread tholeiitic basalt flows with local interlayered rhyolite and clastic sedimentary rocks. Beneath the center of Lake Superior the volcanic and sedimentary rocks are more than 30 km deep as shown by recent seismic reflection profiles. This region hosts two major classes of mineral deposits, magmatic and hydrothermal. All important mineral production in this region has come from hydrothermal deposits. Rift-related hydrothermal deposits include four main types: (1) native copper deposits in basalts and interflow sediments; (2) sediment-hosted copper sulfide and native copper; (3) copper sulfide veins and lodes hosted by rift-related volcanic and sedimentary rocks; and (4) polymetallic (five-element) veins in the surrounding Archean country rocks. The scarcity of sulfur within the rift rocks resulted in the formation of very large deposits of native metals. Where hydrothermal sulfides occur (i.e., shale-hosted copper sulfides), the source of sulfur was local sedimentary rocks. Magmatic deposits have locally supported exploration and minor production, but most are subeconomic presently. These deposits occur in intrusions exposed near the margins of the rift and include CuNiPGE and TiFe (V) in the Duluth Complex, U-REE-Nb in small carbonatites, and breccia pipes resulting from local hydrothermal activity around small felsic intrusions. Mineralization associated with some magmatic bodies resulted from the concentration of incompatible elements during fractional crystallization. Most of the sulfide deposits in intrusions, however, contain sulfur derived from

  11. Deformation across the western United States: A local estimate of Pacific-North America transform deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Eugene D.; Weldon, Ray J., II

    1994-01-01

    We obtain a locally based estimate of Pacific-North America relative motion and an uncertainly in this estimate by integrating deformation rate along three different paths leading west across southwestern North America from east of the Rio Grande Rift to near the continental escarpment. Data are primarily Quatenary geologic slip rates estimates, and resulting deformation determinations therefore are 'instantaneous' in a geologic sense but 'long term' with respect to earthquake cycles. We deduce a rate of motion of the Pacific plane relative to North America that is 48 +/- 2 mm/yr, a rate indistinguishable from that predicted by the global kinematics models RM2 and NUVEL-1; however, we obtain an orientation that is 5-9 deg counterclockwise of these models. A more westerly motion of the Pacific plate, with respect to North America, is calculated from all three paths. The relatively westerly motion of the Pacific plate is accomodated by deformation in the North American continent that includes slip on relatively counterclockwise-oriented strike-slip faults (including the San Andreas fault), whic is especially relevant in and south of the Transverse Ranges, and a margin-normal component of net extension across the continent, which is especially relevant north of the Transverse Ranges. Deformation of the SW United States occurs in regionally coherent domains within the style of deformation is approximately uniform.

  12. Potential for Rift Valley to be Introduced into North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants in Africa. The disease is most severe in cattle, sheep, and goats, causing mortality in young animals and abortion in adults. Human infection causes significant morbidity and mortality. RVF occurs in sub-Saharan Afri...

  13. Late Cretaceous restructuring of terrestrial communities facilitated the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in North America

    PubMed Central

    Roopnarine, Peter D.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The sudden environmental catastrophe in the wake of the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact had drastic effects that rippled through animal communities. To explore how these effects may have been exacerbated by prior ecological changes, we used a food-web model to simulate the effects of primary productivity disruptions, such as those predicted to result from an asteroid impact, on ten Campanian and seven Maastrichtian terrestrial localities in North America. Our analysis documents that a shift in trophic structure between Campanian and Maastrichtian communities in North America led Maastrichtian communities to experience more secondary extinction at lower levels of primary production shutdown and possess a lower collapse threshold than Campanian communities. Of particular note is the fact that changes in dinosaur richness had a negative impact on the robustness of Maastrichtian ecosystems against environmental perturbations. Therefore, earlier ecological restructuring may have exacerbated the impact and severity of the end-Cretaceous extinction, at least in North America. PMID:23112149

  14. Late Cretaceous restructuring of terrestrial communities facilitated the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in North America.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D

    2012-11-13

    The sudden environmental catastrophe in the wake of the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact had drastic effects that rippled through animal communities. To explore how these effects may have been exacerbated by prior ecological changes, we used a food-web model to simulate the effects of primary productivity disruptions, such as those predicted to result from an asteroid impact, on ten Campanian and seven Maastrichtian terrestrial localities in North America. Our analysis documents that a shift in trophic structure between Campanian and Maastrichtian communities in North America led Maastrichtian communities to experience more secondary extinction at lower levels of primary production shutdown and possess a lower collapse threshold than Campanian communities. Of particular note is the fact that changes in dinosaur richness had a negative impact on the robustness of Maastrichtian ecosystems against environmental perturbations. Therefore, earlier ecological restructuring may have exacerbated the impact and severity of the end-Cretaceous extinction, at least in North America.

  15. The Younger Dryas ET Impact Theory and Terminal Pleistocene Mammalian Extinctions in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandson, J. M.; Kennett, D. J.; Kennett, J.; Braje, T.; Culleton, B.

    2007-05-01

    Despite decades of intensive study and debate, no consensus has been reached on what caused the extinction of North America's mammalian megafauna at the end of the Pleistocene. In a scholarly standoff, prominent scientists have shown that neither "human overkill" or "climate change" models adequately account for the patterns found in the paleontological and archaeological records of North America. The Younger Dryas ET Impact theory may dramatically alter this debate, adding a catastrophic trigger to help explain the rapid extinction of many large mammals about 12,900 years ago. New data suggest that an extraterrestrial impact focused in northern and eastern North America may have devastated the megafauna through: (1) direct mortality caused by the impacts shock wave, debris, and massive wildfires; (2) dramatic reduction of terrestrial food supplies, rapid climatic change, and ecological reorganization; and (3) coup-de-grace effects of surviving human populations rapidly expanding after the impact.

  16. Late Cretaceous restructuring of terrestrial communities facilitated the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-01

    The sudden environmental catastrophe in the wake of the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact had drastic effects that rippled through animal communities. To explore how these effects may have been exacerbated by prior ecological changes, we used a food-web model to simulate the effects of primary productivity disruptions, such as those predicted to result from an asteroid impact, on ten Campanian and seven Maastrichtian terrestrial localities in North America. Our analysis documents that a shift in trophic structure between Campanian and Maastrichtian communities in North America led Maastrichtian communities to experience more secondary extinction at lower levels of primary production shutdown and possess a lower collapse threshold than Campanian communities. Of particular note is the fact that changes in dinosaur richness had a negative impact on the robustness of Maastrichtian ecosystems against environmental perturbations. Therefore, earlier ecological restructuring may have exacerbated the impact and severity of the end-Cretaceous extinction, at least in North America.

  17. Effect of a Pacific sea surface temperature anomaly on the circulation over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J.; Bangaru, B.

    1979-01-01

    During the fall and winter of 1976-1977, sea surface temperature (SST) in the north Pacific was characterized by abnormally cold temperatures in the central and western portions of the north Pacific with a warm pool located off the west coast of the U.S. It was suggested that the north Pacific SST anomalies were one of the multiple causes of the abnormally cold temperatures in eastern North America during the 1976-1977 winter. An attempt was made to test this hypothesis by conducting a numerical experiment with the GLAS general circulation model.

  18. Multiple co-circulating HIV-1 subtypes in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Morgane; Modjarrad, Kayvon

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 incidence has been increasing more rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa than in any other global region. Despite this trend, HIV epidemiology in the region remains poorly defined. We conducted an analysis of 3284 publicly available HIV-1 sequences from 15 countries in the Middle East and North Africa to better characterize the regional epidemic. A phylogenetic tree based on the reverse transcriptase gene revealed a complex mosaic of diverse HIV subtypes and circulating recombinant forms across the region. PMID:26091303

  19. Faunistic and bibliographical inventory of the Psychodinae moth-flies of North Africa (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Afzan, Hanan; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All published records for the 49 species of moth flies known from North Africa are reviewed and discussed: Morocco (27 species), Algeria (33 species), Tunisia (18 species) and Egypt (five species). In addition, records of seven species of Psychodinae new to the fauna of Morocco are added, of which three are new mentions for North Africa (Table 1) and one is a new record for Egypt. Telmatoscopus squamifer Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the genus Iranotelmatoscopus Ježek, 1987, comb. n. Satchelliella reghayana Boumezzough & Vaillant, 1987 is transferred to the genus Pneumia Enderlein, 1935, comb. n. Pneumia aberrans Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the subgenus Logima. PMID:27006599

  20. Faunistic and bibliographical inventory of the Psychodinae moth-flies of North Africa (Diptera, Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Afzan, Hanan; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-01-01

    All published records for the 49 species of moth flies known from North Africa are reviewed and discussed: Morocco (27 species), Algeria (33 species), Tunisia (18 species) and Egypt (five species). In addition, records of seven species of Psychodinae new to the fauna of Morocco are added, of which three are new mentions for North Africa (Table 1) and one is a new record for Egypt. Telmatoscopus squamifer Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the genus Iranotelmatoscopus Ježek, 1987, comb. n. Satchelliella reghayana Boumezzough & Vaillant, 1987 is transferred to the genus Pneumia Enderlein, 1935, comb. n. Pneumia aberrans Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the subgenus Logima. PMID:27006599

  1. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments with regard to the mapping and analysis of MAGSAT data for the investigation of correlations between the magnetic field characteristics of South American and African shields are reported. Significant results in the interpretation of the global total-field anomalies and the anomaly patterns of Africa and South America are discussed. The central position of the Brazilian shield tends to form a negative total-field anomaly, consistent with findings for shields in equatorial Africa. Sedimentary sequences in the Amazon basin and in the Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paolo areas exhibit positive anomalies, also consistent with equatorial Africa. Results for the Caribbean Sea and Guyana regions are also described.

  2. The Tropical Pacific and Sub-Arctic Weather in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    In addition to the classical El Niño, other structures in tropical Pacific SST anomalies have a strong influence on extratropical weather. Since 1979 the second EOF of global SST is a mode with warm SST in the western equatorial Pacific and cool SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific. This pattern has a strong signal in the extratropical North Pacific associated with the Rossby wave anomalies that are forced in the tropics and propagate over North America, and has been termed the North Pacific Mode. This mode is associated with a ridge on the west coast of North American and a trough downstream of the Rocky Mountains. This mode of variability had a strong influence on the winters of 2014 and 2015, and appears to have played a strong role in the cold winter of 2014 in central and eastern North America. This pattern persisted from the middle of 2013 through at least July of 2015, and also seems to have an effect on summer weather anomalies of the same nature. In the past the strength of the North Pacific Mode has preceded strong El Niño events, after which point it went into a strongly negative phase. This history suggests a transition to a more classical El Niño anomaly pattern for the winter of 2016, which would produce a warmer winter in central and eastern North America and cool and moist conditions over the Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Cryptic biodiversity in the cytogenome of bird-biting blackflies in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Adler, P H; Cherairia, M; Arigue, S F; Samraoui, B; Belqat, B

    2015-09-01

    Bird-biting blackflies in the Simulium (Eusimulium) aureum group (Diptera: Simuliidae) are widespread vectors of Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma parasites. The polytene chromosomes of 619 larvae of the three nominal members of the S. aureum group in North Africa were evaluated cytogenetically for cryptic biodiversity. Seven chromosomal segregates were discovered among 29 populations in Algeria and Morocco. This diversity was based primarily on two chromosomal inversions, which have assumed unique roles in different lineages, including sex linkage, fixation, loss and autosomal polymorphism. Reproductive isolation was demonstrated for six of the seven segregates, doubling the number of species known in the area. Four species were linked with existing names: (a) Simulium mellah Giudicelli & Bouzidi, which is known only from North African high-salinity habitats; (b) Simulium petricolum (Rivosecchi), which is tentatively conspecific with continental European populations; (c) Simulium rubzovianum (Sherban) and its synonym Simulium latinum (Rubtsov), which is widely distributed from North Africa across Europe into Western Asia, and (d) Simulium velutinum (Santos Abreu) and its new synonym Simulium tenerificum Crosskey, which is restricted to North Africa and the Canary Islands. Of the remaining entities, two are new species precinctive to North Africa and one, known only from Morocco, is of undetermined taxonomic status.

  4. Pacific-North America plate motions - New results from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Steven N.

    1990-01-01

    The state of Pacific-North America plate interaction is updated using newest VLBI measurements and newly developed rigid plate tectonic models. Particular attention is given to examining the extent of relative motion between the Pacific plate and the North America plate as measured from their stable interiors, the evidence of Pacific plate deformation off the central California coast, and the distribution of path integrated deformaton east of the San Andreas fault. The information obtained on these questions is discussed in the framework of implications for lithospheric rheology and earthquake hazard.

  5. New Black Fungus Gnats (Diptera, Sciaridae) of North America. Part II. Genus Bradysiopsis Tuomikoski, 1960.

    PubMed

    Mohrig, Werner; Kauschke, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The genus Bradysiopsis Tuomikoski is new for the sciarid fauna of North America. It includes 6 species. Four of them are new for science. These are Bradysiopsis postvittigera sp. n., Br. praevittata sp. n., Br. praevittigera sp. n. and Br. subvittigera sp. n.. Two species, Br. vittata (Meigen, 1830) and Br. vittigera (Zetterstedt, 1851), are distributed in the Holarctic but new for North America. In this paper species are described, illustrated by figures and a key for classification as well as distribution data are given. PMID:27615840

  6. Gravity anomalies, plate tectonics and the lateral growth of Precambrian North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, M. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    The widespread gravity coverage of North America provides a picture of the gross structural fabric of the continent via the trends of gravity anomalies. The structural picture so obtained reveals a mosaic of gravity trend domains, many of which correlate closely with structural provinces and orogenic terranes. The gravity trend map, interpreted in the light of plate-tectonic theory, thus provides a new perspective for examining the mode of assembly and growth of North America. Suture zones, palaeosubduction directions, and perhaps, contrasting tectonic histories may be identified using gravity patterns.

  7. Continental drainage in north america during the phanerozoic from Nd isotopes

    PubMed

    Patchett; Ross; Gleason

    1999-01-29

    Neodymium (Nd) isotopic data show consistent patterns in the sources of sedimentary rocks in North America at a continental scale. Between 600 and 450 million years ago (Ma), ancient continental shield sources dominated. Around 450 Ma, detritus from the Caledonian-Appalachian mountains overwhelmed sediment from all older sources, and is documented over large areas of the southern, western, and northern margins of North America. This material continued to dominate the sediment supply until about 150 Ma, probably due to cannibalistic recycling of sedimentary rocks formed earlier. Around 150 Ma, the rising western Cordillera delivered new and different detritus to the sedimentary system.

  8. General circulation model simulations of winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Legates, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, observed sea-level pressures were used to evaluate winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation models. The objective of the study is to determine how similar the spatial and temporal distributions of GCM-simulated daily sea-level pressures over North America are to observed distributions. Overall, both models are better at reproducing observed within-season variance of winter and summer sea-level pressures than they are at simulating the magnitude of mean winter and summer sea-level pressures. -from Authors

  9. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Jennifer L.; Scanlin, Dennis; Quinlan, Paul

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  10. AIR EMISSION INVENTORIES IN NORTH AMERICA: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although emission inventories are the foundation of air quality management and have supported substantial improvements in North American air quality, they have a number of shortcomings that can potentially lead to ineffective air quality management strategies. New technologies fo...

  11. Effect of Climate Change on Lyme Disease Risk in North America

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, John S.; Holford, Theodore R.; Fish, Durland

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the influence of climate change on Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease in North America, is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for the disease. We used a climate suitability model of I. scapularis to examine the potential effects of global climate change on future Lyme disease risk in North America. A climate-based logistic model was first used to explain the current distribution of I. scapularis in North America. Climate change scenarios were then applied to extrapolate the model in time and produce forecasts of vector establishment. The spatially modeled relationship between I. scapularis presence and large-scale environmental data generated the current pattern of I. scapularis across North America with an accuracy of 89% (p<0.0001). Extrapolation of the model revealed a significant expansion of I. scapularis north into Canada with an increase in suitable habitat of 213% by the 2080’s. Climate change will also result in a retraction of the vector from southern United States, and movement into the central United States. This report predicts the effect of climate change on Lyme disease risk and specifically forecasts the emergence of a tick-borne infectious disease in Canada. Our modeling approach could thus be used to outline where future control strategies and prevention efforts need to be applied. PMID:19008966

  12. A microraptorine (Dinosauria–Dromaeosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of North America

    PubMed Central

    Longrich, Nicholas R.; Currie, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The fossil assemblages of the Late Cretaceous of North America are dominated by large-bodied dinosaur species. Associated skeletons of small dinosaurs are exceedingly rare, and small (<10 kg) carnivorous theropods have not previously been reported from these beds. Here, we describe a small dromaeosaurid from the 75-million-year-old Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada. Hesperonychus elizabethae gen. et sp. nov. is represented by a pelvic girdle from an animal weighing ≈1,900 g. Despite its size, the pubes and ilia are coossified, indicating that the animal was somatically mature. This is the smallest carnivorous, nonavian dinosaur known from North America. Phylogenetic analysis of Hesperonychus reveals that it is not closely related to previously described North American dromaeosaurids. Instead, Hesperonychus is a member of the dromaeosaurid clade Microraptorinae, a group containing the 4-winged Microraptor and the feathered Sinornithosaurus, both from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of China. Hesperonychus is the youngest known member of this lineage, extending the temporal range of the clade by 45 million years, and it is the first microraptorine known from North America, providing further evidence for an affinity between the dinosaur faunas of North America and Asia. Study of fossil collections from the Dinosaur Park and Oldman formations of Alberta has revealed numerous isolated bones of small, basal dromaeosaurids, which are tentatively referred to Hesperonychus. These fossils suggest that small dromaeosaurids were a significant component of the carnivore community in this Late Cretaceous biota. PMID:19289829

  13. Identification of Eutypa spp. causing Eutypa dieback of grapevine in Eastern North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eutypa dieback of grapevine is caused by Eutypa lata in production areas with Mediterranean climates in California, Australasia, Europe, and South Africa. Eutypa dieback has also been described in the colder, eastern North American vineyards where cultivars adapted from native Vitis spp. (e.g., Viti...

  14. Northeastern North America as a potential refugium for boreal forests in a warming climate.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, L; Duchesne, L; Houle, D; Kneeshaw, D; Côté, B; Pederson, N

    2016-06-17

    High precipitation in boreal northeastern North America could help forests withstand the expected temperature-driven increase in evaporative demand, but definitive evidence is lacking. Using a network of tree-ring collections from 16,450 stands across 583,000 km(2) of boreal forests in Québec, Canada, we observe a latitudinal shift in the correlation of black spruce growth with temperature and reduced precipitation, from negative south of 49°N to largely positive to the north of that latitude. Our results suggest that the positive effect of a warmer climate on growth rates and growing season length north of 49°N outweighs the potential negative effect of lower water availability. Unlike the central and western portions of the continent's boreal forest, northeastern North America may act as a climatic refugium in a warmer climate.

  15. Northeastern North America as a potential refugium for boreal forests in a warming climate.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, L; Duchesne, L; Houle, D; Kneeshaw, D; Côté, B; Pederson, N

    2016-06-17

    High precipitation in boreal northeastern North America could help forests withstand the expected temperature-driven increase in evaporative demand, but definitive evidence is lacking. Using a network of tree-ring collections from 16,450 stands across 583,000 km(2) of boreal forests in Québec, Canada, we observe a latitudinal shift in the correlation of black spruce growth with temperature and reduced precipitation, from negative south of 49°N to largely positive to the north of that latitude. Our results suggest that the positive effect of a warmer climate on growth rates and growing season length north of 49°N outweighs the potential negative effect of lower water availability. Unlike the central and western portions of the continent's boreal forest, northeastern North America may act as a climatic refugium in a warmer climate. PMID:27313044

  16. The orphan tsunami of 1700—Japanese clues to a parent earthquake in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Musumi-Rokkaku, Satoko; Satake, Kenji; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Kazue; Yamaguchi, David K.

    2005-09-15

    The Orphan Tsunami of 1700, now in its second edition, tells this scientific detective story through its North American and Japanese clues. The discoveries underpin many of today’s precautions against earthquakes and tsunamis in the Cascadia region of northwestern North America. The Japanese tsunami of March 2011 called attention to those hazards as a mirror image of the transpacific waves of January 1700.

  17. The orphan tsunami of 1700—Japanese clues to a parent earthquake in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Musumi-Rokkaku, Satoko; Satake, Kenji; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Kazue; Yamaguchi, David K.

    2005-01-01

    The Orphan Tsunami of 1700, now in its second edition, tells this scientific detective story through its North American and Japanese clues. The discoveries underpin many of today’s precautions against earthquakes and tsunamis in the Cascadia region of northwestern North America. The Japanese tsunami of March 2011 called attention to those hazards as a mirror image of the transpacific waves of January 1700.

  18. IFLA General Conference 1988. Division of Regional Activities. Sections on: Asia and Oceania; Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The eight papers in this collection focus on library activities in various geographical regions, e.g., Asia, Oceania, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Western Australia: (1) "Future Approaches and Prospects of Computerised Information Network among the Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)" (Abdullah…

  19. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Regional Activities Division. Session on Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on regional activities in Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America which were presented at the 1986 IFLA general conference include: (1) "Appropriate Technology for Libraries in Developing Countries" (Peter N. Chateh, Cameroon); (2) "The Impact of Information Technology on Libraries in Thailand--Present and Future Scene" (Nonglak…

  20. 76 FR 18212 - E.ON Climate & RenewablesNorth America, LLC, et al. v. Midwest Independent Transmission System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission E.ON Climate & RenewablesNorth America, LLC, et al. v. Midwest Independent... Climate & Renewables North America, LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC, Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. and...

  1. 49 CFR 385.709 - Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suspension and revocation of non-North America... American Carriers § 385.709 Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier registration... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  2. 49 CFR 385.709 - Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension and revocation of non-North America... American Carriers § 385.709 Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier registration... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  3. 49 CFR 385.709 - Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suspension and revocation of non-North America... American Carriers § 385.709 Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier registration... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  4. 49 CFR 385.709 - Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suspension and revocation of non-North America... American Carriers § 385.709 Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier registration... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  5. 75 FR 64306 - Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and... U.S.C. 824e (2005), concerning the justness and reasonableness of Shell Energy North America (US), LP's market- based rate authority in the Central and Southwest balancing authority area. Shell...

  6. 76 FR 16447 - Lafarge North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Lafarge, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77668). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Lafarge North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Lafarge, Including On..., applicable to workers of Lafarge North America, Inc., a subsidiary of Lafarge, Seattle, Washington....

  7. 75 FR 51846 - BlueScope Buildings North America Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Register on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32224). At the request of the State Agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration BlueScope Buildings North America Including Workers Whose Unemployment...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance...

  8. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of... Marketing North America, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  9. 75 FR 76037 - HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ..., Bloomingdale, Illinois. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on September 21, 2010 (75 FR 57516... Employment and Training Administration HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including... Logistics, North America, Lisle, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  10. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Peylin, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Law, Rachel M.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rayner, Peter J.; Röedenbeck, Christian; Krol, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decade) and the Midwest United States (0.08 PgC/decade). Seasonal cross-correlation analysis shows a significant relationship between net carbon exchange and temperature/precipitation anomalies during the western United States growing season with warmer, dryer conditions leading reduced carbon uptake. This relationship is consistent with "global change-type drought" dynamics which drive increased vegetation mortality, increases in dry woody material, and increased wildfire occurrence. This finding supports the contention that future climate change may increase carbon loss in this region. Similarly, higher temperatures and reduced precipitation are accompanied by decreased net carbon uptake in the Midwestern United States toward the end of the growing season. Additionally, intensified net carbon uptake during the eastern boreal North America growing season is led by increased precipitation anomalies in the previous year, suggesting the influence of "climate memory" carried by regional snowmelt water. The two regions of boreal North America exhibit opposing seasonal carbon-temperature relationships with the eastern half experiencing a net carbon loss with near coincident increases in temperature and the western half showing increased net carbon uptake. The carbon response in the boreal west region lags the temperature anomalies by roughly 6 months. This opposing carbon-temperature relationship in boreal North America may be a combination of different dominant vegetation types, the amount and timing of snowfall, and temperature anomaly differences across boreal North America.

  11. Parapsyche species (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae: Arctopsychinae) of western North America.

    PubMed

    Givens, Donald R

    2015-12-14

    The adult female, pupa, and larva of the 5 western North American species of the arctopsychine genus Parapsyche-P. almota Ross 1938, P. elsis Milne 1936, P. extensa Denning 1949a, P. spinata Denning 1949b, and P. turbinata Schmid 1968-are reviewed. The female and larva of P. extensa are described for the first time. The larvae of P. spinata and P. turbinata are described for the first time. The chaetotaxy of the larval forms of western North American Parapsyche is discussed and scanning electron micrographs are presented. Keys to the females, known pupae, and larvae are provided. Distributional and biological data are also included.

  12. Parapsyche species (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae: Arctopsychinae) of western North America.

    PubMed

    Givens, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    The adult female, pupa, and larva of the 5 western North American species of the arctopsychine genus Parapsyche-P. almota Ross 1938, P. elsis Milne 1936, P. extensa Denning 1949a, P. spinata Denning 1949b, and P. turbinata Schmid 1968-are reviewed. The female and larva of P. extensa are described for the first time. The larvae of P. spinata and P. turbinata are described for the first time. The chaetotaxy of the larval forms of western North American Parapsyche is discussed and scanning electron micrographs are presented. Keys to the females, known pupae, and larvae are provided. Distributional and biological data are also included. PMID:26701494

  13. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of North Africa, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional oil and 370 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas resources in 8 geologic provinces of North Africa.

  15. A General Survey of Religious Concepts and Art of North, East, South, and West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Rohn

    This paper, a summary of a multi-carousel slide presentation, reviews literature on the cultures, religions, and art of African people. Before focusing on West Africa, highlights of the lifestyles, religions, and icons of non-maskmaking cultures of North, West and South African people are presented. Clarification of West African religious concepts…

  16. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography (Part II: North, South, West). Training & Methods Series, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Land Tenure Center.

    Compiled in December 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 940 books, journals, periodicals, and unpublished mimeographs dealing with rural development in north, west, and southern Africa. All materials are dated between 1953 and 1971. Entries are listed by country under the following headings: agriculture, economic affairs, social affairs,…

  17. Differences in Reliability of Reproductive History Recall among Women in North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliman, Amr; Allen, Katharine; Lo, An-Chi; Banerjee, Mousumi; Hablas, Ahmed; Benider, Abdellatif; Benchekroun, Nadya; Samir, Salwa; Omar, Hoda G.; Merajver, Sofia; Mullan, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in North Africa. Women in this region have unique reproductive profiles. It is essential to obtain reliable information on reproductive histories to help better understand the relationship between reductive health and breast cancer. We tested the reliability of a reproductive history-based…

  18. Skeletal variation among early Holocene North American humans: implications for origins and diversity in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2012-12-01

    The movement of humans into the Americas remains a major topic of debate among scientific disciplines. Central to this discussion is ascertaining the timing and migratory routes of the earliest colonizers, in addition to understanding their ancestry. Molecular studies have recently argued that the colonizing population was isolated from other Asian populations for an extended period before proceeding to colonize the Americas. This research has suggested that Beringia was the location of this "incubation," though archaeological and skeletal data have not yet supported this hypothesis. This study employs the remains of the five most complete North American male early Holocene skeletons to examine patterns of human morphology at the earliest observable time period. Stature, body mass, body breadth, and limb proportions are examined in the context of male skeletal samples representing the range of morphological variation in North America in the last two millennia of the Holocene. These are also compared with a global sample. Results indicate that early Holocene males have variable postcranial morphologies, but all share the common trait of wide bodies. This trait, which is retained in more recent indigenous North American groups, is associated with adaptations to cold climates. Peoples from the Americas exhibit wider bodies than other populations sampled globally. This pattern suggests the common ancestral population of all of these indigenous American groups had reduced morphological variation in this trait. Furthermore, this provides support for a single, possibly high latitude location for the genetic isolation of ancestors of the human colonizers of the Americas.

  19. Uncertainties in crustal thickness models for data sparse environments: A review for South America and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meijde, M.; Fadel, I.; Ditmar, P.; Hamayun, M.

    2015-03-01

    With the recently available high resolution gravity data from the GOCE satellite a whole range of crustal thickness models have been derived. The added value of GOCE is that it provides data globally, including regions that are poorly covered by seismological studies, like large parts of Africa and South America. Potentially these models can provide new insight in crustal structure for these data poor regions. We compare different models of crustal thickness for South America and Africa and attempt to assess the quality of different modelling techniques and the impact of different data sources. We introduce one new global crustal thickness model based on gravity data, DMM-1, and use seven additional, recently published, continental or global crustal thickness models based on gravity or seismological data. All models use different modelling techniques, and either gravity (four models) or seismological data (four models). We will show that significant differences exist between the models but that these cannot be directly related to the used data. Choices made in the selection and parametrization of the various modelling techniques have more impact than using different data sources including data sources of supposed higher quality. The significant differences, up to 28 km, between models can have a major influence on geodynamical analysis for the two continents. We propose that future work should focus on developing a standard for modelling in data sparse environments, and expanding seismological efforts in those regions that are most different between the shown models to verify the actual crustal thickness. Furthermore, the contribution and inclusion of (satellite) gravity data in crustal thickness models should be further explored.

  20. Commerce in health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Dantés, O; Frenk, J; Cruz, C

    1997-06-01

    This article discusses the future of commercial trade in personal health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the latter's potential influence on health care for the Mexican people. It begins by defining concepts related to international trade of services, particularly health services, and then proceeds to analyze elements of NAFTA that affect the delivery, regulation, and financing of such services, as well as their future trade within the NAFTA area. It concludes with some recommendations directed at helping Mexico's national health care system confront the risks posed while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the Mexican economy's entry into a broader market.

  1. The first nearly cryptic Scorpionfly (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first, nearly cryptic species of scorpionfly from the United States, Panorpa cryptica Bicha and Schiff, n. sp., is described from northern Georgia, southwestern North Carolina and northwestern South Carolina. This insect was initially differentiated from the very similar Panorpa nebulosa Westwoo...

  2. Vegetable cultivar descriptions for North America, List 27

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This list of the North American vegetable cultivars was developed using the database of cultivars registered with the American Seed Trade Association, as well as published descriptions from scientific journals, seed catalogs, and websites of seed companies. Assistant editors responsible for each cr...

  3. Aurora Borealis over Northern North America and Canada

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video was taken by the crew of Expedition 30 on board the International Space Station. The sequence of shots was taken January 29, 2012 from 10:18:13 to 10:31:28 GMT, on a pass from the North ...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Tomato Viroids in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American greenhouse tomato industry has expanded dramatically in the last couple of decades. Nearly 40% of fresh tomatoes in the U.S. supermarkets are now produced in greenhouses. The intense production practices and the protective plant growing environment resulted in a number of unique...

  5. The Spanish Borderlands of North America: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historiographic overview of the North American Spanish borderlands, focusing on changes and various topics, such as defending or attacking missionaries. Addresses what teachers can do who are in search of a point of entry into the borderlands literature. (CMK)

  6. Patterns of widespread decline in North America bumble bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining abundance and range shifts of bumble bee (Bombus) species have been observed in Europe and Asia. However, the status of North America’s bumble bee species has been largely unstudied. Recent reports based on local or regional observations suggest that parallel declines are taking place in N...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Maca-Meyer, Nicole; González, Ana M; Pestano, José; Flores, Carlos; Larruga, José M; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2003-01-01

    Background World-wide phylogeographic distribution of human complete mitochondrial DNA sequences suggested a West Asian origin for the autochthonous North African lineage U6. We report here a more detailed analysis of this lineage, unraveling successive expansions that affected not only Africa but neighboring regions such as the Near East, the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. Results Divergence times, geographic origin and expansions of the U6 mitochondrial DNA clade, have been deduced from the analysis of 14 complete U6 sequences, and 56 different haplotypes, characterized by hypervariable segment sequences and RFLPs. Conclusions The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity. Subgroup U6a reflects the first African expansion from the Maghrib returning to the east in Paleolithic times. Derivative clade U6a1 signals a posterior movement from East Africa back to the Maghrib and the Near East. This migration coincides with the probable Afroasiatic linguistic expansion. U6b and U6c clades, restricted to West Africa, had more localized expansions. U6b probably reached the Iberian Peninsula during the Capsian diffusion in North Africa. Two autochthonous derivatives of these clades (U6b1 and U6c1) indicate the arrival of North African settlers to the Canarian Archipelago in prehistoric times, most probably due to the Saharan desiccation. The absence of these Canarian lineages nowadays in Africa suggests important demographic movements in the western area of this Continent. PMID:14563219

  8. Cocaine abuse in North America: a milestone in history.

    PubMed

    Das, G

    1993-04-01

    The euphoric effects of coca leaves have been known to mankind for thousands of years. Yet the first epidemic of cocaine use in America occurred during the late 19th century. Initially, there were no laws restricting the consumption or sale of cocaine. In fact, cocaine was freely available in drug stores, saloons, from mail-order vendors, and even in grocery stores. It is reported that one drug manufacturer, in 1885, was selling cocaine in 15 different forms, including cigarettes, cheroots, inhalants, cordials, crystals, and solutions. Many famous imported wines, such as "Vin Mariani," contained a mixture of wine and coca. For consumers on budgets, the wonder drug was available as Coca-Cola and dozens of other soda pops and pick-me-up drinks. One of them even had a simple and direct name, Dope. Soon enough, the ill effects of cocaine became apparent, and by the 1920s cocaine was the most feared of all illicit drugs. Most states began enacting laws against cocaine use. President William Taft proclaimed cocaine as Public Enemy No. 1, and in 1914 the Congress passed the Harrison act, which tightly regulated the distribution and sale of cocaine. By the late 1950s, cocaine use in the United States was simply considered a problem in the past. Unfortunately, the people who were aware of the nation's first cocaine epidemic gradually passed away, and America once again was ready for its fling with cocaine in the 1960s. Today, it is estimated that upwards of 50 million Americans, that is one in four, have used cocaine. In addition, another fifty thousand people use this substance for the first time each day. More than 6 million Americans use cocaine on a regular basis. Little wonder, then, that America as well as the other countries have declared a "War on Drugs." In this review, pharmacology of cocaine, major complications arising from its use, and efforts to curb its abuse are discussed. PMID:8473543

  9. The Flora North America Generalized System for Describing the Morphology of Organisms. Research Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetler, Stanwyn G.

    The file organization for the computerized Flora North America (FNA) data bank is described. A four level character hierarchy allows subdivision of any flora description into as many as four levels in order to specify plant character precisely. Terms at any one level will not necessarily be parallel in status. Both PLANTS and LEAVES serve as…

  10. Modeling Habitat Associations for the Common Loon (Gavia immer) at Multiple Scales in Northeastern North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) is considered an emblematic and ecologically important example of aquatic-dependent wildlife in North America. The northern breeding range of Common Loons has contracted over the last century, presumably as a result of habitat degradation from human ...

  11. TRENDS IN SURFACE WATER ACIDIFICATION IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA (1989-1998)

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the last 20 years, emission reductions in Europe and North America have resulted in decreased atmospheric Sulfur-deposition of up to 50%, while Nitrogen-deposition has stayed almost constant. Data from 98 ICP Waters sites were tested for trends in concentrations of major c...

  12. Genetic diversity of Aphthona flea beetles introduced into North America for biological control of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Aphthona flea beetles from Europe (Aphthona flava, Aphthona cyparissiae, Aphthona nigriscutis, Aphthona czwalinae, and Aphthona lacertosa) have been introduced and become established in North America for the purpose of controlling the noxious weed, leafy spurge. Within species gene...

  13. Definitive hosts of a fatal Versteria species (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported fatal metacestode infection in a captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. Data from ermine (Mustela erminea) and mink (Neovison vison) implicate mustelids as definitive North America hosts and expand known Versteria diversity. The orangu...

  14. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  15. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically...

  16. Migration of Computer Science Graduates from South Asia to Europe and North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, W. A.; Siddiqi, A. B.; Ahmed, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the influx of computer science graduates from South Asia into Europe and North America. It analyses the need and supply chains between two points and identifies the pros and cons of the education imparted to these graduates. The effects of social disorder due to migrations are addressed. The resulting technological vacuum in…

  17. Council Connections: A Newsletter of the Reading Recovery Council of North America, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council Connections, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of three years' worth (8 issues) of "Council Connections," the newsletter of the Reading Recovery Council of North America. Each issue offers brief articles, updates of Reading Recovery programs in various countries, messages from the organization's president, past president, and/or the executive director, updates on the…

  18. Standards and Guidelines of the Reading Recovery [TM] Council of North America. Third Edition: Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This booklet outlines the Reading Recovery Council of North America's (RRCNA) standards and guidelines for those who are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of effective Reading Recovery and/or "Descubriendo La Lectura" sites. The standards are deemed essential for assuring quality services to children and effective implementation of…

  19. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  20. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF COMMON LOON GENETIC STRUCTURE IN NORTH AMERICA BASED ON FIVE MICROSATELLITE LOCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study seeks to determine fine-scale genetic structure of Common Loon breeding populations in order to link wintering birds with their breeding regions. Common Loons are large piscivorous birds that breed in lakes of northern North America and Iceland. Loons are highly phil...

  1. A new species of Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocoris aquilivenis Lewis, n. sp. is described from the mountainous areas of western North America. It is compared to the Nearctic species Anthocoris tomentosus Péricart and Anthocoris antevolens White, and to Anthocoris sibiricus Reuter, a related Palearctic species. Illustrations are provided o...

  2. Archips xylosteana (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a Palearctic leaf-rolling moth, new to North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Archips xylosteana (L.), a widespread Palearctic tortricid moth, is reported from St. John’s, Newfoundland, the first confirmed records of this species in North America. Adults were collected by beating branches and foliage of a variety of ornamental trees and shrubs on the campus of Memorial Univer...

  3. A new dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with Asian affinities from the latest Cretaceous of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David C.; Larson, Derek W.; Currie, Philip J.

    2013-11-01

    Dromaeosaurids from the Maastrichtian of North America have a poor fossil record and are known largely from isolated teeth, which have typically been referred to taxa based on more complete material from earlier Campanian strata. An almost complete maxilla with well-preserved dentition and an associated dentary from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana are used to establish a new dromaeosaurid taxon in the latest Maastrichtian, immediately prior to the end-Cretaceous extinction event. Acheroraptor temertyorum gen. et sp. nov. is differentiated from other dromaeosaurids on the basis of a hypertrophied postantral wall that projects posteriorly into the antorbital fenestra, a maxillary fenestra positioned low in the antorbital fossa and directly posterior to the promaxillary fenestra, and distinctive dentition with marked apicobasal ridges. The new material allows a dromaeosaurid from the Maastrichtian of North America to be placed within a phylogenetic framework for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Acheroraptor is a velociraptorine that is more closely related to Asian dromaeosaurids, including Tsaagan and Velociraptor, than it is to Dromaeosaurus, Saurornitholestes, or any other taxon from North America. As part of the Lancian Tyrannosaurus- Triceratops fauna, A. temertyorum is the latest occurring dromaeosaurid. Its relationships and occurrence suggest a complex historical biogeographic scenario that involved multiple, bi-directional faunal interchanges between Asia and North America during the Late Cretaceous.

  4. Data-driven diagnostics of terrestrial carbon dynamics over North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth's climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of t...

  5. Historical Reflections on the Ascendancy of ADHD in North America, c. 1980 - c. 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Paul; Foy, Michael

    2006-01-01

    An ecological niche framework (Hacking, 1998) is utilised to examine the growth of ADHD in North America. The analysis suggests ADHD flourishes, at least in part, due to a complex and historically situated interaction of factors that created a niche within which a particular kind of explanation and treatment for the troubling behaviours of…

  6. 75 FR 26202 - Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  7. 78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the..., which authorized Shell Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a...

  8. 78 FR 14779 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the..., which authorized Shell Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  9. 75 FR 57911 - Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five...

  10. Reduction in carbon uptake during turn of the century drought in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fossil fuel emissions aside, temperate North America is a net sink of carbon dioxide at present1–3. Year-to-year variations in this carbon sink are linked to variations in hydroclimate that affect net ecosystem productivity3,4. The severity and incidence of climatic extremes, including drought, have...

  11. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION POLICY APPROACHES IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA. (R825761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Soil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

  12. Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes for Forests and Grasslands of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities have substantially elevated the atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) onto terrestrial ecosystems of North America. Some of this N can stimulate carbon (C) storage in terrestrial ecosystems, but the fertilization effect of added N can be diminished by e...

  13. Shrub encroachment across North America: A multi-site synthesis of patterns, mechanisms, and consequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In North America, the expansion of shrubs within ecosystems previously dominated by herbaceous species has been documented in barrier islands off the Virginia coast, mesic grasslands of the Great Plains, sub-tropical savannas of Texas, desert grasslands of the Southwest, across the Intermountain Wes...

  14. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, J. L.; Jeffries, D. S.; Lükewille, A.; Clair, T. A.; Dillon, P. J.; Driscoll, C. T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J. S.; Kellogg, J. H.; Kemp, A.; Mannio, J.; Monteith, D. T.; Murdoch, P. S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorf, A.; Skjelkvåle, B. L.; Stainton, M. P.; Traaen, T.; van Dam, H.; Webster, K. E.; Wieting, J.; Wilander, A.

    1999-10-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere (`acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain; all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  15. Use of MODIS Snow-Cover Maps for Detecting Snowmelt Trends in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Riggs, George A.; Robinson, David A.; Hoon-Starr, Jody A.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the snow season in the Northern Hemisphere has been getting shorter in recent decades, consistent with documented global temperature increases. Specifically, the snow is melting earlier in the spring allowing for a longer growing season and associated land-cover changes. Here we focus on North America. Using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) cloud-gap-filled standard snow-cover data product we can detect a trend toward earlier spring snowmelt in the approx 12 years since the MODIS launch. However, not all areas in North America show earlier spring snowmelt over the study period. We show examples of springtime snowmelt over North America, beginning in March 2000 and extending through the winter of 2012 for all of North America, and for various specific areas such as the Wind River Range in Wyoming and in the Catskill Mountains in New York. We also compare our approx 12-year trends with trends derived from the Rutgers Global Snow Lab snow cover climate-data record.

  16. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  17. A new species of Atheroides Haliday (Hemiptera, Aphididae) native to North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Report and description of the first species of Atheroides Haliday presumed to be native to North America was collected at the Valles Caldera National Preserve, NM, USA. Hypothesis on its placement among the Siphini is based on morphological and phylogenetic analysis. These findings expand the dis...

  18. 77 FR 12869 - Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of approval... services should request and receive written assurances from the entity that it is approved by the...

  19. A Goal for North Carolina's Schools. First in America 2000 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Charles L., Ed.; Cunningham, Elizabeth Kolb, Ed.

    This first annual report details North Carolina's performance and progress in five areas of its First in America goals: high student performance (every student in school and making strong progress, every graduate ready for college and work, and every school accountable for student learning); every child ready to learn (every child with access to…

  20. Quantitative risk assessment of rabies entering Great Britain from North America via cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rowena D; Kelly, Louise; Fooks, Anthony R; Wooldridge, Marion

    2005-06-01

    Great Britain has been rabies-free since 1922, which is often considered to be in part due to the strict laws requiring that imported cats and dogs be vaccinated and quarantined for 6 months immediately on entry into the country. Except for two isolated incidents, this quarantine policy has contributed to ensuring that Great Britain has remained free of rabies. In 2000, amendments to the UK quarantine laws were made and the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) was launched for companion animals traveling from European Union countries and rabies-free islands. Since its introduction, it has been proposed that other countries including North America should be included within the UK scheme. A quantitative risk assessment was developed to assist in the policy decision to amend the long-standing quarantine laws for dogs and cats from North America. It was determined that the risk of rabies entry is very low and is dependent on the level of compliance (i.e., legally conforming to all of the required regulations) with PETS and the number of pets imported. Assuming 100% compliance with PETS and the current level of importation of cats and dogs from North America, the annual probability of importing rabies is lower for animals traveling via PETS (7.22 x 10(-6), 95th percentile) than quarantine (1.01 x 10(-5), 95th percentile). These results, and other scientific evidence, directly informed the decision to expand the PETS scheme to North America as of December 2002.

  1. Phylogeny of Cirsium spp. in North America: host specificity does not follow phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy invasive Cirsium spp. are widespread in temperate regions of North America and some of their biological control agents have attacked native Cirsium spp. A phylogenetic tree was developed from DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacer and external transcribed spacer regions from native ...

  2. 78 FR 48909 - SGS North America, Inc. (formerly SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc.)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration SGS North America, Inc. (formerly SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc.) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's final decision expanding the recognition...

  3. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Register on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32224). At the request of the State Agency, the Department reviewed the... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance...

  4. 76 FR 9809 - Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of approval... written assurances from the entity that it is approved by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection...

  5. CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINING DIADROMOUS FISHES THROUGH 2100: LESSONS LEARNED FROM WESTERN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific salmon in western North America provides instructive policy lessons for the potential recovery of diadromous fishes throughout the world. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs o...

  6. Proceeding of the 2014 sorghum improvement conference of north america (SICNA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2014 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA 2014) meeting was held at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center , Agnes, Corpus Christi, TX on June 25-27, 2014. The meeting was attended by about 80 participants representing a diverse cross section of the sorghum indus...

  7. Orius diespeter Herring in North America: Color Variation and Updated Distribution (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orius diespeter Herring was described in 1966 from two specimens collected in western British Columbia, Canada. The original description relied mainly on color of the hemelytra to distinguish this species from a second species common in western North America, Orius tristicolor (White). Orius diespe...

  8. First record of human infection with the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense in North America.

    PubMed

    Wicht, Barbara; Scholz, Tomás; Peduzzi, Raffaele; Kuchta, Roman

    2008-02-01

    The tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea), originally described from Japan, is reported from a man in North America for the first time. Species identification was based on sequences of ribosomal (partial 18S rRNA) and mitochondrial (partial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I) genes of proglottids expelled from a Czech tourist who ate raw Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from British Columbia, Canada.

  9. COMPARISON OF SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS FROM MAJOR OZONE FIELD STUDIES IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade, nearly 600 million dollars were invested in more than 30 major field studies in North America and Europe examining tropospheric ozone chemistry, meteorology, precursor emissions, and modeling. Most of these studies were undertaken to provide new or refin...

  10. The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume VI: English in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algeo, John, Ed.

    This book is one volume in a series that examines the history of English. It traces the history of English in North America during the past 400 years, from its British background to its present position among the varieties of English used worldwide. Influences that have formed American English include political, social, and cultural changes in…

  11. EXPANSION OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS INTO TIDAL WETLANDS OF NORTH AMERICA. (U915648)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phragmites expansion into tidal wetlands of North America is most extensive along the northern and middle Atlantic coasts, but over 80% of the US coastal wetland area occurs along the Gulf of Mexico and southern Atlantic coasts and may be susceptible to ongoing expansio...

  12. Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome Species Diversity within North and South America Revealed by Multilocus Genotyping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden-death syndrome (SDS) of soybean and has become a serious constraint to the production of this crop in North and South America. Recently published phenotypic and multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses, and pathogenicity experiments have demonstrated that four morphologically and phylogene...

  13. Critical Issues in Native North America, Volume II. IWGIA Document No. 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Ward, Ed.

    This collection of articles forms the second of two volumes designed to impart to readers some sense of the crucial importance of what is and will be happening to the indigenous peoples of North America. "The Present and Future Status of American Indian Nations," by Robert T. Coulter argues from the perspectives of ideology, power, law, and human…

  14. Groundwater recharge during spring thaw in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snowmelt collects in landscape depressions and appears to replenish groundwater in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America while the soil is frozen. Little is known, however, about the physical state of the soil at the time of recharge. Depth of snow, surface water, water table, and frozen soil ...

  15. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  16. 76 FR 46852 - Panasonic Corporation of North America, Business Operations Group, Rolling Meadows, IL; Panasonic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    .... The Notice was published in the Federal Register on April 22, 2011 (76 FR 22731). At the request of a..., Rolling Meadows, IL; Panasonic Corporation of North America, Financial Services Organization, Rolling Meadows, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

  17. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  18. Modeling Habitat Preferences and Constraints for the Common Loon in Northeastern North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common loon, Gavia immer, is considered an emblematic and ecologically important example of aquatic-dependent wildlife in North America. The northern breeding range of loons has contracted over the last century, presumably as a result of habitat degradation from human disturb...

  19. 78 FR 18372 - TUV Rheinland of North America, Inc.; Expansion of Recognition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... notice announcing TUV's expansion application in the Federal Register on July 24, 2012 (77 FR 43370). The... Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 657(g)(2)), Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR 3912... Occupational Safety and Health Administration TUV Rheinland of North America, Inc.; Expansion of...

  20. A new dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with Asian affinities from the latest Cretaceous of North America.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; Larson, Derek W; Currie, Philip J

    2013-11-01

    Dromaeosaurids from the Maastrichtian of North America have a poor fossil record and are known largely from isolated teeth, which have typically been referred to taxa based on more complete material from earlier Campanian strata. An almost complete maxilla with well-preserved dentition and an associated dentary from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana are used to establish a new dromaeosaurid taxon in the latest Maastrichtian, immediately prior to the end-Cretaceous extinction event. Acheroraptor temertyorum gen. et sp. nov. is differentiated from other dromaeosaurids on the basis of a hypertrophied postantral wall that projects posteriorly into the antorbital fenestra, a maxillary fenestra positioned low in the antorbital fossa and directly posterior to the promaxillary fenestra, and distinctive dentition with marked apicobasal ridges. The new material allows a dromaeosaurid from the Maastrichtian of North America to be placed within a phylogenetic framework for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Acheroraptor is a velociraptorine that is more closely related to Asian dromaeosaurids, including Tsaagan and Velociraptor, than it is to Dromaeosaurus, Saurornitholestes, or any other taxon from North America. As part of the Lancian Tyrannosaurus-Triceratops fauna, A. temertyorum is the latest occurring dromaeosaurid. Its relationships and occurrence suggest a complex historical biogeographic scenario that involved multiple, bi-directional faunal interchanges between Asia and North America during the Late Cretaceous.

  1. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  2. 75 FR 47880 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Trucks North America's (Volvo) exemption for five of its drivers to enable them to test-drive commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in the United States without a commercial driver's license (CDL) issued by one of... February 4, 2010, as previously announced in the Federal Register (75 FR 33663, June 14, 2010). Comments...

  3. 75 FR 35515 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Granting of Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... decision to grant Volvo Trucks North America, Inc.'s (Volvo) application for exemption to enable one of its drivers to test-drive commercial motor vehicles (CMV) in the United States without a commercial driver's license (CDL) issued by one of the States. Volvo asserts that the exemption is necessary to support...

  4. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  5. The Current State of European Studies in North America and of Scholarly Publishing in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacken, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Relates how scholarly publishing in Western Europe feeds into North America. Discusses globalization, regionalism, and particularism; new models and research methodology; Biblio-Darwinism (survival of the fittest publishing languages) and the language of the imprint; differing academic infrastructures of Europe; booming scholarly-title production;…

  6. CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINING DIADROMOUS FISHES THROUGH 2100: LESSONS LEARNED FROM WESTERN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon in western North America provides instructive policy lessons for the potential recovery of diadromous fishes throughout the world. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of...

  7. Proceedings of the 2006 annual meeting of the Phytochemical Society of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This issue of Phytochemistry is dedicated to the proceedings of the 2006 Phytochemical Society of North America's Conference held on the campus of The University of Mississippi in Oxford, MS. The meeting was hosted by the National Center for Natural Products Research, the Department of Pharmacogno...

  8. North America's Native Peoples: A Social Justice and Trauma Counseling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.; Pope, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article understands North America's indigenous peoples in the context of social justice. The authors discuss the role of legislation in shaping cultural contexts of indigenous people and influencing mental health issues in Native American communities. Trauma counseling with Native Americans is explored.

  9. Geologic literature on North America, 1785-1918; Part I, Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, John M.

    1923-01-01

    The bibliography forming Part I of this compilation includes papers relating to the geology paleontology, petrology, and mineralogy of North America-specifically, the United States, the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland, the Arctic regions north of the continent, Greenland, Mexico Central America, Panama, and the West Indies including Trinidad-and also the Hawaiian Islands. Geographic and descriptive writings and accounts of travels with incidental mention of geologic facts are not included. Textbooks published in America and work general in character by American authors are given but general papers by foreign writers are excluded unless they have appeared in American publications. Papers by American writers on the geology of other parts of the world are not listed.

  10. First Detection of Bat White-Nose Syndrome in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Jonathan M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Ballmann, Anne E.; George, Kyle G.; Griffin, Kathryn; Knowles, Susan; Huckabee, John R.; Haman, Katherine H.; Anderson, Christopher D.; Becker, Penny A.; Buchanan, Joseph B.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Since it was first detected near Albany, NY, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern North America, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. The devastating impacts of WNS on Nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction of P. destructans from Eurasia to naive host populations in eastern North America. Since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pattern consistent with introduction of the pathogen at a single location. Here, we describe the first detection of P. destructans in western North America in a little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) from near Seattle, WA, far from the previously recognized geographic distribution of the fungus. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the isolate of P. destructans from Washington grouped with other isolates of a presumed clonal lineage from the eastern United States. Thus, the occurrence of P. destructans in Washington does not likely represent a novel introduction of the fungus from Eurasia, and the lack of intensive surveillance in the western United States makes it difficult to interpret whether the occurrence of P. destructans in the Pacific Northwest is disjunct from that in eastern North America. Although there is uncertainty surrounding the impacts of WNS in the Pacific Northwest, the presence of the pathogen in western North America could have major consequences for bat conservation. IMPORTANCE White-nose syndrome (WNS) represents one of the most consequential wildlife diseases of modern times. Since it was first documented in New York in 2006, the disease has killed millions of bats and threatens several formerly abundant species with extirpation or extinction. The spread of WNS in eastern North America has been relatively gradual, inducing optimism that disease mitigation strategies could be established in time to conserve bats

  11. First Detection of Bat White-Nose Syndrome in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Palmer, Jonathan M; Lindner, Daniel L; Ballmann, Anne E; George, Kyle G; Griffin, Kathryn; Knowles, Susan; Huckabee, John R; Haman, Katherine H; Anderson, Christopher D; Becker, Penny A; Buchanan, Joseph B; Foster, Jeffrey T; Blehert, David S

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Since it was first detected near Albany, NY, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern North America, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. The devastating impacts of WNS on Nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction of P. destructans from Eurasia to naive host populations in eastern North America. Since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pattern consistent with introduction of the pathogen at a single location. Here, we describe the first detection of P. destructans in western North America in a little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) from near Seattle, WA, far from the previously recognized geographic distribution of the fungus. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the isolate of P. destructans from Washington grouped with other isolates of a presumed clonal lineage from the eastern United States. Thus, the occurrence of P. destructans in Washington does not likely represent a novel introduction of the fungus from Eurasia, and the lack of intensive surveillance in the western United States makes it difficult to interpret whether the occurrence of P. destructans in the Pacific Northwest is disjunct from that in eastern North America. Although there is uncertainty surrounding the impacts of WNS in the Pacific Northwest, the presence of the pathogen in western North America could have major consequences for bat conservation. IMPORTANCE White-nose syndrome (WNS) represents one of the most consequential wildlife diseases of modern times. Since it was first documented in New York in 2006, the disease has killed millions of bats and threatens several formerly abundant species with extirpation or extinction. The spread of WNS in eastern North America has been relatively gradual, inducing optimism that disease mitigation strategies could be established in time to conserve bats susceptible

  12. Paleomagnetic Euler Poles and the Apparent Polar Wander and Absolute Motion of North America Since the Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Richard G.; Cox, Allan; O'Hare, Scott

    1984-10-01

    spot Euler pole for 200-90 Ma lies only 15° outside the 95% confidence ellipsoid of the paleomagnetic Euler pole. The good but not perfect agreement reflects displacement between the hot spot and paleomagnetic reference frames at an average rate that is smaller by an order of magnitude than the rate at which the faster plates are moving. The angular velocity of North America about the Jurassic-Cretaceous paleomagnetic Euler pole was determined by plotting the angular positions of paleomagnetic poles along the track as a function of age. For the Cretaceous the angular velocity was too small to measure. During the Jurassic the angular velocity was high, corresponding to a root-mean-square velocity of 70 km/m.y. for the North American plate. A short time interval of even more rapid movement during the Middle and Late Jurassic, possibly corresponding to the beginning of rapid displacement between North America and Africa, is suggested by the data. The direction of absolute motion of North America during the Jurassic was toward the northwest. A Carboniferous-Permian-Triassic paleomagnetic Euler pole was determined from 26 paleomagnetic poles. The progression of poles along this track is consistent with known ages and stratigraphy, except for some systematic differences between poles from Triassic rocks on the Colorado Plateau and poles from Triassic rocks off the Colorado Plateau. These differences could be due to a small clockwise rotation of the Colorado Plateau with respect to cratonal North America, or to miscorrelations between Triassic rocks on the Colorado Plateau and off the Colorado Plateau, or to large lag times between the deposition and magnetization of some rock units, or to some combination of these possibilities. Despite these ambiguities in interpreting paleomagnetic data from Triassic rocks, the general pattern of apparent polar wander and plate motion during the Carboniferous through Triassic is clear: The root-mean-square velocity of North America was

  13. Qualitative Description of Global Health Nursing Competencies by Nursing Faculty in Africa and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lynda; Moran, Laura; Zarate, Rosa; Warren, Nicole; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze qualitative comments from four surveys asking nursing faculty to rate the importance of 30 global health competencies for undergraduate nursing programs. Method: qualitative descriptive study that included 591 individuals who responded to the survey in English (49 from Africa and 542 from the Americas), 163 who responded to the survey in Spanish (all from Latin America), and 222 Brazilian faculty who responded to the survey in Portuguese. Qualitative comments were recorded at the end of the surveys by 175 respondents to the English survey, 75 to the Spanish survey, and 70 to the Portuguese survey. Qualitative description and a committee approach guided data analysis. Results: ten new categories of global health competencies emerged from the analysis. Faculty also demonstrated concern about how and when these competencies could be integrated into nursing curricula. Conclusion: the additional categories should be considered for addition to the previously identified global health competencies. These, in addition to the guidance about integration into existing curricula, can be used to guide refinement of the original list of global health competencies. Further research is needed to seek consensus about these competencies and to develop recommendations and standards to guide nursing curriculum development. PMID:27276020

  14. Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Diaa; Abd El Aal, Wafaa; Saleh, Azza; Sleem, Hany; Khyatti, Meriem; Mazini, Loubna; Hemminki, Kari; Anwar, Wagida A

    2014-08-01

    Developing countries, including Egypt and North African countries, need to improve their quality of research by enhancing international cooperation and exchanges of scientific information, as well as competing for obtaining international funds to support research activities. Research must comply with laws and other requirements for research that involves human subjects. The purpose of this article is to overview the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, with reference to other Middle Eastern countries. The EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems project (EUNAM) has supported the revision of the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, by holding meetings and discussions to collect information about research ethics committees in Egypt, and revising the structure and guidelines of the committees, as well as reviewing the literature concerning ethics activities in the concerned countries. This overview has revealed that noticeable efforts have been made to regulate research ethics in certain countries in the Middle East. This can be seen in the new regulations, which contain the majority of protections mentioned in the international guidelines related to research ethics. For most of the internationally registered research ethics committees in North African countries, the composition and functionality reflect the international guidelines. There is growing awareness of research ethics in these countries, which extends to teaching efforts to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students.

  15. Mapping Isoprene Emissions over North America using Formaldehyde Column Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    I] We present a methodology for deriving emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) using space-based column observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) and apply it to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument over North America during July 1996. The HCHO column is related to local VOC emissions, with a spatial smearing that increases with the VOC lifetime. lsoprene is the dominant HCHO precursor over North America in summer, and its lifetime (approx. = 1 hour) is sufficiently short that the smearing can be neglected. We use the Goddard Earth Observing System global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) to derive the relationship between isoprene emissions and HCHO columns over North America and use these relationships to convert the GOME HCHO columns to isoprene emissions. We also use the GEOS-CHEM model as an intermediary to validate the GOME HCHO column measurements by comparison with in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM model including the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) isoprene emission inventory provides a good simulation of both the GOME data (r(sup 2) = 0.69, n = 756, bias = +l1 %) and the in situ summertime HCHO measurements over North America (r(sup 2) = 0.47, n = 10, bias = -3%). The GOME observations show high values over regions of known high isoprene emissions and a day-to-day variability that is consistent with the temperature dependence of isoprene emission. Isoprene emissions inferred from the GOME data are 20% less than GEIA on average over North America and twice those from the U S . EPA Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS2) inventory. The GOME isoprene inventory when implemented in the GEOS-CHEM model provides a better simulation of the HCHO in situ measurements thaneitherGEIAorBEIS2 (r(sup 2) = 0.71,n= 10, bias = -10 %).

  16. Genotypic Variation and Mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes Ticks from North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Chris D.; Matthews, Heather E.; Schutzer, Steven; Rounds, Megan A.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Nolte, Oliver; Campbell, Scott R.; Phillipson, Curtis A.; Li, Feng; Sampath, Ranga; Ecker, David J.; Eshoo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, caused by various species of Borrelia, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in North America and Europe. Studies have shown the genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) or the species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) affects the ability of the bacteria to cause local or disseminated infection in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a multilocus PCR electrospray mass spectrometry assay to determine the species and genotype Borrelia from ticks collected in New York, Connecticut, Indiana, Southern Germany, and California and characterized isolates from parts of the United States and Europe. These analyses identified 53 distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with higher resolution than ospC typing. Genotypes of other members of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex were also identified and genotyped including B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, and B. valaisiana. While each site in North America had genotypes unique to that location, we found genotypes shared between individual regions and two genotypes found across the United States. Significant B. burgdorferi s.s. genotypic diversity was observed between North America and Europe: only 6.6% of US genotypes (3 of 45) were found in Europe and 27% of the European genotypes (3 of 11) were observed in the US. Interestingly, 39% of adult Ixodes scapularis ticks from North America were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.s. and 22.2% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from Germany were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.l. Conclusions/Significance The presence of multiple Borrelia genotypes in ticks increases the probability that a person will be infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi, potentially increasing the risks of disseminated Lyme disease. Our study indicates that the genotypic diversity of Borrelia in ticks in both North America and Europe is higher then previously reported and can have

  17. Historical atmospheric mercury emissions and depositions in North America compared to mercury accumulations in sedimentary records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, Nicola; Allegrini, Ivo; Keeler, Gerald J.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Rossmann, Ronald; Robbins, John A.

    Gold and silver production in North America (included United States, Canada and Mexico) released a large amount of mercury to the atmosphere until well into this century when mercury (Hg) amalgamation was replaced by cyanide concentration. Since then, emissions from industries have been the dominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric Hg in North America as a whole. Past Hg emissions from gold and silver extractions in North America during the 1800s do not show a clear evidence of atmospheric deposition occurred at the coring sites considered in this study. Estimated atmospheric emissions of Hg in North America peaked in 1879 (at about 1708 t yr -1) and 1920 (at about 940 t yr -1), primarily due to Hg emissions from gold and silver mining. After the Great Economic Depression (1929) Hg emissions peaked again in the 1947 (274 t yr -1), in 1970 (325 t yr -1) and in 1989 (330 t yr -1) as result of increased Hg emissions from industrial sources, though improvements in the emissions control technology in United States and Canada have been substantial. Estimates of total atmospheric deposition fluxes of Hg to water and terrestrial receptors were in the range of 14.3-19.8 μg m -2 yr -1 in North America as a whole, and averaged 135 μg m -2 yr -1 (global background + local emissions) in the Great Lakes. These values were in good agreement with recent estimates reported in literature. The comparison of atmospheric Hg deposition fluxes with Hg accumulation rates in sediment cores suggests that atmospheric deposition was the major source of Hg entering the lakes system at coring sites, however, important contributions to Lake Ontario sediment cores sites from 1940 to 1970 were likely originated from local point sources (i.e. direct discharges).

  18. Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes

    PubMed Central

    Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A.; Lancioni, Hovirag; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Angerhofer, Norman; Rogers, Mary P.; Herrera, Rene J.; Woodward, Scott R.; Labuda, Damian; Smith, David Glenn; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Semino, Ornella; Malhi, Ripan S.; Torroni, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated migration models to the Americas by using the information contained in native mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from North America. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses of B2a mitogenomes, which are absent in Eskimo–Aleut and northern Na-Dene speakers, revealed that this haplogroup arose in North America ∼11–13 ka from one of the founder Paleo-Indian B2 mitogenomes. In contrast, haplogroup A2a, which is typical of Eskimo–Aleuts and Na-Dene, but also present in the easternmost Siberian groups, originated only 4–7 ka in Alaska, led to the first Paleo-Eskimo settlement of northern Canada and Greenland, and contributed to the formation of the Na-Dene gene pool. However, mitogenomes also show that Amerindians from northern North America, without any distinction between Na-Dene and non–Na-Dene, were heavily affected by an additional and distinctive Beringian genetic input. In conclusion, most mtDNA variation (along the double-continent) stems from the first wave from Beringia, which followed the Pacific coastal route. This was accompanied or followed by a second inland migratory event, marked by haplogroups X2a and C4c, which affected all Amerindian groups of Northern North America. Much later, the ancestral A2a carriers spread from Alaska, undertaking both a westward migration to Asia and an eastward expansion into the circumpolar regions of Canada. Thus, the first American founders left the greatest genetic mark but the original maternal makeup of North American Natives was subsequently reshaped by additional streams of gene flow and local population dynamics, making a three-wave view too simplistic. PMID:23940335

  19. Climate co-variability between South America and Southern Africa at interannual, intraseasonal and synoptic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puaud, Yohan; Pohl, Benjamin; Fauchereau, Nicolas; Macron, Clémence; Beltrando, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates and quantifies co-variability between large-scale convection in the South American and Southern African sectors at different timescales (interannual, intraseasonal and synoptic), during the austral summer seasons (November-February) from 1979 to 2012. Multivariate analyses (Canonical Correlation Analysis and Principal Component Analysis) are applied to daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR, used as a proxy for atmospheric convection) anomalies to extract the principal modes of variability and co-variability in each and between both regions, filtered to consider the appropriate time-scales. At the interannual timescale, results confirm the predominant role of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), favoring enhanced convection over both southeastern Brazil and northern Argentina on the one hand, and tropical Africa and the western Indian Ocean on the other hand. At the intraseasonal timescale, the leading mode of co-variability is related to modulations of large-scale atmospheric convection over most of South America, and 10 days later, tropical Southern Africa. This mode accounts for the impacts of the Madden-Julian-oscillation (MJO) over these regions: identifying robust co-variability at the intraseasonal timescale between both regions require thus to consider a temporal shift between the two sectors. At the synoptic scale, however, co-variability consists mostly of a synchronous modulation of the large-scale atmospheric convection over the South American and Southern African sectors. This results from the development of concomitant Rossby waves forming a continuous wave train over the South Atlantic in the mid-latitudes, affecting both the South Atlantic and South Indian Convergence Zones. Among the days when convection shows significant anomalies (30 % of the total days in each sector), this synchronous mode occurs about 25 % of the time, individual Rossby waves modulating convection over one single region only during the remaining 75

  20. Could Ecosystem Change over Amazonia Influence Climate over North America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R.; Arias Gomez, P. A.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Earth system model experiments suggest that ecosystem changes in the Northern Hemisphere could influence climate over the Southern Hemisphere, or vice versa. In reality, whether an ecosystem change could have a detectable influence on climate variability in remote regions is not clear. Direct validation of such an influence based on available climate records is not feasible largely because we cannot isolate the influences of ecosystems from more dominant sources of climate variability from ocean and atmosphere. However, our observational analysis suggests that the variability of wet season onset over the Amazonia, which is significantly influenced by evapotranspiration of the rainforest, could influence the demise of the North American monsoon. Such a remote influence appears to be carried out by the influence of the Amazonia rainfall on the cross-equatorial flow and latitudinal propagation of the atmospheric waves, which in turn, influence wind and moisture transport over the North American monsoon region. These results suggest that perhaps the future reduction of evapotranspiration due to CO2 fertilization and large-scale land use over the Amazonia will not only delay the wet season onset over this region, but also impact the demise of the North American monsoon.

  1. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of an interactive magnetic modeling program are reported and a publication summarizing the MAGSAT anomaly results for Africa and the possible tectonic associations of these anomalies is provided. An overview of the MAGSAT scalar anomaly map for Africa suggested a correlation of MAGSAT anomalies with major crustal blocks of uplift or depression and different degrees of regional metamorphism. The strongest MAGSAT anomalies in Africa are closely correlated spatially with major tectonic features. Results indicate that the Bangui anomaly may be caused by a central old Precambrian shield, flanked to the north and south by two relatively young sedimentary basins.

  2. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    PubMed

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. PMID:24112110

  3. Early human use of anadromous salmon in North America at 11,500 y ago.

    PubMed

    Halffman, Carrin M; Potter, Ben A; McKinney, Holly J; Finney, Bruce P; Rodrigues, Antonia T; Yang, Dongya Y; Kemp, Brian M

    2015-10-01

    Salmon represented a critical resource for prehistoric foragers along the North Pacific Rim, and continue to be economically and culturally important; however, the origins of salmon exploitation remain unresolved. Here we report 11,500-y-old salmon associated with a cooking hearth and human burials from the Upward Sun River Site, near the modern extreme edge of salmon habitat in central Alaska. This represents the earliest known human use of salmon in North America. Ancient DNA analyses establish the species as Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon), and stable isotope analyses indicate anadromy, suggesting that salmon runs were established by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The early use of this resource has important implications for Paleoindian land use, economy, and expansions into northwest North America. PMID:26392548

  4. Early human use of anadromous salmon in North America at 11,500 y ago.

    PubMed

    Halffman, Carrin M; Potter, Ben A; McKinney, Holly J; Finney, Bruce P; Rodrigues, Antonia T; Yang, Dongya Y; Kemp, Brian M

    2015-10-01

    Salmon represented a critical resource for prehistoric foragers along the North Pacific Rim, and continue to be economically and culturally important; however, the origins of salmon exploitation remain unresolved. Here we report 11,500-y-old salmon associated with a cooking hearth and human burials from the Upward Sun River Site, near the modern extreme edge of salmon habitat in central Alaska. This represents the earliest known human use of salmon in North America. Ancient DNA analyses establish the species as Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon), and stable isotope analyses indicate anadromy, suggesting that salmon runs were established by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The early use of this resource has important implications for Paleoindian land use, economy, and expansions into northwest North America.

  5. Early human use of anadromous salmon in North America at 11,500 y ago

    PubMed Central

    Halffman, Carrin M.; Potter, Ben A.; McKinney, Holly J.; Finney, Bruce P.; Rodrigues, Antonia T.; Yang, Dongya Y.; Kemp, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon represented a critical resource for prehistoric foragers along the North Pacific Rim, and continue to be economically and culturally important; however, the origins of salmon exploitation remain unresolved. Here we report 11,500-y-old salmon associated with a cooking hearth and human burials from the Upward Sun River Site, near the modern extreme edge of salmon habitat in central Alaska. This represents the earliest known human use of salmon in North America. Ancient DNA analyses establish the species as Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon), and stable isotope analyses indicate anadromy, suggesting that salmon runs were established by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The early use of this resource has important implications for Paleoindian land use, economy, and expansions into northwest North America. PMID:26392548

  6. Evidence for Co-evolution of West Nile Virus and House Sparrows in North America

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Nisha K.; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Bowen, Richard A.; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Reisen, William K.; Felix, Todd A.; Mann, Brian R.; Romo, Hannah; Swetnam, Daniele M.; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has been maintained in North America in enzootic cycles between mosquitoes and birds since it was first described in North America in 1999. House sparrows (HOSPs; Passer domesticus) are a highly competent host for WNV that have contributed to the rapid spread of WNV across the U.S.; however, their competence has been evaluated primarily using an early WNV strain (NY99) that is no longer circulating. Herein, we report that the competence of wild HOSPs for the NY99 strain has decreased significantly over time, suggesting that HOSPs may have developed resistance to this early WNV strain. Moreover, recently isolated WNV strains generate higher peak viremias and mortality in contemporary HOSPs compared to NY99. These data indicate that opposing selective pressures in both the virus and avian host have resulted in a net increase in the level of host competence of North American HOSPs for currently circulating WNV strains. PMID:25357248

  7. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    PubMed

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  8. The role of carbonaceous aerosols on short-term variations of precipitation over North Africa: Carbonaceous aerosols on rainfall change over North Africa

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Vinoj, V.; Ganguly, Dilip

    2016-06-16

    Northern Africa has been subject to extensive droughts in the late 20th century, which are frequently linked to changes in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, climate models forced by observed Sea Surface Temperatures have been unable to reproduce the magnitude of rainfall reduction over the last several decades. In this study, we propose that aerosol indirect effects (AIE) may be an important feedback mechanism to contribute this recent reduction. The climate model used here has a fully predictive aerosol life cycle. Results are presented for a set of sensitivity experiments designed tomore » distinguish the role of aerosol direct/semi-­direct and indirect effects on regional precipitation. Changes in cloud lifetime due to the presence of carbonaceous aerosols are proposed as a key mechanism to explain the reduced rainfall over the tropical and North Africa.« less

  9. Helicobacter pylori in North and South America before Columbus.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Orito, Etsuro; Mizokami, Masashi; Gutierrez, Oscar; Saitou, Naruya; Kodama, Tadashi; Osato, Michael S; Kim, Jong G; Ramirez, Francisco C; Mahachai, Varocha; Graham, David Y

    2002-04-24

    We present a molecular epidemiologic study, based on an analysis of vacA, cagA and cag right end junction genotypes from 1042 Helicobacter pylori isolates, suggesting that H. pylori was present in the New World before Columbus. Eight Native Colombian and Alaskan strains possessed novel vacA and/or cagA gene structures and were more closely related to East Asian than to non-Asian H. pylori. Some Native Alaskan strains appear to have originated in Central Asia and to have arrived after strains found in South America suggesting that H. pylori crossed the Bering Strait from Asia to the New World at different times. PMID:12062433

  10. North America-Greenland-Eurasian relative motions: implications for circum-arctic tectonic reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, D.B.; Lottes, A.L.; Ziegler, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-Arctic region is based on constraints imposed by (1) relative motion histories of the three major plates (North America, Greenland, and Eurasia) and a number of smaller pieces, and (2) distribution and age of sutures, accretionary prisms, volcanic arcs, fold-thrust belts, stretched continental crust, strike-slip faults, and ocean floor. The authors conclude that: (1) North America and Eurasia remained relatively fixed to each other until the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene opening of the Labrador Sea-Baffin Bay and Greenland-Norwegian and Eurasian basins (earlier convergence between North America and Eurasia in the Bering Sea region shown on many reconstructions are artifacts of incorrect plate reconstructions); (2) the North Slope-Seward-Chukotka block has constituted an isthmus connection between North America and northeast Asia since at least the middle Paleozoic and did not rotate away from the Canadian Arctic; (3) the Canada basin opened behind a clockwise-rotating Alpha Cordillera-Mendeleyev ridge arc during the Early to middle Cretaceous and consumed older, Paleozoic(.) Makarov basin ocean floor (the Chukchi cap is a detached continental fragment derived from the Beaufort Sea; the North Slope Arctic margin is a left-lateral transform fault associated with the opening of the Canada basin); and (4) the Nares Strait fault has a net relative displacement of approximately 25 km, but actual motion between Greenland and northern Ellesmere was about 250 km of strongly transpressive motion that resulted in the Eurekan and Svalbardian orogenies.

  11. Effects of chemistry on convective and non-convective precipitation over North Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, R.; Sloan, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    The change in convective and non-convective (microphysically-induced) precipitation due to the influence of chemistry - and particularly that of anthropogenic aerosols - is investigated in this study. The overall effect of chemistry is deduced from a comparison of the results from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF v3.4) model and its corresponding chemistry version (WRF/Chem v3.4). Simulations are conducted for a five-month period from April to August 2009 in a domain covering North Eastern North America with 12 km grid spacing. We created the temporally and spatially distributed anthropogenic emissions from area, point and mobile sources using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE v2.7) modeling system by processing the total annual county or province-based inventories for the U.S. and Canada using the appropriate temporal, chemical speciation and spatial surrogate cross-reference files. This study shows that convective precipitation dominates in the summer and in the southern part of the domain due to greater tropospheric instability in warmer periods. Non-convective precipitation becomes more significant during the spring, but it contributes much less in total rain. Both WRF and WRF/Chem models overpredict the mean total daily precipitation, with a positive bias that increases as the convective precipitation increases in warmer months. This appears to be a common problem with the prediction of convective precipitation; it is associated with its high spatial variability. The comparison of WRF/Chem results with those of WRF shows that a non-negligible change in both convective and cloud-resolved (non-convective) precipitation is caused by chemistry (including aerosols) over most parts of the domain. These changes can be attributed to both radiative and microphysical causes. A chemistry-induced change of approximately 15% is found in the five-month mean daily convective precipitation over areas with high convective rain. This can be traced to

  12. Spatial gradients in Clovis-age radiocarbon dates across North America suggest rapid colonization from the north.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Buchanan, Briggs

    2007-10-01

    A key issue in the debate over the initial colonization of North America is whether there are spatial gradients in the distribution of the Clovis-age occupations across the continent. Such gradients would help indicate the timing, speed, and direction of the colonization process. In their recent reanalysis of Clovis-age radiocarbon dates, Waters and Stafford [Waters MR, Stafford TW, Jr (2007) Science 315:1122-1126] report that they find no spatial patterning. Furthermore, they suggest that the brevity of the Clovis time period indicates that the Clovis culture represents the diffusion of a technology across a preexisting pre-Clovis population rather than a population expansion. In this article, we focus on two questions. First, we ask whether there is spatial patterning to the timing of Clovis-age occupations and, second, whether the observed speed of colonization is consistent with demic processes. With time-delayed wave-of-advance models, we use the radiocarbon record to test several alternative colonization hypotheses. We find clear spatial gradients in the distribution of these dates across North America, which indicate a rapid wave of advance originating from the north. We show that the high velocity of this wave can be accounted for by a combination of demographic processes, habitat preferences, and mobility biases across complex landscapes. Our results suggest that the Clovis-age archaeological record represents a rapid demic colonization event originating from the north.

  13. The Role of Soil Water and Land Feedbacks in Decadal Drought in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, S.; Chikamoto, Y.; Noone, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Western North America is susceptible to severe impacts of megadroughts, as evidenced by tree-core or lake sediment records. Future predictions suggest that this region will become more arid, with further consequences for water resources. Understanding the mechanisms of drought variability and persistence in western North America is critical for the eventual development of effective forecasting methods. The ocean is expected to be the main source of decadal memory in the system as the atmosphere varies on a much shorter timescale. The ocean's role in driving the low-frequency variability of the system is potentially predictable. However, low-frequency precipitation anomalies in western North America can occur in the absence of ocean feedbacks. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the north Pacific Ocean only account for around 20 per cent of the low-frequency winter precipitation in California in the CMIP5 historical runs. This is not sufficient to use the skill of global coupled models in predicting ocean conditions ahead of time to successfully forecast the possibility of long-term drought in western North America. Megadroughts therefore may be generated by unpredictable atmospheric noise, or persisted by other sources of low-frequency variability such as land processes and feedbacks. Snowpack in western North America is a crucial water resource for the surrounding communities, storing the winter precipitation for use later in the year. Likewise, soil moisture integrates the precipitation signal; the time scale depends on the depth and characteristics of the soil. Water storage and related variables are more predictable on longer timescales than precipitation, as measured by anomaly correlation for hindcasts compared to a 'perfect model' control run with CESM1.0.3. The importance of antecedent land conditions in persisting megadroughts in western North America is explored with ensemble simulations of CESM1.0.3, where the atmosphere is perturbed at the initiation

  14. A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R.; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

  15. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  16. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Analysis of the summertime buildup of tropospheric ozone abundances over the Middle East and North Africa as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Worden, John R.; Noone, David; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jay

    2009-03-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument in summer 2005. Observations from TES reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere (500-400 hPa) across North Africa and the Middle East. Observed ozone abundances in the middle troposphere are at a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter, consistent with the previously predicted summertime "Middle East ozone maximum." This summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian and Sahara anticyclones, centered over the Zagros and Atlas Mountains, respectively. These anticyclones isolate the middle troposphere over northeast Africa and the Middle East, with westerlies to the north and easterlies to the south, facilitating the buildup of ozone. Over the Middle East, we find that in situ production and transport from Asia provides comparable contributions of 30-35% to the ozone buildup. Over North Africa, in situ production is dominant (at about 20%), with transport from Asia, North America, and equatorial Africa each contributing about 10-15% to the total ozone. We find that although the eastern Mediterranean is characterized by strong descent in the middle and upper troposphere in summer, transport from the boundary layer accounts for about 25% of the local Middle Eastern contribution to the ozone enhancement in the middle troposphere. This upward transport of boundary layer air is associated with orographic lifting along the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water.

  19. Preadaptation and post-introduction evolution facilitate the invasion of Phragmites australis in North America.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Brix, Hans

    2014-12-01

    Compared with non-invasive species, invasive plant species may benefit from certain advantageous traits, for example, higher photosynthesis capacity and resource/energy-use efficiency. These traits can be preadapted prior to introduction, but can also be acquired through evolution following introduction to the new range. Disentangling the origins of these advantageous traits is a fundamental and emerging question in invasion ecology. We conducted a multiple comparative experiment under identical environmental condition with the invasive haplotype M lineage of the wetland grass Phragmites australis and compared the ecophysiological traits of this invasive haplotype M in North America with those of the European ancestor and the conspecific North American native haplotype E lineage, P. australis ssp. americanus. The invasive haplotype M differed significantly from the native North American conspecific haplotype E in several ecophysiological and morphological traits, and the European haplotype M had a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus than the native North American P. australis ssp. americanus. Within the haplotype M lineage, the introduced North American P. australis exhibited different biomass allocation patterns and resource/energy-use strategies compared to its European ancestor group. A discriminant analysis of principal components separated the haplotype M and the haplotype E lineages completely along the first canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, photosynthetic energy-use efficiency and payback time. The second canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and construction costs, significantly separated the introduced P. australis in North America from its European ancestor. Synthesis. We conclude that the European P. australis lineage was preadapted to be invasive prior to its introduction, and that the invasion in North America is further stimulated by rapid post-introduction evolution in

  20. Preadaptation and post-introduction evolution facilitate the invasion of Phragmites australis in North America.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Brix, Hans

    2014-12-01

    Compared with non-invasive species, invasive plant species may benefit from certain advantageous traits, for example, higher photosynthesis capacity and resource/energy-use efficiency. These traits can be preadapted prior to introduction, but can also be acquired through evolution following introduction to the new range. Disentangling the origins of these advantageous traits is a fundamental and emerging question in invasion ecology. We conducted a multiple comparative experiment under identical environmental condition with the invasive haplotype M lineage of the wetland grass Phragmites australis and compared the ecophysiological traits of this invasive haplotype M in North America with those of the European ancestor and the conspecific North American native haplotype E lineage, P. australis ssp. americanus. The invasive haplotype M differed significantly from the native North American conspecific haplotype E in several ecophysiological and morphological traits, and the European haplotype M had a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus than the native North American P. australis ssp. americanus. Within the haplotype M lineage, the introduced North American P. australis exhibited different biomass allocation patterns and resource/energy-use strategies compared to its European ancestor group. A discriminant analysis of principal components separated the haplotype M and the haplotype E lineages completely along the first canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, photosynthetic energy-use efficiency and payback time. The second canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and construction costs, significantly separated the introduced P. australis in North America from its European ancestor. Synthesis. We conclude that the European P. australis lineage was preadapted to be invasive prior to its introduction, and that the invasion in North America is further stimulated by rapid post-introduction evolution in