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Sample records for africa pan troglodytes

  1. Imitation in Neonatal Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence for imitative abilities in neonatal chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes"), our closest relatives. Two chimpanzees were reared from birth by their biological mothers. At less than 7 days of age the chimpanzees could discriminate between, and imitate, human facial gestures (tongue protrusion and mouth opening). By the time…

  2. Brief communication: dental development timing in captive Pan paniscus with comparisons to Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Bolter, Debra R; Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2011-08-01

    Dental eruption provides markers of growth and is one component of a chimpanzee's physical development. Dental markers help characterize transitions between life stages, e.g., infant to juvenile. Most of what we know about the timing of development in chimpanzees derives from Pan troglodytes. Much less is known about the sister species, Pan paniscus, with few in captivity and a restricted wild range in central Africa. Here we report on the dental eruption timing for female captive P. paniscus (n = 5) from the Milwaukee and San Diego Zoos whose ages are known and range from birth to age 8.54 years. Some observations were recorded in zoo records on the gingiva during life; others were made at death on the gingiva and on the skeleton. At birth, P. paniscus infants have no teeth emerged. By 0.83 years, all but the deciduous second molars (dm(2) ) (when both upper and lower dentitions are referenced collectively, no super or subscript notation is used) and canines (dc) are emerged. For permanent teeth, results show a sequence polymorphism for an early P4 eruption, not previously described for P. paniscus. Comparisons between P. paniscus and P. troglodytes document absolute timing differences of emergence in upper second incisors (I(2) ), and upper and lower canines (C) and third molars (M3). The genus Pan encompasses variability in growth not previously recognized. These preliminary data suggest that physical growth in captive P. paniscus may be accelerated, a general pattern found in captive P. troglodytes. PMID:21541924

  3. First GIS Analysis of Modern Stone Tools Used by Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record. PMID:25793642

  4. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record. PMID:25793642

  5. Can Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") Discriminate Appearance from Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A milestone in human development is coming to recognize that how something looks is not necessarily how it is. We tested appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with a task requiring them to choose between a small grape and a big grape. The apparent relative size of the grapes was reversed using magnifying and…

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bang; Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    This study first report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes. The genome was a total of 16 556 bp in length and had a base composition of A (31.05%), G (12.95%), C (30.84%), and T (25.16%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (56.21%) is higher than G + C (43.79%). Similar to other primates, it possessed a typically conserved structure, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of these genes were found to locate on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the P. t. troglodytes mitochondrial genome formed a cluster with the other three Pan troglodytes genomes and that the genus Pan is closely related to the genus Homo. This mitochondrial genome sequence would supply useful genetic resources to help the conservation management of primate germplasm and uncover hominoid evolution. PMID:26190079

  7. Genome Sequence of a Central Chimpanzee-Associated Polyomavirus Related to BK and JC Polyomaviruses, Pan troglodytes troglodytes Polyomavirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Madinda, Nadège F.; Robbins, Martha M.; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ehlers, Bernhard; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We amplified and sequenced the genome of a polyomavirus infecting a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). This virus, which is closely related to BK and JC polyomaviruses, may help shed a new light on these human pathogens’ evolutionary history. PMID:26337874

  8. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n=43) and SIV-negative (n=71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV− samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1 % of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8 %) and Blastocystis (2.9 %), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8 %. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation. PMID:24781023

  9. Visual kin recognition and family resemblance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Vokey, John R; Rendall, Drew; Tangen, Jason M; Parr, Lisa A; de Waal, Frans B M

    2004-06-01

    The male-offspring biased visual kin recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) reported by L. A. Parr and F. B. M. de Waal (1999) was replicated with human (Homo sapiens) participants and a principal components analysis (PCA) of pixel maps of the chimpanzee face photos. With the same original materials and methods, both humans and the PCA produced the same asymmetry in kin recognition as found with the chimpanzees. The PCA suggested that the asymmetry was a function of differences in the distribution of global characteristics associated with the framing of the faces in the son and daughter test sets. Eliminating potential framing biases, either by cropping the photos tightly to the faces or by rebalancing the recognition foils, eliminated the asymmetry but not human participants' ability to recognize chimpanzee kin. PMID:15250806

  10. New evidence on imitation in an enculturated chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Lara; Posada, Sandra; Colell, Montserrat

    2009-11-01

    Imitation in the great apes continues to be an active field of research and one that is not free of controversy. Several studies suggest that these species do not tend to match the motor movements of the model they observe, but try to achieve the same results using their own methods (emulation of results). In the studies reviewed, gestures have been used very infrequently outside an intraspecific communicative context to evaluate imitation. In fact, the imitation of gestural actions has been tested only in 4 individual great apes. This study assessed a chimpanzee's (Pan troglodytes) ability to imitate 52 actions in 4 categories. The levels of accuracy attained by the subject in her imitations exceeded those described in previous studies. Moreover, contrary to the idea defended in some articles, the subject seemed to find it easier to imitate gestures than actions with objects. PMID:19929107

  11. Imitation of intentional manipulatory actions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, M; Matsuzawa, T

    2000-12-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the understanding of other's actions in 5 adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). A human demonstrated an attempt to open different containers. Each container required a different motor pattern to open it. Along with the container, a 2nd object was made available. After a free play period in which the chimpanzees' natural behaviors toward the objects were recorded, the authors tested the following 2 phases: The demonstrator (a) tried but failed to open and (b) opened the container successfully, with 1 of 2 alternative strategies, either using an "irrelevant tool" or by hand. The chimpanzees did not reproduce the demonstrator's motor patterns precisely but did reproduce the demonstrated strategies in both phases. These results suggest that chimpanzees anticipate the intentions of others by perceiving the directionality and causality of object(s) as available cues. PMID:11149542

  12. Fatal myocardial fibrosis in an aged chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Baldessari, Audrey; Snyder, Jessica; Ahrens, Joel; Murnane, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) assigned to a life-long sign language communication project presented for sudden death. No other clinical or clinical pathological abnormalities were noted and given the signalment, death due to cardiac failure was suspected. Necropsy findings revealed moderate cardiomegaly and other chronic age-related findings including focal renal tubular cystic dilation and gingival hyperplasia. Histologic evaluation of the heart revealed interstitial fibrosing cardiomyopathy characterized by severe interstitial myocardial fibrosis replacing and separating myofibers within all chambers of the heart, especially the left ventricle, interventricular septum and subvalvular areas. This case report represents an additional case of sudden death associated with interstitial myocardial fibrosis in a chimpanzee. This process has been previously cited as the most common cause of sudden death in aged chimpanzees. PMID:23762500

  13. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Sesink Clee, Paul R.; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A.; Smith, Thomas B.; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  14. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  15. Foci of Endemic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Living Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Kamenya, Shadrack; Li, Yingying; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Muller, Martin N.; Emery, Melissa; Goldenberg, David A.; Lwanga, Jeremiah S.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Nerrienet, Eric; McClure, Harold M.; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Watts, David P.; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Sharp, Paul M.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) is the immediate precursor to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet remarkably, the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz in wild ape populations are unknown. Studies of SIVcpz infection rates in wild chimpanzees are complicated by the species' endangered status and by its geographic location in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed sensitive and specific urine and fecal tests for SIVcpz antibody and virion RNA (vRNA) detection and describe herein the first comprehensive prevalence study of SIVcpz infection in five wild Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii communities in east Africa. In Kibale National Park in Uganda, 31 (of 52) members of the Kanyawara community and 39 (of ∼145) members of the Ngogo community were studied; none were found to be positive for SIVcpz infection. In Gombe National Park in Tanzania, 15 (of 20) members of the Mitumba community, 51 (of 55) members of the Kasekela community, and at least 10 (of ∼20) members of the Kalande community were studied. Seven individuals were SIVcpz antibody and/or vRNA positive, and two others had indeterminate antibody results. Based on assay sensitivities and the numbers and types of specimens analyzed, we estimated the prevalence of SIVcpz infection to be 17% in Mitumba (95% confidence interval, 10 to 40%), 5% in Kasekela (95% confidence interval, 4 to 7%), and 30% in Kalande (95% confidence interval, 15 to 60%). For Gombe as a whole, the SIVcpz prevalence was estimated to be 13% (95% confidence interval, 7 to 25%). SIVcpz infection was confirmed in five chimpanzees by PCR amplification of partial pol and gp41/nef sequences which revealed a diverse group of viruses that formed a monophyletic lineage within the SIVcpzPts radiation. Although none of the 70 Kibale chimpanzees tested SIVcpz positive, we estimated the likelihood that a 10% or higher prevalence existed but went undetected because of sampling and assay limitations; this

  16. Neocortical synaptophysin asymmetry and behavioral lateralization in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Chet C.; Duka, Tetyana; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Schenker, Natalie M.; Garrison, Amy R.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Baze, Wallace B.; McArthur, Mark J.; Erwin, Joseph M.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta density and protein expression levels in the region of hand representation of the primary motor cortex in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Synaptophysin is a presynaptic vesicle-associated protein found in nearly all synapses of the central nervous system. We also tested whether there is a relationship between hand preference on a coordinated bimanual task and the interhemispheric distribution of synaptophysin as measured by both stereologic counts of immunoreactive puncta and by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta density is not asymmetric at the population level, whereas synaptophysin protein expression levels are significantly higher in the right hemisphere. Handedness was correlated with interindividual variation in synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta density. As a group, left-handed and ambidextrous chimpanzees showed a rightward bias in puncta density. In contrast, puncta densities were symmetrical in right-handed chimpanzees. These findings support the conclusion that synapse asymmetry is modulated by lateralization of skilled motor behavior in chimpanzees. PMID:20384782

  17. Placentophagy in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Michiko; Hockings, Kimberley J; Soumah, Aly Gaspard; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Despite intensive observation of nonhuman great apes during long-term field studies, observations of great ape births in the wild are rare. Research on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in the Republic of Guinea has been ongoing for 35 years, yet chimpanzee parturitions have been observed on only two occasions. Here we provide information regarding both chimpanzee births, with detailed information from the close observation of one. During this birth, the mother built a day nest in a tree before parturition. After giving birth, the mother consumed the placenta, and the other chimpanzees in her party gathered near her and her neonate. However, she did not share the placenta, and consumed it all herself. In the second observation, the mother also built a nest in a tree and subsequently gave birth. Thereafter, she shared the placenta with some individuals and consumed part of the placenta herself. Although maternal placentophagy is a ubiquitous behavior among the majority of non-human primates, observations of placenta sharing by wild primates are infrequent, and the proximate and ultimate explanations for the behavior remain unclear. PMID:26769192

  18. Permanent tooth calcification in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): patterns and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kuykendall, K L; Conroy, G C

    1996-01-01

    Tooth calcification is an important developmental marker for use in constructing models for early hominid life history, particularly for its application to the fossil record. As chimpanzees are commonly utilized in interspecific comparisons in such research, this study aims to improve available baseline data for tooth calcification patterns in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and to quantify basic patterns and polymorphisms. We present an analysis of developmental patterns for the left mandibular dentition (I1-M3) based on intraoral radiographs obtained from a cross-sectional sample of chimpanzees (58 males, 60 females) housed at LEMSIP (NYU Medical Center) and Yerkes (Emory University). No significant differences with previous descriptions of the basic sequences of tooth calcification in chimpanzees were found, but variation in such patterns was documented for the first time. In the overall sequence, polymorphisms between the canine and the group (M2 P4 P3) reached significant levels. This is due to the relative delay in canine crown formation compared to other teeth. Differences in the basic sequence between males and females were recorded, but are due to minor shifts in the percentages of occurrence for polymorphic sequences which are common to both genders. Perhaps our most important findings are that a) different polymorphic sequences occur in tooth calcification and tooth emergence in chimpanzees, and b) developmental relationships among teeth fluctuate throughout tooth calcification. Thus, characterizations of dental developmental patterns based on particular stages of development cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other stages without supporting data. PMID:8928717

  19. Constructive and deconstructive tool modification by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Bania, Amanda E; Harris, Stephany; Kinsley, Hannah R; Boysen, Sarah T

    2009-01-01

    Nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were tested for their ability to assemble or disassemble the appropriate tool to obtain a food reward from two different apparatus. In its deconstructed form, the tool functioned as a probe for one apparatus. In its constructed form, the tool functioned as a hook, appropriate for a second apparatus. Each subject completed four test trials with each apparatus type. Tool types were randomized and counter-balanced between the two forms. Results demonstrated that adult and juvenile chimpanzees (N = 7) were successful with both tool types, while two infant chimpanzees performed near chance. Off-line video analyses revealed that tool modifications followed by attempted solutions by the adults and juveniles were typically correct on the first attempt. Neither infant was successful in modifying tools correctly on the first attempt over all eight trials. The older chimpanzees' ability to modify the appropriate tool consistently prior to use indicates an immediate recognition of the functional attributes necessary for the successful use of tool types on each apparatus, and represents a non-replication of a previously reported study by Povinelli. PMID:18654806

  20. Can chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) discriminate appearance from reality?

    PubMed

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-09-01

    A milestone in human development is coming to recognize that how something looks is not necessarily how it is. We tested appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with a task requiring them to choose between a small grape and a big grape. The apparent relative size of the grapes was reversed using magnifying and minimizing lenses so that the truly bigger grape appeared to be the smaller one. Our Lens test involved a basic component adapted from standard procedures for children, as well as several components designed to rule out alternative explanations. There were large individual differences in performance, with some chimpanzees' responses suggesting they appreciated the appearance-reality distinction. In contrast, all chimpanzees failed a Reverse Contingency control test, indicating that those who passed the Lens test did not do so by learning a simple reverse contingency rule. Four-year-old children given an adapted version of the Lens test failed it while 4.5-year-olds passed. Our study constitutes the first direct investigation of appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees and the first cross-species comparison of this capacity. PMID:19631933

  1. Visual texture segregation by the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, M

    1999-03-01

    One adult male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was trained to detect a target area consisting of texture elements from the background texture made of the different elements from the target area. The subject was given eight different stimulus conditions. In Condition 1, segregation was based on the difference of local feature of elements but not on global similarity. Conditions 2-3 investigated the effects of the number of terminators, which was considered as 'textons' in human texture perception. The chimpanzee showed better performance when the discrimination can be based on the difference of the number of terminators. This tendency, however, was reversed when the local salient feature (length of shorter lines) was enhanced, as in Enns' [15] study with humans as subjects. The subject showed asymmetries in segregation performance when discriminating based on gap (Conditions 4-5), line length (Condition 6), and regularity of line arrangement (Condition 7). Observed asymmetries were consistent with humans and with visual search asymmetries. The performance of texture segregation by the chimpanzee was consistent with humans, and the texture segregation is one of the useful tasks for comparative study of early vision as well as visual search task. PMID:10512587

  2. Possible roles of consolation in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Cordoni, Giada; Borgognini Tarli, Silvana

    2006-01-01

    Empathy is a necessary prerequisite for the occurrence of consolation. The term "consolation" contains a hypothesis about function, which is distress alleviation. The present study aims to confirm the occurrence of consolation in captive chimpanzees via the post-conflict/matched-control method (PC-MC) and to suggest its possible roles. We collected 273 PC-MC pairs in the group of Pan troglodytes housed in the ZooParc de Beauval (France). We confirmed the presence of consolatory contacts (mean level of consolation, 49.5% +/- 22.3% SEM) in the colony. Consolation rates were significantly higher than reconciliation levels (mean level of reconciliation, 28.9% +/- 16.8% SEM). The level of consolation was greater in the absence of reconciliation than in the presence of it, suggesting that consolation might be an alternative behavior. As friendship and relatedness did not influence the occurrence of consolation, they did not seem to be the best prerequisites for this behavioral mechanism, at least in this chimpanzee colony. Affinitive contacts with third parties were significantly more frequent when the victim called attention to itself during severe aggressions by screaming. These high-pitched sounds seem to be useful in eliciting aid from conspecifics, as occurs in young humans. The occurrence of consolation reduced the likelihood of further attacks among group-members. From this perspective, both victims and consolers most likely gain potential advantages by interacting with each other when aggression is particularly severe, reconciliation is not immediate, and consequently social stress reaches high levels. PMID:16229027

  3. Survey of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Adele; Matthews, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A study on the distribution and population density of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) and the central chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) was undertaken between December 1997 and August 2000 in the Campo and Ma'an Forests in southwestern Cameroon. The aim of this survey was to estimate the densities of the apes in different parts of the area, to assess the importance of the region for the conservation of these endangered species and to determine the influence of human activities such as logging and hunting. The survey was based on night nest counts on a total of 665.5 km of line transects. The overall density in the Campo Forest was estimated at 0.2 gorillas/km(2) and at 0.63-0.78 chimpanzees/km(2). The overall density of chimpanzees in the Ma'an Forest was estimated at 0.8-1 individuals/km(2). Gorilla density in this area was too low to allow an estimation. The highest gorilla nest density was found in secondary forest. The gorilla density in unlogged forest was significantly lower. Chimpanzees showed a clear preference for less disturbed areas. In unlogged forest, old secondary forests (logging more than 23 years ago) and areas of recent logging with large remaining patches of primary forest, significantly higher densities were calculated than inside the more heavily exploited logging concession. In areas with both logging and high hunting pressure both species were rare or even absent. The Campo Ma'an area is considered a very important area for the conservation of gorillas and chimpanzees. Conservation measures are urgently required to reduce the impact of logging and hunting. The creation of the Campo Ma'an National Park in January 2000 is an important measure to preserve the unique biodiversity in this so far hardly protected area. PMID:14586801

  4. Heterochrony and geometric morphometrics: a comparison of cranial growth in Pan paniscus versus Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L

    2005-01-01

    Heterochrony, the classic framework in which to study ontogeny and phylogeny, in essence relies on a univariate concept of shape. Though principal component (PC) plots of multivariate shape data seem to resemble classical bivariate allometric plots, the language of heterochrony cannot be translated directly into general multivariate methodology. We simulate idealized multivariate ontogenetic trajectories and explore their appearance in PC plots of shape space and size-shape space. Only if the trajectories of two related species lie along exactly the same path in shape space can the classic terminology of heterochrony apply and pure dissociation of size change against shape change be detected. Regional heterochrony--the variation of apparent heterochrony by region--implies a dissociation of local growth fields and cannot be identified in an overall PC analysis. We exemplify a geometric morphometric approach to these issues using adult and subadult crania of 48 Pan paniscus and 47 Pan troglodytes specimens. On each specimen, we digitized 47 landmarks and 144 semilandmarks on facial curves and the external neurocranial surface. We reject the hypothesis of global heterochrony in the cranium of Pan as well as regional heterochrony for the lower face, the upper face, and the neurocranium. PMID:15876197

  5. Survey of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Southeastern Sénégal.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, J D; Marchant, L F; Arno, J; McGrew, W C

    2002-09-01

    A survey of the western subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) was conducted from 1 February to 9 April 2000 in Sénégal, West Africa, by the Miami Assirik Pan Project (MAPP). In addition to the Assirik area of the Parc National du Niokolo Koba (PNNK), areas south and east of the park were surveyed. Nests made by chimpanzees were used to estimate chimpanzee distribution and densities. Within the PNNK, chimpanzees were estimated to occur at an average of 0.13 individuals/km(2). Chimpanzee nests were recorded in nine of 10 locales surveyed outside of the PNNK, as well as within the park. Data on 994 nests made by chimpanzees were recorded outside the PNNK, while 736 nests were recorded inside the park. Nest density in areas surveyed outside the PNNK, such as Bandafassi, Tomboronkoto, and Segou, was comparable to that of Assirik in habitats where nests were concentrated (i.e., evergreen gallery forest). The purpose of MAPP was to initiate long-term research of chimpanzees in southeastern Sénégal, as a follow-up to the Stirling African Primate Project (SAPP) of the 1970s. We sought to replicate the standards set by the SAPP project, except when technological innovations allowed improvement in data collection procedures (e.g., the global positioning system (GPS)). PMID:12325117

  6. Laterality of hand function in naturalistically housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Alison W; Weghorst, Jennifer A

    2005-05-01

    Studies of laterality of hand function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have the potential to tell us about the origins of handedness in Homo sapiens. However, the data are confusing, with discrepancies present between studies done in the field and the laboratory: the former show wild chimpanzees to be unlateralised at the population level, while the latter show captive chimpanzees as lateralised at the population level. This study of 26 semi-free ranging chimpanzees of Chester Zoo, UK, aimed to investigate a situation between the wild and captivity and provided ethological data for 43 categories of spontaneous manual use and 14 categories of tool use. Other variables recorded were subordinate hand activity, whether the subject was arboreal or terrestrial, and the identity of the subject. Using switching focal subject sampling, 23,978 bouts of hand use and 1,090 bouts of tool use were recorded. No population-level handedness was present for manual non-tool use activities in the naturalistically housed chimpanzees of Chester Zoo in a similar way to studies of wild chimpanzees. However, about half of the individuals were lateralised to one side or the other for the foraging behaviours of pick up, eat, and pluck. Using a modified version of McGrew and Marchant's (1997) Laterality Framework, these results are comparable to some wild and captive populations for similar foraging tasks. Bimanuality was rare and thus prevented comparison with captive experimental studies that have reported population right handedness. Behaviour involving contact with water elicited stronger lateralisation. Chester chimpanzees were more likely to exhibit hand preferences for manual tasks with increasing age but there were no effects of sex or rearing history on hand specialisations in adult individuals. Lateralisation was biased in tool use, which evoked significant left hand preferences in half the individuals, with no effect of age. Results are discussed comparatively with reference to

  7. Intentionality as Measured in the Persistence and Elaboration of Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavens, David A.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2005-01-01

    In human infancy, 2 criteria for intentional communication are (a) persistence in and (b) elaboration of communication when initial attempts to communicate fail. Twenty-nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were presented with both desirable (a banana) and undesirable food (commercial primate chow). Three conditions were administered: (a) the banana…

  8. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  9. Comparing maternal styles in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    De Lathouwers, Mieke; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2004-12-01

    Studies on Cercopithecine primate maternal styles, using factor analysis on a set of maternal behaviors, commonly render two factors that describe separate dimensions of maternal behavior: protectiveness and rejection. The aims of this study were to 1) investigate whether this method for determining maternal styles in Cercopithecine species can be applied to bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 2) determine whether they follow the same pattern, and 3) assess whether species differences in maternal style are apparent. We performed a factor analysis on nine maternal behaviors using data on eight mother-infant pairs of each species. This resulted in three factors: protectiveness, distance, and refusal. Protectiveness is positively correlated with time spent in ventral contact, making contact, approaching, and restraining. Distance is positively related with breaking contact and leaving. Refusal is positively correlated with rejecting and nipple-rejecting. The pattern of protectiveness corresponds with the pattern found in Cercopithecine species, suggesting a high consistency of this dimension across species and higher taxa. The retention of the other two factors indicates that in the Pan species, breaking contact and leaving represent another dimension, apart from rejecting and nipple-rejecting, which usually fall under one dimension in Cercopithecine species. An interspecific comparison of the factor scores for each dimension of maternal behavior reveals that, on average, bonobos and chimpanzees score equally on protectiveness. Scores on distance increase positively with infant age in chimpanzees, and negatively in bonobos, and on average bonobos have higher scores on refusal. These interspecies differences in maternal style are discussed in the light of interspecies differences in infant development, infant vulnerability to aggression, interbirth intervals, and female sociality. PMID:15580581

  10. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155), 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009), a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009), a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg) and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13) and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1). Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp), were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0), intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that SIVcpz

  11. Leaf-tool use for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): acquisition patterns and handedness.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cláudia; Biro, Dora; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are known to make and use a variety of tools, activities which require them to employ their hands in a skilful manner. The learning process underlying the acquisition of tool-using skills, and the degree of laterality evident in both immature and mature performers are investigated here focusing on the use of leaves for drinking water by members of the Bossou chimpanzee community in Guinea, West Africa. In addition, comparisons are drawn between the present findings and our previous data on the cracking of oil-palm nuts (Elaeis guineensis) using stone tools by members of the same community. The use of leaves for drinking water emerges approximately 2 years earlier than nut cracking, at around the age of 1.5 years, although the manufacture of leaf tools begins only at 3.5 years of age. In addition, in clear contrast with nut cracking, the majority of chimpanzees are ambidextrous in their use of leaves, with only certain individuals showing a bias for one hand. We discuss possible explanations for the earlier emergence and increased ambidextrousness that characterises leaf-tool use in comparison with other forms of tool use by wild chimpanzees. In summary, our results provide the first detailed description of the acquisition process underlying leaf-tool use along with the accompanying patterns of handedness, while also being the first to provide comparisons of the development of different forms of tool use within the same wild chimpanzee population. PMID:19697068

  12. Design complexity in termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Sanz, Crickette; Call, Josep; Morgan, David

    2009-06-23

    Adopting the approach taken with New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides), we present evidence of design complexity in one of the termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Prior to termite fishing, chimpanzees applied a set of deliberate, distinguishable actions to modify herb stems to fashion a brush-tipped probe, which is different from the form of fishing tools used by chimpanzees in East and West Africa. This means that 'brush-tipped fishing probes', unlike 'brush sticks', are not a by-product of use but a deliberate design feature absent in other chimpanzee populations. The specialized modifications to prepare the tool for termite fishing, measures taken to repair non-functional brushes and appropriate orientation of the modified end suggest that these wild chimpanzees are attentive to tool modifications. We also conducted experimental trials that showed that a brush-tipped probe is more effective in gathering insects than an unmodified fishing probe. Based on these findings, we suggest that chimpanzees in the Congo Basin have developed an improved fishing probe design. PMID:19324641

  13. The Sampling Scheme Matters: Pan troglodytes troglodytes and P. t. schweinfurthii Are Characterized by Clinal Genetic Variation Rather Than a Strong Subspecies Break

    PubMed Central

    Fünfstück, Tillmann; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Morgan, David B.; Sanz, Crickette; Reed, Patricia; Olson, Sarah H.; Cameron, Ken; Ondzie, Alain; Peeters, Martine; Vigilant, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Populations of an organism living in marked geographical or evolutionary isolation from other populations of the same species are often termed subspecies and expected to show some degree of genetic distinctiveness. The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is currently described as four geographically delimited subspecies: the western (P. t. verus), the nigerian-cameroonian (P. t. ellioti), the central (P. t. troglodytes) and the eastern (P. t. schweinfurthii) chimpanzees. Although these taxa would be expected to be reciprocally monophyletic, studies have not always consistently resolved the central and eastern chimpanzee taxa. Most studies, however, used data from individuals of unknown or approximate geographic provenance. Thus, genetic data from samples of known origin may shed light on the evolutionary relationship of these subspecies. We generated microsatellite genotypes from noninvasively collected fecal samples of 185 central chimpanzees that were sampled across large parts of their range and analyzed them together with 283 published eastern chimpanzee genotypes from known localities. We observed a clear signal of isolation by distance across both subspecies. Further, we found that a large proportion of comparisons between groups taken from the same subspecies showed higher genetic differentiation than the least differentiated between-subspecies comparison. This proportion decreased substantially when we simulated a more clumped sampling scheme by including fewer groups. Our results support the general concept that the distribution of the sampled individuals can dramatically affect the inference of genetic population structure. With regard to chimpanzees, our results emphasize the close relationship of equatorial chimpanzees from central and eastern equatorial Africa and the difficult nature of subspecies definitions. PMID:25330245

  14. The sampling scheme matters: Pan troglodytes troglodytes and P. t. schweinfurthii are characterized by clinal genetic variation rather than a strong subspecies break.

    PubMed

    Fünfstück, Tillmann; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Morgan, David B; Sanz, Crickette; Reed, Patricia; Olson, Sarah H; Cameron, Ken; Ondzie, Alain; Peeters, Martine; Vigilant, Linda

    2015-02-01

    Populations of an organism living in marked geographical or evolutionary isolation from other populations of the same species are often termed subspecies and expected to show some degree of genetic distinctiveness. The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is currently described as four geographically delimited subspecies: the western (P. t. verus), the nigerian-cameroonian (P. t. ellioti), the central (P. t. troglodytes) and the eastern (P. t. schweinfurthii) chimpanzees. Although these taxa would be expected to be reciprocally monophyletic, studies have not always consistently resolved the central and eastern chimpanzee taxa. Most studies, however, used data from individuals of unknown or approximate geographic provenance. Thus, genetic data from samples of known origin may shed light on the evolutionary relationship of these subspecies. We generated microsatellite genotypes from noninvasively collected fecal samples of 185 central chimpanzees that were sampled across large parts of their range and analyzed them together with 283 published eastern chimpanzee genotypes from known localities. We observed a clear signal of isolation by distance across both subspecies. Further, we found that a large proportion of comparisons between groups taken from the same subspecies showed higher genetic differentiation than the least differentiated between-subspecies comparison. This proportion decreased substantially when we simulated a more clumped sampling scheme by including fewer groups. Our results support the general concept that the distribution of the sampled individuals can dramatically affect the inference of genetic population structure. With regard to chimpanzees, our results emphasize the close relationship of equatorial chimpanzees from central and eastern equatorial Africa and the difficult nature of subspecies definitions. PMID:25330245

  15. Development of the palatal size in Pan troglodytes, Hominids and Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Zoellner, A; Sebastian, T

    2004-12-01

    As the hard palate plays an important role in speech production it was the aim of this study whether similarities or dissimilarities in palatal size may allow conclusions about the ability to produce speech in the extant investigated species. The palatal size of Pan troglodytes, Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis and Cro-Magnon has been investigated using euclidian distance matrix analysis (EDMA) and thin-plate-spline analysis. The results show that the palatal size of all australopithecine specimens and H. erectus is very similar to that of P toglodytes, whereas the palatal size of H. neanderthalensis more closely resembles that of H. sapiens. Postnatal development of palatal size in P troglodytes is different from that of H. sapiens. In P troglodytes not only the size of the palate changes but also the form. In H. sapiens there is little change in form, but a continuos uniform growth from infantile to adult specimens. From the results we conclude that in all australopithecine samples which have been investigated, the palatal size is similar to that of P troglodytes. Therefore, it is unlikely that austraopithecine individuals were capable of producing vowels and consonants. The palatal size of H. neandethalensis and Cro-Magnon is similar to that of H. sapiens which may indicate the possibility that they were capable of speech production. PMID:15646285

  16. Capturing and toying with hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Bossou, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hirata, S; Yamakoshi, G; Fujita, S; Ohashi, G; Matsuzawa, T

    2001-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) were observed capturing and toying with western tree hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis, Order Hyracoidea) at Bossou, Guinea. An adolescent female carried one hyrax for 15 hr, slept with it in her nest, and groomed it. The captive was not consumed. Nearby adults ignored the hyrax. In another case, two adolescent males timidly inspected a small hyrax. These observations indicate that the chimpanzees at Bossou do not regard the hyrax as a prey animal, supporting the idea that lack of opportunity does not seem to be the only reason that chimpanzees do not consume an individual of a potential prey species. PMID:11170171

  17. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  18. How Young Children and Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") Perceive Objects in a 2D Display: Putting an Assumption to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighty, Katherine A.; Menzel, Charles R.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Object recognition research is typically conducted using 2D stimuli in lieu of 3D objects. This study investigated the amount and complexity of knowledge gained from 2D stimuli in adult chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and young children (aged 3 and 4 years) using a titrated series of cross-dimensional search tasks. Results indicate that 3-year-old…

  19. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina; Jin, Xin; Li, Yingrui; Skov, Laurits; Glemin, Sylvain; Munch, Kasper; Jiang, Tao; Qian, Yu; Hobolth, Asger; Wang, Jun; Mailund, Thomas; Siegismund, Hans R; Schierup, Mikkel H

    2015-04-01

    We study genome-wide nucleotide diversity in three subspecies of extant chimpanzees using exome capture. After strict filtering, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and indels were called and genotyped for greater than 50% of exons at a mean coverage of 35× per individual. Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) are the most polymorphic (nucleotide diversity, θw = 0.0023 per site) followed by Eastern (P. t. schweinfurthii) chimpanzees (θw = 0.0016) and Western (P. t. verus) chimpanzees (θw = 0.0008). A demographic scenario of divergence without gene flow fits the patterns of autosomal synonymous nucleotide diversity well except for a signal of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked versus autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection statistic exhibits a strong nonmonotonic relationship with the strength of purifying selection S, making it inappropriate for estimating S. We instead use counts in synonymous versus nonsynonymous frequency classes to infer the distribution of S coefficients acting on nonsynonymous mutations in each subspecies. The strength of purifying selection we infer is congruent with the differences in effective sizes of each subspecies: Central chimpanzees are undergoing the strongest purifying selection followed by Eastern and Western chimpanzees. Coding indels show stronger selection against indels changing the reading frame than observed in human populations. PMID:25829516

  20. Muscles of facial expression in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): descriptive, comparative and phylogenetic contexts

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A; Bonar, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Facial expressions are a critical mode of non-vocal communication for many mammals, particularly non-human primates. Although chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have an elaborate repertoire of facial signals, little is known about the facial expression (i.e. mimetic) musculature underlying these movements, especially when compared with some other catarrhines. Here we present a detailed description of the facial muscles of the chimpanzee, framed in comparative and phylogenetic contexts, through the dissection of preserved faces using a novel approach. The arrangement and appearance of muscles were noted and compared with previous studies of chimpanzees and with prosimians, cercopithecoids and humans. The results showed 23 mimetic muscles in P. troglodytes, including a thin sphincter colli muscle, reported previously only in adult prosimians, a bi-layered zygomaticus major muscle and a distinct risorius muscle. The presence of these muscles in such definition supports previous studies that describe an elaborate and highly graded facial communication system in this species that remains qualitatively different from that reported for other non-human primate species. In addition, there are minimal anatomical differences between chimpanzees and humans, contrary to conclusions from previous studies. These results amplify the importance of understanding facial musculature in primate taxa, which may hold great taxonomic value. PMID:16441560

  1. A Survey of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the selectively logged Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Thurston C; Fouts, Roger S; Fouts, Deborah H

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the timber company Industrie Forestiere du Batalimo is selectively logging the Ngotto Forest in the Central African Republic. The forest is home to a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and provides the Bofi-speaking people of Grima with food, medicine, housing material, and other commodities. Over a 7-month period, the research team conducted a line-transect survey of the great ape population in the forests to the south of Grima to document their distribution. For comparison purposes, the team also surveyed a section of adjacent forest that had already been logged. Ape nests were significantly rarer in the logged forest than in the unlogged forest, and ape nests were most common in the more pristine forests to the south. This report further discusses the effects of logging and other human activities. PMID:20183473

  2. Interactive use of sign language by cross-fostered chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Jensvold, M L; Gardner, R A

    2000-12-01

    Cross-fostered as infants in Reno, Nevada, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Washoe, Moja, Tatu, and Dar freely converse in signs of American Sign Language with each other as well as with humans in Ellensburg, Washington. In this experiment, a human interlocutor waited for a chimpanzee to initiate conversations with her and then responded with 1 of 4 types of probes: general requests for more information, on-topic questions, off-topic questions, or negative statements. The responses of the chimpanzees to the probes depended on the type of probe and the particular signs in the probes. They reiterated, adjusted, and shifted the signs in their utterances in conversationally appropriate rejoinders. Their reactions to and interactions with a conversational partner resembled patterns of conversation found in similar studies of human children. PMID:11149537

  3. Public Information Use in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Gill L.; Flynn, Emma G.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Kendal, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    The discernment of resource quality is pertinent to many daily decisions faced by animals. Public information is a critical information source that promotes quality assessments, attained by monitoring others’ performance. Here we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use public information to guide resource selection. Thirty-two chimpanzees were presented with two simultaneous video demonstrations depicting a conspecific acquiring resources at a fast (resource-rich) or slow (resource-poor) rate. Subsequently, subjects selected the resource-rich site above chance expectation. As a comparison, we report evidence of public information use in young children. Investigation of public information use in primates is pertinent, as it can enhance foraging success and potentially facilitate payoff-biased social learning. PMID:24060244

  4. Fatal arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in 2 related subadult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Tong, L J; Flach, E J; Sheppard, M N; Pocknell, A; Banerjee, A A; Boswood, A; Bouts, T; Routh, A; Feltrer, Y

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). This report records 2 cases of sudden cardiac death in closely related subadult captive chimpanzees with marked replacement fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration of the myocardium, which resemble specific atypical forms of the familial human disease arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Changes were consistent with left-dominant and biventricular subtypes, which are both phenotypic variants found within human families with familial arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Previously reported fibrosing cardiomyopathies in chimpanzees were characterized by nonspecific interstitial fibrosis, in contrast to the replacement fibrofatty infiltration with predilection for the outer myocardium seen in these 2 cases. To the authors' knowledge, this case report is the first to describe cardiomyopathy resembling arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in nonhuman primates and the first to describe left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy-type lesions in an animal. PMID:23988399

  5. Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence.

    PubMed

    Povinelli, D J; Rulf, A B; Landau, K R; Bierschwale, D T

    1993-12-01

    Investigations of mirror self-recognition (SR) in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have had small samples and divergent methods. In Experiment 1, 105 chimpanzees (10 months to 40 years of age) were observed for signs of SR across 5 days of continuous mirror exposure. In Experiments 2 and 3, negative SR adult and adolescent chimpanzees were saturated with mirror exposure in efforts to facilitate SR and a longitudinal study was conducted with a number of young subjects. In Experiment 4, mark tests were administered to groups of positive SR, negative SR, and ambiguous SR subjects. In Experiment 5, we explored whether previous positive SR reports in young chimpanzees were artifacts of increased arousal during mirror exposure. Results suggest that SR typically emerges at 4.5-8 years of age, at the population level the capacity declines in adulthood, and in group settings SR typically occurs within minutes of a subject's exposure to a mirror. PMID:8112048

  6. Leaf-folding behavior for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Tonooka, R

    2001-11-01

    The use of leaves for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea, was observed intensively. The natural hollow of a tree, used by chimpanzees, was filled up with fresh water every morning. Seventy episodes of leaf-using behavior by 14 chimpanzees were directly observed and video-recorded. The chimpanzees at Bossou most frequently (70.3%) used a particular kind of leaf, Hybophrynium braunianum as tool material. The chimpanzees folded one or more leaves in the mouth. This technique, "leaf folding", was observed more frequently (57.9 %) than "leaf sponge" or "leaf spoon". Chimpanzees began to perform this behavior at about 2.5 years old. Infant chimpanzees showed more frequent observations of others (especially their mothers) using leaves before trying to drink water with leaves. Both observation and trial and error might be necessary for the acquisition of this tool-use behavior. PMID:24777523

  7. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  8. Great apes' (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) understanding of tool functional properties after limited experience.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Esther; Wobber, Victoria; Call, Josep

    2008-05-01

    Primates' understanding of tool functionality has been investigated extensively using a paradigm in which subjects are presented with a tool that they must use to obtain an out-of-reach reward. After being given experience on an initial problem, monkeys can transfer their skill to tools of different shapes while ignoring irrelevant tool changes (e.g., color). In contrast, monkeys without initial training perform poorly on the same tasks. Compared to most monkeys, great apes show a clear propensity for tool using and may not require as much experience to succeed on tool functionality tasks. We investigated this question by presenting 171 apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus) with several tool-use problems without giving them initial training or familiarizing them with the test materials. Apes succeeded without experience, but only on problems based on basic properties such as the reward being supported by an object. However, only minimal experience was sufficient to allow them to quickly improve their performance on more complex problems in which the reward was not in contact with the tool. PMID:18489238

  9. Patterns of microsatellite polymorphism in the range-restricted bonobo (Pan paniscus): considerations for interspecific comparison with chimpanzees (P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reinartz, G E; Karron, J D; Phillips, R B; Weber, J L

    2000-03-01

    The endangered great ape, Pan paniscus (bonobo) has the smallest range of the African apes. Virtually nothing is known about the genetic diversity or genetic structure of this species, while substantial amounts of polymorphism have been reported for the bonobo's widespread congener, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes). Given its restricted range, what is the extent of genetic variation in the bonobo relative to the chimpanzee, and is the bonobo genetically depauperate? To investigate patterns of genetic polymorphism, bonobos of wild origin were genotyped for 28 microsatellite loci. The mean number of alleles per locus (5.2) and the mean observed heterozygosity (0.52) in bonobos were similar to variation observed in a wild chimpanzee community (P. t. schweinfurthii). The rarer bonobo is not genetically depauperate and may have genetic diversity comparable to the eastern chimpanzee subspecies. Bonobos have approximately 55% of the allelic diversity and 66% of the observed heterozygosity exhibited by all three chimpanzee subspecies sampled across equatorial Africa. Resampling techniques were used to quantify the effects of sample size differences and number and choice of loci between bonobos and chimpanzees. The examination of these variables underscores their importance in accurately interpreting interspecific comparisons of diversity estimates. PMID:10736029

  10. Share your sweets: Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus) willingness to share highly attractive, monopolizable food sources.

    PubMed

    Byrnit, Jill T; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-08-01

    All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). However, few controlled studies have been made in which groups of Pan are introduced to food items that may be shared or monopolized by a first food possessor, and very few studies have examined what happens to these sharing patterns if the food in question is a highly attractive, monopolizable food source. The one study to date to include food quality as the independent variable used different types of food as high- and low-value items, making differences in food divisibility and size potentially confounding factors. It was the aim of the present study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of 2 different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that the large majority of food transfers in both species came about as sharing in which group members were allowed to cofeed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than bonobos. Bonobos, instead, engaged in sexual invitations, which the chimpanzees never did. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26075515

  11. Gravity and solidity in four great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus): vertical and horizontal variations of the table task.

    PubMed

    Cacchione, Trix; Call, Josep; Zingg, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Three experiments modeled after infant studies were run on four great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus) to investigate their reasoning about solidity and gravity constraints. The aims were: (a) to find out if great apes are subject to gravity biased search or display sensitivity for object solidity, (b) to check for species differences, and (c) to assess if a gravity hypothesis or more parsimonious explanations best account for failures observed. Results indicate that great apes, unlike monkeys, show no reliable gravity bias, that ape species slightly differ in terms of their performance, and that the errors made are best explained by a gravity account. PMID:19450024

  12. Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use cleavers and anvils to fracture Treculia africana fruits? Preliminary data on a new form of percussive technology.

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2010-04-01

    Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are renowned for their use of tools in activities ranging from foraging to social interactions. Different populations across Africa vary in their tool use repertoires, giving rise to cultural variation. We report a new type of percussive technology in food processing by chimpanzees in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea: Treculia fracturing. Chimpanzees appear to use stone and wooden "cleavers" as tools, as well as stone outcrop "anvils" as substrate to fracture the large and fibrous fruits of Treculia africana, a rare but prized food source. This newly described form of percussive technology is distinctive, as the apparent aim is not to extract an embedded food item, as is the case in nut cracking, baobab smashing, or pestle pounding, but rather to reduce a large food item to manageably sized pieces. Furthermore, these preliminary data provide the first evidence of chimpanzees using two types of percussive technology for the same purpose. PMID:19967575

  13. New tools suggest local variation in tool use by a montane community of the rare Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Paul; Chapman, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Regional variations in tool use among chimpanzee subspecies and between populations within the same subspecies can often be explained by ecological constraints, although cultural variation also occurs. In this study we provide data on tool use by a small, recently isolated population of the endangered Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti, thus demonstrating regional variation in tool use in this rarely studied subspecies. We found that the Ngel Nyaki chimpanzee community has its own unique tool kit consisting of five different tool types. We describe a tool type that has rarely been observed (ant-digging stick) and a tool type that has never been recorded for this chimpanzee subspecies or in West Central Africa (food pound/grate stone). Our results suggest that there is fine- scale variation in tool use among geographically close communities of P. t. ellioti, and that these variations likely reflect both ecological constraints and cultural variation. PMID:25312510

  14. Cladistic analyses of behavioural variation in wild Pan troglodytes: exploring the chimpanzee culture hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2009-10-01

    Long-term field studies have revealed considerable behavioural differences among groups of wild Pan troglodytes. Here, we report three sets of cladistic analyses that were designed to shed light on issues relating to this interpopulation variation that are of particular relevance to palaeoanthropology. In the first set of analyses, we focused on the proximate cause of the variation. Some researchers have argued that it is cultural, while others have suggested that it is the result of genetic differences. Because the eastern and western subspecies of P. troglodytes are well differentiated genetically while groups within the subspecies are not, we reasoned that if the genetic hypothesis is correct, the phylogenetic signal should be stronger when data from the eastern and western subspecies are analysed together compared to when data from only the eastern subspecies are analysed. Using randomisation procedures, we found that the phylogenetic signal was substantially stronger with in a single subspecies rather than with two. The results of the first sets of analyses, therefore, were inconsistent with the predictions of the genetic hypothesis. The other two sets of analyses built on the results of the first and assumed that the intergroup behavioural variation is cultural in nature. Recent work has shown that, contrary to what anthropologists and archaeologists have long believed, vertical intergroup transmission is often more important than horizontal intergroup transmission in human cultural evolution. In the second set of analyses, we sought to determine how important vertical transmission has been in the evolution of chimpanzee cultural diversity. The first analysis we carried out indicated that the intergroup similarities and differences in behaviour are consistent with the divergence of the western and eastern subspecies, which is what would be expected if vertical intergroup transmission has been the dominant process. In the second analysis, we found that the

  15. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Cunha, Eugénia; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    We apply archaeological methods to extend our knowledge of chimpanzee material culture. The chaîne opératoire conceptual framework, as introduced by ethnography, established technology as a phased process. Prehistoric archaeology adopted this concept to elucidate technological variability in tool-making procedures, based on knowledge of tool functions or subsistence patterns. We focused on the detection of operational sequences by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) when nut cracking with lithic implements at the sites of Bossou and Diecké, Guinea, West Africa. Thus, while it has recently been claimed that chimpanzees leave behind recognizable assemblages of stone hammers that can be morphologically distinguished from Oldowan hammers, this is the first study to focus specifically on the existence of operational sequences during the utilization of stone tools by wild chimpanzees. By combining primatological and archaeological methods and examining ecological areas inhabited by different chimpanzee groups, we sought technological variability and identified variables influencing regional diversity in tool typology and technology. We compared three case studies: (1) Bossou-direct recording of experimental nut-cracking sessions; (2) Bossou- direct and indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild; (3) Diecké-indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild. Results suggest that chimpanzees perform sequences of repeated tool transport and nut cracking. Data show discrimination of tool functions based on tool features. We identified the most technologically complex tool for nut cracking, which was composed of four stones. We found regional diversity in chimpanzee stone assemblages. Raw-material type and tool mobility constrain technological development in human and nonhuman primates. Spatial analysis of tool distribution indicates a pattern of resource-exploitation strategy, revealing affinities with Oldowan. PMID:18359504

  16. Environmental management procedures following fatal melioidosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Kasantikul, Tanit; Somsa, Wachirawit; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Sermswan, Rasana W; Kongmakee, Piyaporn; Thomas, Warissara; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Bush, Mitchell; Banlunara, Wijit

    2013-06-01

    A 40-yr-old male captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with depression and anorexia for 7 days. The tentative diagnosis, following a physical examination under anesthesia, was pneumonia with sepsis. Despite antibiotic treatment and supportive care the chimpanzee died a week following presentation. Gross pathology confirmed severe purulent pneumonia and diffuse hepatosplenic abscesses. Detected in serum at the time of the initial examination, the melioidosis serum antibody titer was elevated (> 1:512). Soil samples were collected from three sites in the exhibit at three depths of 5, 15, and 30 cm. By direct and enrichment culture, positive cultures for Burkholderia pseudomallei were found at 5 and 15 cm in one site. The other two sites were positive by enrichment culture at the depth of 5 cm. To prevent disease in the remaining seven troop members, they were relocated to permit a soil treatment with calcium oxide. The exhibit remained empty for approximately 1 yr before the chimpanzees were returned. During that period, the soil in the exhibit area was again cultured as before and all samples were negative for B. pseudomallei. Following the soil treatment in the exhibit, all chimpanzees have remained free of clinical signs consistent with melioidosis. PMID:23805570

  17. Maternal Behavior and Physiological Stress Levels in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Margaret A.; Heintz, Matthew R.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Santymire, Rachel M.; Lipende, Iddi; Murray, Carson M.

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in maternal behavior toward, and investment in, offspring can have lasting consequences, particularly among primate taxa characterized by prolonged periods of development over which mothers can exert substantial influence. Given the role of the neuroendocrine system in the expression of behavior, researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the hormonal correlates of maternal behavior. Here, we examined the relationship between maternal behavior and physiological stress levels, as quantified by fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, in lactating chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. After accounting for temporal variation in FGM concentrations, we found that mothers interacted socially (groomed and played) with and nursed their infants more on days when FGM concentrations were elevated compared to days when FGM concentrations were within the range expected given the time of year. However, the proportion of time mothers and infants spent in contact did not differ based on FGM concentrations. These results generally agree with the suggestion that elevated GC concentrations are related to maternal motivation and responsivity to infant cues and are the first evidence of a hormonal correlate of maternal behavior in a wild great ape. PMID:26213430

  18. Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and high pitch are shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Vera U.; Adachi, Ikuma; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Humans share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia, people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds). So far, no study has addressed the question whether nonhuman animals share cross-modal correspondences as well. To establish the evolutionary origins of cross-modal mappings, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also associate higher pitch with higher luminance. Thirty-three humans and six chimpanzees were required to classify black and white squares according to their color while hearing irrelevant background sounds that were either high-pitched or low-pitched. Both species performed better when the background sound was congruent (high-pitched for white, low-pitched for black) than when it was incongruent (low-pitched for white, high-pitched for black). An inherent tendency to pair high pitch with high luminance hence evolved before the human lineage split from that of chimpanzees. Rather than being a culturally learned or a linguistic phenomenon, this mapping constitutes a basic feature of the primate sensory system. PMID:22143791

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti (Primates: Hominidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Hua; Wang, Yin-Hua; Tang, Ming-Gui; Chai, Hai-Xia; Xuan, Xing-Wei; Guo, Wei-Yan; Yang, Mu; Pu, Jian-Yi

    2016-05-01

    Chimpanzees are especially suited to teach us about ourselves, both in terms of their similarities and differences with human, and such important similarities and differences have also been noted for the incidence and severity of several major human diseases. In the present work, we report the entire mitochondrial genome of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) for the first time. Results shows that this mitogenome is 16,559 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 putative non-coding region (D-loop region). The genomic organization and gene order are the same as other Chimpanzees. The whole nucleotide base composition is 31.1% of A, 30.7% of C, 12.9% G, and 25.3% T, with a slight A+T bias of 56.4%. Most of the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 8 tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here provides useful genetic information for P. t. ellioti, and will further contribute to the comparative genomics studies in primates. PMID:25350739

  20. Male Yawning Is More Contagious than Female Yawning among Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Vermunt, Dorith A.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  1. Extensive vascular mineralization in the brain of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Connor-Stroud, Fawn R; Hopkins, William D; Preuss, Todd M; Johnson, Zachary; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sharma, Prachi

    2014-06-01

    Spontaneous vascular mineralization (deposition of iron or calcium salts) has been observed in marble brain syndrome, mineralizing microangiopathy, hypothyroidism, Fahr syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, and calciphylaxis in humans and as an aging or idiopathic lesion in the brains of horses, cats, nonhuman primates, mice, rats, cattle, white-tailed deer, and dogs. Here we present a 27-y-old, adult male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) with spontaneous, extensive vascular mineralization localized solely to the brain. The chimpanzee exhibited tremors and weakness of the limbs, which progressed to paralysis before euthanasia. Magnetic resonance brain imaging in 2002 and 2010 (immediately before euthanasia) revealed multiple hypointense foci, suggestive of iron- and calcium-rich deposits. At necropsy, the brain parenchyma had occasional petechial hemorrhage, and microscopically, the cerebral, cerebellar and brain stem, gray and white matter had moderate to severe mural aggregates of a granular, basophilic material (mineral) in the blood vessels. In addition, these regions often had moderate to severe medial to transmural deposition of mature collagen in the blood vessels. We ruled out common causes of brain mineralization in humans and animals, but an etiology for the mineralization could not be determined. To our knowledge, mineralization in brain has been reported only once to occur in a chimpanzee, but its chronicity in our case makes it particularly interesting. PMID:24956215

  2. Spatial construction skills of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young human children (Homo sapiens sapiens).

    PubMed

    Potì, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-07-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children belonging to five age groups (24, 30, 36, 42, 48 months). Subjects were given three model constructions to reproduce: Line, Cross-Stack and Arch, which differed in type and number of spatial relations and dimensions, but required comparable configurational understanding. Subjects' constructions were rated for accuracy. Our results show that: (1) chimpanzees are relatively advanced in constructing in the vertical dimension; (2) Among chimpanzees only adults make accurate copies of constructions; (3) Chimpanzees do not develop in the direction of constructing in two dimensions as human children do starting from age 30 months. The pattern of development of construction skills in chimpanzees partially diverges from that of human children and indicates that spatial analysis and spatial representation are partially different in the two species. PMID:19635081

  3. Attention to emotional scenes including whole-body expressions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kano, Fumihiro; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2010-08-01

    Real-life situations provide rich sets of cues that viewers evaluate in terms of their emotional significance. In this study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) viewed a movie depicting naturalistic scenes involving the whole-body expressions of conspecifics to examine how nonhuman primates perceived the combination of these cues and how each cue contributed to the overall perception. Viewing time was measured while the chimpanzees watched movie clips without sound. Among scenes depicting neutrality, general excitement, agonism, and playfulness, chimpanzees looked longest at those depicting agonism. This bias toward agonistic scenes may indicate an attentional sensitivity toward threat/fear-related negative situations among chimpanzees. The effect disappeared when the images were scrambled, ruling out the possible effect of pixel-level properties on the results. In addition, the follow-up analyses revealed that the effect was independent of the presentation order and of the number of individuals in each clip. The manipulation of playback speeds had little effect on the looking times. The elimination of facial cues slightly influenced the looking times but did not change the strong bias toward agonistic scenes. This robustness of the main effect against image manipulations may indicate that the chimpanzees attended directly to the contextual information implied by the cues rather than to the cues per se (e.g., facial expressions, speed of movements). PMID:20695660

  4. Size matters: impact of item size and quantity on array choice by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Boysen, S T; Berntson, G G; Mukobi, K L

    2001-03-01

    The authors previously reported that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) showed a striking bias to select the larger of 2 candy arrays, despite a reversed reward contingency in which the animals received the smaller, nonselected array as a reward, except when Arabic numerals were used as stimuli. A perceptual or incentive-based interference occurred that was overcome by symbolic stimuli. The authors of the present study examined the impact of element size in choice arrays, using 1 to 5 large and small candies. Five test-sophisticated chimpanzees selected an array from the 2 presented during each trial. Their responses were not optimal, as animals generally selected arrays with larger total mass; thus, they received the smaller remaining array as a reward. When choice stimuli differed in size and quantity, element size was more heavily weighted, although choices reflected total candy mass. These results replicate previous findings showing chimpanzees' difficulties with quantity judgments under reverse reward contingencies and also show that individual item size exerts a more powerful interference effect. PMID:11334213

  5. How chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) perform in a modified emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Allritz, Matthias; Call, Josep; Borkenau, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emotional Stroop task is an experimental paradigm developed to study the relationship between emotion and cognition. Human participants required to identify the color of words typically respond more slowly to negative than to neutral words (emotional Stroop effect). Here we investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) would show a comparable effect. Using a touch screen, eight chimpanzees were trained to choose between two simultaneously presented stimuli based on color (two identical images with differently colored frames). In Experiment 1, the images within the color frames were shapes that were either of the same color as the surrounding frame or of the alternative color. Subjects made fewer errors and responded faster when shapes were of the same color as the frame surrounding them than when they were not, evidencing that embedded images affected target selection. Experiment 2, a modified version of the emotional Stroop task, presented subjects with four different categories of novel images: three categories of pictures of humans (veterinarian, caretaker, and stranger), and control stimuli showing a white square. Because visits by the veterinarian that include anaesthetization can be stressful for subjects, we expected impaired performance in trials presenting images of the veterinarian. For the first session, we found correct responses to be indeed slower in trials of this category. This effect was more pronounced for subjects whose last anaesthetization experience was more recent, indicating that emotional valence caused the slowdown. We propose our modified emotional Stroop task as a simple method to explore which emotional stimuli affect cognitive performance in nonhuman primates. PMID:26613593

  6. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) relational matching: playing by their own (analogical) rules.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Timothy M; Kennedy, Erica Hoy

    2011-05-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been known to exhibit rudimentary abilities in analogical reasoning (Flemming, Beran, Thompson, Kleider, & Washburn, 2008; Gillian, Premack, & Woodruff, 1981; Haun & Call, 2009; Thompson & Oden, 2000; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). With a wide array of individual differences, little can be concluded about the species' capacity for analogies, much less their strategies employed for solving such problems. In this study, we examined analogical strategies in 3 chimpanzees using a 3-dimensional search task (e.g., Kennedy & Fragaszy, 2008). Food items were hidden under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of varying sizes. Subsequently, chimpanzees searched for food under the cup of the same relative size in their own set of cups--reasoning by analogy. Two chimpanzees initially appeared to fail the first relational phase of the task. Meta-analyses revealed, however, that they were instead using a secondary strategy not rewarded by the contingencies of the task--choosing on the basis of the same relative position in the sample. Although this was not the intended strategy of the task, it was nonetheless analogical. In subsequent phases of the task, chimpanzees eventually learned to shift their analogical reasoning strategy to match the reward contingencies of the task and successfully choose on the basis of relative size. This evidence not only provides support for the analogical ape hypothesis (Thompson & Oden, 2000), but also exemplifies how foundational conceptually mediated analogical behavior may be for the chimpanzee. PMID:21604854

  7. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-11-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, five-factor model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily and neurobiologically based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially housed, captive chimpanzees residing in 2 independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, whereas personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  8. Arboreal nesting as anti-predator adaptation by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in southeastern Senegal.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, J D; Fulton, S J; Marchant, L F; McGrew, W C; Schiel, M; Waller, M

    2008-04-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) make nests for resting and sleeping, which is unusual for anthropoid primates but common to all great apes. Arboreal nesting has been linked to predation pressure, but few studies have tested the adaptive nature of this behavior. We collected data at two chimpanzee study sites in southeastern Senegal that differed in predator presence to test the hypothesis that elevated sleeping platforms are adaptations for predator defense. At Assirik in the Parc National du Niokolo-Koba, chimpanzees face four species of large carnivore, whereas at Fongoli, outside national park boundaries, humans have exterminated almost all natural predators. We quantified the availability of vegetation at the two sites to test the alternative hypothesis that differences in nesting reflect differences in habitat structure. We also examined possible sex differences in nesting behavior, community demographic differences, seasonality and nest age differences as variables also potentially affecting nest characteristics and nesting behavior between the two sites. Chimpanzees at Fongoli nested at lower heights and farther apart than did chimpanzees at Assirik and sometimes made nests on the ground. The absence of predators outside of the national park may account for the differences in nest characteristics at the two sites, given the similarities in habitat structure between Fongoli and Assirik. However, Fongoli chimpanzees regularly build arboreal nests for sleeping, even under minimal predation pressure, and this requires explanation. PMID:18161774

  9. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  10. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Vermunt, Dorith A; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  11. An evaluation of the efficacy of video displays for use with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hopper, Lydia M; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2012-05-01

    Video displays for behavioral research lend themselves particularly well to studies with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), as their vision is comparable to humans', yet there has been no formal test of the efficacy of video displays as a form of social information for chimpanzees. To address this, we compared the learning success of chimpanzees shown video footage of a conspecific compared to chimpanzees shown a live conspecific performing the same novel task. Footage of an unfamiliar chimpanzee operating a bidirectional apparatus was presented to 24 chimpanzees (12 males, 12 females), and their responses were compared to those of a further 12 chimpanzees given the same task but with no form of information. Secondly, we also compared the responses of the chimpanzees in the video display condition to responses of eight chimpanzees from a previously published study of ours, in which chimpanzees observed live models. Chimpanzees shown a video display were more successful than those in the control condition and showed comparable success to those that saw a live model. Regarding fine-grained copying (i.e. the direction that the door was pushed), only chimpanzees that observed a live model showed significant matching to the model's methods with their first response. Yet, when all the responses made by the chimpanzees were considered, comparable levels of matching were shown by chimpanzees in both the live and video conditions. PMID:22318867

  12. Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and high pitch are shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Vera U; Adachi, Ikuma; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-12-20

    Humans share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia, people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds). So far, no study has addressed the question whether nonhuman animals share cross-modal correspondences as well. To establish the evolutionary origins of cross-modal mappings, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also associate higher pitch with higher luminance. Thirty-three humans and six chimpanzees were required to classify black and white squares according to their color while hearing irrelevant background sounds that were either high-pitched or low-pitched. Both species performed better when the background sound was congruent (high-pitched for white, low-pitched for black) than when it was incongruent (low-pitched for white, high-pitched for black). An inherent tendency to pair high pitch with high luminance hence evolved before the human lineage split from that of chimpanzees. Rather than being a culturally learned or a linguistic phenomenon, this mapping constitutes a basic feature of the primate sensory system. PMID:22143791

  13. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) consolation: third-party identity as a window on possible function.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; de Waal, Frans B M

    2010-08-01

    Consolation, that is, postconflict affiliative contact by a bystander toward a recipient of aggression, has acquired an important role in the debate about empathy in great apes because it has been proposed that the reassuring behavior aimed at distressed parties reflects empathetic arousal. However, the function of this behavior is not fully understood. The present study tests specific predictions about the identity of bystanders on the basis of a database of 1102 agonistic interactions and their corresponding postconflict periods in two outdoor-housed groups of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that recipients of aggression were more likely to be contacted by their own "friends" than by "friends" of the aggressor and that frequent targets of aggression were not more likely to offer consolation than were nontargets of aggression. These findings support the stress reduction hypothesis rather than two proposed alternatives, that is, the opponent relationship repair hypothesis and the self-protection hypothesis. Our results provide further support for relationship quality as a fundamental underlying factor explaining variation in the occurrence of consolation. PMID:20695659

  14. Use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to obtain termites (Macrotermes) in the periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve, southeast Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Deblauwe, Isra; Guislain, Patrick; Dupain, Jef; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-12-01

    At the northern periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve (southeastern Cameroon) we recorded a new use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to prey on Macrotermes muelleri, M. renouxi, M. lilljeborgi, and M. nobilis. We recovered 79 puncturing sticks and 47 fishing probes at 17 termite nests between 2002 and 2005. The mean length of the puncturing sticks (n = 77) and fishing probes (n = 45) was 52 cm and 56 cm, respectively, and the mean diameter was 9 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. Sixty-eight percent of 138 chimpanzee fecal samples contained major soldiers of four Macrotermes species. The chimpanzees in southeastern Cameroon appeared to be selective in their choice of plant material to make their tools. The tools found at our study site resemble those from other sites in this region. However, in southeastern Cameroon only one tool-set type was found, whereas two tool-set types have been reported in Congo. Our study suggests that, along with the different vegetation types and the availability of plant material around termite nests, the nest and gallery structure and foraging behavior of the different Macrotermes spp. at all Central African sites must be investigated before we can attribute differences in tool-use behavior to culture. PMID:17096418

  15. Three-dimensional moment arms and architecture of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) leg musculature

    PubMed Central

    Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    The muscular and skeletal morphology of the chimpanzee ankle and foot differs from that of humans in many important respects. However, little information is available on the moment arms and architecture of the muscles that function around chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. The main goals of this study were to determine the influence of changes in leg and foot position on the moment arms of these muscle–tendon units (MTUs), and provide new measurements of their architecture. Three-dimensional moment arm data were collected from two adult, cadaveric Pan troglodytes specimens for 11 MTUs that cross the ankle and foot joints. Tendon-excursion measurements were made throughout the full range of plantarflexion–dorsiflexion (PF–DF) and eversion–inversion (EV–IN), including repeated measurements for mm. gastrocnemius at 0 °, 45 °, 90 ° and 135 ° of knee flexion. The total range of motion was calculated from three-dimensional joint motion data while ensuring that foot movement was restricted to a single plane. Measurements of muscle mass, fascicle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area were then collected for each MTU. Our results demonstrate that joint position has a significant effect on moment arm lengths, and that in some cases this effect is counterintuitive. These new data contribute to filling a significant gap in previously published chimpanzee moment arm data, providing a comprehensive characterization of the MTUs that move the chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. They also provide empirical support to the notion that chimpanzees have larger ranges of motion at these joints than humans. Comparison of osteometric estimates of moment arm lengths to direct tendon-excursion measures provides some guidance for the use of skeletal features in estimations of PF–DF moment arms. Finally, muscle architecture data are consistent with the findings of previous studies, and increase the sample size of the chimpanzee data that are currently

  16. Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kristian J

    2006-07-01

    Thorpe et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 110:179-199, 1999) quantified chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) muscle architecture and joint moment arms to determine whether they functionally compensated for structural differences between chimpanzees and humans. They observed enough distinction to conclude that musculoskeletal properties were not compensatory and suggested that chimpanzees and humans do not exhibit dynamically similar movements. These investigators based their assessment on unilateral limb musculatures from three male chimpanzees, of which they called one non-adult representative. Factors such as age, sex, and behavioral lateralization may be responsible for variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture, but this is presently unknown. While the full extent of variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture due to such factors cannot be evaluated with data presently available, the present study expands the chimpanzee dataset and provides a preliminary glimpse of the potential relevance of these factors. Thirty-seven forelimb and 36 hind limb muscles were assessed in two chimpanzee cadavers: one unilaterally (right limbs), and one bilaterally. Mass, fiber length, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are reported for individual muscles and muscle groups. The musculature of an adult female is more similar in architectural patterns to a young male chimpanzee than to humans, particularly when comparing muscle groups. Age- and sex-related intraspecific differences do not obscure chimpanzee-human interspecific differences. Side asymmetry in one chimpanzee, despite consistent forelimb directional asymmetry, also does not exceed the magnitude of chimpanzee-human differences. Left forelimb muscles, on average, usually had higher masses and longer fiber lengths than right, while right forelimb muscles, on average, usually had greater PCSAs than left. Most muscle groups from the left forelimb exhibited greater masses than right groups, but group asymmetry was significant

  17. Menstrual cycles continue into advanced old age in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Gould, Kenneth G; Hawkes, Kristen; Wijayawardana, Sameera R; Chen, Jian; Easley, Kirk A; Herndon, James G

    2008-09-01

    A long postreproductive lifespan may distinguish women from all other female primates. A long-held consensus among reproductive scientists has been that our closest living relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), experiences menstrual cycles until death. However, a recent study of biannual assessments of gonadotropins, but lacking observations of menstruation, concluded that menopause occurs in chimpanzees between 35 and 40 yr of age. A separate report, but on wild chimpanzees, documented fertility through the 40-44 age range in all populations studied. These contradictory reports pose questions about differences between wild and captive populations and about assessments of menopause. The present study revisits this controversy by analyzing longitudinal records of anogenital swelling and menstruation in 89 female chimpanzees aged 6 to 59 yr (n = 2386 records on cycle length), monitored for most of their adult lives at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Twenty of these chimpanzees were observed past 39 yr of age; all 20 displayed menstrual cycles beyond this age, as confirmed by at least two observations of menses about 35 days apart. Three of these were older than 50 yr and still displayed menstrual cycles. Only the oldest female appeared menopausal, with cycles of anogenital swelling ceasing 2 yr prior to her death at age 59. Random-effects statistical modeling reveals a slight decrease in cycle length until 20 yr of age and a slight lengthening thereafter. Mean cycle length across the lifespan is 35.4 days. Our findings, based upon actual observations of menstrual cycles, suggest that menopause in the chimpanzee is rare, occurring near the end of the lifespan. PMID:18495682

  18. Population status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana S; Marques, Tiago A; Vicente, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, has been classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1988. Intensive agriculture, commercial plantations, logging, and mining have eliminated or degraded the habitats suitable for P. t. verus over a large part of its range. In this study we assessed the effect of land-use change on the population size and density of chimpanzees at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau. We further explored chimpanzee distribution in relation to landscape-level proxies of human disturbance. Nest count and distance-sampling methods were employed along 11 systematically placed linear transects in 2010 and 2011. Estimated nest decay rate was 293.9 days (%CV = 58.8). Based on this estimate of decay time and using the Standing-Crop Nest Count Method, we obtained a habitat-weighted average chimpanzee density estimate for 2011 of 0.22 nest building chimpanzees/km(2) (95% CI 0.08-0.62), corresponding to 137 (95% CI 51.0-390.0) chimpanzees for LCNP. Human disturbance had a negative influence on chimpanzee distribution as nests were built farther away from human settlements, roads, and rivers than if they were randomly distributed, coinciding with the distribution of the remaining patches of dense canopy forest. We conclude that the continuous disappearance of suitable habitat (e.g. the replacement of LCNP's dense forests by monocultures of cashew plantations) may be compromising the future of one of the most threatened Guinean coastal chimpanzee populations. We discuss strategies to ensure long-term conservation in this important refuge for this chimpanzee subspecies at its westernmost margin of geographic distribution. PMID:23940766

  19. A longitudinal assessment of vocabulary retention in symbol-competent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Heimbauer, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition. PMID:25706561

  20. A Longitudinal Assessment of Vocabulary Retention in Symbol-Competent Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Heimbauer, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition. PMID:25706561

  1. Population Status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Joana S.; Marques, Tiago A.; Vicente, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, has been classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1988. Intensive agriculture, commercial plantations, logging, and mining have eliminated or degraded the habitats suitable for P. t. verus over a large part of its range. In this study we assessed the effect of land-use change on the population size and density of chimpanzees at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau. We further explored chimpanzee distribution in relation to landscape-level proxies of human disturbance. Nest count and distance-sampling methods were employed along 11 systematically placed linear transects in 2010 and 2011. Estimated nest decay rate was 293.9 days (%CV = 58.8). Based on this estimate of decay time and using the Standing-Crop Nest Count Method, we obtained a habitat-weighted average chimpanzee density estimate for 2011 of 0.22 nest building chimpanzees/km2 (95% CI 0.08–0.62), corresponding to 137 (95% CI 51.0–390.0) chimpanzees for LCNP. Human disturbance had a negative influence on chimpanzee distribution as nests were built farther away from human settlements, roads, and rivers than if they were randomly distributed, coinciding with the distribution of the remaining patches of dense canopy forest. We conclude that the continuous disappearance of suitable habitat (e.g. the replacement of LCNP's dense forests by monocultures of cashew plantations) may be compromising the future of one of the most threatened Guinean coastal chimpanzee populations. We discuss strategies to ensure long-term conservation in this important refuge for this chimpanzee subspecies at its westernmost margin of geographic distribution. PMID:23940766

  2. Social environment elicits lateralized behaviors in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Quaresmini, Caterina; Forrester, Gillian S; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the social environment on lateralized behaviors has now been investigated across a wide variety of animal species. New evidence suggests that the social environment can modulate behavior. Currently, there is a paucity of data relating to how primates navigate their environmental space, and investigations that consider the naturalistic context of the individual are few and fragmented. Moreover, there are competing theories about whether only the right or rather both cerebral hemispheres are involved in the processing of social stimuli, especially in emotion processing. Here we provide the first report of lateralized social behaviors elicited by great apes. We employed a continuous focal animal sampling method to record the spontaneous interactions of a captive zoo-living colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a biological family group of peer-reared western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). We specifically focused on which side of the body (i.e., front, rear, left, right) the focal individual preferred to keep conspecifics. Utilizing a newly developed quantitative corpus-coding scheme, analysis revealed both chimpanzees and gorillas demonstrated a significant group-level preference for focal individuals to keep conspecifics positioned to the front of them compared with behind them. More interestingly, both groups also manifested a population-level bias to keep conspecifics on their left side compared with their right side. Our findings suggest a social processing dominance of the right hemisphere for context-specific social environments. Results are discussed in light of the evolutionary adaptive value of social stimulus as a triggering factor for the manifestation of group-level lateralized behaviors. PMID:24749503

  3. Factors affecting wounding aggression in a colony of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert C; Nash, Leanne T; Scarry, Clara JoAnn; Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) display higher levels of aggression in captivity than in the wild. One of the challenges of captive management, therefore, is to balance the chimpanzees' need for social interaction with managements' desire to minimize wounding and aggression. Various captive studies have examined the effects of individual and social variables on the frequency of wounding aggression, but none have examined these variables simultaneously. We collected retrospective wounding data for severe wounds from 83 captive chimpanzees (36 males, 47 females) from January 1993 to December 2003. The context of the wounding event, including individual age and sex, group age and sex composition, group duration, and portion of the week (weekday vs. weekend) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables had a significant effect on the probability of a severe wounding event. The sex and age composition of the group, group duration, and portion of the week had a statistically significant association with wounding. All-male groups (Odds Ratio (OR)=6.738) had the highest risk of wounding aggression, with uni-male groups (OR=3.311) having the next largest. Compared to individuals in all sub-adult groups, individuals in either all-adult (OR=4.516) or mixed-age (OR=3.587) groups had a higher risk of wounding. There was an inverse association between group duration and wounding (OR=0.821). Finally, there was an increased risk of wounding during the work week (OR=1.653). These results suggest that captive management should pay close attention to group composition, as well as levels of human activity, when devising strategies to reduce captive chimpanzee aggression. PMID:19688864

  4. SUCCESSFUL SURGICAL TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE LIVER DISEASE CAUSED BY A BILIARY CALCULUS IN A CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Chatterton, James; Unwin, Steve; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Bridson-Walton, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    A 40-yr-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with intermittent, short-duration episodes of nonspecific clinical signs that included lethargy and reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Clinical examination and diagnostics suggested obstructive hepatic disease, which was confirmed by subsequent ultrasonographic examination. During routine laparotomy, a biliary calculus was removed from the distal common bile duct and the gallbladder was removed, which resulted in complete clinical recovery. The biliary calculus was analyzed as a mixed composition of predominantly cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium. PMID:26667553

  5. Shape of the piriform aperture in Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and modern Homo sapiens: characterization and polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmittbuhl, M; Le Minor, J M; Allenbach, B; Schaaf, A

    1998-07-01

    By using new methodologies based on automatic image analysis, the shape of the piriform aperture was analyzed in Gorilla gorilla (33 males, 13 females), Pan troglodytes (35 males, 22 females), and modern Homo sapiens (30 males, 12 females). The determination of the piriform aperture index (breadth/height) allowed the authors to demonstrate a marked elongation of the aperture in Homo compared with Gorilla and Pan. Individual characterization of the shape was possible with great precision and without ambiguity by using Fourier analysis. An absolute, interspecific partition between Gorilla, Pan, and Homo resulted from the canonical discriminant analysis of the Fourier descriptors. However, a closeness of shape between some individuals in Pan and some in Gorilla and Homo was observed, demonstrating a morphological continuum of the shape of the piriform aperture in hominoids: Pan was in intermediate position between Gorilla and Homo. Interspecific differences between Homo and the group Pan-Gorilla were explained principally by the differences in elongation (amplitude of the second harmonic) and pentagonality (amplitude of the fifth harmonic) and by differences in orientation of quadrangularity (phase of the fourth harmonic). Differences in the shape of the piriform aperture between Pan and Gorilla were explained by differences in orientation of elongation (phase of the second harmonic) and by differences in the component of triangularity (amplitude of the third harmonic). In Gorilla and Pan, the little, elongated, and relatively trapezoidal piriform aperture seems to be a shared primitive feature (plesiomorphic), whereas an elongated piriform aperture seems to be a characteristic and derived feature (apomorphic) of modern Homo sapiens. PMID:9696146

  6. Token transfers among great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Pan troglodytes): species differences, gestural requests, and reciprocal exchange.

    PubMed

    Pelé, Marie; Dufour, Valérie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep

    2009-11-01

    Great apes appear to be the nonhuman primates most capable of recognizing trading opportunities and engaging in transfers of commodities with conspecifics. Spontaneous exchange of goods between them has not yet been reported. We tested gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a token-exchange task involving two conspecifics and a human experimenter. Tested in pairs, subjects had to exchange tokens with a partner to obtain food from the experimenter. We observed 4, 5, 264, and 328 transfers of tokens in gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos, respectively. Most gifts were indirect in gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, whereas most were direct in orangutans. The analysis showed no evidence of calculated reciprocity in interactions. A main finding of the study was the high rate of repeated gifts and begging gestures recorded in orangutans. This raises the question of the meaning of pointing in great apes and their ability to understand the communicative intent of others. PMID:19929106

  7. Performance in a tool-using task by common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Visalberghi, E; Fragaszy, D M; Savage-Rumbaugh, S

    1995-03-01

    Performance by individual animals of three species of great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was assessed by presenting a food treat inside a clear tube. The subjects readily used a straight stick to obtain the food. When sticks were bundled together, the apes immediately unwrapped the bundle to obtain an individual stick, whereas capuchins attempted to insert the bundled sticks. When a misshapen stick was provided, apes, but not capuchins, showed an improvement in terms of modifying the misshapen stick before insertion. Our results indicate that all these species can solve these tasks. However, only the performance of apes is consistent with emerging comprehension of the causal relations required for the avoidance of errors in the more complex tasks. PMID:7705062

  8. "Stepping-sticks" and "seat-sticks": new types of tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Alp, R

    1997-01-01

    In Tenkere, Sierra Leone, a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) spent long hours eating the fruits and flowers of the Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) tree. The branches of this species are covered in sharp thorns which make movement in their high canopies problematic for the chimpanzees. In an apparent attempt to increase their mobility and to ease the discomfort of lengthy bouts of eating in these trees, some of the Tenkere chimpanzees have been observed using stick tools as foot ("stepping-sticks") and body ("seat-sticks") protection against the painful thorns. This form of tool-using is culturally unique to the Tenkere chimpanzees, as at other sites where these apes have been observed eating parts of kapok trees, there are no published records of this tool technology. In three of the stepping-stick tool use incidents, the chimpanzee used the tool(s), held between their greater and lesser toes, in locomotion. This form of tool use is the first recorded case of habitually used tools that can be justifiably categorized as being "worn" by any known wild population of Pan troglodytes. PMID:9064197

  9. Shape of the orbital opening: individual characterization and analysis of variability in modern humans, Gorilla gorilla, and Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Schmittbuhl, M; Le Minor, J M; Allenbach, B; Schaaf, A

    1999-05-01

    The description of the human orbital shape is principally qualitative in the classical literature, and characterised by adjectives such as circular, rectangular or quadrangular. In order to provide a precise quantification and interpretation of this shape, a study based on automatic image analysis and Fourier analysis was carried out on 45 human skulls (30 males, 15 females), and for comparison on 61 skulls of Gorilla gorilla (40 males, 21 females), and 34 skulls of Pan troglodytes (20 males, 14 females). Sexual dimorphism in the shape of the orbital opening was not demonstrated. Its dominant morphological features could be characterized by Fourier analysis; elliptical elongation and quadrangularity were dominant morphological features of the shape of the orbital opening in the three species. Elliptical elongation was more marked in humans and Pan, whereas quadrangularity was particularly emphasized in Gorilla. An intraspecific variability of the shape of the orbital opening existed in humans, Gorilla and Pan, and seemed close in the three species. Interspecific partition between humans, Gorilla and Pan was demonstrated despite the variability observed in the three species studied. Interspecific differences between Gorilla and the Pan-humans group were principally explained by the differences in quadrangularity, and by differences in orientation of triangularity and pentagonality. Differences in the shape of the orbital opening between humans and Pan were principally explained by differences in hexagonality, and by differences in orientation of quadrangularity. A closeness of shape between some humans and some individuals in Pan and, to a lesser degree, with some individuals in Gorilla was observed, demonstrating the existence of a morphological continuum of the shape of the orbital opening in hominoids. PMID:10363113

  10. Use of an Implantable Loop Recorder in the Investigation of Arrhythmias in Adult Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Lammey, Michael L; Jackson, Raven; Ely, John J; Lee, D Rick; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in general, and cardiac arrhythmias specifically, is common in great apes. However, the clinical significance of arrhythmias detected on short-duration electrocardiograms is often unclear. Here we describe the use of an implantable loop recorder to evaluate cardiac rhythms in 4 unanesthetized adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 1 with a history of possible syncope and 3 with the diagnosis of multiform ventricular ectopy (ventricular premature complexes) and cardiomyopathy. The clinical significance of ventricular ectopy was defined further by using the implantable loop recorder. Arrhythmia was ruled out as a cause of collapse in the chimpanzee that presented with possible syncope because the implantable loop recorder demonstrated normal sinus rhythm during a so-called syncopal event. This description is the first report of the use of an implantable loop recorder to diagnose cardiac arrhythmias in an unanesthetized great ape species. PMID:21819684

  11. How young children and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) perceive objects in a 2D display: putting an assumption to the test.

    PubMed

    Leighty, Katherine A; Menzel, Charles R; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-09-01

    Object recognition research is typically conducted using 2D stimuli in lieu of 3D objects. This study investigated the amount and complexity of knowledge gained from 2D stimuli in adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (aged 3 and 4 years) using a titrated series of cross-dimensional search tasks. Results indicate that 3-year-old children utilize a response rule guided by local features to solve cross-dimensional tasks. Four-year-old toddlers and adult chimpanzees use information about object form and compositional structure from a 2D image to guide their search in three dimensions. Findings have specific implications to research conducted in object recognition/perception and broad relevance to all areas of research and daily living that incorporate 2D displays. PMID:18801134

  12. Comparative Assessment of Handedness for a Coordinated Bimanual Task in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Stoinski, Tara S.; Lukas, Kristen E.; Ross, Stephen R.; Wesley, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Hand preferences for a coordinated bimanual task were assessed in a sample of 31 captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and 19 captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and were compared with chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) hand preferences in subjects that were matched on the basis of age, sex, and rearing history. The task required that the apes remove food from the inside edges of a symmetrical polyvinyl chloride pipe presented to them in their home cages. The results indicate significant species differences with chimpanzees showing population-level right-handedness and orangutans showing population-level left-handedness. The gorillas showed a nonsignificant trend toward right-handedness. The results are discussed in terms of possible ecological or biomechanical factors that may influence hand preferences in different ape species. PMID:14498806

  13. Validation of a field technique and characterization of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Murray, Carson M; Heintz, Matthew R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Parr, Lisa A; Santymire, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring adrenocortical activity in wild primate populations is critical, given the well-documented relationship between stress, health, and reproduction. Although many primate studies have quantified fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, it is imperative that researchers validate their method for each species. Here, we describe and validate a technique for field extraction and storage of FGMs in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our method circumvents many of the logistical challenges associated with field studies while yielding similar results to a commonly used laboratory method. We further validate that our method accurately reflects stress physiology using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge in a captive chimpanzee and an FGM peak at parturition in a wild subject. Finally, we quantify circadian patterns for FGMs for the first time in this species. Understanding these patterns may allow researchers to directly link specific events with the stress response. PMID:22968979

  14. All great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii) and two-and-a-half-year-old children (Homo sapiens) discriminate appearance from reality.

    PubMed

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Nonhuman great apes and human children were tested for an understanding that appearance does not always correspond to reality. Subjects were 29 great apes (bonobos [Pan paniscus], chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla], and orangutans [Pongo abelii]) and 24 2½-year-old children. In our task, we occluded portions of 1 large and 1 small food stick such that the size relations seemed reversed. Subjects could then choose which one they wanted. There was 1 control condition and 2 experimental conditions (administered within subjects). In the control condition subjects saw only the apparent stick sizes, whereas in the 2 experimental conditions they saw the true stick sizes as well (the difference between them being what the subjects saw first: the apparent or the real stick sizes). All great ape species and children successfully identified the bigger stick, despite its smaller appearance, in the experimental conditions, but not in the control. We discuss these results in relation to the understanding of object permanence and conservation, and exclude reversed reward contingency learning as an explanation. PMID:25150962

  15. Maternal Behavior by Birth Order in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Increased Investment by First-Time Mothers.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Margaret A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Goodall, Jane; Murray, Carson M

    2014-08-01

    Parental investment theory predicts that maternal resources are finite and allocated among offspring based on factors including maternal age and condition, and offspring sex and parity. Among humans, firstborn children are often considered to have an advantage and receive greater investment than their younger siblings. However, conflicting evidence for this "firstborn advantage" between modern and hunter-gatherer societies raises questions about the evolutionary history of differential parental investment and birth order. In contrast to humans, most non-human primate firstborns belong to young, inexperienced mothers and exhibit higher mortality than laterborns. In this study, we investigated differences in maternal investment and offspring outcomes based on birth order (firstborn vs. later-born) among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodyte schweinfurthii). During the critical first year of life, primiparous mothers nursed, groomed, and played with their infants more than did multiparous mothers. Furthermore, this pattern of increased investment in firstborns appeared to be compensatory, as probability of survival did not differ by birth order. Our study did not find evidence for a firstborn advantage as observed in modern humans but does suggest that unlike many other primates, differences in maternal behavior help afford chimpanzee first-borns an equal chance of survival. PMID:25328164

  16. Problem solving in the presence of others: how rank and relationship quality impact resource acquisition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Cronin, Katherine A; Pieper, Bridget A; van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B M

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors. PMID:24695486

  17. Displacement behaviors in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A neurogenomics investigation of the RDoC Negative Valence Systems domain.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Young, Larry J; Hopkins, William D

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to systematically investigate genetic and neuroanatomical correlates of individual variation in scratching behaviors, a well-validated animal-behavioral indicator of negative emotional states with clear links to the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) response to potential harm ("anxiety") construct within the Negative Valence Systems domain. Utilizing data from a sample of 76 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we (a) examined the association between scratching and presence or absence of the RS3-containing DupB element in the AVPR1A 5' flanking region, (b) utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify gray matter (GM) voxel clusters that differentiated AVPR1A genotype, and (c) conducted a VBM-guided voxel-of-interest analysis to examine the association between GM intensity and scratching. AVPR1A evidenced sexually dimorphic associations with scratching. VBM analyses revealed significant differences in GM by genotype across twelve clusters largely in the frontal cortex. Regions differentiating AVPR1A genotype showed sex-specific associations with scratching. Results suggest that sexually dimorphic associations between AVPR1A and scratching may be explained by genotype-specific neuroanatomical variation. The current study provides an example of the way in which chimpanzee research is uniquely poised for multilevel, systematic investigations of psychopathology-relevant constructs within the context of the RDoC framework. PMID:26877126

  18. Problem Solving in the Presence of Others: How Rank and Relationship Quality Impact Resource Acquisition in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Pieper, Bridget A.; van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B. M.

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors. PMID:24695486

  19. Copying results and copying actions in the process of social learning: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Call, Josep; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2005-07-01

    There is currently much debate about the nature of social learning in chimpanzees. The main question is whether they can copy others' actions, as opposed to reproducing the environmental effects of these actions using their own preexisting behavioral strategies. In the current study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens) were shown different demonstrations of how to open a tube-in both cases by a conspecific. In different experimental conditions, demonstrations consisted of (1) action only (the actions necessary to open the tube without actually opening it); (2) end state only (the open tube, without showing any actions); (3) both of these components (in a full demonstration); or (4) neither of these components (in a baseline condition). In the first three conditions subjects saw one of two different ways that the tube could open (break in middle; caps off ends). Subjects' behavior in each condition was assessed for how often they opened the tube, how often they opened it in the same location as the demonstrator, and how often they copied the demonstrator's actions or style of opening the tube. Whereas chimpanzees reproduced mainly the environmental results of the demonstrations (emulation), human children often reproduced the demonstrator's actions (imitation). Because the procedure used was similar in many ways to the procedure that Meltzoff (Dev Psych 31:1, 1995) used to study the understanding of others' unfulfilled intentions, the implications of these findings with regard to chimpanzees' understanding of others' intentions are also discussed. PMID:15490290

  20. Perceived differences between chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human (Homo sapiens) facial expressions are related to emotional interpretation.

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Bard, Kim A; Vick, Sarah-Jane; Smith Pasqualini, Marcia C

    2007-11-01

    Human face perception is a finely tuned, specialized process. When comparing faces between species, therefore, it is essential to consider how people make these observational judgments. Comparing facial expressions may be particularly problematic, given that people tend to consider them categorically as emotional signals, which may affect how accurately specific details are processed. The bared-teeth display (BT), observed in most primates, has been proposed as a homologue of the human smile (J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff, 1972). In this study, judgments of similarity between BT displays of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human smiles varied in relation to perceived emotional valence. When a chimpanzee BT was interpreted as fearful, observers tended to underestimate the magnitude of the relationship between certain features (the extent of lip corner raise) and human smiles. These judgments may reflect the combined effects of categorical emotional perception, configural face processing, and perceptual organization in mental imagery and may demonstrate the advantages of using standardized observational methods in comparative facial expression research. PMID:18085923

  1. What is the role of mothers in the acquisition of termite-fishing behaviors in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)?

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the role of maternal influences on the acquisition of a tool-using task in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in order to build on and complement previous work done in captivity. Young chimpanzees show a long period of offspring dependency on mothers and it is during this period that offspring learn several important skills, especially how to and on what to forage. At Gombe National Park, one skill that is acquired during dependency is termite-fishing, a complex behavior that involves inserting a tool made from the surrounding vegetation into a termite mound and extracting the termites that attack and cling to the tool. All chimpanzees observed at Gombe have acquired the termite-fishing skill by the age of 5.5 years. Since the mother is the primary source of information throughout this time period, I investigated the influence of mothers' individual termite-fishing characteristics on their offsprings' speed of acquisition and proficiency at the skill once acquired. Mother's time spent alone or with maternal family members, which is highly correlated to time spent termite-fishing, was positively correlated to offspring's acquisition of critical elements of the skill. I also investigated the specific types of social interactions that occur between mothers and offspring at the termite mound and found that mothers are highly tolerant to offspring, even when the behavior of the offspring may disrupt the termite-fishing attempt. However, no active facilitation by mothers of offsprings' attempts were observed. PMID:16195914

  2. Three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind limbs in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human bipedal walking.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a facultative biped and our closest living relative. As such, the musculoskeletal anatomies of their pelvis and hind limbs have long provided a comparative context for studies of human and fossil hominin locomotion. Yet, how the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb actually move during bipedal walking is still not well defined. Here, we describe the three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle during bipedal walking and compare those values to humans walking at the same dimensionless and dimensional velocities. The stride-to-stride and intraspecific variations in 3-D kinematics were calculated using the adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation. Our results indicate that humans walk with a more stable pelvis than chimpanzees, especially in tilt and rotation. Both species exhibit similar magnitudes of pelvis list, but with segment motion that is opposite in phasing. In the hind limb, chimpanzees walk with a more flexed and abducted limb posture, and substantially exceed humans in the magnitude of hip rotation during a stride. The average stride-to-stride variation in joint and segment motion was greater in chimpanzees than humans, while the intraspecific variation was similar on average. These results demonstrate substantial differences between human and chimpanzee bipedal walking, in both the sagittal and non-sagittal planes. These new 3-D kinematic data are fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics, energetics and control of chimpanzee bipedalism. PMID:26194031

  3. Effects of positive reinforcement training techniques on the psychological welfare of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Ori; Terkel, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Captive environments encompass various factors that can elevate stress levels and jeopardize the wellbeing of the captive animals. The use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enables researchers and caretakers to reduce tension directly associated with potentially stressful procedures and states. The current study tested the general effect of PRT on the wellbeing of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by measuring behaviors that reflect poor and good welfare and that were not directly connected to the specific aim of the training session. The behavior of a group of twelve chimpanzees was measured throughout the day from the exhibition yard, at baseline (12 weeks) and during the PRT period (10 weeks). The results show a significant decrease in abnormal and stress-related behaviors and a significant rise in prosocial affiliative behaviors following implementation of the training program. The training was shown to have a greater positive effect on low-ranking individuals compared with high-ranking ones. This research shows for the first time that PRT offers an enrichment effect whose general influence lasts throughout the day, irrespective of any direct link to a specific trained behavior. Consequently, it can be claimed that PRT presents an effective enrichment tool that can be implemented with captive animals. Because of the above-noted differential effect between high- and low-ranking chimpanzees, however, this should be taken into consideration when combining PRT with the non-human primates' daily routine. PMID:19434627

  4. Demographic and Ecological Effects on Patterns of Parasitism in Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Thomas R.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Canfield, Elizabeth P.; Meyer, Derek J.; Nadler, Yvonne; Raphael, Jane; Pusey, Anne E.; Pond, Joel; Pauley, John; Mlengeya, Titus; Travis, Dominic A.

    2014-01-01

    From January 2006 to January 2008, we collected 1,045 fecal samples from 90 individually-recognized, free-ranging, eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting Gombe National Park, Tanzania to determine how patterns of parasitism are affected by demographic and ecological covariates. Seventeen parasite species were recovered, including eight nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Necator sp., Probstmayria gombensis, Strongyloides fulleborni, Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., Abbreviata caucasica, and an unidentified strongyle), 1 cestode (Bertiella sp.), 1 trematode (Dicrocoeliidae), and 7 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, Balantidium coli, and an unidentified protozoa). Significant differences were observed in interannual infection prevalence and parasite richness between 2006 and 2007. Intercommunity comparisons demonstrated higher prevalence of parasites for the Mitumba compared with Kasekela chimpanzee community. Prevalence of several parasites was strongly correlated with monthly rainfall patterns for both 2006 and 2007. Subadult chimpanzees had lower prevalence for most parasite species compared with adults in both years and also yielded a lower average parasite species richness. No significant differences were observed between males and females in prevalence in 2006. However, in 2007 the prevalence of S. fulleborni and I. bütschlii were higher in males than in females. Parasite prevalence and richness were substantially higher in this multiyear study compared with previous short-term studies of the gastrointestinal parasites of Gombe chimpanzees. This coupled with the significant interannual and interseasonal variation, demonstrated in this study, emphasizes the importance of multiyear monitoring with adequate sample size to effectively determine patterns of parasitism in wild primate populations. PMID:20623606

  5. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  6. Elemental variation in the termite fishing of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2011-08-23

    Chimpanzee tool behaviours vary dramatically in their complexity and extent of geographical distribution. The use of tool sets with specific design features to gather termites extends across a large portion of central Africa. Detailed examination of the composition and uniformity of such complex tool tasks has the potential to advance our understanding of the cognitive capabilities of tool users and processes underlying the maintenance of technological skills. In this study, we examined variation in chimpanzee tool use in termite gathering from video-recorded sequences that were scored to the level of functionally distinct behavioural elements. Overall, we found a high degree of similarity in tool-using techniques exhibited by individuals in this population. The number of elements in each individual's repertoire often exceeded that necessary to accomplish the task, with consistent differences in repertoire sizes between age classes. Adults and subadults had the largest repertoires and more consistently exhibited element strings than younger individuals. Larger repertoires were typically associated with incorporation of rare variants, some of which indicate flexibility and intelligence. These tool using apes aid us in understanding the evolution of technology, including that of our human ancestors, which showed a high degree of uniformity over large spatial scales. PMID:21411449

  7. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals. PMID:26483527

  8. The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees show cultural differences among populations across Africa but also between neighboring communities. The extent of these differences among neighbors, however, remains largely unknown. Comparing three neighboring chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we found 27 putative cultural traits, including tool use, foraging, social interaction, communication and hunting behavior, exceeding by far previously known diversity. As foraging behavior is predominantly influenced by the environment, we further compared in detail ecological circumstances underlying insectivore feeding behavior to analyze whether foraging differences on Dorylus ants and Thoracotermes termites seen between neighboring chimpanzee communities were caused by environmental factors. Differences in the prey characteristics of Dorylus ants (aggression level, running speed, and nest structure) that could influence the behavior of chimpanzees were excluded, suggesting that the observed group-specific variation is not ecologically driven. Only one community preyed on Thoracotermes termites despite a similar abundance of termite mounds in all three territories, supporting the idea that this difference is also not shaped by the environment. Therefore, our study suggests that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior. This behavioral plasticity, independent of ecological conditions, can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the cultural abilities of chimpanzees in the wild but also open up possible future comparisons of the origin of cultural diversification among humans and chimpanzees. PMID:25256960

  9. Morphological variation in adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Stahl, Daniel; Boesch, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Twenty five adult chimpanzee skeletons (Pan troglodytes verus) of known age and sex (15 females, 10 males) from a long-term study site in Taï National Park, Cote d'Ivoire present new data on variation. These skeletons provide a rare opportunity to measure the cranium and postcranium from the same individuals. We compare measurements and indices of the Taï sample with those of relatively complete Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii skeletons from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Measurements of Pan paniscus are included as an outside comparison. The Taï and Gombe samples are analyzed by sex; combined sex samples are compared between the two groups, and the two sexes to each other. Taï females and males do not differ in most long bone lengths or in pelvic dimensions, but do differ significantly in cranial capacity, facial measurements, clavicle length, scapular breadth, and femur length. Gombe females and males differ significantly in some facial measurements and in scapular breadth. In combined sex samples, Taï individuals have lower cranial capacity, longer palate and mandible, and greater dimensions in the trunk and limb lengths. Taï females account for most of the variation; males differ from each other only in greater length of humerus and femur. The Taï skeletons provide new data for assessing individual variation and sexual dimorphism within and between populations and species. The combination of cranial and postcranial data provides a clearer picture of chimpanzee intraspecific and interspecific variation than can be gained from either data set alone. PMID:17786999

  10. Learning from others' mistakes? limits on understanding a trap-tube task by young chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew

    2007-02-01

    A trap-tube task was used to determine whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens) who observed a model's errors and successes could master the task in fewer trials than those who saw only successes. Two- to 7-year-old chimpanzees and 3- to 4-year-old children did not benefit from observing errors and found the task difficult. Two of the 6 chimpanzees developed a successful anticipatory strategy but showed no evidence of representing the core causal relations involved in trapping. Three- to 4-year-old children showed a similar limitation and tended to copy the actions of the demonstrator, irrespective of their causal relevance. Five- to 6-year-old children were able to master the task but did not appear to be influenced by social learning or benefit from observing errors. PMID:17324071

  11. Descriptive urological record of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the wild and limitations associated with using multi-reagent dipstick test strips.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Taranjit; Huffman, Michael A

    2004-08-01

    Ten urine chemistry parameters were measured on 74 voided urine samples from 34 wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Multi-reagent urine dipstick tests were performed and results determined using colorimetric scales. Urine pH measured between 8 and 9 units in 91% of the chimpanzees. Test pads detected protein, erythrocytes, leukocyte esterase activity, and nitrites, ketones and bilirubin in 47, 32, 29, and <10% of the chimpanzees, respectively. No apparent association between positive test results for blood in adult females and reproductive status was found. Overall, 17 of the 34 chimpanzees had positive urine test results for protein, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, nitrites, ketones, and/or bilirubin. Dipstick urinalysis alone is an unreliable method for assessing health and physiological status of wild chimpanzees. However, if combined with other diagnostics it could prove to be a valuable health-monitoring tool. Limitations associated with this methodology need to be considered when interpreting urinary dipstick test results. PMID:15271068

  12. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed reward contingency task II: transfer to new quantities, long-term retention, and the impact of quantity ratios.

    PubMed

    Uher, Jana; Call, Josep

    2008-05-01

    We tested 6 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 3 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 4 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 2 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in the reversed reward contingency task. Individuals were presented with pairs of quantities ranging between 0 and 6 food items. Prior to testing, some experienced apes had solved this task using 2 quantities while others were totally naïve. Experienced apes transferred their ability to multiple-novel pairs after 6 to 19 months had elapsed since their initial testing. Two out of 6 naïve apes (1 chimpanzee, 1 bonobo) solved the task--a proportion comparable to that of a previous study using 2 pairs of quantities. Their acquisition speed was also comparable to the successful subjects from that study. The ratio between quantities explained a large portion of the variance but affected naïve and experienced individuals differently. For smaller ratios, naïve individuals were well below 50% correct and experienced ones were well above 50%, yet both groups tended to converge toward 50% for larger ratios. Thus, some apes require no procedural modifications to overcome their strong bias for selecting the larger of 2 quantities. PMID:18489236

  13. Terrestrial nest-building by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): implications for the tree-to-ground sleep transition in early hominins.

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Knapp, Leslie A

    2012-07-01

    Nest-building is a great ape universal and arboreal nesting in chimpanzees and bonobos suggests that the common ancestor of Pan and Homo also nested in trees. It has been proposed that arboreal nest-building remained the prevailing pattern until Homo erectus, a fully terrestrial biped, emerged. We investigated the unusual occurrence of ground-nesting in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), which may inform on factors influencing the tree-to-ground sleep transition in the hominin lineage. We used a novel genetic approach to examine ground-nesting in unhabituated chimpanzees at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea. Previous research showed that ground-nesting at Seringbara was not ecologically determined. Here, we tested a possible mate-guarding function of ground-nesting by analyzing DNA from shed hairs collected from ground nests and tree nests found in close proximity. We examined whether or not ground-nesting was a group-level behavioral pattern and whether or not it occurred in more than one community. We used multiple genetic markers to identify sex and to examine variation in mitochondrial DNA control region (HV1, HV2) sequences. Ground-nesting was a male-biased behavior and males constructed more elaborate ("night") nests than simple ("day") nests on the ground. The mate-guarding hypothesis was not supported, as ground and associated tree nests were built either by maternally-related males or possibly by the same individuals. Ground-nesting was widespread and likely habitual in two communities. We suggest that terrestrial nest-building may have already occurred in arboreally-adapted early hominins before the emergence of H. erectus. PMID:22460549

  14. Fecal microbial diversity and putative function in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong).

    PubMed

    McKenney, Erin A; Ashwell, Melissa; Lambert, Joanna E; Fellner, Vivek

    2014-11-01

    Microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract contribute to host health and nutrition. Although gut microbial ecology is well studied in livestock and domestic animals, little is known of the endogenous populations inhabiting primates or carnivora. We characterized microbial populations in fecal cultures from gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong) to compare the microbiomes associated with different gastrointestinal morphologies and different omnivorous feeding strategies. Each species was fed a distinct standardized diet for 2 weeks prior to fecal collection. All diets were formulated to reflect the species' feeding strategies in situ. Fresh fecal samples were pooled within species and used to inoculate in vitro batch cultures. Acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were measured after 24 h of incubation. Eubacterial DNA was extracted from individual fecal samples, pooled, and the cpn60 gene region was amplified and then sequenced to identify the major eubacterial constituents associated with each host species. Short chain fatty acids (P < 0.001) and methane (P < 0.001) were significantly different across species. Eubacterial profiles were consistent with fermentation data and suggest an increase in diversity with dietary fiber. PMID:25236539

  15. New evidence on the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a savannah habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal

    PubMed Central

    Pruetz, J. D.; Bertolani, P.; Ontl, K. Boyer; Lindshield, S.; Shelley, M.; Wessling, E. G.

    2015-01-01

    For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known non-human population that systematically hunts vertebrate prey with tools, making them an important source for hypotheses of early hominin behaviour based on analogy. Here, we test the hypothesis that sex and age patterns in tool-assisted hunting (n=308 cases) at Fongoli occur and differ from chimpanzees elsewhere, and we compare tool-assisted hunting to the overall hunting pattern. Males accounted for 70% of all captures but hunted with tools less than expected based on their representation on hunting days. Females accounted for most tool-assisted hunting. We propose that social tolerance at Fongoli, along with the tool-assisted hunting method, permits individuals other than adult males to capture and retain control of prey, which is uncommon for chimpanzees. We assert that tool-assisted hunting could have similarly been important for early hominins. PMID:26064638

  16. Use of an Implantable Loop Recorder in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) to Monitor Cardiac Arrhythmias and Assess the Effects of Acupuncture and Laser Therapy.

    PubMed

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Sleeper, Meg M; Buchl, Stephanie J; Jones, Rebekah A; Thiele, Erica J; Wilkerson, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in captive chimpanzees and is often associated with myocardial fibrosis, which increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In this case report, we present a 36-y-old male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) diagnosed with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPC). We placed a subcutaneous implantable loop recorder for continual ECG monitoring to assess his arrhythmias without the confounding effects of anesthetics. During his initial treatment with the antiarrhythmia medication amiodarone, he developed thrombocytopenia, and the drug was discontinued. After reviewing other potential therapies for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, we elected to try acupuncture and laser therapy in view of the positive results and the lack of adverse side effects reported in humans. We used 2 well-known cardiac acupuncture sites on the wrist, PC6 (pericardium 6) and HT7 (heart 7), and evaluated the results of the therapy by using the ECG recordings from the implantable loop recorder. Although periodic increases in the animal's excitement level introduced confounding variables that caused some variation in the data, acupuncture and laser therapy appeared to decrease the mean number of VPC/min in this chimpanzee. PMID:26884410

  17. Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pongo abelii) versus corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) in a support task: the effect of pattern and functionality.

    PubMed

    Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Bugnyar, Thomas; Call, Josep

    2012-11-01

    Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pong abelii) and corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) are among the most proficient and flexible tool users in the animal kingdom. Although it has been proposed that this is the result of convergent evolution, little is known about whether this is limited to behavior or also includes the underlying cognitive mechanisms. We compared several species of apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) and corvids (carrion crows and common ravens) using exactly the same paradigm: a support task with elements from the classical patterned-string tasks. Corvids proved able to solve at least an easy pattern, whereas apes outperformed corvids with respect to the complexity of the patterns solved, the relative number of subjects solving each problem, and the speed to reach criterion. We addressed the question of whether subjects based their choices purely on perceptual cues or on a more abstract understanding of the problem. This was done by using a perceptually very similar but causally different condition where instead of paper strips there were strip shapes painted on a platform. Corvids' performance did not differ between conditions, whereas apes were able to solve the real but not the painted task. This shows that apes were not basing their choices just on spatial or arbitrary perceptual cues. Instead, and unlike corvids, they must have had some causal knowledge of the task. PMID:22545765

  18. Delay of gratification is associated with white matter connectivity in the dorsal prefrontal cortex: a diffusion tensor imaging study in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Individual variability in delay of gratification (DG) is associated with a number of important outcomes in both non-human and human primates. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), this study describes the relationship between probabilistic estimates of white matter tracts projecting from the caudate to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and DG abilities in a sample of 49 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After accounting for time between collection of DTI scans and DG measurement, age and sex, higher white matter connectivity between the caudate and right dorsal PFC was found to be significantly associated with the acquisition (i.e. training phase) but not the maintenance of DG abilities. No other associations were found to be significant. The integrity of white matter connectivity between regions of the striatum and the PFC appear to be associated with inhibitory control in chimpanzees, with perturbations on this circuit potentially leading to a variety of maladaptive outcomes. Additionally, results have potential translational implications for understanding the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric and clinical outcomes in humans. PMID:26041344

  19. New evidence on the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a savannah habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, J D; Bertolani, P; Ontl, K Boyer; Lindshield, S; Shelley, M; Wessling, E G

    2015-04-01

    For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known non-human population that systematically hunts vertebrate prey with tools, making them an important source for hypotheses of early hominin behaviour based on analogy. Here, we test the hypothesis that sex and age patterns in tool-assisted hunting (n=308 cases) at Fongoli occur and differ from chimpanzees elsewhere, and we compare tool-assisted hunting to the overall hunting pattern. Males accounted for 70% of all captures but hunted with tools less than expected based on their representation on hunting days. Females accounted for most tool-assisted hunting. We propose that social tolerance at Fongoli, along with the tool-assisted hunting method, permits individuals other than adult males to capture and retain control of prey, which is uncommon for chimpanzees. We assert that tool-assisted hunting could have similarly been important for early hominins. PMID:26064638

  20. Brief communication: Reaction to fire by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: Conceptualization of "fire behavior" and the case for a chimpanzee model.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, Jill D; LaDuke, Thomas C

    2010-04-01

    The use and control of fire are uniquely human traits thought to have come about fairly late in the evolution of our lineage, and they are hypothesized to correlate with an increase in intellectual complexity. Given the relatively sophisticated cognitive abilities yet small brain size of living apes compared to humans and even early hominins, observations of wild chimpanzees' reactions to naturally occurring fire can help inform hypotheses about the likely responses of early hominins to fire. We use data on the behavior of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal during two encounters with wildfires to illuminate the similarities between great apes and humans regarding their reaction to fire. Chimpanzees' close relatedness to our lineage makes them phylogenetically relevant to the study of hominid evolution, and the open, hot and dry environment at Fongoli, similar to the savanna mosaic thought to characterize much of hominid evolution, makes these apes ecologically important as a living primate model as well. Chimpanzees at Fongoli calmly monitor wildfires and change their behavior in anticipation of the fire's movement. The ability to conceptualize the "behavior" of fire may be a synapomorphic trait characterizing the human-chimpanzee clade. If the cognitive underpinnings of fire conceptualization are a primitive hominid trait, hypotheses concerning the origins of the control and use of fire may need revision. We argue that our findings exemplify the importance of using living chimpanzees as models for better understanding human evolution despite recently published suggestions to the contrary. PMID:20027607

  1. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use.

    PubMed

    Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena

    2008-10-01

    Planning for future needs has traditionally been considered to be restricted to human cognition. Although recent studies on great ape and corvid cognition challenge this belief, the phylogenesis of human planning remains largely unknown. The complex skill for future planning has not yet been satisfactorily established in any other extant primate species than our own. In humans, planning for future needs rely heavily on two overarching capacities, both of which lie at the heart of our cognition: self-control, often defined as the suppression of immediate drives in favor of delayed rewards, and mental time travel, which could be described as a detached mental experience of a past or future event. Future planning is linked to additional high complexity cognition such as metacognition and a consciousness usually not attributed to animals. In a series of four experiments based on tool use, we demonstrate that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) override immediate drives in favor of future needs, and they do not merely rely on associative learning or semantic prospection when confronted with a planning task. These results suggest that great apes engage in planning for the future by out competing current drives and mentally pre-experiencing an upcoming event. This suggests that the advanced mental capacities utilized in human future planning are shared by phylogenetically more ancient species than previously believed. PMID:18553113

  2. Using cross correlations to investigate how chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use conspecific gaze cues to extract and exploit information in a foraging competition

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katie; Oram, Mike W.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Byrne, Richard W.; de Waal, Frans B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In a dyadic informed forager task, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are known to exploit the knowledge of informed subordinates; however, the behavioral mechanisms they employ are unknown. It is tempting to interpret outcome measures, such as which individual obtained the food, in a cognitively richer way than the outcomes may justify. We employed a different approach from prior research, asking how chimpanzees compete by maneuvering around each other, whether they use gaze cues to acquire information from others, and what information they use in moment-to-moment decision-making. We used cross correlations, which plot the correlation between two variables as a function of time, systematically to examine chimpanzee interactions in a series of dyadic informed forager contests. We used cross correlations as a “proof of concept” so as to determine whether the target actions were contingent on, or occurred in a time-locked pattern relative to, the referent actions. A subordinate individual was given privileged knowledge of food location. As expected, an ignorant dominant followed the informed subordinate’s movement in the enclosure. The dominant also followed the subordinate’s gaze direction: after she looked at the subordinate, she was more likely to gaze towards this same direction within one second. In contrast, the subordinate only occasionally followed the dominant’s movement and gaze. The dominant also changed her own direction of movement to converge on the location to which the subordinate directed her gaze and movement. Cross correlation proves an effective technique for charting contingencies in social interactions, an important step in understanding the use of cognition in natural situations. PMID:24710756

  3. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  4. A thermodynamic comparison of arboreal and terrestrial sleeping sites for dry-habitat chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Samson, David R; Hunt, Kevin D

    2012-09-01

    The nightly construction of an arboreal sleeping platform (SP) has been observed among every chimpanzee's population studied to date. Here, we report on bioclimatic aspects of SP site choice among dry-habitat chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda. We placed a portable weather monitor within 1 m of chimpanzee SPs and compared the microenvironment of this site with terrestrial monitors placed 10 cm above the ground directly underneath the simultaneously studied SP. We calculated physical "comfort levels" of monitored sites using the RayMan thermophysiological model that we modified to take ape body proportions into account. The RayMan tool gauges energy balance using wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and heat index in conjunction with the study subject's mass and stature to determine whether the individual is in energy balance or homeostasis. We found that (1) terrestrial microclimates have greater homeostatic potential than arboreal microclimates, and (2) there is a significant positive linear relationship between wind speed and height of SP in the forest canopy. Advantages of terrestrial sites are that they require lesser energetic expenditure to stabilize the body when the SP is under construction and perhaps during use as well. We found that terrestrial sites also had better homeostatic potentials. This combination of advantages explains why SPs are so often sited terrestrially in habitats where predation risk is low. Early hominins must have had technological or social measures to avoid or deter predators that were significantly advanced over those found among chimpanzees before they began sleeping on the ground. PMID:22553185

  5. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Produce the Same Types of ‘Laugh Faces’ when They Emit Laughter and when They Are Silent

    PubMed Central

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Jesus, Goncalo; Osborne, Jade; Bard, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly produce facial expressions and vocalizations has a strong impact on the way humans communicate, as it promotes more explicit and versatile forms of communication. Whereas facial expressions and vocalizations are unarguably closely linked in primates, the extent to which these expressions can be produced independently in nonhuman primates is unknown. The present work, thus, examined if chimpanzees produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations, as do humans. Forty-six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were video-recorded during spontaneous play with conspecifics at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. ChimpFACS was applied, a standardized coding system to measure chimpanzee facial movements, based on FACS developed for humans. Data showed that the chimpanzees produced the same 14 configurations of open-mouth faces when laugh sounds were present and when they were absent. Chimpanzees, thus, produce these facial expressions flexibly without being morphologically constrained by the accompanying vocalizations. Furthermore, the data indicated that the facial expression plus vocalization and the facial expression alone were used differently in social play, i.e., when in physical contact with the playmates and when matching the playmates’ open-mouth faces. These findings provide empirical evidence that chimpanzees produce distinctive facial expressions independently from a vocalization, and that their multimodal use affects communicative meaning, important traits for a more explicit and versatile way of communication. As it is still uncertain how human laugh faces evolved, the ChimpFACS data were also used to empirically examine the evolutionary relation between open-mouth faces with laugh sounds of chimpanzees and laugh faces of humans. The ChimpFACS results revealed that laugh faces of humans must have gradually emerged from laughing open-mouth faces of ancestral apes. This work examines the main evolutionary

  6. Using cross correlations to investigate how chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use conspecific gaze cues to extract and exploit information in a foraging competition.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katie; Oram, Mike W; Campbell, Matthew W; Eppley, Timothy M; Byrne, Richard W; De Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-01

    In a dyadic informed forager task, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are known to exploit the knowledge of informed subordinates; however, the behavioral mechanisms they employ are unknown. It is tempting to interpret outcome measures, such as which individual obtained the food, in a cognitively richer way than the outcomes may justify. We employed a different approach from prior research, asking how chimpanzees compete by maneuvering around each other, whether they use gaze cues to acquire information from others, and what information they use in moment-to-moment decision-making. We used cross correlations, which plot the correlation between two variables as a function of time, systematically to examine chimpanzee interactions in a series of dyadic informed forager contests. We used cross correlations as a "proof of concept" so as to determine whether the target actions were contingent on, or occurred in a time-locked pattern relative to, the referent actions. A subordinate individual was given privileged knowledge of food location. As expected, an ignorant dominant followed the informed subordinate's movement in the enclosure. The dominant also followed the subordinate's gaze direction: after she looked at the subordinate, she was more likely to gaze toward this same direction within one second. In contrast, the subordinate only occasionally followed the dominant's movement and gaze. The dominant also changed her own direction of movement to converge on the location to which the subordinate directed her gaze and movement. Cross correlation proves an effective technique for charting contingencies in social interactions, an important step in understanding the use of cognition in natural situations. PMID:24710756

  7. Black Americans, Africa and History: A Reassessment of the Pan-African and Identity Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeleke, Tunde

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…

  8. Discovering Africa through Internet-Based Geographic Information Systems: A Pan-African Summit Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Earle, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, people get very little news about Africa, and what news they do get is about war or famine, with little historical information or context. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented a Pan-African Summit simulation project in order to give their approximately 100, 9th-grade students (in five World…

  9. A new Pan African polyspecific antivenom developed in response to the antivenom crisis in Africa.

    PubMed

    Laing, G D; Renjifo, J M; Ruiz, F; Harrison, R A; Nasidi, A; Gutierrez, J-M; Rowley, P D; Warrell, D A; Theakston, R D G

    2003-07-01

    Currently there is a crisis in the supply of antivenom for treatment of snake bite in sub-Saharan Africa. Commercial pressures have resulted in the reduction or even cessation of production of antivenom by European manufacturers while continued production of antivenom in Africa has been threatened by the privatisation of the only remaining company based in Africa. As a consequence, there has been an increase in snake bite morbidity and mortality in many African countries. Two Latin American antivenom manufacturers have agreed to produce antivenom suitable for Africa, using venoms from the species which are of the greatest medical importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Preclinical in vivo assays of neutralising potency demonstrated that a new Pan African antivenom produced in Colombia compared favourably with the existing commercial monospecific and polyspecific antivenoms. This new antivenom, and a similar product being manufactured in Costa Rica, are now candidates for clinical testing at an appropriate site in Africa. PMID:12893059

  10. Alpine turf exfoliation pans in Lesotho, southern Africa: Climate-process-morphological linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grab, Stefan W.

    2010-01-01

    Although alpine pans have been reported from a variety of mountain regions, these have received limited research attention and are thus amongst the least known of 'closed basins'. This study investigates macro- and fine-scale morphological attributes and the process dynamics of alpine turf exfoliation pans in the high Drakensberg of Lesotho, southern Africa. Climate data (temperature, precipitation and wind) are used to better ascertain climate-surface process linkages and how these may be associated with the observed morphological phenomena. Thirty pans were assessed for both macro- and fine-scale aspect-controlled morphological attributes. During 2005, Tinytag™ temperature loggers recorded ground temperatures on various pan riser aspects to establish the potential for cryogenic activity. Similarly, wind speed and direction data from 2001 were used to identify the potential role of wind as an erosion and transportation mechanism. The number and total weight of detached turf clumps accumulated at the base of various pan riser aspects were determined in July 1999, September 2001 and September 2004. It is suggested that the pans originated through initial turf disruption by animal trampling and turf burning, followed by the cryogenic up-heave of sediments. The pans typically elongate towards the southeast as they enlarge, demonstrate most active erosion on eastern and southeastern riser aspects, and host seasonal micro-echo and micro-climbing dunes along such riser aspects. It is concluded that an annual cyclic (seasonal) pattern of contemporary climate-driven geomorphic processes, dominated by strong northwesterly winds, control the fine-scale morphological evolution of alpine turf exfoliation pans in the Lesotho highlands.

  11. Uranium-series dating of lacustrine limestones from pan deposits with final Acheulian assemblage at Rooidam, Kimberley district, South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Butzer, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    Lacustrine limestone samples from sedimentary pan deposits at Rooidam, near Kimberley, South Africa, that contain late Acheulian (Fauresmith) artifacts have been dated by 230Th 234U and 231Pa 235U methods. Results indicate a minimum age of about 200,000 yr B.P. for the terminal Acheulian in the interior of South Africa. ?? 1979.

  12. Present and past microbial life in continental salt pan sediments in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genderjahn, Steffi; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Alawi, Mashal; Kallmeyer, Jens; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The southwestern African region is characterized by strong climate variability. To get a better understanding on the climate evolution and environmental condition in Namibia and South Africa, terrestrial climate archives are investigated. Since there are almost no lakes, continental salt pans represent the only terrestrial geoarchives with the potential to preserve climate signals during sediment deposition. Climate has a strong impact on the salt pan ecosystem, causing adaptation of salt pan microorganisms to varying temperature, precipitation and salinity conditions. To reconstruct climate variability during the Holocene, the composition, diversity and abundance of indigenous microbial communities with depth and related to different soil parameters are investigated. We are using a combined approach of microbiological and lipid biomarker analyses to demonstrate the response of the microbial communities due to environmental changes. For microbiological analyses outcrops were conducted or short cores (0-100 cm) were drilled at four different salt pans in Aminuis, Koes and Witpan region having rather different geochemical properties. The current work focused on changes within the microbial communities due to the impact of long-term climate variation and the associated environmental changes and is part of the project 'Signals of climate and landscape change preserved in southern African GeoArchives' in the scope of the SPACES program, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). For a quantitative characterization of microbial communities molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) based on the 16S rRNA genes are used. Moreover, 454 sequencing technique is utilized to describe the diversity and abundance of microorganisms in detail. Soil parameters are described by standard soil scientific methods. Furthermore, microbial lipid biomarker analyses were done to characterize living

  13. Social influences on ant-dipping acquisition in the wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Humle, Tatyana; Snowdon, Charles T; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    We currently have little understanding of the influence of learning opportunity, whether social or environmental, and maternal role on tool-use acquisition in young wild chimpanzees. This study aims to fill this gap by focusing on the acquisition of ant-dipping among chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea. Ant-dipping is a hazardous tool-use behaviour aimed at army ants (Dorylus spp.). Bossou chimpanzees target these ants both at nests (high risk) and trails (low risk) and employ two techniques to consume them: direct mouthing and pull-through. We present data for 13 mother-offspring pairs (1-10 years old). Mothers with young < or =5 years old dipped significantly more often at trails than at nests, thus minimizing the risk posed to themselves and their young. Infants thus benefited from better conditions to observe and practice ant-dipping. Mothers also varied greatly in their percent time spent ant-dipping and offspring differed in their learning opportunity. Our results suggest that high opportunity young started to observe and perform ant-dipping sooner and were better at ant-dipping than low opportunity young. Although mothers and weaned offspring correlated positively in their percent time spent dipping and proficiency, they did not match in technique used or tool length. Finally, we propose that the learning trajectory of young may predict individual and sex differences in adulthood. This study demonstrates the important role of mothers and learning opportunity in the acquisition of a hazardous tool-use behaviour and suggests that chimpanzee material culture is a product of a complex interaction between social processes and ecological factors. PMID:19685087

  14. Pan-Africanism, the Mystique of World Black Unity: An Afro-American Scholar's Sojourn in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author explores the ideology of Pan-Africanism in terms of the social and economic position of Blacks in the United States. He briefly describes his visit to Africa (Senegal and Nigeria) and the effects that this experience has had in forming his political viewpoint. (MC)

  15. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee

  16. Making Space for Permanent Molars in Growing Baboon (Papio anubis) and Great Ape (Pan paniscus and P. troglodytes) Mandibles: Possible Ontogenetic Strategies and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Boughner, Julia C.

    2011-01-01

    While mandible proportions do not appear to constrain permanent molar initiation times, how adequate space is created in the corpus for these teeth in a timely way is not well understood. This question is important for explaining how primate tooth and jaw development and evolution are coordinated. Landmark and linear measurement data were used to characterize mandible shape, growth trajectory, and growth rate between two genera, Papio and Pan, with contrasting permanent molar initiation schedules and mandible proportions. 3D geometric morphometric and 2D bivariate analyses showed genus-level differences in mandible morphology from birth that were amplified by different postnatal growth trajectories. Different corpus proportions and regional variation in corpus growth rates helped create space in a timely way for the molars. Regional corpus growth rates may evolve alongside permanent molar morphology and developmental timing to modify space available in the corpus for these teeth. PMID:22567294

  17. First records of tool-set use for ant-dipping by Eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females. PMID:26243503

  18. Invention and modification of a new tool use behavior: ant-fishing in trees by a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Yamakoshi, Gen; Humle, Tatyana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    Wild chimpanzees are known to have a different repertoire of tool use unique to each community. For example, "ant-dipping" is a tool use behavior known in several chimpanzee communities across Africa targeted at driver ants (Dorylus spp.) on the ground, whereas "ant-fishing," which is aimed at carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) in trees, has primarily been observed among the chimpanzees of Mahale in Tanzania. Although the evidence for differences between field sites is accumulating, we have little knowledge on how these tool use behaviors appear at each site and on how these are modified over time. This study reports two"ant-fishing" sessions which occurred 2 years apart by a young male chimpanzee at Bossou, Guinea. Ant-fishing had never been observed before in this community over the past 27 years. During the first session, at the age of 5, he employed wands of similar length when ant-fishing in trees to those used for ant-dipping on the ground, which is a customary tool use behavior of this community. Two years later, at the age of 7, his tools for ant-fishing were shorter and more suitable for capturing carpenter ants. This observation is a rare example of innovation in the wild and does provide insights into problem-solving and learning processes in chimpanzees. PMID:18459112

  19. H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Alami, Raouf; Benkahla, Alia; Brandful, James; Doumbia, Seydou; Everett, Dean; Fadlelmola, Faisal M.; Gaboun, Fatima; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Ghazal, Hassan; Hazelhurst, Scott; Hide, Winston; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Jaufeerally Fakim, Yasmina; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Joubert, Fourie; Kassim, Samar; Kayondo, Jonathan; Kumuthini, Judit; Lyantagaye, Sylvester; Makani, Julie; Mansour Alzohairy, Ahmed; Masiga, Daniel; Moussa, Ahmed; Nash, Oyekanmi; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Panji, Sumir; Patterton, Hugh; Radouani, Fouzia; Sadki, Khalid; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki; Ulenga, Nzovu

    2016-01-01

    The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet. PMID:26627985

  20. H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Alami, Raouf; Benkahla, Alia; Brandful, James; Doumbia, Seydou; Everett, Dean; Fadlelmola, Faisal M; Gaboun, Fatima; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Ghazal, Hassan; Hazelhurst, Scott; Hide, Winston; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Jaufeerally Fakim, Yasmina; Jongeneel, C Victor; Joubert, Fourie; Kassim, Samar; Kayondo, Jonathan; Kumuthini, Judit; Lyantagaye, Sylvester; Makani, Julie; Mansour Alzohairy, Ahmed; Masiga, Daniel; Moussa, Ahmed; Nash, Oyekanmi; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Panji, Sumir; Patterton, Hugh; Radouani, Fouzia; Sadki, Khalid; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki; Ulenga, Nzovu

    2016-02-01

    The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet. PMID:26627985

  1. Chimpanzee Malaria Parasites Related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Linda; Nerrienet, Eric; Rousset, Dominique; Sadeuh Mba, Serge Alain; Houze, Sandrine; Fourment, Mathieu; Le Bras, Jacques; Robert, Vincent; Ariey, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes. PMID:19436742

  2. Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

  3. Chimpanzees' constructional praxis (Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Potì, Patrizia

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated chimpanzees' spontaneous spatial constructions with objects and especially their ability to repeat inter-object spatial relations, which is basic to understanding spatial relations at a higher level than perception or recognition. Subjects were six chimpanzees-four chimpanzees and two bonobos-aged 6-21 years, all raised in a human environment from an early age. Only minor species differences, but considerable individual differences were found. The effect of different object samples was assessed through a comparison with a previous study. A common overall chimpanzee pattern was also found. Chimpanzees repeated different types of inter-object spatial relations such as insertion (I), or vertical (V), or next-to (H) relations. However chimpanzees repeated I or V relations with more advanced procedures than when repeating H relations. Moreover, chimpanzees never repeated combined HV relations. Compared with children, chimpanzees showed a specific difficulty in repeating H relations. Repeating H relations is crucial for representing and understanding multiple reciprocal spatial relations between detached elements and for coordinating independent positions in space. Therefore, the chimpanzees' difficulty indicates a fundamental difference in constructive space in comparison to humans. The findings are discussed in relation to issues of spatial cognition and tool use. PMID:15378424

  4. Symbolic communication between two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Rumbaugh, D M; Boysen, S

    1978-08-18

    Through use of learned symbols, two chimpanzees accurately specified 11 foods by name to one another when the food item's identity was known by only one. They could not do this when denied use of the symbols. The chimpanzees then spontaneously requested specific foods of one another by name. Requests resulted in cooperative and reciprocal symbolically mediated food exchange. PMID:675251

  5. The Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON): A unified approach to eliminating canine rabies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, T P; Coetzer, A; de Balogh, K; Wright, N; Nel, L H

    2015-12-01

    Even though Africa has the highest per capita death rate from rabies of any continent, and the disease is almost entirely transmitted by the bites of rabid dogs, there has been no coordinated pan-African approach to controlling canine rabies. In order to attain an inclusive and unified network, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON) was established in 2014. By following the 'One Health' concept, which involves close coordination between animal and human health sectors across national, regional and continental levels, PARACON will provide a platform to facilitate and promote coordinated and sustainable control strategies and programmes. Meetings will take place at regular intervals and will be centred on the involvement by key focal persons from the medical and veterinary sectors. The inaugural meeting was held in South Africa in June, 2015 and was focused around interactive discussions and workshops, whilst updating country representatives on the tools available to aid them in developing and implementing sustainable rabies intervention strategies. Experts from various global organizations, institutions and industry participated in the discussions and shared their experience and expertise. The workshops focused on the latest format of the Rabies Blueprint platform (www.rabiesblueprint.com), which in the broadest sense assists with control and elimination campaigns, including educational and advocacy drives, improvement of surveillance and diagnosis and the systematic monitoring of progress. Together with the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination, the Blueprint is a planning tool to help countries free themselves from canine-transmitted rabies. PMID:26545712

  6. Microbial life in continental salt pan sediments and their response to climate variability in Northern South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genderjahn, Steffi; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Alawi, Mashal; Belz, Lukas; Kallmeyer, Jens; Wagner, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The environmental history of southwestern African mainland is largely unknown. Since there are no lacustrine systems with constant water coverage in this area, we investigated a continental salt pan as a terrestrial geoarchive with the potential to preserve climate signals. Within the frame of the research project "GeoArchives" (part of the SPACES program, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, BMBF) we aimed to reconstruct climate variabilities during the late Pleistocene to Holocene. The presented study is focused on variations within the microbial community structure and abundance of key organisms in a salt pan with special regards to sediment age and geochemical parameters. A combined approach of a 16S rDNA-based quantification method and lipid biomarker analysis was used to demonstrate the response of the microbial communities with respect to environmental changes. The phospholipid derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in sedimentary deposits are characteristic markers for living Bacteria, whereby their side chain represents a fingerprint of the community structure on a broad taxonomic level. Archaeol and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs) were used as characteristic makers for Archaea whereas branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) are typical biomarkers for Bacteria. In contrast to PLFAs, they represent dead microbial biomass and thus the past microbial communities in older sediments, since they are already partly degraded. Samples from the Witpan, located in the northwest of South Africa and representing a depths profile from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene, were gathered. Despite the extreme environment with rather low TOC values, restricted availability of water and high salt concentration markers for Bacteria and Archaea were observed. A series of saturated, branched and unsaturated PLFAs were identified. The diversity and concentration of PLFAs were highest in the top layers (up to 30000 ng gsed‑1, 0-10 cm) and characteristic

  7. Mapping Extensional Structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans, Botswana with remote sensing and aeromagnetic data: Implication for the continuation of the East African Rift System in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetkovich, E. J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Katumwehe, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data to map extensional structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans in northeastern Botswana. These pans are a major morphological feature in Southern Africa characterized by the presence of low lying and flat topography with the highest elevation of 945 m. This topography was a result of multiple filling and desiccation of paleo-lakes that accompanied alternation of wetter and dryer climate during the Late Quaternary period. The objective of our study was to map the extent and distribution of normal faults using their morphological expression and magnetic signature, and examine their relationship with paleo-shorelines of the pans. We: (1) Created a hill shade relief map from the SRTM DEM; (2) Extracted regional NW-SE trending topographic profiles across the pans; (3) Constructed displacement profiles for major normal faults; and (4) Created tilt derivative images from the aeromagnetic data. We found that: (1) The northeastern part of the pan is dissected by three morphologically-defined NE-trending normal faults. The along strike continuity of these faults is in the range of 75 and 170 km and they are spaced at ~30 km apart from each other. (2) The topographic profiles suggest that the exposed minimum vertical displacement (EMVD), defined by poorly developed escarpments, is in the range of 0 m and 49 m. (3) The displacement profiles of the faults is characterized by maximum EMVD in the middle of the faults and that it decays towards the fault tips. These faults are also apparent in the aeromagnetic maps where they seem to displace E-W trending Karoo-age dikes. (4) At least the outer paleo-shoreline of the pans is modified by the NE-trending faults. This suggests that the faults are younger than the paleo-shorelines, which is suggested to have been developed between 500 and 100 ka. Traditionally, the southwestern extension of the East African Rift System has been assigned to the

  8. Magmatic and related mineral deposits of the Pan-African Saldania belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozendaal, A.; Scheepers, R.

    1995-07-01

    Mineral deposits and prospects of the Pan-African Saldania orogenic belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, are reviewed. The polyphase, deformed, low-grade metamorphosed, volcano-sedimentary Malmesbury Group constitutes a complex, poorly understood supracrustal sequence that has been loosely subdivided into the Tygerberg, Swartland and Boland tectono-stratigraphic terranes on the basis of NW-trending fault zones. Syn- and post-tectonic granitoids of the Cape Granite Suite selectively intruded these terranes. Early S-types preferred the Tygerberg terrane, whereas the later I-types dominate the remaining areas. Anorogenic A-type granites, however, occur in all three terranes. Despite the absence of operating base or precious metal mines in the area, this study has established at least four metal associations directly or indirectly related to the intrusions: i) Cassiterite-wolframite (±Au, Cu, Mo, Zn, As, Fe-sulphides) in quartz and quartz/aplite veins hosted by tour-malinized and locally greissenized S-type granite. Similar exo-granitic veins occur in proximal metamorphites; ii) Juxtaposed, disseminated, stockwork breccia and vein style CuMoFe(Au)-sulphide mineralization hosted by mafic- to intermediate-intrusions of high-K calc-alkaline, I-type affinity; iii) CuMoAu-sulphides hosted by hydraulic breccia pipes, stocks and veins occurring in anorogenic A-type alkali feldspar granites and amphibole quartz syenites; iv) Scheelite with minor CuMoAu-sulphides associated with endo- and exo-skams spatially related to I-type monzogranite, granite and alkali feldspar granite. The first three associations occur along the Yzerfontein-Helderberg-zone, a 180 km lineament in the Tygerberg terrane, exploited by syn-, late- and post-tectonic intrusions and their related mineralization. The fourth association is typical of the Boland terrane. The spatial and temporal relationships among the various metal associations are interpreted as the result of

  9. Peter Pan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storr, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Offers a contemporary view of J. M. Barrie's life and his classic story, "Peter Pan." Suggests that "Peter Pan" does not really speak for today's children and that the time for Peter Pan's retirement has come. (PRA)

  10. How did bonobos come to range south of the congo river? Reconsideration of the divergence of Pan paniscus from other Pan populations.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    While investigating the genetic structure in wild bonobos,(1) we realized that the widely accepted scenario positing that the Pleistocene appearance of the Congo River separated the common ancestor of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) into two species is not supported by recent geographical knowledge about the formation of the Congo River. We explored the origin of bonobos using a broader biogeographical perspective by examining local faunas in the central African region. The submarine Congo River sediments and paleotopography of central Africa show that the Congo River has functioned as a geographical barrier for the last 34 million years. This evidence allows us to hypothesize that when the river was first formed, the ancestor of bonobos did not inhabit the current range of the species on the left bank of the Congo River but that, during rare times when the Congo River discharge decreased during the Pleistocene, one or more founder populations of ancestral Pan paniscus crossed the river to its left bank. The proposed scenario for formation of the Congo River and the corridor hypothesis for an ancestral bonobo population is key to understanding the distribution of great apes and their evolution. PMID:26478139

  11. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces--but not monkey faces--efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model. PMID:26180944

  12. Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

    PubMed Central

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102

  13. Group Differences in the Mutual Gaze of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bard, Kim A.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Costall, Alan; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    A comparative developmental framework was used to determine whether mutual gaze is unique to humans and, if not, whether common mechanisms support the development of mutual gaze in chimpanzees and humans. Mother-infant chimpanzees engaged in approximately 17 instances of mutual gaze per hour. Mutual gaze occurred in positive, nonagonistic…

  14. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces-but not monkey faces-efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model. PMID:26180944

  15. Development of Face Recognition in Infant Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.; Yamaguchi, M.K.; Tomonaga, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed the developmental changes in face recognition by three infant chimpanzees aged 1-18 weeks, using preferential-looking procedures that measured the infants' eye- and head-tracking of moving stimuli. In Experiment 1, we prepared photographs of the mother of each infant and an ''average'' chimpanzee face using…

  16. Chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) strategic helping in a collaborative task.

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-04-23

    Many animal species cooperate, but the underlying proximate mechanisms are often unclear. We presented chimpanzees with a mutualistic collaborative food-retrieval task requiring complementary roles, and tested subjects' ability to help their partner perform her role. For each role, subjects required a different tool, and the tools were not interchangeable. We gave one individual in each dyad both tools, and measured subjects' willingness to transfer a tool to their partner as well as which tool (correct versus incorrect) they transferred. Most subjects helped their partner and transferred the tool the partner needed. Thus, chimpanzees not only coordinate different roles, but they also know which particular action the partner needs to perform. These results add to previous findings suggesting that many of chimpanzees' limitations in collaboration are, perhaps, more motivational than cognitive. PMID:23426915

  17. Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, Jill D; Bertolani, Paco

    2007-03-01

    Although tool use is known to occur in species ranging from naked mole rats [1] to owls [2], chimpanzees are the most accomplished tool users [3-5]. The modification and use of tools during hunting, however, is still considered to be a uniquely human trait among primates. Here, we report the first account of habitual tool use during vertebrate hunting by nonhumans. At the Fongoli site in Senegal, we observed ten different chimpanzees use tools to hunt prosimian prey in 22 bouts. This includes immature chimpanzees and females, members of age-sex classes not normally characterized by extensive hunting behavior. Chimpanzees made 26 different tools, and we were able to recover and analyze 12 of these. Tool construction entailed up to five steps, including trimming the tool tip to a point. Tools were used in the manner of a spear, rather than a probe or rousing tool. This new information on chimpanzee tool use has important implications for the evolution of tool use and construction for hunting in the earliest hominids, especially given our observations that females and immature chimpanzees exhibited this behavior more frequently than adult males. PMID:17320393

  18. Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    House, Bailey R.; Silk, Joan B.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees confer benefits on group members, both in the wild and in captive populations. Experimental studies of how animals allocate resources can provide useful insights about the motivations underlying prosocial behavior, and understanding the relationship between task design and prosocial behavior provides an important foundation for future research exploring these animals' social preferences. A number of studies have been designed to assess chimpanzees' preferences for outcomes that benefit others (prosocial preferences), but these studies vary greatly in both the results obtained and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing these animals' social motivations themselves. We introduce a task design that avoids isolating subjects and allows them to freely decide whether to participate in the experiment. We explore key elements of the methods utilized in previous experiments in an effort to evaluate two possibilities that have been offered to explain why different experimental designs produce different results: (a) chimpanzees are less likely to deliver food to others when they obtain food for themselves, and (b) evidence of prosociality may be obscured by more “complex” experimental apparatuses (e.g., those including more components or alternative choices). Our results suggest that the complexity of laboratory tasks may generate observed variation in prosocial behavior in laboratory experiments, and highlights the need for more naturalistic research designs while also providing one example of such a paradigm. PMID:25191860

  19. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) accurately compare poured liquid quantities.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Although many studies have shown that nonhuman animals can choose the larger of two discrete quantities of items, less emphasis has been given to discrimination of continuous quantity. These studies are necessary to discern the similarities and differences in discrimination performance as a function of the type of quantities that are compared. Chimpanzees made judgments between continuous quantities (liquids) in a series of three experiments. In the first experiment, chimpanzees first chose between two clear containers holding differing amounts of juice. Next, they watched as two liquid quantities were dispensed from opaque syringes held above opaque containers. In the second experiment, one liquid amount was presented by pouring it into an opaque container from an opaque syringe, whereas the other quantity was visible the entire time in a clear container. In the third experiment, the heights at which the opaque syringes were held above opaque containers differed for each set, so that sometimes sets with smaller amounts of juice were dropped from a greater height, providing a possible visual illusion as to the total amount. Chimpanzees succeeded in all tasks and showed many similarities in their continuous quantity estimation to how they performed previously in similar tasks with discrete quantities (for example, performance was constrained by the ratio between sets). Chimpanzees could compare visible sets to nonvisible sets, and they were not distracted by perceptual illusions created through various presentation styles that were not relevant to the actual amount of juice dispensed. This performance demonstrated a similarity in the quantitative discrimination skills of chimpanzees for continuous quantities that matches that previously shown for discrete quantities. PMID:20146077

  20. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) know what can be seen from where.

    PubMed

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep

    2009-03-01

    Visual perspective taking research has established that chimpanzees recognize what others can or cannot see in the presence of occluding barriers. Less is known about chimpanzees' appreciation of what they themselves can or cannot see in similar situations. Additionally, it is unclear whether chimpanzees must rely on others' gaze cues to solve such tasks or whether they have a more general appreciation of what can be seen from where. Hence, we investigated chimpanzees' ability to anticipate what they would or would not be able to see from different visual perspectives. Food was hidden among arrays of open containers, with different containers providing visual access from unique viewing perspectives. Chimpanzees immediately adopted the correct perspective for each container type. Follow-up experiments showed that they were not simply moving to align themselves with visible openings. Our study thus suggests that chimpanzees have good visual perspective taking abilities with regard to themselves as well as others, and that both likely reflect a more general knowledge, at least implicit, of what can be seen from where. PMID:18839228

  1. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee ("Pan Troglodytes")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate…

  2. Subgenual cingulate cortex and personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Blatchley, Barbara J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Animals vary in their dispositions, abilities, and moods and demonstrate characteristic behavior patterns that remain consistent across situation and time. This study describes the relationship between measures of personality in the chimpanzee and the structure of the subgenual cingulate cortex (SGCC). Measures of individual traits and personality factors (dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) and assessments of percentage of SGCC gray matter (PGM) and asymmetry taken from MRI scans were obtained for 74 chimpanzees housed at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. PGM in the SGCC was significantly higher for females than for males and was significantly correlated with two personality factors (dominance and conscientiousness) in male apes. There was also a population-level leftward asymmetry in the SGCC. These results are discussed in terms of current models of SGCC function, which suggest that this area may play a role in the biological foundation of personality. PMID:20805542

  3. Mechanisms underlying responses to inequitable outcomes in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, Sarah F.; Talbot, Catherine; Ahlgren, Megan; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Several species of nonhuman primates respond negatively to inequitable outcomes, a trait shared with humans. Despite previous research, questions regarding the response to inequity remain. In this study, we replicated the methodology from previous studies to address four questions related to inequity. First, we explored the impact of basic social factors. Second, we addressed whether negative responses to inequity require a task, or exist when rewards are given for ‘free’. Third, we addressed whether differences in the experimental procedure or the level of effort required to obtain a reward affected responses. Finally, we explored the interaction between ‘individual’ expectations (based on one's own previous experience) and ‘social’ expectations (based on the partner's experience). These questions were investigated in 16 socially housed adult chimpanzees using eight conditions that varied across the dimensions of reward, effort and procedure. Subjects did respond to inequity, but only in the context of a task. Differences in procedure and level of effort required did not cause individuals to change their behaviour. Males were more sensitive to social than to individual expectation, while females were more sensitive to individual expectation. Finally, subjects also increased refusals when they received a better reward than their partner, which has not been documented previously. These results indicate that chimpanzees are more sensitive to reward inequity than procedures, and that there is interaction between social and individual expectations that depends upon social factors. PMID:27011389

  4. Sudden cardiac death in 13 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-02-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD), presumed secondary to fatal arrhythmias, is a common cause of mortality in captive chimpanzees at the Alamogordo Primate Facility. Over the 6-year period at the Alamogordo Primate Facility between 2001 and 2006, 13 animals were defined as sudden cardiac death (11 male and 2 female) on the basis of clinical presentation which was 38% of all deaths. All animals had annual physical exams, including electrocardiograms and serial blood pressures. Six of the 13 animals underwent a complete cardiac evaluation by a veterinary cardiologist and all six of these animals were diagnosed with various degrees of cardiomyopathy. Systemic hypertension was noted in two of the 13 cases and antemortem cardiac arrhythmias were seen in all 13 animals. Histological examination of the hearts revealed myocardial fibrosis in 12 chimpanzees. Most of the animals (10/13) that died of sudden cardiac death had cardiomegaly (increased heart weight/body weight ratio) and some degree of myocardial fibrosis noted. Additional data as well as serial diagnostic evaluations will be needed to identify the possible causes of sudden cardiac death in captive chimpanzees. PMID:18269527

  5. Interstitial myocardial fibrosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Baskin, Gary B; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-08-01

    The clinical and necropsy records of 36 (25 male and 11 female) chimpanzees age 10 to 40 y old that died over a 6-y period (2001 to 2006) were reviewed. All animals had annual physical exams that included electrocardiograms and serial blood pressures. Nine of the 36 animals had a complete cardiac evaluation by a board certified veterinary cardiologist, and 7 of the 36 animals (19%) were diagnosed with some form of cardiomyopathy. Systemic hypertension was noted in 3 cases. Cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular ectopy) were seen in 15 (12 male and 3 female) of the 36 animals (42%). Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurred in 13 (11 male and 2 female) chimps (36%) and was the leading cause of death (n = 13), followed by renal failure (n = 9) and septicemia (n = 3). Histologic examination of the hearts revealed interstitial myocardial fibrosis (IMF) in 29 chimpanzees (81%), and all of the animals that died suddenly due to cardiac causes had IMF to varying degrees. More data will be needed to identify the possible causes of IMF in captive chimpanzees, and IMF may be associated with arrhythmias and SCD in these animals. PMID:18724782

  6. Chronic diseases in captive geriatric female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L

    2012-04-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpanzees. Here we characterize the types and prevalence of chronic disease seen in geriatric (older than 35 y) female chimpanzees in the colony at Alamogordo Primate Facility. Of the 16 female chimpanzees that fit the age category, 87.5% had some form of chronic age-related disease. Cardiovascular-related disease was the most common (81.25%) followed by metabolic syndrome (43.75%) and renal disease (31.25%). These data show the incidence of disease in geriatric female chimpanzees and predict likely medical management challenges associated with maintaining an aging chimpanzee population. PMID:22546920

  7. Distal Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for Common Ground?

    PubMed Central

    Leavens, David A.; Reamer, Lisa A.; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Russell, Jamie L.; Wilson, Daniel; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, “Do chimpanzees display distal communication?” Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally. PMID:26292996

  8. Development of stone tool use by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Inoue-Nakamura, N; Matsuzawa, T

    1997-06-01

    At the age of 3.5 years, wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea, begin to use hammer and anvil stones to crack oil-palm nuts to get the kernels. To clarify the developmental processes, the authors did a field experiment in which stones and oil-palm nuts were provided. Infant chimpanzees' stone-nut manipulation was observed and video recorded. Data were collected from 3 infants younger than 4 years old from 1992 to 1995. The authors analyzed 692 episodes of infants' stone-nut manipulation and 150 episodes of infants' observation of nut cracking performed by adults. Infants observed other chimpanzees' nut cracking and got the kernels from them. The stone-nut manipulation developed from a single action on a single object to multiple actions on multiple objects. Although infant chimpanzees at the age of 2.5 years already acquired basic actions necessary for nut cracking, they did not combine the actions in an appropriate sequence to perform actual nut cracking. PMID:9170281

  9. Insectivory of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Pruetz, Jill D

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the behavior of chimpanzees living in savanna-woodlands, although they are of particular interest to anthropologists for the insight they can provide regarding the ecological pressures affecting early hominins living in similar habitats. Fongoli, Senegal, is the first site where savanna chimpanzees have been habituated for observational data collection and is the hottest and driest site where such observation of chimpanzees occurs today. Previously, indirect evidence suggested these chimpanzees consumed termites throughout the year, an unusual occurrence for western and eastern chimpanzees. Although meat eating by chimpanzees continues to receive much attention, their use of invertebrate prey has received less emphasis in scenarios of hominin evolution. Here, we further examine the invertebrate diet of Fongoli chimpanzees using direct observational methods and accounting for potential environmental influences. Termite feeding positively correlated with high temperatures. Fongoli chimpanzees spend more time obtaining termites than any other chimpanzee population studied, and this extensive insectivory contributes to the list of distinctive behaviors they display relative to chimpanzees living in more forested habitats. We suggest that savanna chimpanzees at Fongoli differ significantly from chimpanzees elsewhere as a result of the selective pressures characterizing their harsh environment, and this contrast provides an example of a viable referential model for better understanding human evolution. Specifically, our results support the hypotheses that invertebrate prey may have figured more prominently into the diet of early hominins in similar habitats, especially given that invertebrates are an important source of protein and other essential nutrients in a highly seasonal environment. PMID:21484757

  10. Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Peter D; Abernethy, Kate A; Bermejo, Magdalena; Beyers, Rene; De Wachter, Pauwel; Akou, Marc Ella; Huijbregts, Bas; Mambounga, Daniel Idiata; Toham, Andre Kamdem; Kilbourn, Annelisa M; Lahm, Sally A; Latour, Stefanie; Maisels, Fiona; Mbina, Christian; Mihindou, Yves; Obiang, Sosthène Ndong; Effa, Ernestine Ntsame; Starkey, Malcolm P; Telfer, Paul; Thibault, Marc; Tutin, Caroline E G; White, Lee J T; Wilkie, David S

    2003-04-10

    Because rapidly expanding human populations have devastated gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) habitats in East and West Africa, the relatively intact forests of western equatorial Africa have been viewed as the last stronghold of African apes. Gabon and the Republic of Congo alone are thought to hold roughly 80% of the world's gorillas and most of the common chimpanzees. Here we present survey results conservatively indicating that ape populations in Gabon declined by more than half between 1983 and 2000. The primary cause of the decline in ape numbers during this period was commercial hunting, facilitated by the rapid expansion of mechanized logging. Furthermore, Ebola haemorrhagic fever is currently spreading through ape populations in Gabon and Congo and now rivals hunting as a threat to apes. Gorillas and common chimpanzees should be elevated immediately to 'critically endangered' status. Without aggressive investments in law enforcement, protected area management and Ebola prevention, the next decade will see our closest relatives pushed to the brink of extinction. PMID:12679788

  11. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  12. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  13. Piagetian conservation of discrete quantities in bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Suda, Chikako; Call, Josep

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated whether physical discreteness helps apes to understand the concept of Piagetian conservation (i.e. the invariance of quantities). Subjects were four bonobos, three chimpanzees, and five orangutans. Apes were tested on their ability to conserve discrete/continuous quantities in an over-conservation procedure in which two unequal quantities of edible rewards underwent various transformations in front of subjects. Subjects were examined to determine whether they could track the larger quantity of reward after the transformation. Comparison between the two types of conservation revealed that tests with bonobos supported the discreteness hypothesis. Bonobos, but neither chimpanzees nor orangutans, performed significantly better with discrete quantities than with continuous ones. The results suggest that at least bonobos could benefit from the discreteness of stimuli in their acquisition of conservation skills. PMID:15692813

  14. Derivation of detrital rutile in the Yaoundé region from the Neoproterozoic Pan-African belt in southern Cameroon (Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendal, Henrik; Toteu, Sadrack Félix; Frei, Robert; Penaye, Joseph; Njel, Urbain Olivier; Bassahak, Jean; Nni, Jean; Kankeu, Boniface; Ngako, Vincent; Hell, Joseph Victor

    2006-04-01

    Rutile, as an important component in alluvial or eluvial heavy mineral deposits, is known in southern Cameroon. These deposits are underlain by the Neoproterozoic low- to high-grade Yaoundé Group. Geochemical, thermometric, fluid inclusion and Pb isotopic studies of the rutile from alluvial and eluvial concentrates and from medium-grade micaschist from the nearby Yaoundé region permit the following conclusions: (1) alluvial and eluvial rutile of the Yaoundé region are derived from the degradation of metapelites, metamafic rocks and pegmatites of the nearby Yaoundé Group; (2) rutile in the Yaoundé Group formed during the Pan-African metamorphism, or was inherited as detrital rutile from a ˜900 Ma source. The study also shows that the rutile can be used to trace the history of the Pan-African belt north of the Congo craton.

  15. Changing styles of crustal growth in Southern Africa: Constraints from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope studies in Archaean to Pan African terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, F.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Harris, N. B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Nd isotopic data was presented for southern Africa in support of episodic crustal growth. Over 50 percent of the continental crust there had formed before 2.5 Ga, and less than 10 percent was produced after about 1.0 Ga. The data imply a mean crustal age of about 2.4 Ga for southern Africa, and a higher rate of crustal growth than that derived from Australian shale data, particularly during the Proterozoic. Isotopic data from Damara metasediments imply that there is no need to invoke decoupling of the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems in the continental crust.

  16. Ground night nesting in chimpanzees: new insights from central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in South-East Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tagg, Nikki; Willie, Jacob; Petre, Charles-Albert; Haggis, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Some chimpanzee populations exhibit ground night nesting, which occurs in different habitat types, is driven by a variety of interconnected factors, and may reflect cultural or social differences. This has important implications for ape conservation management, given that accurate nest builder identification is required to estimate density, crucial in monitoring, and allows inferences about environmental and social factors that may have contributed to the transition from tree to ground sleeping in early hominins. We conducted a 24-month marked nest count survey in La Belgique, Cameroon, and recorded the occurrence of chimpanzee tree and ground night nests, temperature and rainfall, predator and large mammal abundance, human activities, nesting tree species, and Uapaca spp. consumption. Ground night nesting occurred at a rate of 3.47% (n = 1,008), with more in swamps, in the dry season and with increasing human activities. We found no influence of leopard/elephant presence, but a possible influence of lack of nesting trees. We suggest chimpanzees visit swamps in the dry season (low water levels) for relief from hunting pressure and to consume Uapaca spp. fruits. Ground nesting may be enabled due to high abundance of terrestrial herbaceous vegetation, and may be favoured for inconspicuousness and safety from gun hunters. PMID:23988519

  17. Evidence of heterogeneous crustal origin for the Pan-African Mbengwi granitoids and the associated mafic intrusions (northwestern Cameroon, central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbassa, Benoît Joseph; Kamgang, Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Benoit, Mathieu; Itiga, Zénon; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bessong, Moïse; Nguet, Pauline Wonkwenmendam; Nfomou, Ntepe

    2016-02-01

    The Mbengwi plutonics consist of intermediate to felsic granitoids forming a continuous magmatic series from monzonite to granite and mafic intrusions. Their mineralogical composition consists of quartz, plagioclases, K-feldspars, biotite, muscovite, and amphibole. The accessory phase includes opaque minerals + titanite ± apatite ± zircon, while secondary minerals are pyrite, phengite, chlorite, epidote, and rarely calcite. These plutonics are assigned high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and mostly belong to an I-type suite (A/CNK = 0.63-1.2). They are typically post-collisional, with a subduction signature probably being inherited from their protoliths emplaced during the subduction phase. The Sr and Nd isotopic data evidence that these plutonics result from melting of the lower continental crust with variable contribution of the oceanic crust. Their geochemical features are similar to those of western Cameroon granitoids related to the Pan-African D1 event in Cameroon.

  18. High levels of Y-chromosome nucleotide diversity in the genus Pan.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anne C; Griffiths, Robert C; Zegura, Stephen L; Hammer, Michael F

    2002-01-01

    Although some mitochondrial, X chromosome, and autosomal sequence diversity data are available for our closest relatives, Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus, data from the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) are more limited. We examined approximately 3 kb of NRY DNA from 101 chimpanzees, seven bonobos, and 42 humans to investigate: (i) relative levels of intraspecific diversity; (ii) the degree of paternal lineage sorting among species and subspecies of the genus Pan; and (iii) the date of the chimpanzee/bonobo divergence. We identified 10 informative sequence-tagged sites associated with 23 polymorphisms on the NRY from the genus Pan. Nucleotide diversity was significantly higher on the NRY of chimpanzees and bonobos than on the human NRY. Similar to mtDNA, but unlike X-linked and autosomal loci, lineages defined by mutations on the NRY were not shared among subspecies of P. troglodytes. Comparisons with mtDNA ND2 sequences from some of the same individuals revealed a larger female versus male effective population size for chimpanzees. The NRY-based divergence time between chimpanzees and bonobos was estimated at approximately 1.8 million years ago. In contrast to human populations who appear to have had a low effective size and a recent origin with subsequent population growth, some taxa within the genus Pan may be characterized by large populations of relatively constant size, more ancient origins, and high levels of subdivision. PMID:11756656

  19. Rationale and design of the Pan African Pulmonary hypertension Cohort (PAPUCO) study: implementing a contemporary registry on pulmonary hypertension in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thienemann, Friedrich; Dzudie, Anastase; Mocumbi, Ana O; Blauwet, Lori; Sani, Mahmoud U; Karaye, Kamilu M; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Mbanze, Irina; Mbakwem, Amam; Udo, Patience; Tibazarwa, Kemi; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Burton, Rosie; Damasceno, Albertino; Stewart, Simon; Sliwa, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating, progressive disease with increasingly debilitating symptoms and usually shortened overall life expectancy due to a narrowing of the pulmonary vasculature and consecutive right heart failure. Little is known about PH in Africa, but limited reports suggest that PH is more prevalent in Africa compared with developed countries due to the high prevalence of risk factors in the region. Methods and analysis A multinational multicentre registry-type cohort study was established and tailored to resource-constraint settings to describe disease presentation, disease severity and aetiologies of PH, comorbidities, diagnostic and therapeutic management, and the natural course of PH in Africa. PH will be diagnosed by specialist cardiologists using echocardiography (right ventricular systolic pressure >35 mm Hg, absence of pulmonary stenosis and acute right heart failure), usually accompanied by shortness of breath, fatigue, peripheral oedema and other cardiovascular symptoms, ECG and chest X-ray changes in keeping with PH as per guidelines (European Society of Cardiology and European Respiratory Society (ESC/ERS) guidelines). Additional investigations such as a CT scan, a ventilation/perfusion scan or right heart catheterisation will be performed at the discretion of the treating physician. Functional tests include a 6 min walk test and the Karnofsky Performance Score. The WHO classification system for PH will be applied to describe the different aetiologies of PH. Several substudies have been implemented within the registry to investigate specific types of PH and their outcome at up to 24 months. Data will be analysed by an independent institution following a data analyse plan. Ethics and dissemination All local ethics committees of the participating centres approved the protocol. The data will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals at national and international conferences and public events at local care

  20. Optimising the spatial resolution of WorldView-2 pan-sharpened imagery for predicting levels of Gonipterus scutellatus defoliation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottering, Romano; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-02-01

    Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal is a leaf feeding weevil that is a major defoliator of the genus Eucalyptus. Understanding the relationship between levels of weevil induced vegetation defoliation and the optimal spatial resolution of satellite images is essential for effective management of plantation resources. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate spatial resolutions for predicting levels of weevil induced defoliation. We resampled the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) images computed from a WorldView-2 pan-sharpened image, which is characterised with a 0.5 m spatial resolution and 8 spectral bands. Within each plantation compartment 30 × 30 m plots were established, representing different levels of defoliation. From the centre of each plot, the spatial resolution of the original image was progressively resampled from 1.5 to 8.5 m, with 1 m increments. The minimal variance for each level of defoliation was then established and used as an indicator for quantitatively selecting the optimal spatial resolution. Results indicate that an appropriate spatial resolution was established at 1.25, 1.25, 1.75 and 2.25 m for low, medium, high and severe levels of defoliation, respectively. In addition, an Artificial Neural Network was run to determine the relationship between the appropriate spatial resolution and levels of Gonipterus scutellatus induced defoliation. The model yielded an R2 of 0.80, with an RMSE of 1.28 (2.45% of the mean measured defoliation) based on an independent test dataset. We then compared this model to a model developed using the original 0.5 m image spatial resolution. Our results suggest that optimising the spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery essentially improves the prediction of vegetation defoliation. In essence, this study provides the foundation for multi-scale defoliation mapping using high spatial resolution imagery.

  1. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    PubMed

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism. PMID:20648996

  2. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed Central

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in ‘preparation’ for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the ‘preparation for tool use’ hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is needed to disentangle possible functions of object manipulation during development. PMID:26444011

  3. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is needed to disentangle possible functions of object manipulation during development. PMID:26444011

  4. Great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo abelii) follow visual trails to locate hidden food.

    PubMed

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2014-05-01

    Whether nonhuman primates understand causal relations beyond mere associations is still a matter of debate. We presented all four species of nonhuman great apes (N = 36) with a choice between 2 opaque, upside down cups after displacing them out of sight from their starting positions. Crucially, 1 of them had left a yogurt trail behind it. Great apes spontaneously used the trail to select the yogurt baited cup. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that chimpanzees distinguished trails based on the temporal order of cause and effect by ignoring trails that were already present before the reward was hidden. Additionally, chimpanzees did not select cups based on the amount of yogurt near them but instead preferred cups that signaled the endpoint of the trail. We conclude that apes' choices reveal sensitivity to a causal relation between cause (reward) and effect (trail) including their temporal order. PMID:24866009

  5. Forest chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) remember the location of numerous fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Normand, Emmanuelle; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2009-11-01

    It is assumed that spatial memory contributes crucially to animal cognition since animals' habitats entail a large number of dispersed and unpredictable food sources. Spatial memory has been investigated under controlled conditions, with different species showing and different conditions leading to varying performance levels. However, the number of food sources investigated is very low compared to what exists under natural conditions, where food resources are so abundant that it is difficult to precisely identify what is available. By using a detailed botanical map containing over 12,499 trees known to be used by the Taï chimpanzees, we created virtual maps of all productive fruit trees to simulate potential strategies used by wild chimpanzees to reach resources without spatial memory. First, we simulated different assumptions concerning the chimpanzees' preference for a particular tree species, and, second, we varied the detection field to control for the possible use of smell to detect fruiting trees. For all these assumptions, we compared simulated distance travelled, frequencies of trees visited, and revisit rates with what we actually observed in wild chimpanzees. Our results show that chimpanzees visit rare tree species more frequently, travel shorter distances to reach them, and revisit the same trees more often than if they had no spatial memory. In addition, we demonstrate that chimpanzees travel longer distances to reach resources where they will eat for longer periods of time, and revisit resources more frequently where they ate for a long period of time during their first visit. Therefore, this study shows that forest chimpanzees possess a precise spatial memory which allows them to remember the location of numerous resources and use this information to select the most attractive resources. PMID:19484488

  6. How to crack nuts: acquisition process in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) observing a model.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi; Morimura, Naruki; Houki, Chiharu

    2009-10-01

    Stone tool use for nut cracking consists of placing a hard-shelled nut onto a stone anvil and then cracking the shell open by pounding it with a stone hammer to get to the kernel. We investigated the acquisition of tool use for nut cracking in a group of captive chimpanzees to clarify what kind of understanding of the tools and actions will lead to the acquisition of this type of tool use in the presence of a skilled model. A human experimenter trained a male chimpanzee until he mastered the use of a hammer and anvil stone to crack open macadamia nuts. He was then put in a nut-cracking situation together with his group mates, who were naïve to this tool use; we did not have a control group without a model. The results showed that the process of acquisition could be broken down into several steps, including recognition of applying pressure to the nut,emergence of the use of a combination of three objects, emergence of the hitting action, using a tool for hitting, and hitting the nut. The chimpanzees recognized these different components separately and practiced them one after another. They gradually united these factors in their behavior leading to their first success. Their behavior did not clearly improve immediately after observing successful nut cracking by a peer, but observation of a skilled group member seemed to have a gradual, long-term influence on the acquisition of nut cracking by naïve chimpanzees. PMID:19727866

  7. Brief Communication: Adrenal Androgens and Aging: Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Compared With Women

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, James K.; Coxworth, James E.; Herndon, James G.; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cycling continues to similar ages in women and chimpanzees yet our nearest living cousins become decrepit during their fertile years and rarely outlive them. Given the importance of estrogen in maintaining physiological systems aside from fertility, similar ovarian aging in humans and chimpanzees combined with somatic aging differences indicates an important role for nonovarian estrogen. Consistent with this framework, researchers have nominated the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS), which can be peripherally converted to estrogen, as a biomarker of aging in humans and other primates. Faster decline in production of this steroid with age in chimpanzees could help explain somatic aging differences. Here, we report circulating levels of DHEAS in captive female chimpanzees and compare them with published levels in women. Instead of faster, the decline is slower in chimpanzees, but from a much lower peak. Levels reported for other great apes are lower still. These results point away from slowed decline but toward increased DHEAS production as one of the mechanisms underlying the evolution of human longevity. PMID:23818143

  8. Natural Choice in Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes"): Perceptual and Temporal Effects on Selective Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Ratliff, Chasity L.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, four chimpanzees made choices between two visible food options to assess the validity of the "selective value effect" (the assignment of value to only the most preferred type of food presented in a comparison). In Experiment 1, we established that all chimpanzees preferred single banana pieces to single apple pieces before…

  9. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-04-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  10. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178) = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species. PMID:27050418

  11. Behavioural Development in Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and Human Newborns across the First Month of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Martha B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports comparisons of behaviors of nine chimpanzee and nine human newborns on a standardized human neonatal assessment scale at the ages of three days and one month. Human infants scored higher than chimpanzee infants on the orientation cluster at both ages, but were lower than chimpanzee infants in motoric maturity. (RJC)

  12. Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20–30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is a valuable commodity. PMID:25580017

  13. Genetic basis in motor skill and hand preference for tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Reamer, Lisa; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees are well known for their tool using abilities. Numerous studies have documented variability in tool use among chimpanzees and the role that social learning and other factors play in their development. There are also findings on hand use in both captive and wild chimpanzees; however, less understood are the potential roles of genetic and non-genetic mechanisms in determining individual differences in tool use skill and laterality. Here, we examined heritability in tool use skill and handedness for a probing task in a sample of 243 captive chimpanzees. Quantitative genetic analysis, based on the extant pedigrees, showed that overall both tool use skill and handedness were significantly heritable. Significant heritability in motor skill was evident in two genetically distinct populations of apes, and between two cohorts that received different early social rearing experiences. We further found that motor skill decreased with age and that males were more commonly left-handed than females. Collectively, these data suggest that though non-genetic factors do influence tool use performance and handedness in chimpanzees, genetic factors also play a significant role, as has been reported in humans. PMID:25520351

  14. Positional behavior of Pan troglodytes in the Mahale Mountains and Gombe Stream National Parks, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hunt, K D

    1992-01-01

    The positional behavior of habituated adult chimpanzees and baboons was observed for 784 hr in a year-long study. Comparisons between species were made to establish the distinctiveness of chimpanzee positional behavior and habitat use. Brachiation (sensu stricto, i.e., hand-over-hand suspensory locomotion) was observed in low frequencies among chimpanzees, and its significance for chimpanzee anatomy is judged slight. Although no significant differences were found between sympatric baboons and chimpanzees in the proportion of time spent in the terminal branches, or in the mean diameter of weight-bearing strata, chimpanzees exhibited evidence of a terminal branch adaptation in that they, unlike baboons, used postures among smaller supporting strata different from those used among larger supports. Among chimpanzees, unimanual arm-hanging was most common among the smallest strata and was associated with smaller mean and median support diameter than other postures. Unimanual arm-hanging was the only common behavior among chimpanzees that usually involved complete abduction of the humerus. A number of behaviors often subsumed under the label "quadrumanous climbing" were distinguished in this study. Compared to baboons and other cercopithecoids, chimpanzees did not show increased frequencies of large-stratum vertical climbing, and their vertical climbing did not involve significant humeral abduction. Arm-hanging (i.e., unimanual suspension) and vertical climbing distinguish chimpanzee positional behavior from that of monkeys. PMID:1736676

  15. The association between imitation recognition and socio-communicative competencies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Pope, Sarah M; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    Imitation recognition provides a viable platform from which advanced social cognitive skills may develop. Despite evidence that non-human primates are capable of imitation recognition, how this ability is related to social cognitive skills is unknown. In this study, we compared imitation recognition performance, as indicated by the production of testing behaviors, with performance on a series of tasks that assess social and physical cognition in 49 chimpanzees. In the initial analyses, we found that males were more responsive than females to being imitated and engaged in significantly greater behavior repetitions and testing sequences. We also found that subjects who consistently recognized being imitated performed better on social but not physical cognitive tasks, as measured by the Primate Cognitive Test Battery. These findings suggest that the neural constructs underlying imitation recognition are likely associated with or among those underlying more general socio-communicative abilities in chimpanzees. Implications regarding how imitation recognition may facilitate other social cognitive processes, such as mirror self-recognition, are discussed. PMID:25767454

  16. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Precentral Corticospinal System Asymmetry and Handedness: A Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longchuan; Preuss, Todd M.; Rilling, James K.; Hopkins, William D.; Glasser, Matthew F.; Kumar, Bhargav; Nana, Roger; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Background Most humans are right handed, and most humans exhibit left-right asymmetries of the precentral corticospinal system. Recent studies indicate that chimpanzees also show a population-level right-handed bias, although it is less strong than in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We used in vivo diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the relationship between the corticospinal tract (CST) and handedness in 36 adult female chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a hemispheric bias in fractional anisotropy (FA, left>right) and mean diffusivity (MD, right>left) of the CST, and the left CST was centered more posteriorly than the right. Handedness correlated with central sulcus depth, but not with FA or MD. Conclusions/Significance These anatomical results are qualitatively similar to those reported in humans, despite the differences in handedness. The existence of a left>right FA, right>left MD bias in the corticospinal tract that does not correlate with handedness, a result also reported in some human studies, suggests that at least some of the structural asymmetries of the corticospinal system are not exclusively related to laterality of hand preference. PMID:20877630

  17. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Can Wait, When They Choose To: A Study with the Hybrid Delay Task

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Paglieri, Fabio; McIntyre, Joseph M.; Addessi, Elsa; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Self-control has been studied in nonhuman animals using a variety of tasks. The inter-temporal choice (ITC) task presents choices between smaller-sooner (SS) and larger-later (LL) options. Using food amounts as rewards, this presents two problems: (i) choices of the LL option could either reflect self-control or instead result from animals’ difficulty with pointing to smaller amounts of food; (ii) there is no way to verify whether the subjects would not revert their choice for the LL option, if given the opportunity to do so during the ensuing delay. To address these problems, we have recently introduced a new protocol, the hybrid delay task, which combines an initial ITC with a subsequent accumulation phase in which selection of the SS option leads to its immediate delivery, but choice of the LL option then leads to one-by-one presentation of those items that continues only as long as the subject does not eat any of the accumulated items (delay maintenance). The choice of the LL option therefore only reflects self-control when the number of items obtained from LL choices during the accumulation phase is higher than what could be received in the SS option. Previous research with capuchin monkeys demonstrated that their apparent self-control responses in the ITC task may have over-estimated their general self-control abilities, given their poor performance in the hybrid delay task. Here, chimpanzees instead demonstrated that their choices for the LL option in the ITC phase of the hybrid delay task were confirmed by their ability to sustain long delays during accumulation of LL rewards. PMID:23774954

  18. Nonlinear acoustics in the pant-hoot vocalization of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Arcadi, Adam Clark; Owren, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    Pant-hoots produced by chimpanzees are multi-call vocalizations. While predominantly harmonically structured, pant-hoots can exhibit acoustic complexity that has recently been found to result from inherent nonlinearity in the vocal-fold dynamics. This complexity reflects abrupt shifts between qualitatively distinct vibration patterns (known as modes), which include but are not limited to simple, synchronous movements by the two vocal folds. Studies with humans in particular have shown that as the amplitude and vibration rate increase, vocal-fold action becomes increasingly susceptible to higher-order synchronizations, desynchronized movements, and irregular behavior. We examined the occurrence of these sorts of nonlinear phenomena in pant-hoots, contrasting quieter and lower-pitched introduction components with loud and high-pitched climax calls in the same sounds. Spectrographic evidence revealed four classic kinds of nonlinear phenomena, including discrete frequency jumps, subharmonics, biphonation, and deterministic chaos. While these events were virtually never found in the introduction, they occurred in more than half of the climax calls. Biphonation was by far the most common. Individual callers varied in the degree to which their climax calls exhibited nonlinear phenomena, but we are consistent in showing more biphonation than any of the other forms. These outcomes demonstrate that understanding these calls requisitely requires an understanding of such events.

  19. Natural category discrimination in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at three levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Jett, Stephanie E; Mosteller, Kelly W; Galvan, Moriah

    2013-09-01

    Two adult chimpanzees were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch screen computer, in which the discriminations varied in degree of abstraction. At the concrete level, discriminations could be made on the basis of single perceptual features, but at the more abstract level, categories were more inclusive, containing exemplars with variant perceptual features. For instance, at the most abstract level, the chimpanzees were required to select images of animals rather than nonanimals, and exemplars within both categories were perceptually diverse. One chimpanzee showed positive transfer at each level of abstraction but required more sessions to reach criterion as the discriminations became more abstract. The other chimpanzee failed to demonstrate consistent significant acquisition of a concept. The results indicate that unlike other apes and black bears, tested previously, chimpanzees found the most abstract discriminations the most difficult to acquire. Analyses of the features of pictures that yielded high or low accuracy revealed no significant differences on several key features, suggesting that the presence of facial features, eyes, or specific coloration did not control responding. In addition, the chimpanzees performed more accurately with photos judged as less typical exemplars of the category by human raters. However, responses to pictures of particular species suggest that chimpanzees may rely on perceptual similarity to familiar exemplars when acquiring experimenter-defined natural categories. PMID:23397185

  20. Color classification by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a matching-to-sample task.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Toyomi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-01-01

    We investigated chimpanzees' color classification using a matching-to-sample procedure. One of the two subjects had learned symbolic color names through long-term training, while the other had received less training and had a limited understanding of color names. The results showed similar distributions of classified colors in a color space, irrespective of the subjects' differential color-naming experience. However, the chimpanzee with little color-naming experience showed less stable classifications. These results suggest common features of color classification in chimpanzees, as well as the influence of color experience and/or the learning of color names on the stability of classification of colors. PMID:14684256

  1. An 8-year longitudinal study of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    de Veer, Monique W; Gallup, Gordon G; Theall, Laura A; van den Bos, Ruud; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2003-01-01

    In a previous cross-sectional study of mirror self-recognition involving 92 chimpanzees, Povinelli et al. [Journal of Comparative Psychology 107 (1993) 347] reported a peak in the proportion of animals exhibiting self-recognition in the adolescent/young adult sample (8-15 years), with 75% being classified as positive. In contrast, only 26% of the older animals (16-39 years) were classified as positive, suggesting a marked decline in self-recognition in middle to late adulthood. In the present study, all of the chimpanzees from the 8-15-year-old group in the Povinelli et al. study (n=12) were again tested for self-recognition, 8 years later. Using the same criteria, 67% of the animals were classified the same. Although a higher proportion of the adult animals in this study (50%) exhibited self-recognition than would be inferred on the basis of the previous study (25%), all changes in self-recognition status were in the negative direction. These results show that mirror self-recognition is a highly stable trait in many chimpanzees, but may be subject to decline with age. Connections with human research are briefly discussed. PMID:12459221

  2. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and the question of cumulative culture: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2008-07-01

    There is increasing evidence for cultural variations in behaviour among non-human species, but human societies additionally display elaborate cumulative cultural evolution, with successive generations building on earlier achievements. Evidence for cumulative culture in non-human species remains minimal and controversial. Relevant experiments are also lacking. Here we present a first experiment designed to examine chimpanzees' capacity for cumulative social learning. Eleven young chimpanzees were presented with a foraging device, which afforded both a relatively simple and a more complex tool-use technique for extracting honey. The more complex 'probing' technique incorporated the core actions of the simpler 'dipping' one and was also much more productive. In a baseline, exploration condition only two subjects discovered the dipping technique and a solitary instance of probing occurred. Demonstrations of dipping by a familiar human were followed by acquisition of this technique by the five subjects aged three years or above, whilst younger subjects showed a significant increase only in the elements of the dipping technique. By contrast, subsequent demonstrations of the probing task were not followed by acquisition of this more productive technique. Subjects stuck to their habitual dipping method despite an escalating series of demonstrations eventually exceeding 200. Supplementary tests showed this technique is within the capability of chimpanzees of this age. We therefore tentatively conclude that young chimpanzees exhibit a tendency to become 'stuck' on a technique they initially learn, inhibiting cumulative social learning and possibly constraining the species' capacity for cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:18204869

  3. Perception of food amounts by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): the role of magnitude, contiguity, and wholeness.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Evans, Theodore A; Ratliff, Chasity L

    2009-10-01

    The authors investigated choice behavior by chimpanzees in five experiments involving choices between different amounts of food. Chimpanzees did not maximize the amount of food they obtained when choosing between a single 20-g banana piece and another option containing a 20-g piece and a 5-g piece. This was true even though they successfully discriminated between 20-g and 25-g banana pieces in other trials. When items in the mixed option were stacked, however, the chimpanzees chose the larger amount. Later experiments indicated that changing the magnitude of the two amounts did not change performance if the difference in magnitude between the two options remained the same (e.g., 40 g plus 10 g vs. 40 g). However, chimpanzees did improve when the two-item option was increased in its magnitude relative to the single slice (e.g., 20 g plus 10 g vs. 20 g). These results indicated that chimpanzees undervalued the total amount of food in sets when items differed in size and did not appear to be whole. Another experiment confirmed that it was this notion of wholeness that evoked suboptimal responding because chimpanzees were successful in the same comparisons with a different type of food that appeared less fractionated when presented as two pieces. These results provide evidence of suboptimal responding in some natural choice situations that prevents chimpanzees from maximizing food intake. PMID:19839704

  4. Physical intuitions about support relations in monkeys (Macaca fuscata) and apes (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Murai, Chizuko; Tanaka, Masayuki; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2011-05-01

    Nonhuman primates, like humans, have demonstrated various physical intuitions. Cacchione and Krist (2004) examined chimpanzees' intuitions about support relations with the violation-of-expectation task. They reported that the chimpanzees possessed intuitions about support, but their intuitions differed from those of humans in part; they were sensitive to "contact/no-contact" and "amount of contact" but not "type of contact" rule. To further explore intuitions about support in nonhuman primates, we conducted similar experiments on monkeys (Japanese monkeys) and apes (chimpanzees). In three experiments, we presented physically possible and impossible events of different support relations to the participants and measured their looking times. The results reveal that the chimpanzees and monkeys detect the violations of "contact/no-contact" and "amount of contact" but not "type of contact" variable. Therefore, the apes and monkeys possess similar intuitions; however, these intuitions differ in part from those of humans. The present study provides new and corroborative evidence of intuitions about support in nonhuman primates. However, this again leads to the question of distinctive understanding about support relations among primate species. PMID:21604855

  5. Robust retention and transfer of tool construction techniques in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Vale, Gill L; Flynn, Emma G; Pender, Lydia; Price, Elizabeth; Whiten, Andrew; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Kendal, Rachel L

    2016-02-01

    Long-term memory can be critical to a species' survival in environments with seasonal and even longer-term cycles of resource availability. The present, longitudinal study investigated whether complex tool behaviors used to gain an out-of-reach reward, following a hiatus of about 3 years and 7 months since initial experiences with a tool use task, were retained and subsequently executed more quickly by experienced than by naïve chimpanzees. Ten of the 11 retested chimpanzees displayed impressive long-term procedural memory, creating elongated tools using the same methods employed years previously, either combining 2 tools or extending a single tool. The complex tool behaviors were also transferred to a different task context, showing behavioral flexibility. This represents some of the first evidence for appreciable long-term procedural memory, and improvements in the utility of complex tool manufacture in chimpanzees. Such long-term procedural memory and behavioral flexibility have important implications for the longevity and transmission of behavioral traditions. PMID:26881941

  6. Diagnosis and Prevalence of Uterine Leiomyomata in Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Videan, EN; Satterfield, WC; Buchal, S; Lammey, ML

    2011-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomata are common, affecting 70–80% of women between 30 and 50 years of age. Leiomyomata have been reported for a variety of primate species, although prevalence rates and treatments have not been widely reported. The prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine leiomyomata in the Alamogordo Primate Facility and the Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research were examined. Uterine leiomyomata were diagnosed in 28.4% of chimpanzees with an average age at diagnosis of 30.4±8.0 years. Advanced age (>30 years) was related to an increase in leiomyomata and use of hormonal contraception was related to a decrease in leiomyomata. As the captive chimpanzee population ages, the incidence of leiomyomata among female chimpanzees will likely increase. The introduction of progesterone-based contraception for non-breeding research and zoological chimpanzees may reduce the development of leiomyomata. Finally, all chimpanzee facilities should institute aggressive screening programs and carefully consider treatment plans. PMID:21442632

  7. Social and nonsocial category discriminations in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe

    2014-09-01

    One captive adult chimpanzee and 3 adult American black bears were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. This is the first explicit comparison of bear and primate abilities using identical tasks, and the first test of a social concept in a carnivore. The discriminations involved a social relationship category (mother/offspring) and a nonsocial category involving food items. The social category discrimination could be made using knowledge of the overarching mother/offspring concept, whereas the nonsocial category discriminations could be made only by using perceptual rules, such as "choose images that show larger and smaller items of the same type." The bears failed to show above-chance transfer on either the social or nonsocial discriminations, indicating that they did not use either the perceptual rule or knowledge of the overarching concept of mother/offspring to guide their choices in these tasks. However, at least 1 bear remembered previously reinforced stimuli when these stimuli were recombined, later. The chimpanzee showed transfer on a control task and did not consistently apply a perceptual rule to solve the nonsocial task, so it is possible that he eventually acquired the social concept. Further comparisons between species on identical tasks assessing social knowledge will help illuminate the selective pressures responsible for a range of social cognitive skills. PMID:24903598

  8. Molecular identification of Entamoeba species in savanna woodland chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Čepička, Ivan; Kalousová, Barbora; Jirků, Milan; Stewart, Fiona; Levecke, Bruno; Modrý, David; Piel, Alex K; Petrželková, Klára J

    2016-05-01

    To address the molecular diversity and occurrence of pathogenic species of the genus Entamoeba spp. in wild non-human primates (NHP) we conducted molecular-phylogenetic analyses on Entamoeba from wild chimpanzees living in the Issa Valley, Tanzania. We compared the sensitivity of molecular [using a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and coproscopic detection (merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration) of Entamoeba spp. We identified Entamoeba spp. in 72 chimpanzee fecal samples (79%) subjected to species-specific PCRs for six Entamoeba species/groups (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba nuttalli, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba polecki ST2). We recorded three Entamoeba species: E. coli (47%), E. dispar (16%), Entamoeba hartmanni (51%). Coproscopically, we could only distinguish the cysts of complex E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii/nuttalli and E. coli. Molecular prevalence of entamoebas was higher than the prevalence based on the coproscopic examination. Our molecular phylogenies showed that sequences of E. dispar and E. coli from Issa chimpanzees are closely related to sequences from humans and other NHP from GenBank. The results showed that wild chimpanzees harbour Entamoeba species similar to those occurring in humans; however, no pathogenic species were detected. Molecular-phylogenetic methods are critical to improve diagnostics of entamoebas in wild NHP and for determining an accurate prevalence of Entamoeba species. PMID:26935395

  9. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

  10. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Carlitz, Esther H. D.; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C.; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178) = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species. PMID:27050418

  11. Social Competence of Adult Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with Severe Deprivation History: I. An Individual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl; Franz, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Early social deprivation in highly social mammals interferes with their varying needs for security and stimulation. Toleration of social stimulation was studied in 18 adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees, who had been deprived for 16 to 27 years, during their 1st year after resocialization into 1 of 3 social groups. For this, a model of social…

  12. An unusual incident of adoption in a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population at Gombe National Park.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Emily E

    2008-10-01

    Allomothering and adoption are well documented across primate species. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of such behavior according to the costs and benefits to the caregiver, mother, and infant. Permanent adoptions and allomothering have been observed in chimpanzees, but they typically involve the infants' siblings or nulliparous females. Here, I report a unique incident of adoption where an infant was adopted by its grandmother without the death of its mother. I conclude by considering how the adoption may have benefited the grandmother, mother, and infant. PMID:18543321

  13. Histological asymmetries of primary motor cortex predict handedness in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Chet C; Wahl, Elizabeth; Erwin, Joseph M; Hof, Patrick R; Hopkins, William D

    2007-08-01

    Like humans, chimpanzees display robust and consistent hand preferences during the performance of certain tasks. Although correlations have been demonstrated between gross anatomic measures of primary motor cortex asymmetry and handedness in captive chimpanzees, the relationship between histological architecture and behavioral lateralization has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we examined interhemispheric asymmetry of several different microstructural characteristics of the primary motor cortex in the region of hand representation from 18 chimpanzees tested on a coordinated bimanual task before death. At the population level our data showed leftward bias for higher layer II/III neuron density. Of note, however, there was no population-level asymmetry in the areal fraction of Nissl-stained cell bodies, a finding that differs from previous studies of this cortical region in humans. Nonetheless, we found that asymmetry in the density of layer II/III parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons was the best predictor of individual hand preference. These results suggest that histological asymmetries are related to handedness in chimpanzees, while overall patterns of asymmetry at the population level might differ from humans. PMID:17534947

  14. Tubal ligation in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) as a means of contraception.

    PubMed

    Mundy, N I; Luton, D; Ancrenaz, M

    1993-06-01

    Contraception of two chimpanzees was considered necessary for clinical reasons. After failure of reversible methods of contraception (an intrauterine device and a long-acting progestagen), tubal ligation was successfully performed, using a technique similar to one used in women. PMID:8230178

  15. Use of intrauterine devices as a means of contraception in a colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Porteous, I S; Mundy, N I; Grall, C

    1994-08-01

    The uncontrolled reproduction of the captive chimpanzee colony at the Primate Centre, CIRMF, Gabon, has led to high neonatal mortality. The only solution meeting ethical, financial, and practical considerations was to attempt reversible physical contraception using intrauterine devices (IUDs). Human IUDs were inserted into 21 females of various ages, parities, and stages of the menstrual cycle. Over a 30-month period, five of the study animals became pregnant. This reduction of conception rate, with minimal side effects, demonstrates the reliability of IUDs for controlling reproduction of chimpanzee colonies. PMID:7897642

  16. Relationship between chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) density and large, fleshy-fruit tree density: conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Balcomb, S R; Chapman, C A; Wrangham, R W

    2000-07-01

    Conservation efforts to protect chimpanzees in their natural habitat are of the highest priority. Unfortunately, chimpanzee density is notoriously difficult to determine, making it difficult to assess potential chimpanzee conservation areas. The objective of this study was to determine whether chimpanzee density could be predicted from the density of trees that produce large, fleshy fruits. Using chimpanzee nest counts from six sites within Kibale National Park, Uganda, collected during a year-long study, a predictive trend was found between chimpanzee nest density and large, fleshy-fruit tree density. This relationship may offer a quick, reasonably reliable method of estimating potential chimpanzee densities in previously unsurveyed habitats and may be used to evaluate the suitability of possible re-introduction sites. Thus, in conjunction with other survey techniques, such as forest reconnaissance, it may provide an effective and efficient means of determining appropriate chimpanzee habitat in which to allocate conservation efforts. PMID:10902668

  17. The association between imitation recognition and socio-communicative competencies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Sarah M.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Imitation recognition provides a viable platform from which advanced social cognitive skills may develop. Despite evidence that non-human primates are capable of imitation recognition, how this ability is related to social cognitive skills is unknown. In this study, we compared imitation recognition performance, as indicated by the production of testing behaviors, with performance on a series of tasks that assess social and physical cognition in 49 chimpanzees. In the initial analyses, we found that males were more responsive than females to being imitated and engaged in significantly greater behavior repetitions and testing sequences. We also found that subjects who consistently recognized being imitated performed better on social but not physical cognitive tasks, as measured by the Primate Cognitive Test Battery. These findings suggest that the neural constructs underlying imitation recognition are likely associated with or among those underlying more general socio-communicative abilities in chimpanzees. Implications regarding how imitation recognition may facilitate other social cognitive processes, such as mirror self-recognition, are discussed. PMID:25767454

  18. Asymmetries of the parietal operculum in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in relation to handedness for tool use.

    PubMed

    Gilissen, Emmanuel P; Hopkins, William D

    2013-02-01

    A left larger than right planum temporale (PT) is a neuroanatomical asymmetry common to both humans and chimpanzees. A similar asymmetry was observed in the human parietal operculum (PO), and the convergence of PT and PO asymmetries is strongly associated with right-handedness. Here, we assessed whether this combination also exists in common chimpanzees. Magnetic resonance scans were obtained in 83 captive subjects. PT was quantified following procedures previously employed and PO was defined as the maximal linear distance between the end point of the sylvian fissure and the central sulcus. Handedness was assessed using 2 tasks that were designed to simulate termite fishing of wild chimpanzees and to elicit bimanual coordination without tool use. Chimpanzees showed population-level leftward asymmetries for both PT and PO. As in humans, these leftward asymmetries were not correlated. Handedness for tool use but not for nontool use motor actions mediated the expression of asymmetries in PT and PO, with right-handed apes showing more pronounced leftward asymmetries. Consistent PT and PO asymmetry combinations were observed in chimpanzees. The proportions of individuals showing these combinations were comparable in humans and chimpanzees; however, interaction between handedness and patterns of combined PO and PT asymmetries differed between the 2 species. PMID:22368087

  19. Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This study explored whether the tendency of chimpanzees and children to use emulation or imitation to solve a tool-using task was a response to the availability of causal information. Young wild-born chimpanzees from an African sanctuary and 3- to 4-year-old children observed a human demonstrator use a tool to retrieve a reward from a puzzle-box. The demonstration involved both causally relevant and irrelevant actions, and the box was presented in each of two conditions: opaque and clear. In the opaque condition, causal information about the effect of the tool inside the box was not available, and hence it was impossible to differentiate between the relevant and irrelevant parts of the demonstration. However, in the clear condition causal information was available, and subjects could potentially determine which actions were necessary. When chimpanzees were presented with the opaque box, they reproduced both the relevant and irrelevant actions, thus imitating the overall structure of the task. When the box was presented in the clear condition they instead ignored the irrelevant actions in favour of a more efficient, emulative technique. These results suggest that emulation is the favoured strategy of chimpanzees when sufficient causal information is available. However, if such information is not available, chimpanzees are prone to employ a more comprehensive copy of an observed action. In contrast to the chimpanzees, children employed imitation to solve the task in both conditions, at the expense of efficiency. We suggest that the difference in performance of chimpanzees and children may be due to a greater susceptibility of children to cultural conventions, perhaps combined with a differential focus on the results, actions and goals of the demonstrator. PMID:15549502

  20. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired. PMID:20205263

  1. Hemispheric specialization in infant chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): evidence for a relation with gender and arousal.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W D; Bard, K A

    1993-05-01

    The current study extends previous documentation of behavioral asymmetries in hand-to-mouth, self-consoling behaviors of infant chimpanzees. The underlying source of lateralized hand-to-mouth, self-calming behavior was investigated by comparing individual differences in neonatal arousal levels, regulatory ability, and motor performance with individual differences in the degree of laterality at 3 months. Asymmetrical hand-to-mouth, self-calming behaviors at 3 months of age were significantly related to general arousal at 2 days of age (i.e., the Range of State cluster scores measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale). Simply stated, chimpanzees with a right-hand bias in hand-to-mouth behavior exhibited lower arousal at 2 days of age compared with nonright-handed individuals. The only item of the Range of State cluster to distinguish subjects was irritability: Right-handed subjects were less irritable. Previously, a trend was reported with respect to sex differences in the laterality of hand-to-mouth behavior. With the greater number of subjects in the present study, we found that females exhibited a significantly greater right-hand bias for hand-to-mouth behaviors (12 of 13) than did males (9 of 15). We conclude that neonatal arousability, and not regulatory capacity or motor performance, predicts the degree of laterality found in hand-to-mouth, self-calming behaviors in 3-month-old chimpanzees. These data are discussed from the standpoint of early pari-parturitional or intrauterine factors affecting lateralized development. PMID:8354427

  2. Genetic basis in motor skill and hand preference for tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Reamer, Lisa; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Schapiro, Steven J

    2015-02-01

    Chimpanzees are well known for their tool using abilities. Numerous studies have documented variability in tool use among chimpanzees and the role that social learning and other factors play in their development. There are also findings on hand use in both captive and wild chimpanzees; however, less understood are the potential roles of genetic and non-genetic mechanisms in determining individual differences in tool use skill and laterality. Here, we examined heritability in tool use skill and handedness for a probing task in a sample of 243 captive chimpanzees. Quantitative genetic analysis, based on the extant pedigrees, showed that overall both tool use skill and handedness were significantly heritable. Significant heritability in motor skill was evident in two genetically distinct populations of apes, and between two cohorts that received different early social rearing experiences. We further found that motor skill decreased with age and that males were more commonly left-handed than females. Collectively, these data suggest that though non-genetic factors do influence tool use performance and handedness in chimpanzees, genetic factors also play a significant role, as has been reported in humans. PMID:25520351

  3. Neurochemical organization of the vestibular brainstem in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Baizer, Joan S; Paolone, Nicholas A; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2013-11-01

    Chimpanzees are one of the closest living relatives of humans. However, the cognitive and motor abilities of chimpanzees and humans are quite different. The fact that humans are habitually bipedal and chimpanzees are not implies different uses of vestibular information in the control of posture and balance. Furthermore, bipedal locomotion permits the development of fine motor skills of the hand and tool use in humans, suggesting differences between species in the structures and circuitry for manual control. Much motor behavior is mediated via cerebro-cerebellar circuits that depend on brainstem relays. In this study, we investigated the organization of the vestibular brainstem in chimpanzees to gain insight into whether these structures differ in their anatomy from humans. We identified the four nuclei of vestibular nuclear complex in the chimpanzee and also looked at several other precerebellar structures. The size and arrangement of some of these nuclei differed between chimpanzees and humans, and also displayed considerable inter-individual variation. We identified regions within the cytoarchitectonically defined medial vestibular nucleus visualized by immunoreactivity to the calcium-binding proteins calretinin and calbindin as previously shown in other species including human. We have found that the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis, which is identified in the human but not in macaque monkeys, is present in the chimpanzee brainstem. However, the arcuate nucleus, which is present in humans, was not found in chimpanzees. The present study reveals major differences in the organization of the vestibular brainstem among Old World anthropoid primate species. Furthermore, in chimpanzees, as well as humans, there is individual variability in the organization of brainstem nuclei. PMID:23179862

  4. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) instrumentally help but do not communicate in a mutualistic cooperative task.

    PubMed

    Bullinger, Anke F; Melis, Alicia P; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Chimpanzees cooperate in a variety of contexts, but communicating to influence and regulate cooperative activities is rare. It is unclear whether this reflects chimpanzees' general inability or whether they have found other means to coordinate cooperative activities. In the present study chimpanzees could help a partner play her role in a mutually beneficial food-retrieval task either by transferring a needed tool (transfer condition) or by visually or acoustically communicating the hiding-location of the needed tool (communication condition). Overall, chimpanzees readily helped their partner by delivering the needed tool, but none of them communicated the hiding location of the tool to their partner reliably across trials. These results demonstrate that although chimpanzees can coordinate their cooperative activities by instrumentally helping their partner in her role, they do not readily use communication with their partner for this same end. PMID:25133465

  5. Processing of form stimuli presented unilaterally in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    Visual forms were unilaterally presented using a video-task paradigm to ten humans, chimpanzees, and two rhesus monkeys to determine whether hemispheric advantages existed in the processing of these stimuli. Both accuracy and reaction time served as dependent measures. For the chimpanzees, a significant right hemisphere advantage was found within the first three test sessions. The humans and monkeys failed to show a hemispheric advantage as determined by accuracy scores. Analysis of reaction time data revealed a significant left hemisphere advantage for the monkeys. A visual half-field x block interaction was found for the chimpanzees, with a significant left visual field advantage in block two, whereas a right visual field advantage was found in block four. In the human subjects, a left visual field advantage was found in block three when they used their right hands to respond. The results are discussed in relation to recent reports of hemispheric advantages for nonhuman primates.

  6. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) pelvis and hind limb.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Larson, Susan G; Demes, Brigitte; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model would allow integration across a wide range of laboratory-based experimental data, providing new insights into the determinants of their locomotor performance capabilities, as well as the origins and evolution of human bipedalism. Here, we described a detailed three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. The model includes geometric representations of bones and joints, as well as 35 muscle-tendon units that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle-tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range of joint positions. Muscle-tendon moment arms predicted by the model were generally in good agreement with tendon-excursion estimates from cadaveric specimens. Sensitivity analyses provided information on the parameters that model predictions are most and least sensitive to, which offers important context for interpreting future results obtained with the model. Comparisons with a similar human musculoskeletal model indicate that chimpanzees are better suited for force production over a larger range of joint positions than humans. This study represents an important step in understanding the integrated function of the neuromusculoskeletal systems in chimpanzee locomotion. PMID:24006347

  7. Brief communication: Cineradiographic analysis of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nathan E; Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C; Larson, Susan G

    2014-08-01

    During terrestrial locomotion, chimpanzees exhibit dorsiflexion of the midfoot between midstance and toe-off of stance phase, a phenomenon that has been called the "midtarsal break." This motion is generally absent during human bipedalism, and in chimpanzees is associated with more mobile foot joints than in humans. However, the contribution of individual foot joints to overall foot mobility in chimpanzees is poorly understood, particularly on the medial side of the foot. The talonavicular (TN) and calcaneocuboid (CC) joints have both been suggested to contribute significantly to midfoot mobility and to the midtarsal break in chimpanzees. To evaluate the relative magnitude of motion that can occur at these joints, we tracked skeletal motion of the hindfoot and midfoot during passive plantarflexion and dorsiflexion manipulations using cineradiography. The sagittal plane range of motion was 38 ± 10° at the TN joint and 14 ± 8° at the CC joint. This finding indicates that the TN joint is more mobile than the CC joint during ankle plantarflexion-dorsiflexion. We suggest that the larger range of motion at the TN joint during dorsiflexion is associated with a rotation (inversion-eversion) across the transverse tarsal joint, which may occur in addition to sagittal plane motion. PMID:24827121

  8. A Cross-Setting Study of Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Personality Structure and Development

    PubMed Central

    WEISS, ALEXANDER; KING, JAMES E.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed whether personality ratings using a 43 adjective questionnaire based on the Five-Factor Model generalized from a sample of 202 zoo-housed chimpanzees to a sample of 175 chimpanzees housed in Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Mean interrater reliabilities of adjectival ratings were lower for the chimpanzees housed in Yerkes. In addition, rank order of the interrater reliabilities of items differed between settings. To compare factor structure, we first examined whether we could replicate the original six factor structure found in an earlier study of 100 zoo chimpanzees using principal factors analysis in the Yerkes sample and 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors were clearly replicated in the Yerkes sample and the 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The Neuroticism and Openness factors did not replicate in the Yerkes sample, but they also did not replicate in the new zoo chimpanzees. These findings suggest the need to sample more adjectives representing neuroticism and openness in future versions of the questionnaire. We next sought to determine whether factor structure, as determined by principal components analysis, remained invariant across the two settings. This analysis revealed dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors in both settings and a high level of congruence between the zoo and Yerkes samples for these factors. Finally, we tested whether factor scores in the two samples were similarly related to age and sex. With the exception of differences in age effects for dominance and agreeableness, age, and sex effects were consistent across samples. These findings suggest that, whereas there may be differences in the ease with which ratings are made, personality structure, and development are largely consistent across widely differing settings. PMID:17397036

  9. Gesture use by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): differences between sexes in inter- and intra-sexual interactions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicole M

    2013-06-01

    Communication and social relationships are two of the most important aspects of primate life, but few studies have focused on linking these aspects in apes. There are some shared social pressures between the two sexes (e.g., kin selection, alliance formation, and protection against attack), but there are also differences (e.g., mate selection, dispersal, and social ranking systems). The aim of this study was to identify the communication strategies of the sexes with respect to their particular communication partner. I hypothesized the sexes use different strategies in their gestural communication based on their different social pressures. Specifically, males should have more positive intra-sexual relationships than females because of high focus on male-male alliance formation and maintaining high social rank, both of which directly affect their mating opportunities and relationships with all other members of the group. On the other hand, females should have more positive inter-sexual relationships due to the abuse they could receive from insubordination to males and because there is less focus on maintaining multiple, positive relationships with other females. Furthermore, because of differences in social pressures, males should have higher incidence of reassurance in same-sex interactions than females because it should be more important for males to mitigate negative interactions. I analyzed the characteristics of the gesture repertoire and frequency of gesture use for each sex in each of four contexts: (1) aggression, (2) submission, (3) greeting, and (4) reassurance. I looked at intra-sexual and inter-sexual interactions, separately. I found that, indeed, males and females utilize different strategies of gestural communication. I also found that females, but not males, have a distinct gesture strategy for communicating with the opposite sex than for the same sex. This study shows there are distinct strategies utilized by the two sexes and these differences may be explained by their differing social pressures. PMID:23436383

  10. Language-trained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) delay gratification by choosing token exchange over immediate reward consumption.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Evans, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Token exchange inherently introduces an element of delay between behavior and reward and so token studies may help us better understand delay of gratification and self-control. To examine this possibility, we presented three language-trained chimpanzees with repeated choices involving different foods that could be eaten immediately or lexigram (graphic symbol) tokens that represented (and could be traded for) foods later. When both options were foods, chimpanzees always chose more preferred foods over less preferred foods. When both options were lexigram tokens representing those same foods, performance remained the same as chimpanzees selected the higher value token and then traded it for food. Then, when faced with choosing a token that could be traded later or choosing a food item that could be eaten immediately, most chimpanzees learned to make whatever response led to the more preferred food. They did this even when that meant selecting a high value lexigram token that could be traded only 2 to 3 min later instead of a medium value, but immediately available, food item. Thus, chimpanzees flexibly selected tokens even though such selections necessarily delayed gratification and required forgoing immediately available food. This finding illustrates the utility of symbolic token exchange for assessing self-control in nonhuman animals. PMID:22674686

  11. Characterization of a Cardiorenal-like Syndrome in Aged Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Chilton, J; Wilcox, A; Lammey, M; Meyer, D

    2016-03-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome involves disease and dysfunction of the heart that leads to progressive renal dysfunction. This study investigated the relationship between cardiac and renal disease in 91 aged chimpanzees at the Alamogordo Primate Facility by evaluation of the medical histories, metabolic parameters, functional measurements of the cardiovascular system, clinical pathology, and histopathology focused on the heart and kidney. Cardiac fibrosis was the most frequent microscopic finding in 82 of 91 animals (90%), followed by glomerulosclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in 63 of 91 (69%). Cardiac fibrosis with attendant glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis was observed in 58 of 91 animals (63%); there was a statistically significant association between the 2 conditions. As the severity of cardiac fibrosis increased, there was corresponding increase in severity of glomerulosclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Altered metabolic, cardiovascular, and clinical pathology parameters indicative of heart and kidney failure were commonly associated with the moderate to severe microscopic changes, and concurrent heart and kidney failure were considered the cause of death. The constellation of findings in the chimpanzees were similar to cardiorenal syndrome in humans. PMID:26792841

  12. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Expression of Handedness in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Adams, Mark James; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Most humans are right-handed and, like many behavioral traits, there is good evidence that genetic factors play a role in handedness. Many researchers have argued that nonhuman animal limb or hand preferences are not under genetic control but instead are determined by random, non-genetic factors. We used quantitative genetic analyses to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to three measures of chimpanzee handedness. Results revealed significant population-level handedness for two of the three measures --- the tube task and manual gestures. Furthermore, significant additive genetic effects for the direction and strength of handedness were found for all three measures, with some modulation due to early social rearing experiences. These findings challenge historical and contemporary views of the mechanisms underlying handedness in nonhuman animals. PMID:23615127

  13. Loving Peter Pan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkaid, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the story of "Peter Pan." Considers its creation, its role on the stage, and its impact on society. Considers how "Peter Pan" is about the inability to have make-believe and the true stick together: it dramatizes an artistic failure, the failure to make the vision of the play successful. (SG)

  14. The spermatozoon of a 'living fossil': Tubiluchus troglodytes (Priapulida).

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Marco; Garbelli, Claudio

    2006-02-01

    The spermatozoon of Tubiluchus troglodytes, the first priapulid formally described from the Mediterranean Sea has a head composed of an acrosome and a nucleus. The acrosome is divided in two branches coiled around the nucleus. The nucleus is basally columnar, but apically generates two rods helically coiled one around the other. The midpiece is formed by an axoneme with 27 accessory microtubules, surrounded by three mitochondria. An annulus separates the midpiece from the tail that contains a 9 + 2 axoneme surrounded by nine accessory microtubules. The spermatozoon of T. troglodytes is similar to that of the other two species known from the genus, and completely different from the 'primitive' one of the other priapulids. Since Tubiluchus is considered the most basal of the extant priapulids, and the only genus with an internal fertilization, it may be that in priapulids the external fertilization is a derived character. PMID:16274719

  15. The Pan Zhichang Incident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuchen, Zhu

    2007-01-01

    This article examines why Pan Zhichang, a well-known professor and Ph.D. candidate supervisor at Nanjing University, has repeatedly been accused of plagiarism. It may not be difficult to check whether he has committed plagiarism, but seeking the deeper social and systemic reasons for a person's repeated "negligence" is indeed a thought-provoking…

  16. Pan-Tetris: an interactive visualisation for Pan-genomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-scale genome projects have paved the way to microbial pan-genome analyses. Pan-genomes describe the union of all genes shared by all members of the species or taxon under investigation. They offer a framework to assess the genomic diversity of a given collection of individual genomes and moreover they help to consolidate gene predictions and annotations. The computation of pan-genomes is often a challenge, and many techniques that use a global alignment-independent approach run the risk of not separating paralogs from orthologs. Also alignment-based approaches which take the gene neighbourhood into account often need additional manual curation of the results. This is quite time consuming and so far there is no visualisation tool available that offers an interactive GUI for the pan-genome to support curating pan-genomic computations or annotations of orthologous genes. Results We introduce Pan-Tetris, a Java based interactive software tool that provides a clearly structured and suitable way for the visual inspection of gene occurrences in a pan-genome table. The main features of Pan-Tetris are a standard coordinate based presentation of multiple genomes complemented by easy to use tools compensating for algorithmic weaknesses in the pan-genome generation workflow. We demonstrate an application of Pan-Tetris to the pan-genome of Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Pan-Tetris is currently the only interactive pan-genome visualisation tool. Pan-Tetris is available from http://bit.ly/1vVxYZT PMID:26328606

  17. Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Howell, Katie A.; Patel, Sonal J.; Gunn, Bronwyn; Karim, Marcus; Lai, Jonathan R.; Frei, Julia C.; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K.; Zeitlin, Larry; Douglas, Robin; Fusco, Marnie L.; Froude, Jeffrey W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Herbert, Andrew S.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Alter, Galit; Dye, John M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Warfield, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. IMPORTANCE Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus

  18. Human-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains within great ape populations in Central Africa (Gabon).

    PubMed

    Nagel, M; Dischinger, J; Türck, M; Verrier, D; Oedenkoven, M; Ngoubangoye, B; Le Flohic, G; Drexler, J F; Bierbaum, G; Gonzalez, J-P

    2013-11-01

    The risk of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus is well-known. However, most studies regarding the distribution of (clinically relevant) S. aureus among humans and animals took place in the western hemisphere and only limited data are available from (Central) Africa. In this context, recent studies focused on S. aureus strains in humans and primates, but the question of whether humans and monkeys share related S. aureus strains or may interchange strains remained largely unsolved. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution and spread of human-like S. aureus strains among great apes living in captivity. Therefore, a primate facility at the International Centre for Medical Research of Franceville (Gabon) was screened. We detected among the primates a common human S. aureus strain, belonging to the spa-type t148. It was isolated from three different individuals of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), of which one individual showed a large necrotizing wound. This animal died, most probably of a staphylococcal sepsis. Additionally, we discovered the t148 type among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that were settled in the immediate neighbourhood of the infected gorillas. A detailed analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that the gorilla and chimpanzee isolates represented two closely related strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human-associated S. aureus strain causing disease in great apes. The simultaneous detection in gorillas and chimpanzees indicated an interspecies transmission of this S. aureus strain. Our results recommend that protection of wild animals must not only be based on habitat conservation, but also on the assessment of the risk of contact with human pathogens. PMID:23398468

  19. Demographic History of the Genus Pan Inferred from Whole Mitochondrial Genome Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Serena; de Manuel, Marc; Ghirotto, Silvia; Benazzo, Andrea; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Nam, Kiwoong; Dabad, Marc; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Comas, David; Navarro, Arcadi; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Andres, Aida M.; Barbujani, Guido; Hvilsom, Christina; Marques-Bonet, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pan is the closest genus to our own and it includes two species, Pan paniscus (bonobos) and Pan troglodytes (chimpanzees). The later is constituted by four subspecies, all highly endangered. The study of the Pan genera has been incessantly complicated by the intricate relationship among subspecies and the statistical limitations imposed by the reduced number of samples or genomic markers analyzed. Here, we present a new method to reconstruct complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from whole genome shotgun (WGS) datasets, mtArchitect, showing that its reconstructions are highly accurate and consistent with long-range PCR mitogenomes. We used this approach to build the mitochondrial genomes of 20 newly sequenced samples which, together with available genomes, allowed us to analyze the hitherto most complete Pan mitochondrial genome dataset including 156 chimpanzee and 44 bonobo individuals, with a proportional contribution from all chimpanzee subspecies. We estimated the separation time between chimpanzees and bonobos around 1.15 million years ago (Mya) [0.81–1.49]. Further, we found that under the most probable genealogical model the two clades of chimpanzees, Western + Nigeria-Cameroon and Central + Eastern, separated at 0.59 Mya [0.41–0.78] with further internal separations at 0.32 Mya [0.22–0.43] and 0.16 Mya [0.17–0.34], respectively. Finally, for a subset of our samples, we compared nuclear versus mitochondrial genomes and we found that chimpanzee subspecies have different patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity, which could be a result of either processes affecting the mitochondrial genome, such as hitchhiking or background selection, or a result of population dynamics. PMID:27345955

  20. Demographic History of the Genus Pan Inferred from Whole Mitochondrial Genome Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Lobon, Irene; Tucci, Serena; de Manuel, Marc; Ghirotto, Silvia; Benazzo, Andrea; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Nam, Kiwoong; Dabad, Marc; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Comas, David; Navarro, Arcadi; Schierup, Mikkel H; Andres, Aida M; Barbujani, Guido; Hvilsom, Christina; Marques-Bonet, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pan is the closest genus to our own and it includes two species, Pan paniscus (bonobos) and Pan troglodytes (chimpanzees). The later is constituted by four subspecies, all highly endangered. The study of the Pan genera has been incessantly complicated by the intricate relationship among subspecies and the statistical limitations imposed by the reduced number of samples or genomic markers analyzed. Here, we present a new method to reconstruct complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from whole genome shotgun (WGS) datasets, mtArchitect, showing that its reconstructions are highly accurate and consistent with long-range PCR mitogenomes. We used this approach to build the mitochondrial genomes of 20 newly sequenced samples which, together with available genomes, allowed us to analyze the hitherto most complete Pan mitochondrial genome dataset including 156 chimpanzee and 44 bonobo individuals, with a proportional contribution from all chimpanzee subspecies. We estimated the separation time between chimpanzees and bonobos around 1.15 million years ago (Mya) [0.81-1.49]. Further, we found that under the most probable genealogical model the two clades of chimpanzees, Western + Nigeria-Cameroon and Central + Eastern, separated at 0.59 Mya [0.41-0.78] with further internal separations at 0.32 Mya [0.22-0.43] and 0.16 Mya [0.17-0.34], respectively. Finally, for a subset of our samples, we compared nuclear versus mitochondrial genomes and we found that chimpanzee subspecies have different patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity, which could be a result of either processes affecting the mitochondrial genome, such as hitchhiking or background selection, or a result of population dynamics. PMID:27345955

  1. Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic gneisses reworked during a Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) high-grade event in the Mozambique belt of East Africa: Structural relationships and zircon ages from the Kidatu area, central Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, M.; Kröner, A.; Poller, U.; Sommer, H.; Muhongo, S.; Wingate, M. T. D.

    2006-06-01

    crustal remnants that were reworked during the Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny.

  2. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  3. From evaporating pans to transpiring plants (John Dalton Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The name of the original inventor of irrigated agriculture is lost to antiquity. Nevertheless, one can perhaps imagine an inquisitive desert inhabitant noting the greener vegetation along a watercourse and putting two and two together. Once water was being supplied and food was being produced it would be natural to ask a further question: how much water can we put on? No doubt much experience was gained down through the ages, but again, one can readily imagine someone inverting a rain gauge, filling it with water and measuring how fast the water evaporated. The inverted rain gauge measures the demand for water by the atmosphere. We call it the evaporative demand. I do not know if this is what actually happened but it sure makes an interesting start to a talk. Evaporation pans are basically inverted rain gauges. The rain gauge and evaporation pan measure the supply and demand respectively and these instruments are the workhorses of agricultural meteorology. Rain gauges are well known. Evaporation pans are lesser known but are in widespread use and are a key part of several national standardized meteorological networks. Many more pans are used for things like scheduling irrigation on farms or estimating evaporation from lakes. Analysis of the long records now available from standardized networks has revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., pan evaporation has increased in some places and decreased in other but when averaged over large numbers of pans there has been a steady decline. These independent reports from, for example, the US, Russia, China, India, Thailand, are replicated in the southern hemisphere in, for example, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. One often hears the statement that because the earth is expected to warm with increasing greenhouse gas emissions then it follows that water will evaporate faster. The pan evaporation observations show that this widely held expectation is wrong. When expectations disagree with observations, it is the

  4. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  5. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  6. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  7. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  8. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  9. Distribution of a community of mammals in relation to roads and other human disturbances in Gabon, central Africa.

    PubMed

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. PMID:23410077

  10. The performance of bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in two versions of an object-choice task.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Nicholas J; Call, Josep

    2009-08-01

    The object-choice task tests animals' ability to use human-given cues to find a hidden reward located in 1 of 2 (or more) containers. Great apes are generally unskillful in this task whereas other species including dogs (Canis familiaris) and goats (Capra hircus) can use human-given cues to locate the reward. However, great apes are typically positioned proximal to the containers when receiving the experimenter's cue whereas other species are invariably positioned distally. The authors investigated how the position of the subject, the human giving the cue and the containers (and the distance among them) affected the performance of 19 captive great apes. Compared to the proximal condition, the distal condition involved larger distances and, critically, it reduced the potential ambiguity of the cues as well as the strong influence that the sight of the containers may have had when subjects received the cue. Subjects were far more successful in the distal compared to the proximal condition. The authors suggest several possibilities to account for this difference and discuss our findings in relation to previous and future object-choice research. PMID:19685972

  11. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Esther; Keupp, Stefanie; Hare, Brian; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Humans make decisions about when and with whom to cooperate based on their reputations. People either learn about others by direct interaction or by observing third-party interactions or gossip. An important question is whether other animal species, especially our closest living relatives, the nonhuman great apes, also form reputations of others. In Study 1, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human children experienced a nice experimenter who tried to give food/toys to the subject and a mean experimenter who interrupted the food/toy giving. In studies 2 and 3, nonhuman great apes and human children could only passively observe a similar interaction, in which a nice experimenter and a mean experimenter interacted with a third party. Orangutans and 2.5-year-old human children preferred to approach the nice experimenter rather than the mean one after having directly experienced their respective behaviors. Orangutans, chimpanzees, and 2.5-year-old human children also took into account experimenter actions toward third parties in forming reputations. These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes. PMID:22746158

  12. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Shares Features of Both Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Lentiviral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Edward J. D.; Schmidt, Fabian; Kondova, Ivanela; Niphuis, Henk; Hodara, Vida L.; Clissold, Leah; McLay, Kirsten; Guerra, Bernadette; Redrobe, Sharon; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Lanford, Robert E.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The virus-host relationship in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected chimpanzees is thought to be different from that found in other SIV infected African primates. However, studies of captive SIVcpz infected chimpanzees are limited. Previously, the natural SIVcpz infection of one chimpanzee, and the experimental infection of six chimpanzees was reported, with limited follow-up. Here, we present a long-term study of these seven animals, with a retrospective re-examination of the early stages of infection. The only clinical signs consistent with AIDS or AIDS associated disease was thrombocytopenia in two cases, associated with the development of anti-platelet antibodies. However, compared to uninfected and HIV-1 infected animals, SIVcpz infected animals had significantly lower levels of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells. Despite this, levels of T-cell activation in chronic infection were not significantly elevated. In addition, while plasma levels of β2 microglobulin, neopterin and soluble TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (sTRAIL) were elevated in acute infection, these markers returned to near-normal levels in chronic infection, reminiscent of immune activation patterns in ‘natural host’ species. Furthermore, plasma soluble CD14 was not elevated in chronic infection. However, examination of the secondary lymphoid environment revealed persistent changes to the lymphoid structure, including follicular hyperplasia in SIVcpz infected animals. In addition, both SIV and HIV-1 infected chimpanzees showed increased levels of deposition of collagen and increased levels of Mx1 expression in the T-cell zones of the lymph node. The outcome of SIVcpz infection of captive chimpanzees therefore shares features of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic lentivirus infections. PMID:26360709

  13. Effects of Aging and Blood Contamination on the Urinary Protein–Creatinine Ratio in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Lammey, Michael L; Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Videan, Elaine; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-01-01

    The initial goal of this study was to evaluate proteinuria by using the protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio of urine obtained by cystocentesis of healthy adult captive chimpanzees. Urine samples were collected by using ultrasound-guided cystocentesis from 125 (80 male, 45 female) captive chimpanzees. All samples were collected over a 17-mo time period (August 2008 to January 2010) during the animal's annual physical examination. Samples were assayed at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results indicated that both age and blood contamination affect the UPC ratio and therefore alter the diagnostic utility of the UPC ratio in chimpanzees. In addition, this research establishes reference ranges by age for the UPC ratio in healthy adult chimpanzees. Chimps younger than the median age of 24.6 y have a median UPC ratio of 0.098 (range, 0 to 1.76), whereas older animals have a median UPC of 0.288 (range, 0 to 2.44). Our results likely will enable veterinarians working with chimpanzees to better evaluate their renal function. PMID:21640034

  14. Initiation of Joint Attention is Associated with Morphometric Variation in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Taglialatela, Jared P.

    2012-01-01

    In developing human children, joint attention is an important preverbal skill fundamental to the development of language. Poor joint attention skills have been described as a behavioral risk factor for some neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder. It has been hypothesized that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in the development of joint attention in human children. Here, we tested whether the morphometry and lateralization of the ACC differed between chimpanzees that were classified as either consistently or inconsistently engaging in joint attention with a human experimenter. Results showed that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the joint attention task had larger grey matter volumes in the ACC compared to apes that performed well on the task. In addition, both population-level asymmetries and sex differences in the volume of GM were found within the ACC. Specifically, females had relatively larger GM volumes in two of the three subregions of the ACC compared to males, and significant leftward asymmetries were found for two of the subregions whereas a rightward biases was observed in the third. Based on these findings, we suggest that the ACC plays in important role in mediating joint attention, not just in humans, but also chimpanzees. We further suggest that the differences found between groups may reflect inherent differences in the amount of white matter within the ACC, thereby suggesting reduced connectivity between the ACC and other cortical regions in chimpanzees with poor joint attention skills. PMID:23300067

  15. Association of Brain-Type Natriuretic Protein and Cardiac Troponin I with Incipient Cardiovascular Disease in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Lammey, Michael L; Sleeper, Meg M; Lee, D Rick

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in chimpanzees, but its etiology and clinical presentations remain poorly understood. The disease in chimpanzees differs sufficiently from that in humans that simple extrapolation from human findings are inadequate to guide clinical diagnoses. Nevertheless, the burden of disease posed by CVD made it important to attempt to identify specific chimpanzees at risk of developing CVD to allow clinical intervention prior to clinical presentation of advanced disease. We screened 4 CVD biomarkers used in human and veterinary medicine to identify markers with prognostic value in chimpanzees. Biomarkers included complete lipid panel, C-reactive protein, brain-type natriuretic protein, and cardiac troponin I. Serum levels of brain-type natriuretic protein differed between chimpanzees with CVD and heart-healthy controls. Cardiac troponin I gave mixed results. C-reactive protein and lipid panel values were not informative for cardiovascular disease, although total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides increased significantly with decade of life. Values of brain-type natriuretic protein exceeding 163 mg/mL had a specificity of 90.5% for CVD, whereas levels of cardiac troponin I above the threshold of detection (0.20 ng/mL) appeared to be clinically relevant. More extensive clinical studies are recommended to validate these specific values. We conclude that brain-type natriuretic protein and possibly cardiac troponin I are useful diagnostic biomarkers for incipient CVD processes in chimpanzees. PMID:21535928

  16. Differential onset of infantile deprivation produces distinctive long-term effects in adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kalcher, Elfriede; Franz, Cornelia; Crailsheim, Karl; Preuschoft, Signe

    2008-12-01

    Maternal or social deprivation during early infancy inevitably produces social deficiencies in juvenile chimpanzees. Hypothesizing such deficiencies to persist into adulthood (a), and, as in humans, a sensitive period in early infancy for attachment formation (b), we predicted and found behavioral differences in resocialized adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees after about 20 years of solitary confinement depending on their age at onset of deprivation: early deprived (ED; mean: 1.2 years) chimpanzees engaged significantly less in social interactions, spent less time associated, and showed more nonsocial idiosyncrasies than did late deprived (LD; mean: 3.6 years) chimpanzees. In addition to these individual attributes relational qualities, specifically the combination of ED and LD chimpanzees within social groups, have an impact on social recovery. LDs can best exploit their social potential in the company of other LDs and EDs tend to stagnate in their recovery when socialized with other EDs. PMID:18688804

  17. Constraints on the exploitation of the functional properties of objects in expert tool-using chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Povinelli, Daniel J; Frey, Scott H

    2016-09-01

    Many species exploit immediately apparent dimensions of objects during tool use and manufacture and operate over internal perceptual representations of objects (they move and reorient objects in space, have rules of operation to deform or modify objects, etc). Humans, however, actively test for functionally relevant object properties before such operations begin, even when no previous percepts of a particular object's qualities in the domain have been established. We hypothesize that such prospective diagnostic interventions are a human specialization of cognitive function that has been entirely overlooked in the neuropsychological literature. We presented chimpanzees with visually identical rakes: one was functional for retrieving a food reward; the other was non-functional (its base was spring-loaded). Initially, they learned that only the functional tool could retrieve a distant reward. In test 1, we explored if they would manually test for the rakes' rigidity during tool selection, but before using it. We found no evidence of such behavior. In test 2, we obliged the apes to deform the non-functional tool's base before using it, in order to evaluate whether this would cause them to switch rakes. It did not. Tests 3-6 attempted to focus the apes' attention on the functionally relevant property (rigidity). Although one ape eventually learned to abandon the non-functional rake before using it, she still did not attempt to test the rakes for rigidity prior to use. While these results underscore the ability of chimpanzees to use novel tools, at the same time they point toward a fundamental (and heretofore unexplored) difference in causal reasoning between humans and apes. We propose that this behavioral difference reflects a human specialization in how object properties are represented, which could have contributed significantly to the evolution of our technological culture. We discuss developing a new line of evolutionarily motivated neuropsychological research on action disorders. PMID:27309530

  18. Performance asymmetries in tool use are associated with corpus callosum integrity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kimberley A; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Barrett, Elizabeth; Hopkins, William D

    2013-02-01

    The authors examined the relationship of corpus callosum (CC) morphology and organization to hand preference and performance on a motor skill task in chimpanzees. Handedness was assessed using a complex tool use task that simulated termite fishing. Chimpanzees were initially allowed to perform the task wherein they could choose which hand to use (preference measure), then they were required to complete trials using each hand (performance measure). Two measures were used to assess the CC: midsagittal area obtained from in vivo magnetic resonance images and density of transcallosal connections as determined by fractional anisotropy values obtained from diffusion tensor imaging. The authors hypothesized that chimpanzees would perform better on their preferred hand compared to the nonpreferred hand, and that strength of behavioral lateralization (rather the direction) on this task would be negatively correlated to regions of the CC involved in motor processing. Results indicate that the preferred hand was the most adept hand. Performance asymmetries correlated with fractional anisotropy measures but not area measures of the CC. PMID:23398443

  19. Spontaneous Abortion and Preterm Labor and Delivery in Nonhuman Primates: Evidence from a Captive Colony of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Derek E.; Uddin, Monica; Romero, Roberto; Gonzalez, Juan M.; Than, Nandor Gabor; Murphy, Jim; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Fritz, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal mortality, yet the evolutionary history of this obstetrical syndrome is largely unknown in nonhuman primate species. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the length of gestation during pregnancies that occurred in a captive chimpanzee colony by inspecting veterinary and behavioral records spanning a total of thirty years. Upon examination of these records we were able to confidently estimate gestation length for 93 of the 97 (96%) pregnancies recorded at the colony. In total, 78 singleton gestations resulted in live birth, and from these pregnancies we estimated the mean gestation length of normal chimpanzee pregnancies to be 228 days, a finding consistent with other published reports. We also calculated that the range of gestation in normal chimpanzee pregnancies is approximately forty days. Of the remaining fifteen pregnancies, only one of the offspring survived, suggesting viability for chimpanzees requires a gestation of approximately 200 days. These fifteen pregnancies constitute spontaneous abortions and preterm deliveries, for which the upper gestational age limit was defined as 2 SD from the mean length of gestation (208 days). Conclusions/Significance The present study documents that preterm birth occurred within our study population of captive chimpanzees. As in humans, pregnancy loss is not uncommon in chimpanzees, In addition, our findings indicate that both humans and chimpanzees show a similar range of normal variation in gestation length, suggesting this was the case at the time of their last common ancestor (LCA). Nevertheless, our data suggest that whereas chimpanzees' normal gestation length is ∼20–30 days after reaching viability, humans' normal gestation length is approximately 50 days beyond the estimated date of viability without medical intervention. Future research using a comparative evolutionary framework should help to clarify the extent to which mechanisms at work in normal and preterm parturition are shared in these species. PMID:21949724

  20. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) flexibly adjust their behaviour in order to maximize payoffs, not to conform to majorities.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Schütte, Sebastian; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel B M

    2013-01-01

    Chimpanzees have been shown to be adept learners, both individually and socially. Yet, sometimes their conservative nature seems to hamper the flexible adoption of superior alternatives, even to the extent that they persist in using entirely ineffective strategies. In this study, we investigated chimpanzees' behavioural flexibility in two different conditions under which social animals have been predicted to abandon personal preferences and adopt alternative strategies: i) under influence of majority demonstrations (i.e. conformity), and ii) in the presence of superior reward contingencies (i.e. maximizing payoffs). Unlike previous nonhuman primate studies, this study disentangled the concept of conformity from the tendency to maintain one's first-learned strategy. Studying captive (n=16) and semi-wild (n=12) chimpanzees in two complementary exchange paradigms, we found that chimpanzees did not abandon their behaviour in order to match the majority, but instead remained faithful to their first-learned strategy (Study 1a and 1b). However, the chimpanzees' fidelity to their first-learned strategy was overridden by an experimental upgrade of the profitability of the alternative strategy (Study 2). We interpret our observations in terms of chimpanzees' relative weighing of behavioural options as a function of situation-specific trade-offs. More specifically, contrary to previous findings, chimpanzees in our study abandoned their familiar behaviour to maximize payoffs, but not to conform to a majority. PMID:24312252

  1. A note on the responses of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to live self-images on television monitors.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi

    2007-05-01

    The majority of studies on self-recognition in animals have been conducted using a mirror as the test device; little is known, however, about the responses of non-human primates toward their own images in media other than mirrors. This study provides preliminary data on the reactions of 10 chimpanzees to live self-images projected on two television monitors, each connected to a different video camera. Chimpanzees could see live images of their own faces, which were approximately life-sized, on one monitor. On the other monitor, they could see live images of their whole body, which were approximately one-fifth life-size, viewed diagonally from behind. In addition, several objects were introduced into the test situation. Out of 10 chimpanzees tested, 2 individuals performed self-exploratory behaviors while watching their own images on the monitors. One of these two chimpanzees successively picked up two of the provided objects in front of a monitor, and watched the images of these objects on the monitor. The results indicate that these chimpanzees were able to immediately recognize live images of themselves or objects on the monitors, even though several features of these images differed from those of their previous experience with mirrors. PMID:17324534

  2. Can chimpanzee infants (Pan troglodytes) form categorical representations in the same manner as human infants (Homo sapiens)?

    PubMed

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-05-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object while touching it as a measure. During the familiarization phase, participants were presented with four familiarization objects from one of three categories (e.g. mammals). Then, they were tested with a pair of novel objects, one was a familiar-category object and another was a novel-category object (e.g. vehicle) in the test phase. The chimpanzee infants did not show significant habituation, whereas human infants did. However, most important, both species showed significant novelty-preference in the test phase. This indicates that not only human infants, but also chimpanzee infants formed categorical representations of a global-like level. Implications for the shared origins and species-specificity of categorization abilities, and the cognitive operations underlying categorization, are discussed. PMID:15819756

  3. Neuroanatomical asymmetries and handedness in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a case for continuity in the evolution of hemispheric specialization.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D

    2013-06-01

    Many historical and contemporary theorists have proposed that population-level behavioral and brain asymmetries are unique to humans and evolved as a consequence of human-specific adaptations such as language, tool manufacture and use, and bipedalism. Recent studies in nonhuman animals, notably primates, have begun to challenge this view. Here, I summarize comparative data on neuroanatomical asymmetries in the planum temporale (PT) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans and chimpanzees, regions considered the morphological equivalents to Broca's and Wernicke's areas. I also review evidence of population-level handedness in captive and wild chimpanzees. When similar methods and landmarks are used to define the PT and IFG, humans and chimpanzees show similar patterns of asymmetry in both cortical regions, though humans show more pronounced directional biases. Similarly, there is good evidence that chimpanzees show population-level handedness, though, again, the expression of handedness is less robust compared to humans. These results stand in contrast to reported claims of significant differences in the distribution of handedness in humans and chimpanzees, and I discuss some possible explanations for the discrepancies in the neuroanatomical and behavioral data. PMID:23647534

  4. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  5. A retrospective analysis of factors correlated to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) respiratory health at Gombe National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Murray, Carson M; Lonsdorf, Eric V; Travis, Dominic A; Gilby, Ian C; Chosy, Julia; Goodall, Jane; Pusey, Anne E

    2011-03-01

    Infectious disease and other health hazards have been hypothesized to pose serious threats to the persistence of wild ape populations. Respiratory disease outbreaks have been shown to be of particular concern for several wild chimpanzee study sites, leading managers, and researchers to hypothesize that diseases originating from and/or spread by humans pose a substantial risk to the long-term survival of chimpanzee populations. The total chimpanzee population in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, has declined from 120-150 in the 1960s to about 100 by the end of 2007, with death associated with observable signs of disease as the leading cause of mortality. We used a historical data set collected from 1979 to 1987 to investigate the baseline rates of respiratory illness in chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania, and to analyze the impact of human-related factors (e.g., banana feeding, visits to staff quarters) and non-human-related factors (e.g., sociality, season) on chimpanzee respiratory illness rates. We found that season and banana feeding were the most significant predictors of respiratory health clinical signs during this time period. We discuss these results in the context of management options for the reduction of disease risk and the importance of long-term observational data for conservation. PMID:21562902

  6. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Transfer Tokens Repeatedly with a Partner to Accumulate Rewards in a Self-Control Task

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Audrey E.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one’s social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees’ self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691

  7. Validation of a cortisol enzyme immunoassay and characterization of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Heintz, Matthew R; Santymire, Rachel M; Parr, Lisa A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring concentrations of stress hormones is an important tool for behavioral research and conservation for animals both in the wild and captivity. Glucocorticoids can be measured in mammals as an indicator of stress by analyzing blood, feces, urine, hair, feathers, or saliva. The advantages of using saliva for measuring cortisol concentrations are three-fold: it is minimally invasive, multiple samples can be collected from the same individual in a short timeframe, and cortisol has a relatively short response time in saliva as compared with other materials. The purpose of this study was to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge as a physiological validation for an enzyme immunoassay to measure salivary cortisol in chimpanzees and (2) characterize the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in chimpanzees. We determined that salivary cortisol concentrations peaked 45 min following the ACTH challenge, which is similar to humans. Also, salivary cortisol concentrations peaked early in the morning and decreased throughout the day. We recommend that saliva collection may be the most effective method of measuring stress reactivity and has the potential to complement behavioral, cognitive, physiological, and welfare studies. PMID:21538448

  8. Handedness for tool use in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Sex differences, performance, heritability and comparison to the wild.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W D; Russell, J L; Schaeffer, J A; Gardner, M; Schapiro, S J

    2009-01-01

    There is continued debate over the factors influencing handedness in captive and wild primates, notably chimpanzees. Previous studies in wild chimpanzees have revealed population-level left handedness for termite fishing. Here we examined hand preferences and performance on a tool use task designed to simulate termite fishing in a sample of 190 captive chimpanzees to evaluate whether patterns of hand use in captive chimpanzees differed from those observed for wild apes. No population-level handedness was found for this task; however, significant sex differences in preference and performance were found, with males showing greater left handedness and poorer performance compared to females. We also found that the hand preferences of offspring were significantly positively correlated with the hand preferences of their mothers. Lastly, older females performed more slowly on the task compared to younger individuals. The overall results neither confirm nor reject previous hypotheses claiming that raising chimpanzees in captivity induces right-handedness, but rather suggest that other factors may account for differences in hand preferences for tool use seen in wild and captive chimpanzees. PMID:20221316

  9. Termite fishing laterality in the Fongoli savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus): further evidence of a left hand preference.

    PubMed

    Bogart, S L; Pruetz, J D; Ormiston, L K; Russell, J L; Meguerditchian, A; Hopkins, W D

    2012-12-01

    Whether nonhuman primates show population-level handedness is a topic of much scientific debate. A previous study of handedness for termite fishing reported population-level left handedness in the chimpanzees from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In the current study, we examined whether similar hand preferences were evident in a savanna-dwelling chimpanzee population with regards to termite fishing. Hand preference data were collected for 27 chimpanzees from February 2007 through July 2008 and November 2011 through January 2012 in southeastern Senegal. Overall, the Fongoli chimpanzees demonstrate a trend toward population-level handedness, though the results did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance likely due to the limited sample size. Fongoli chimpanzees showed the same pattern of left hand preference as reported at Gombe and the two populations did not differ significantly. When the data were combined across all studies, wild chimpanzees showed a population-level left hand preference for termite fishing. PMID:23129227

  10. Tool-composite reuse in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): archaeologically invisible steps in the technological evolution of early hominins?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Biro, Dora; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    Recent etho-archaeological studies of stone-tool use by wild chimpanzees have contributed valuable data towards elucidating the variables that influenced the emergence and development of the first lithic industries among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Such data help to identify potential behaviours entailed in the first percussive technologies that are invisible in archaeological records. The long-term research site of Bossou in Guinea features a unique chimpanzee community whose members systematically use portable stones as hammers and anvils to crack open nuts in natural as well as in field experimental settings. Here we present the first analysis of repeated reuse of the same tool-composites in wild chimpanzees. Data collected over 5 years of experimental nut-cracking sessions at an "outdoor laboratory" site were assessed for the existence of systematic patterns in the selection of tool-composites, at group and at individual levels. Chimpanzees combined certain stones as hammer and anvil more often than expected by chance, even when taking into account preferences for individual stones by themselves. This may reflect an ability to recognise the nut-cracker as a single tool (composed of two elements, but functional only as a whole), as well as discrimination of tool quality-effectiveness. Through repeatedly combining the same pairs of stones--whether due to preferences for particular composites or for the two elements independently--tool-users may amplify use-wear traces and increase the likelihood of fracturing the stones, and thus of detaching pieces by battering. PMID:19680699

  11. Note on hand use in the manipulation of joysticks by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    MacNeilage et al. (1987) have proposed that nonhuman primate handedness may be contingent on the specific task requirements, with visual-spatial tasks yielding left-hand preferences and fine-motor tasks producing right-hand preferences. This study reports hand preferences in the manipulation of joysticks by 2 rhesus monkeys and 3 chimpanzees. Reach data were also collected for comparison with preference data for manipulation of the joystick. The data indicated that all 5 subjects demonstrated significant right-hand preferences in manipulating the joystick. In contrast, no significant hand preferences were found for the reach data. Reaction-time data also indicated that the right hand could perform a perceptual-motor task better than the left hand in all 5 subjects. Overall, the data indicate that reach tasks may not be sensitive enough measures to produce reliable hand preferences, whereas tasks that assess fine-motor control produce significant hand preferences.

  12. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Flexibly Adjust Their Behaviour in Order to Maximize Payoffs, Not to Conform to Majorities

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Cronin, Katherine A.; Schütte, Sebastian; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Chimpanzees have been shown to be adept learners, both individually and socially. Yet, sometimes their conservative nature seems to hamper the flexible adoption of superior alternatives, even to the extent that they persist in using entirely ineffective strategies. In this study, we investigated chimpanzees’ behavioural flexibility in two different conditions under which social animals have been predicted to abandon personal preferences and adopt alternative strategies: i) under influence of majority demonstrations (i.e. conformity), and ii) in the presence of superior reward contingencies (i.e. maximizing payoffs). Unlike previous nonhuman primate studies, this study disentangled the concept of conformity from the tendency to maintain one’s first-learned strategy. Studying captive (n=16) and semi-wild (n=12) chimpanzees in two complementary exchange paradigms, we found that chimpanzees did not abandon their behaviour in order to match the majority, but instead remained faithful to their first-learned strategy (Study 1a and 1b). However, the chimpanzees’ fidelity to their first-learned strategy was overridden by an experimental upgrade of the profitability of the alternative strategy (Study 2). We interpret our observations in terms of chimpanzees’ relative weighing of behavioural options as a function of situation-specific trade-offs. More specifically, contrary to previous findings, chimpanzees in our study abandoned their familiar behaviour to maximize payoffs, but not to conform to a majority. PMID:24312252

  13. Executive function in young children and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): evidence from a nonverbal dimensional change card sort task.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Tanaka, Masayuki; Itakura, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors compared chimpanzees' executive function with that of children. They developed a nonverbal dimensional change card sorting task, which indexed the development of executive function. Three pairs of mother and offspring chimpanzees and 30 typically developed 5-year-old children were presented with 2 target stimuli and a test stimulus comprising 2 dimensions (size and shape) on a display; they were required to sort the test stimulus according to 1 dimension (e.g., shape). After 5 consecutive correct trials, the participants had to sort the test stimulus according to the other dimension (e.g., size). The results showed that the chimpanzees often failed to sort the test stimuli according to the first and reversed dimensions. On the other hand, the children were correctly able to use both dimensions. These results indicate that chimpanzees may have less developed executive skills than children. PMID:21902004

  14. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) transfer tokens repeatedly with a partner to accumulate rewards in a self-control task.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one's social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees' self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691

  15. Gravity Bias in Young and Adult Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes"): Tests with a Modified Opaque-Tubes Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko; Mizuno, Yuu; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Young human children at around 2 years of age fail to predict the correct location of an object when it is dropped from the top of an S-shape opaque tube. They search in the location just below the releasing point (Hood, 1995). This type of error, called a "gravity bias", has recently been reported in dogs and monkeys. In the present study, we…

  16. Variables influencing the origins of diverse abnormal behaviors in a large sample of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Nash, L T; Fritz, J; Alford, P A; Brent, L

    1999-01-01

    The developmental origin of abnormal behaviors is generally associated with early rearing environments that lack sufficient physical and sensory stimulation. However, other factors should also be considered. A large sample of captive chimpanzees (128 males and 140 females) was surveyed for the presence or absence of 18 abnormal behaviors. Origin variables included the subject's source (zoo, pet, performer, or laboratory), rearing (mother- or hand-reared), and sex. Animals were assessed while held at the Primate Foundation of Arizona, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, or White Sands Research Center. There was a confound among origin variables; more hand-reared animals than expected were from laboratories. Logistic regression tested the relationship of rearing and source, with sex as a secondary predictor variable, to each of the abnormal behaviors. There was no clear association between any abnormal behavior and source. However, for coprophagy, relative to animals from the laboratory, zoo animals tended to show a higher prevalence, while performers tended to show a lower prevalence (when rearing and sex were controlled). Rocking and self-sucking were significantly more likely in hand-reared animals. Coprophagy and depilation of self were significantly more likely in mother-reared animals. When rearing and source were statistically controlled, the only significant sex difference was a higher prevalence of coprophagy in females and a higher prevalence of rocking in males. In a second, smaller sample of 25 males and 33 females from Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, no significant sex association was found for coprophagy, urophagy, rocking, or self-depilation. In this second sample, coprophagy was also significantly more likely in mother-reared than hand-reared subjects. The association of some abnormal behaviors with mother-rearing suggests that some form of social learning may be involved in the origin of some of these behavior patterns. This indicates that some abnormal behaviors may not be always be indicative of reduced psychological well-being in captive chimpanzees. PMID:10326768

  17. PanSNPdb: The Pan-Asian SNP Genotyping Database

    PubMed Central

    Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Xu, Shuhua; Shaw, Philip J.; Yang, Jin Ok; Ghang, Ho; Bhak, Jong; Liu, Edison; Tongsima, Sissades

    2011-01-01

    The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP consortium conducted the largest survey to date of human genetic diversity among Asians by sampling 1,719 unrelated individuals among 71 populations from China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. We have constructed a database (PanSNPdb), which contains these data and various new analyses of them. PanSNPdb is a research resource in the analysis of the population structure of Asian peoples, including linkage disequilibrium patterns, haplotype distributions, and copy number variations. Furthermore, PanSNPdb provides an interactive comparison with other SNP and CNV databases, including HapMap3, JSNP, dbSNP and DGV and thus provides a comprehensive resource of human genetic diversity. The information is accessible via a widely accepted graphical interface used in many genetic variation databases. Unrestricted access to PanSNPdb and any associated files is available at: http://www4a.biotec.or.th/PASNP. PMID:21731755

  18. Brazil-Africa geological links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  19. Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L; Boesch, Christophe; Fruth, Barbara; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gilby, Ian C; Hashimoto, Chie; Hobaiter, Catherine L; Hohmann, Gottfried; Itoh, Noriko; Koops, Kathelijne; Lloyd, Julia N; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Mitani, John C; Mjungu, Deus C; Morgan, David; Muller, Martin N; Mundry, Roger; Nakamura, Michio; Pruetz, Jill; Pusey, Anne E; Riedel, Julia; Sanz, Crickette; Schel, Anne M; Simmons, Nicole; Waller, Michel; Watts, David P; White, Frances; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-09-18

    Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fitness benefits by increasing their access to resources such as food or mates. Alternatively, it could be a non-adaptive result of human impacts, such as habitat change or food provisioning. To discriminate between these hypotheses we compiled information from 18 chimpanzee communities and 4 bonobo communities studied over five decades. Our data include 152 killings (n = 58 observed, 41 inferred, and 53 suspected killings) by chimpanzees in 15 communities and one suspected killing by bonobos. We found that males were the most frequent attackers (92% of participants) and victims (73%); most killings (66%) involved intercommunity attacks; and attackers greatly outnumbered their victims (median 8:1 ratio). Variation in killing rates was unrelated to measures of human impacts. Our results are compatible with previously proposed adaptive explanations for killing by chimpanzees, whereas the human impact hypothesis is not supported. PMID:25230664

  20. Spontaneous symbol acquisition and communicative use by pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Savage-Rumbaugh, S; McDonald, K; Sevcik, R A; Hopkins, W D; Rubert, E

    1986-09-01

    Two pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) have spontaneously begun to use symbols to communicate with people. In contrast to common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using the same communicative system, the pygmy chimpanzees did not need explicit training in order to form referential symbol-object associations. Instead, they acquired symbols by observing others use these symbols in daily communications with them. In addition, the pygmy chimpanzees have begun to comprehend spoken English words and can readily identify lexigrams upon hearing the spoken words. By contrast, common chimpanzees who received similar exposure to spoken English are unable to do so. The older pygmy chimpanzee has begun to form requests of the form agent-verb-recipient in which he is neither the agent nor the recipient. By contrast, similarly aged common chimpanzees limited their requests to simple verbs, in which the agent was always presumed to be the addressee and the chimpanzee itself was always the recipient, thus they had no need to indicate a specific agent or recipient. These results suggest that these pygmy chimpanzees exhibit symbolic and auditory perceptual skills that are distinctly different from those of common chimpanzees. PMID:2428917

  1. More reliable estimates of divergence times in Pan using complete mtDNA sequences and accounting for population structure

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Anne C.; Battistuzzi, Fabia U.; Kubatko, Laura S.; Perry, George H.; Trudeau, Evan; Lin, Hsiuman; Kumar, Sudhir

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of eight complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from each of the three established subspecies (P. t. troglodytes, P. t. schweinfurthii and P. t. verus) and the proposed fourth subspecies (P. t. ellioti). Our population genetic analyses are consistent with neutral patterns of evolution that have been shaped by demography. The high levels of mtDNA diversity in western chimpanzees are unlike those seen at nuclear loci, which may reflect a demographic history of greater female to male effective population sizes possibly owing to the characteristics of the founding population. By using relaxed-clock methods, we have inferred a timetree of chimpanzee species and subspecies. The absolute divergence times vary based on the methods and calibration used, but relative divergence times show extensive uniformity. Overall, mtDNA produces consistently older times than those known from nuclear markers, a discrepancy that is reduced significantly by explicitly accounting for chimpanzee population structures in time estimation. Assuming the human–chimpanzee split to be between 7 and 5 Ma, chimpanzee time estimates are 2.1–1.5, 1.1–0.76 and 0.25–0.18 Ma for the chimpanzee/bonobo, western/(eastern + central) and eastern/central chimpanzee divergences, respectively. PMID:20855302

  2. Chronology of sand ridges and the Late Quaternary evolution of the Etosha Pan, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipondoka, M. H. T.; Mauz, B.; Kempf, J.; Packman, S.; Chiverrell, R. C.; Bloemendal, J.

    2014-01-01

    Etosha Pan, situated at the southern border of tropical Africa, is a vast endorheic plain in Namibia's semi-arid north. The most recent studies agree that the pan was the floor of a former lake with varying water levels. Here we explored this idea further by investigating the link between lake-level change and records of late Pleistocene and Holocene climate change. The varying lake levels were inferred through sediment analysis and optical dating of sand deposits that form ridges parallel to the current shore along the northern and western margins of the pan. Our results support the view that the sand ridges are shoreline deposits of an evaporitic lake. The ridges result from the interplay between intermittent river discharge and riverine sediment supply from the north, prevailing north-easterly wind and shore-parallel waves. Therefore they are a proxy for former levels of a perennial lake. We infer higher levels during the late Pleistocene and a drastic drop shortly after 10 ka. Since around 8 ka Etosha Pan was covered by a shallow water body. This lake water-level reconstruction is not in line with the histories of ITCZ migration and strength of Benguela current upwelling. We confirm that the linkages between the evolution of the Etosha Pan and the climate mechanisms driving hydrological changes in subtropical southwest Africa are poorly resolved and need further investigation.

  3. Hard-pan soils - Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard pans, hard layers, or compacted horizons, either surface or subsurface, are universal problems that limit crop production. Hard layers can be caused by traffic or soil genetic properties that result in horizons with high density or cemented soil particles; these horizons have elevated penetrati...

  4. The Pan-STARRS Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter Chambers, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    The 4 year Pan-STARRS1 Science Mission has now completed and the data will be publicly release by the time of the IAU Assembly. The full data set, including catalogs (100TB database), images (2PB), and metadata, will be available from the STScI MAST archive. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys include: (1) The 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) The Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints (7 sq deg each) spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey of the ecliptic optimized for the discovery of Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey in the galactic bulge; and (5) a time domain Survey of M31.The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Science results span most fields of astronomy from Near Earth Objects to cosmology.The 2nd mission, the Pan-STARRS NEO Survey, is currently underway on PS1 and it will be supplemented by PS2 as it becomes fully operational. PS2 is currently undergoing commissioning and is expected to begin full time science observations with an functional capability similar to PS1 by summer of 2015. The status of PS2 and commissioning data from PS2 will be presented along with a full description of the Pan-STARRS NEO Survey. The prospects for future (beyond 2017) wide field surveys in the Northern Hemisphere will also be discussed.The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii; the Pan-STARRS Project Office; the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes: the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching; The Johns Hopkins University; Durham University; the University of Edinburgh; Queen's University Belfast; the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated; the National Central University of Taiwan; the Space Telescope Science Institute; the National Aeronautics

  5. Termite fishing by wild chimpanzees: new data from Ugalla, western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Fiona A; Piel, Alex K

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees manufacture flexible fishing probes to fish for termites in Issa, Ugalla, western Tanzania. These termite-fishing tools are similar in size and material to those used by long-studied communities of chimpanzees in western Tanzania (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and in West Africa (P. t. verus), but not central African populations (P. t. troglodytes). This report adds to the patchwork of evidence of termite-fishing tool use behaviour by chimpanzees across Africa. PMID:23720026

  6. Allometric and metameric shape variation in Pan mandibular molars: a digital morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Michelle; Rosenberger, Alfred L; Robinson, Chris; O'neill, Rob

    2011-02-01

    The predominance of molar teeth in fossil hominin assemblages makes the patterning of molar shape variation a topic of bioanthropological interest. Extant models are the principal basis for understanding dental variation in the fossil record. As the sister taxon to the hominin clade, Pan is one such model and the only widely accepted extant hominid model for both interspecific and intraspecific variation. To explore the contributions of allometric scaling and meristic variation to molar variation in Pan, we applied geometric shape analysis to 3D landmarks collected from virtual replicas of chimpanzee and bonobo mandibular molars. Multivariate statistical analysis and 3D visualization of metameric and allometric shape vectors were used to characterize shape differences and test the hypothesis that species of Pan share patterns of metameric variation and molar shape allometry. Procrustes-based shape variables were found to effectively characterize crown shape, sorting molars into species and tooth-row positions with ≥ 95% accuracy. Chimpanzees and bonobos share a common pattern of M(1) -M(2) metameric variation, which is defined by differences in the relative position of the metaconid, size of the hypoconulid, curvature of the buccal wall, and proportions of the basins and foveae. Allometric scaling of molar shape is homogeneous for M(1) and M(2) within species, but bonobo and chimpanzee allometric vectors are significantly different. Nevertheless, the common allometric shape trend explains most molar-shape differences between P. paniscus and P. troglodytes. When allometric effects are factored out, chimpanzee and bonobo molars are not morphometrically distinguishable. Implications for hominid taxonomy and dietary reconstruction are discussed. PMID:21235007

  7. Kalahari salt pans as sedimentary archives for reconstruction of Quaternary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüller, Irka; Belz, Lukas; Wilkes, Heinz; Wehrmann, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Environmental changes in southern Africa come along with variations in atmospheric and oceanic circulation as well as anthropogenic caused landuse changes. The reconstruction of the paleoenvironment is complicated by the fact that continuous geoarchives are rare in the semiarid to arid parts of this region. In the south-western Kalahari lacustrine systems with constant sedimentary records are absent due to the low precipitation. Salt pans are common geomorphological structures in the Kalahari which are temporarily flooded during summer season when isolated showers occur in their local catchment area. So, they are potential archives preserving environmental signals in phases of sedimentation. However, marginal dunes on their leeward sides represent phases of deflation. The principle processes in salt pan formation are complex and so far under discussion. Our study follows a multidisciplinary approach integrating sedimentological, geochemical and microbiological methods to understand the formation of salt pans as a prerequisite for using them as geoarchives in reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental condition during phases of sedimentation and erosion. Sediment cores from five salt pans were analysed using XRD, XRF and grain size analyses. Additionally, age models can be given for four salt pans, based on δ14C from bulk sediment TOC. As palynological material is lacking, different methods in organic geochemistry were applied (plant biomarkers, particularly leaf wax n-alkanes and n-alcohols and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures) to reconstruct variations in local vegetation assemblages. Our results allow a better understanding of the sedimentology of salt pans and their interpretation as discontinuous archives.

  8. Educational Adaptation and Pan-Africanism: Trends in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marah, John Karefah

    1987-01-01

    European colonialists believed that Africans should be educated in African traditional values, and that Africans should be made into dedicated workers, not holders of power. The African nationalists of the 1960s, in contrast, rejected most of the arduous aspects of European education as instruments of domination, and lay the foundation for the…

  9. West Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa     View Larger Image ... of agricultural fires that were burning throughout western Africa during December and early January, and was likely to have been ...

  10. The Pan-STARRS Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Pan-STARRS Team

    2016-01-01

    The 4 year Pan-STARRS1 Science Mission has now completed and the final data processing and database ingest is underway. We expect to have the public release of the PS1 Survey data at approximately the time of the AAS Meeting. The full data set, including catalogs (150 Terabyte database), images (2 Petabytes), and metadata, will be available from the STScI MASTarchive. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys include: (1) The 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) The Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints (7 sq deg each) spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey of the ecliptic optimized for the discovery of Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey in the galactic bulge; and (5) a time domain Survey of M31. The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Science results span most fields of astronomy from Near Earth Objects to cosmology. The 2nd mission, the Pan-STARRS NEO Survey, is currently underway on PS1 and it will be supplemented by PS2 observations as PS2 becomes fully operational. We will also report on the status of PS2 and the prospects for future wide field surveys in the Northern Hemisphere. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii; the Pan-STARRS Project Office; the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes: the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching; The Johns Hopkins University; Durham University; the University of Edinburgh; Queen's University Belfast; the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated; the National Central University of Taiwan; the Space Telescope Science Institute; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate; the National

  11. Rationale and design of the Pan-African Sudden Cardiac Death survey: the Pan-African SCD study

    PubMed Central

    Bonny, Aimé; Bonny, Aimé; Ngantcha, Marcus; Ndongo Amougou, Sylvie; Kane, Adama; Marrakchi, Sonia; Okello, Emmy; Taty, Georges; Gehani, Abdulrrazzak; Diakite, Mamadou; Talle, Mohammed A; Lambiase, Pier D; Houenassi, Martin; Chin, Ashley; Otieno, Harun; Temu, Gloria; Koffi Owusu, Isaac; Karaye, Kamilu M; Awad, Abdalla AM; Gregers Winkel, Bo; Priori, Silvia G; Priori, Silvia G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The estimated rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Western countries ranges from 300 000 to 400 000 annually, which represents 0.36 to 1.28 per 1 000 inhabitants in Europe and the United States. The burden of SCD in Africa is unknown. Our aim is to assess the epidemiology of SCD in Africa. Methods The Pan-Africa SCD study is a prospective, multicentre, community-based registry monitoring all cases of cardiac arrest occurring in victims over 15 years old. We will use the definition of SCD as ‘witnessed natural death occurring within one hour of the onset of symptoms’ or ‘unwitnessed natural death within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms’. After appro val from institutional boards, we will record demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic and biological variables of SCD victims (including survivors of cardiac arrest) in several African cities. All deaths occurring in residents of districts of interest will be checked for past medical history, circumstances of death, and autopsy report (if possible). We will also analyse the employment of resuscitation attempts during the time frame of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in various patient populations throughout African countries. Conclusion This study will provide comprehensive, contemporary data on the epidemiology of SCD in Africa and will help in the development of strategies to prevent and manage cardiac arrest in this region of the world. PMID:25192301

  12. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

  13. Archaean Crustal Growth, Proterozoic Terrane Amalgamation and the Pan-African Orogeny, as Recorded in the NE African Sedimentary Record.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Y.; Fielding, L.; Millar, I.; Butterworth, P.; Andò, S.; Padoan, M.; Barfod, D. N.; Kneller, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cratons of Central Africa are formed of various blocks of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic crust, flanked or truncated by Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts. The geology of east Africa has largely been shaped by the events of the Pan-African Orogeny when east and west Gondwana collided to form 'Greater Gondwana' at the end of the Neoproterozoic. The Pan-African orogeny in NE Africa involved the collision of Archaean cratons and the Saharan Metacraton with the Arabian Nubian Shield, a terrane comprising Neoproterozoic juvenile oceanic island arcs. Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, eroded from the Pan-African orogenies, blanket much of NE Africa. Detrital data from these Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, and modern rivers draining both the cover the basement, provide a wealth of information on basement evolution, of particular relevance for regions where the basement itself is poorly exposed due to ancient or modern sedimentary cover. From samples collected in Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, we provide combined U-Pb and Hf-isotope zircon, U-Pb rutile and Ar-Ar mica datasets, heavy mineral analyses, and bulk trace element data, from Archaean basement, Phanerozoic cover and modern river sediment from the Nile and its tributaries to document the evolution of the North African crust. The data document early crust-forming events in the Congo Craton and Sahara Metacraton, phased development of the Arabian Nubian Shield culminating in the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana during the Pan African Orogeny, and the orogen's subsequent erosion, with deposition of voluminous Phanerozoic cover.

  14. A Reconsideration of Pan African Orogenic Cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Soulaimani, A.; Samson, S. D.; Admou, H.; Inglis, J.; Saquaque, A.; Heywood, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    The term 'Pan African' orogeny was first proposed in 1964 for a tectonothermal event in Africa ~ 500+/- 50 Ma. Over the past 50 years, the Pan African orogeny has been extended to as much as ~1050-450 Ma and recognized in other Gondwanan continents where regional names such as Brasiliano (South America), Adelaidean (Australian) and Bearmore (Antarctica) have been applied. The Pan African time span of ~500 million years is much longer than any Phanerozoic orogeny. However, it does correlate with time ranges of well defined Phanerozoic orogenic cycles such as the Appalachian cycle, extending from ~1,100 to 250 Ma, and the Cordilleran cycle of ~350 Ma to the present. A significant difference of course is that the Appalachian orogenic cycle has long been recognized as consisting of separate Grenville, Taconic, Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies. Similarly, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Cordilleran orogenic cycle consists of distinct Antler, Sonoma, Nevadan, Sevier, Laramide and ongoing Cascadian-Andean orogenies. Until recently, the absence of precise geochronology in West Africa has prevented a more refined analysis of individual orogenic events within the Pan-African orogenic cycle. Since 2000, precision geochronologic dating by various researchers in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco, has provided critical data by which it is now appropriate to designate a Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three separate orogenic events. We herein propose the following distinct orogenic events in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (750-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (660-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620-580 Ma). Generalized tectonic map of the Anti-Atlas Mountain inliers (Adapted from Ennih and Liégeois, 2008). Geodynamic model of the Pan African orogenic cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. Modified from Walsh et al. (2012) and incorporating ideas from Thomas et al. (2002) and El Hadi et al. (2012).

  15. Postnatal temporal bone ontogeny in Pan, Gorilla, and Homo, and the implications for temporal bone ontogeny in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E; Kimbel, William H; Lockwood, Charles A

    2013-08-01

    Assessments of temporal bone morphology have played an important role in taxonomic and phylogenetic evaluations of fossil taxa, and recent three-dimensional analyses of this region have supported the utility of the temporal bone for testing taxonomic and phylogenetic hypotheses. But while clinical analyses have examined aspects of temporal bone ontogeny in humans, the ontogeny of the temporal bone in non-human taxa is less well documented. This study examines ontogenetic allometry of the temporal bone in order to address several research questions related to the pattern and trajectory of temporal bone shape change during ontogeny in the African apes and humans. We further apply these data to a preliminary analysis of temporal bone ontogeny in Australopithecus afarensis. Three-dimensional landmarks were digitized on an ontogenetic series of specimens of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Gorilla gorilla. Data were analyzed using geometric morphometric methods, and shape changes throughout ontogeny in relation to size were compared. Results of these analyses indicate that, despite broadly similar patterns, African apes and humans show marked differences in development of the mandibular fossa and tympanic portions of the temporal bone. These findings indicate divergent, rather than parallel, postnatal ontogenetic allometric trajectories for temporal bone shape in these taxa. The pattern of temporal bone shape change with size exhibited by A. afarensis showed some affinities to that of humans, but was most similar to extant African apes, particularly Gorilla. PMID:23868175

  16. Reading for All in Africa: Building Communities Where Literacy Thrives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arua, Arua E., Ed.

    This collection of more than 40 papers was selected from more than 150 presentations at the 2nd Pan-African Conference on Reading sponsored by the Reading Association of Nigeria and the International Reading Association's International Development in Africa Committee. The collection is divided into seven sections. Under Section 1--Towards Building…

  17. A Hundred Years of Peter Pan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollindale, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The centenary of the first performance of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan was celebrated in December 2004. Taking account of the various events in Britain to mark the occasion--newspaper articles, radio and television programmes, retrospects in the original theatre--this article examines the status and popularity of Peter Pan after a hundred years. The…

  18. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  19. Disruption of tillage pans by slot tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In some areas of the central Great Plains, traditional sweep tillage for weed control has led to a root-restrictive tillage pan approximately 10 to 15 cm beneath the soil surface. Producers have shown interest in methods to disrupt this tillage pan prior to transitioning to no-till soil management. ...

  20. Peter Pan: The Text and the Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollindale, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Shows how the critical reception of J. M. Barrie's "Peter Pan" has varied widely since its publication. Describes the mythical qualities of the Peter Pan character and gives reasons why the story is still popular with children and why it should continue to be taught and read. (HB)

  1. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ... red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses ...

  2. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones.

    PubMed

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  3. Dry deposition of pan to grassland vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Doskey, P.V.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Gao, W.

    1994-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate or PAN (CH{sub 3}C(O)OONO{sub 2}) is formed in the lower troposphere via photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). PAN has a lifetime in the free troposphere of about three months and is removed by photolysis or reaction with OH. Dry deposition will decrease its lifetime, although the few measurements that have been made indicate that this process is slow. Measurements of the uptake of PAN by alfalfa in growth chambers indicated that the dry deposition velocity (downward flux divided by concentration at a specified height) was 0.75 cm s{sup {minus}1}. Garland and Penkett measured a dry deposition velocity of 0.25 cm s{sup {minus}1} for PAN to grass and soil in a return-flow wind tunnel. Shepson et al. (1992) analyzed trends of PAN and O{sub 3} concentrations in the stable nocturnal boundary layer over mixed deciduous/coniferous forests at night, when leaf stomata were closed, and concluded that the deposition velocity for PAN was at least 0.5 cm s{sup {minus}1}. We measured the dry deposition velocity of PAN to a grassland site in the midwestern United States with a modified Bowen ratio technique. Experiments were conducted on selected days during September, October, and November of 1990. An energy balance Bowen ratio station was used to observe the differences in air temperature and water vapor content between heights of 3.0 and 0.92 m and to evaluate the surface energy balance. Air samples collected at the same two heights in Teflon {reg_sign} bags were analyzed for PAN by a gas chromatographic technique. We present an example of the variations of PAN concentrations and gradients observed during the day and compare measurements of the dry deposition velocity to expectations based on the physicochemical properties of PAN.

  4. Basic space sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo, Richard S.

    Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this ``Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,'' Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

  5. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2015-04-01

    We mapped the pan-African intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater systems towards pollution. We compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at the resolution of 15kmx15km and the 1:60,000,000 scale and implemented an indicator vulnerability model based on the DRASTIC method. The intrinsic vulnerability map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central, West and some areas of North Africa, where the watertable is very low. The intrinsic vulnerability is very low in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater situates in very deep aquifers. The specific vulnerability is obtained by overlaying the intrinsic vulnerability with current land use. The specific vulnerability is high in North, Central, and West Africa and strongly related to water table depths and development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each indicator parameter on groundwater vulnerability for pollution. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the vadose zone impact, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the vulnerability index. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability presented in this paper is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing water resources management programmes. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when pan African monitoring data on groundwater pollution will be integrated in the assessment methodology. Keywords: groundwater vulnerability, pan-Africa, DRASTIC method, Sensitivity analysis, GIS

  6. Differences in evaporation between a floating pan and class a pan on land

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Stannard, D.I.; Christenson, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop a method for obtaining floating pan evaporation rates in a small (less than 10,000 m2) wetland, lagoon, or pond. Floating pan and land pan evaporation data were collected from March 1 to August 31, 2005, at a small natural wetland located in the alluvium of the Canadian River near Norman, Oklahoma, at the U.S. Geological Survey Norman Landfill Toxic Substances Hydrology Research Site. Floating pan evaporation rates were compared with evaporation rates from a nearby standard Class A evaporation pan on land. Floating pan evaporation rates were significantly less than land pan evaporation rates for the entire period and on a monthly basis. Results indicated that the use of a floating evaporation pan in a small free-water surface better simulates actual physical conditions on the water surface that control evaporation. Floating pan to land pan ratios were 0.82 for March, 0.87 for April, 0.85 for May, 0.85 for June, 0.79 for July, and 0.69 for August. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

  7. Africa: "Yonondio."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendetson, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experiences on a trip to Africa. Describes her pleasant moments with her fellow travelers; her appreciation of the natural setting; her visit to an impoverished native school; and her confrontation with a Maasai warrior. (TB)

  8. STEREO Sees Comet Pan-STARRS

    NASA Video Gallery

    In early March 2013, Comet PanSTARRS became visible to the naked eye in the night sky in the Northern Hemisphere, appearing with a similar shape and brightness as a star, albeit with a trailing tai...

  9. 3 CFR 8651 - Proclamation 8651 of April 8, 2011. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8651 of April 8, 2011. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011 8651 Proclamation 8651 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8651 of April 8, 2011 Proc. 8651 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011By the President of...

  10. 3 CFR 8798 - Proclamation 8798 of April 9, 2012. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8798 of April 9, 2012. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012 8798 Proclamation 8798 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8798 of April 9, 2012 Proc. 8798 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012By the President of...

  11. 3 CFR 8957 - Proclamation 8957 of April 12, 2013. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8957 of April 12, 2013. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013 8957 Proclamation 8957 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8957 of April 12, 2013 Proc. 8957 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013By the President...

  12. Structural basis for Pan3 binding to Pan2 and its function in mRNA recruitment and deadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jana; Valkov, Eugene; Allen, Mark D; Meineke, Birthe; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Olsen, Tayla M; Robinson, Carol V; Bycroft, Mark; Stewart, Murray; Passmore, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    The conserved eukaryotic Pan2–Pan3 deadenylation complex shortens cytoplasmic mRNA 3′ polyA tails to regulate mRNA stability. Although the exonuclease activity resides in Pan2, efficient deadenylation requires Pan3. The mechanistic role of Pan3 is unclear. Here, we show that Pan3 binds RNA directly both through its pseudokinase/C-terminal domain and via an N-terminal zinc finger that binds polyA RNA specifically. In contrast, isolated Pan2 is unable to bind RNA. Pan3 binds to the region of Pan2 that links its N-terminal WD40 domain to the C-terminal part that contains the exonuclease, with a 2:1 stoichiometry. The crystal structure of the Pan2 linker region bound to a Pan3 homodimer shows how the unusual structural asymmetry of the Pan3 dimer is used to form an extensive high-affinity interaction. This binding allows Pan3 to supply Pan2 with substrate polyA RNA, facilitating efficient mRNA deadenylation by the intact Pan2–Pan3 complex. PMID:24872509

  13. 3 CFR 8495 - Proclamation 8495 of April 9, 2010. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8495 of April 9, 2010. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2010 8495 Proclamation 8495 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8495 of April 9, 2010 Proc. 8495 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  14. Pan-information Location Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. Y.; Guo, W.; Huang, L.; Hu, T.; Gao, W. X.

    2013-11-01

    A huge amount of information, including geographic, environmental, socio-economic, personal and social network information, has been generated from diverse sources. Most of this information exists separately and is disorderly even if some of it is about the same person, feature, phenomenon or event. Users generally need to collect related information from different sources and then utilize them in applications. An automatic mechanism, therefore, for establishing a connection between potentially-related information will profoundly expand the usefulness of this huge body of information. A connection tie is semantic location describing semantically concepts and attributes of locations as well as relationships between locations, since 80% of information contains some kind of geographic reference but not all of geographic reference has explicit geographic coordinates. Semantic location is an orthogonal form of location representation which can be represented as domain ontology or UML format. Semantic location associates various kinds of information about a same object to provide timely information services according to users' demands, habits, preferences and applications. Based on this idea, a Pan-Information Location Map (PILM) is proposed as a new-style 4D map to associates semantic location-based information dynamically to organize and consolidate the locality and characteristics of corresponding features and events, and delivers on-demand information with a User-Adaptive Smart Display (UASD).

  15. The Pan-STARRS discovery machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2014-11-01

    The Pan-STARRS System has proven to be a remarkable machine for discovery. The PS1 Science Mission has drawn to a close, and the second Pan-STARRS survey, optimized for NEO's has begun. PS2 is in the commissioning stages and will eventually support NEO discovery as well. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and the plans for the public release of all Pan-STARRS1 data products in the spring of 2015. Science results related to planetary studies and the dust will be presented. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE).

  16. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  17. 76 FR 20831 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 71 / Wednesday, April 13, 2011 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8651 of April 8, 2011 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A...

  18. 75 FR 19181 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8672 Filed 4-13-10; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8495 of April 9, 2010 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation More than...

  19. A mathematical model of pan evaporation under steady state conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of changing climate, global pan evaporation records have shown a spatially-averaged trend of ∼ -2 to ∼ -3 mm a-2 over the past 30-50 years. This global phenomenon has motivated the development of the "PenPan" model (Rotstayn et al., 2006). However, the original PenPan model has yet to receive an independent experimental evaluation. Hence, we constructed an instrumented US Class A pan at Canberra Airport (Australia) and monitored it over a three-year period (2007-2010) to uncover the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. The experimental investigations of pan evaporation enabled theoretical formulation and parameterisation of the aerodynamic function considering the wind, properties of air and (with or without) the bird guard effect. The energy balance investigation allowed for detailed formulation of the short- and long-wave radiation associated with the albedos and the emissivities of the pan water surface and the pan wall. Here, we synthesise and generalise those earlier works to develop a new model called the "PenPan-V2" model for application under steady state conditions (i.e., uses a monthly time step). Two versions (PenPan-V2C and PenPan-V2S) are tested using pan evaporation data available across the Australian continent. Both versions outperformed the original PenPan model with better representation of both the evaporation rate and the underlying physics of a US Class A pan. The results show the improved solar geometry related calculations (e.g., albedo, area) for the pan system led to a clear improvement in representing the seasonal cycle of pan evaporation. For general applications, the PenPan-V2S is simpler and suited for applications including an evaluation of long-term trends in pan evaporation.

  20. Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J.; Kubica, Jeremy; Pan-STARRS Team

    2005-12-01

    The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical astronomical surveying system - the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) client of the Pan-STARRS image processing pipeline is developing software to automatically discover and identify >90% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) 300m in diameter and >80% of other classes of asteroids and comets. In developing its software, MOPS has created a synthetic solar system model (SSM) with over 10 million objects whose distributions of orbital characteristics matches those expected for objects that Pan-STARRS will observe. MOPS verifies its correct operation by simulating the survey and subsequent discovery of synthetically generated objects. MOPS also employs novel techniques in handling the computationally difficult problem of linking large numbers of unknown asteroids in a field of detections. We will describe the creation and verification of the Pan-STARRS MOPS SSM, demonstrate synthetic detections and observations by the MOPS, describe the MOPS asteroid linking techniques, describe accuracy and throughput of the entire MOPS system, and provide predictions regarding the numbers and kinds of objects, including as yet undiscovered "extreme objects", that the MOPS expects to find over its 10-year lifetime. Pan-STARRS is funded under a grant from the U.S. Air Force.

  1. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  2. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relaci

  3. Brain aging in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): magnetic resonance imaging studies of macro- and microstructural changes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Errangi, Bhargav; Li, Longchuan; Glasser, Matthew F.; Westlye, Lars T.; Fjell, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Hu, Xiaoping; Herndon, James G.; Preuss, Todd M.; Rilling, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Among primates, humans are uniquely vulnerable to many age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We used structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the brains of chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys across each species' adult lifespan, and compared these results with published findings in humans. As in humans, gray matter volume decreased with age in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Also like humans, chimpanzees showed a trend for decreased white matter volume with age, but this decrease occurred proportionally later in the chimpanzee lifespan than in humans. Diffusion MRI revealed widespread age-related decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in radial diffusivity in chimpanzees and macaques. However, both the fractional anisotropy decline and the radial diffusivity increase started at a proportionally earlier age in humans than in chimpanzees. Thus, even though overall patterns of gray and white matter aging are similar in humans and chimpanzees, the longer lifespan of humans provides more time for white matter to deteriorate before death, with the result that some neurological effects of aging may be exacerbated in our species. PMID:23623601

  4. Looking Ahead? Computerized Maze Task Performance by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), and Human Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Futch, Sara E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and – at least to an extent – anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques) a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys) and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to “plan ahead” to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  5. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone. PMID:27463685

  6. The influence of AVPR1A genotype on individual differences in behaviors during a mirror self-recognition task in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Mahovetz, L M; Young, L J; Hopkins, W D

    2016-06-01

    The mark/rouge test has been used to assess mirror self-recognition (MSR) in many species. Despite consistent evidence of MSR in great apes, genetic or non-genetic factors may account for the individual differences in behavioral responses that have been reported. We examined whether vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A) polymorphisms are associated with MSR-related behaviors in chimpanzees since vasopressin has been implicated in the development and evolution of complex social relations and cognition and chimpanzees are polymorphic for the presence of the RS3-containing DupB region. We compared a sample of DupB+/- and DupB-/- chimpanzees on a mark test to assess its role on social behavior toward a mirror. Chimpanzees were administered two, 10-min sessions where frequencies of mirror-guided self-directed behaviors, contingent actions and other social behaviors were recorded. Approximately one-third showed evidence of MSR and these individuals exhibited more mirror-guided self-exploratory behaviors and mouth contingent actions than chimpanzees not classified as passers. Moreover, DupB+/- males exhibited more scratching and agonistic behaviors than other male and female cohorts. Our findings support previous studies demonstrating individual differences in MSR abilities in chimpanzees and suggest that AVPR1A partly explains individual differences in MSR by influencing the behavioral reactions of chimpanzees in front of a mirror. PMID:27058969

  7. FIELD IMMOBILIATION FOR TREATMENT OF AN UNKNOWN ILLNESS IN A WILD CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES SCHWEINFURTHII) AT GOMBE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA: FINDINGS, CHALLENGES AND LESSONS LEARNED

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Travis, Dominic; Ssuna, Richard; Lantz, Emma; Wilson, Michael; Gamble, Kathryn; Terio, Karen; Leendertz, Fabian; Ehlers, Bernhard; Keele, Brandon; Hahn, Beatrice; Gillespie, Thomas; Pond, Joel; Raphael, Jane; Collins, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are widely presumed to be one of the greatest threats to ape conservation in the wild. Human diseases are of particular concern and the costs and benefits of human presence in protected areas with apes are regularly debated. While numerous syndromes with fatal outcomes have recently been described, precise identification of pathogens remains difficult. These diagnostic difficulties are compounded by the fact that direct veterinary intervention on wild apes is quite rare. Here we present the unique case of a wild chimpanzee at Gombe National Park who was observed with a severe illness and was subsequently examined and treated in the field. Multiple specimens were collected and tested with the aim of identifying the pathogen responsible for the illness. Our findings represent the first extensive screening of a living wild chimpanzee, yet despite our efforts, the cause and source of illness remains unknown. Nevertheless, our findings represent valuable baseline data for the ape conservation community and for comparison with other recent findings. In addition, we present the case here to demonstrate the planning required and multiple types of expertise necessary to maximize the amount of data obtained from such a rare intervention, and to provide lessons learned for future studies. PMID:23872909

  8. How tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella spp) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) align objects to surfaces: insights into spatial reasoning and implications for tool use.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Stone, Brian W; Scott, Nicole M; Menzel, Charles

    2011-10-01

    This report addresses phylogenetic variation in a spatial skill that underlies tool use: aligning objects to a feature of a surface. Fragaszy and Cummins-Sebree's [Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews 4:282-306, 2005] model of relational spatial reasoning and Skill Development and Perception-Action theories guided the design of the study. We examined how capuchins and chimpanzees place stick objects of varying shapes into matching grooves on a flat surface. Although most individuals aligned the long axis of the object with the matching groove more often than expected by chance, all typically did so with poor precision. Some individuals managed to align a second feature, and only one (a capuchin monkey) achieved above-chance success at aligning three features with matching grooves. Our findings suggest that capuchins and chimpanzees do not reliably align objects along even one axis, and that neither species can reliably or easily master object placement tasks that require managing two or more spatial relations concurrently. Moreover, they did not systematically vary their behavior in a manner that would aid discovery of the affordances of the stick-surface combination beyond sliding the stick along the surface (which may have provided haptic information about the location of the groove). These limitations have profound consequences for the forms of tool use we can expect these individuals to master. PMID:21608008

  9. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals’ experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone. PMID:27463685

  10. A new method of walking rehabilitation using cognitive tasks in an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) with a disability: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Yoko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hayashi, Misato

    2016-07-01

    There are few studies of long-term care and rehabilitation of animals which acquired physical disabilities in captivity, despite their importance for welfare. An adult male chimpanzee named Reo at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University, developed acute myelitis, inflammation of the spinal cord, which resulted in impaired leg function. This report describes a walking rehabilitation system set up in a rehabilitation room where he lives. The rehabilitation apparatus consisted of a touch monitor presenting cognitive tasks and a feeder presenting food rewards at a distance of two meters from the monitor, to encourage him to walk between the monitor and the feeder repeatedly. Initially, Reo did not touch the monitor, therefore we needed adjustment of the apparatus and procedure. After the habituation to the monitor and cognitive tasks, he started to show behaviors of saving food rewards without walking, or stopping participation to the rehabilitation. Finally it took seven phases of the adjustment to determine the final setting; when the monitor automatically displayed trials in 4-h, AM (1000-1200 hours) and PM (1400-1600 hours) sessions through a day, Reo spontaneously walked from the monitor to the feeder to receive rewards, and returned to the monitor to perform the next trial. Comparison of Reo's locomotion in a no-task period and under the final setting revealed that the total travel distance increased from 136.7 to 506.3 m, movement patterns became multiple, and the percentage of walking increased from 1.2 to 27.2 % in PM session. The findings of this case study suggest that cognitive tasks may be a useful way to rehabilitate physically disabled chimpanzees, and thus improve their welfare in captivity. PMID:27150249

  11. Descriptive epidemiology of fatal respiratory outbreaks and detection of a human-related metapneumovirus in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Mahale Mountains National Park, Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Tong, Suxiang; Humphrey, Charles; Clevenger, Donna; Tan, Wendy; Szekely, Brian; Wang, Yuhuan; Li, Yan; Alex Muse, Epaphras; Kiyono, Mieko; Hanamura, Shunkichi; Inoue, Eiji; Nakamura, Michio; Huffman, Michael A; Jiang, Baoming; Nishida, Toshisada

    2008-08-01

    Over the past several years, acute and fatal respiratory illnesses have occurred in the habituated group of wild chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Common respiratory viruses, such as measles and influenza, have been considered possible causative agents; however, neither of these viruses had been detected. During the fatal respiratory illnesses in 2003, 2005 and 2006, regular observations on affected individuals were recorded. Cause-specific morbidity rates were 98.3, 52.4 and 33.8%, respectively. Mortality rates were 6.9, 3.2 and 4.6%; all deaths were observed in infants 2 months-2 years 9 months of age. Nine other chimpanzees have not been seen since the 2006 outbreak and are presumed dead; hence, morbidity and mortality rates for 2006 may be as high as 47.7 and 18.5%, respectively. During the 2005 and 2006 outbreaks, 12 fecal samples were collected from affected and nonaffected chimpanzees and analyzed for causative agents. Analysis of fecal samples from 2005 suggests the presence of paramyxovirus, and in 2006 a human-related metapneumovirus was detected and identified in an affected chimpanzee whose infant died during the outbreak. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that the causative agent associated with these illnesses is viral and contagious, possibly of human origin; and that, possibly more than one agent may be circulating in the population. We recommend that baseline health data be acquired and food wadge and fecal samples be obtained and bio-banked as early as possible when attempting to habituate new groups of chimpanzees or other great apes. For already habituated populations, disease prevention strategies, ongoing health monitoring programs and reports of diagnostic findings should be an integral part of managing these populations. In addition, descriptive epidemiology should be a major component of disease outbreak investigations. PMID:18548512

  12. Use of biomarkers of collagen types I and III fibrosis metabolism to detect cardiovascular and renal disease in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Bishop, Micah A; Lammey, Michael L; Sleeper, Meg M; Steiner, Jörg M; Lee, D Rick

    2010-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among captive chimpanzees. The most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease among chimpanzees is sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis was the only significant pathologic lesion observed in affected animals at necropsy. We previously showed an association between myocardial fibrosis and sudden cardiac death. The presumed pathogenesis was interstitial myocardial fibrosis that led to decreased myocardial contractility and interrupted signal propagation in the heart, leading to fibrillation and resulting in sudden cardiac death. In this pilot study, we assayed 5 biomarkers of collagen types I and III metabolism and fibrogenesis and studied their association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarker MMP1 did not crossreact in chimpanzee sera and could not be studied further. Two biomarkers (TIMP1 and PINP) and their difference showed no significant association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarkers ICTP and PIIINP were significantly increased in cases of CVD with concurrent renal disease. Furthermore, both biomarkers showed a significant trend to increase with disease severity. We conclude that ICTP and PIIINP warrant further study for antemortem detection of renal and myocardial fibrosis in chimpanzees. PMID:20412692

  13. Brain aging in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): magnetic resonance imaging studies of macro- and microstructural changes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Errangi, Bhargav; Li, Longchuan; Glasser, Matthew F; Westlye, Lars T; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B; Hu, Xiaoping; Herndon, James G; Preuss, Todd M; Rilling, James K

    2013-10-01

    Among primates, humans are uniquely vulnerable to many age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We used structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the brains of chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys across each species' adult lifespan, and compared these results with published findings in humans. As in humans, gray matter volume decreased with age in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Also like humans, chimpanzees showed a trend for decreased white matter volume with age, but this decrease occurred proportionally later in the chimpanzee lifespan than in humans. Diffusion MRI revealed widespread age-related decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in radial diffusivity in chimpanzees and macaques. However, both the fractional anisotropy decline and the radial diffusivity increase started at a proportionally earlier age in humans than in chimpanzees. Thus, even though overall patterns of gray and white matter aging are similar in humans and chimpanzees, the longer lifespan of humans provides more time for white matter to deteriorate before death, with the result that some neurological effects of aging may be exacerbated in our species. PMID:23623601

  14. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the floating peanut task.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Daniel; Mendes, Natacha; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water) in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1) and the successful (Experiment 2) chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years), 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years), only 8 percent were able to find the solution. PMID:21687710

  15. What limits tool use in nonhuman primates? Insights from tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) aligning three-dimensional objects to a surface.

    PubMed

    la Cour, L T; Stone, B W; Hopkins, W; Menzel, C; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2014-01-01

    Perceptuomotor functions that support using hand tools can be examined in other manipulation tasks, such as alignment of objects to surfaces. We examined tufted capuchin monkeys' and chimpanzees' performance at aligning objects to surfaces while managing one or two spatial relations to do so. We presented six subjects of each species with a single stick to place into a groove, two sticks of equal length to place into two grooves, or two sticks joined as a T to place into a T-shaped groove. Tufted capuchins and chimpanzees performed equivalently on these tasks, aligning the straight stick to within 22.5° of parallel to the groove in approximately half of their attempts to place it, and taking more attempts to place the T stick than two straight sticks. The findings provide strong evidence that tufted capuchins and chimpanzees do not reliably align even one prominent axial feature of an object to a surface, and that managing two concurrent allocentric spatial relations in an alignment problem is significantly more challenging to them than managing two sequential relations. In contrast, humans from 2 years of age display very different perceptuomotor abilities in a similar task: they align sticks to a groove reliably on each attempt, and they readily manage two allocentric spatial relations concurrently. Limitations in aligning objects and in managing two or more relations at a time significantly constrain how nonhuman primates can use hand tools. PMID:23820935

  16. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  17. Comparing the Performances of Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and Human Children (Homo sapiens) in the Floating Peanut Task

    PubMed Central

    Hanus, Daniel; Mendes, Natacha; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water) in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same “floating peanut task.” None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1) and the successful (Experiment 2) chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years), 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years), only 8 percent were able to find the solution. PMID:21687710

  18. Delaying gratification for food and tokens in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): when quantity is salient, symbolic stimuli do not improve performance.

    PubMed

    Evans, T A; Beran, M J; Paglieri, F; Addessi, E

    2012-07-01

    Capuchin monkeys have been tested for the capacity to delay gratification for accumulating rewards in recent studies and have exhibited variable results. Meanwhile, chimpanzees have consistently excelled at this task. However, neither species have ever been tested at accumulating symbolic tokens instead of food items, even though previous reports indicate that tokens sometimes facilitate performance in other self-control tasks. Thus, in the present study, we tested capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees for their capacity to delay gratification in a delay maintenance task, in which an experimenter presented items, one at a time, to within reach of an animal for as long as the animal refrained from taking them. In Experiment 1, we assessed how long capuchin monkeys could accumulate items in the delay maintenance task when items were food rewards or tokens exchangeable for food rewards. Monkeys accumulated more food rewards than they did tokens. In Experiment 2, we tested capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees in a similar accumulation test. Whereas capuchins again accumulated more food than tokens, all chimpanzees but one showed no difference in performance in the two conditions. These findings provide additional evidence that chimpanzees exhibit greater self-control capacity in this task than do capuchin monkeys and indicate that symbolic stimuli fail to facilitate delay maintenance when they do not abstract away from the quantitative dimension of the task. This is consistent with previous findings on the effects of symbols on self-control and illuminates what makes accumulation a particularly challenging task. PMID:22434403

  19. The risk of disease to great apes: simulating disease spread in orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) association networks.

    PubMed

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are particularly threatened by infectious disease outbreaks as a result of their social structure. PMID:24740263

  20. The Risk of Disease to Great Apes: Simulating Disease Spread in Orang-Utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Association Networks

    PubMed Central

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are particularly threatened by infectious disease outbreaks as a result of their social structure. PMID:24740263

  1. Differences in between-reinforcer value modulate the selective-value effect in great apes (Pan troglodytes, P. Paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo abelii).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Amaro, Alejandro; Peretó, Mar; Call, Josep

    2016-02-01

    We investigated how apes allocated their choices between 2 food options that varied in terms of their quantity and quality. Experiment 1 tested whether subjects preferred an AB option over an A option, where the A item is preferred to the B item (e.g., apple + carrot vs. apple). Additionally, we tested whether the length of the intertrial interval (ITI) affected subjects' choices. Five orangutans, 4 gorillas, 7 bonobos, and 10 chimpanzees received 3 types of trials: preference (A vs. B), quantity (AA vs. A), and mixed (AB vs. A where A is the preferred food). We used 3 food items that substantially differed in terms of preference (carrots, apples, and pellets). Subjects showed no overall preference for the mixed option (AB) compared with the single option (A), even though they showed clear preferences during both the preference and quantity trials. The intertrial length had no effect on choice behavior. Experiment 2 further explored apes' choices by using 3 highly preferred food items (bananas, grapes, and pellets) in 6 orangutans, 4 gorillas, 8 bonobos, and 18 chimpanzees. Unlike the results of Experiment 1, apes generally chose the mixed option. Our results indicated that apes did not show a general "selective-value" effect but chose depending on the relative value of the food items involved. Subjects were more likely to select the mixed over the single option when (a) the mixed option was composed of items that were closer in value and (b) they were compared against the less valuable item forming the mixed option. PMID:26460854

  2. Processing Petabytes for Pan-STARRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Paul A.; Magnier, E. A.; Hoblitt, J.; Pan-STARRS Team

    2007-05-01

    The Pan-STARRS Image Processing Pipeline is responsible for the calibration and characterization of the images flowing from the newly commissioned Pan-STARRS 1 Telescope. Every 40 sec, a 1.4 billion pixel exposure requires standard detrend operations, source identification and photometry, astrometry, warping to a sky tesselation, subtraction against a template and photometry of variable sources. To meet this challenge, we have designed a flexible pipeline, able to reduce single-CCD cameras as well as the behemoth mosaic cameras. We describe the design and current status of our pipeline, including performance on actual PS1 images.

  3. Mammals consumed by bonobos (Pan paniscus): new data from the Iyondji forest, Tshuapa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Maloueki, Ulrich; Bakaa, Batuafe; Bongoli, Lingomo; Kasalevo, Phila; Terada, Saeko; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Findings of regional variations in the behavioral patterns of non-human primates have led to the vigorous study of animal traditions (or culture), which contribute to a biological understanding of diversity in human cultures. Although our knowledge of behavioral variations of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) is limited compared with its sister species, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), variations in the prey of this species have been reported across study sites. This study describes evidence of mammals consumed by bonobos in the Iyondji site, which was established in 2010. We found evidence that Iyondji bonobos consumed duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis, C. monticola) and diurnal monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), which is notable because only anomalures (Anomalurus spp.) are consumed by bonobos in Wamba, a long-term study site established in 1973, located in an area adjacent to Iyondji. Moreover, bonobos do not transfer between the two populations due to the river between the sites. According to our census of duikers and diurnal monkeys, Iyondji bonobos appeared to encounter diurnal monkeys more frequently than did Wamba bonobos. Although humans have apparently had a more pronounced impact on the habitats in Wamba than on those in Iyondji, it remains unclear how such environmental conditions may have contributed to the differences in the prey consumed by bonobos in different sites. Our findings suggest that additional research at various sites could reveal the nature of the variations in the behavior of bonobos. PMID:26968409

  4. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  5. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  6. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  7. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  8. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  9. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  10. Rotatable prism for pan and tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Compact, inexpensive, motor-driven prisms change field of view of TV camera. Camera and prism rotate about lens axis to produce pan effect. Rotating prism around axis parallel to lens produces tilt. Size of drive unit and required clearance are little more than size of camera.

  11. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  12. A reconsideration of Pan African orogenic cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefferan, Kevin; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; Samson, Scott D.; Admou, Hassan; Inglis, Jeremy; Saquaque, Ali; Latifa, Chaib; Heywood, Neil

    2014-10-01

    For over 50 years the Pan African orogeny has been recognized as a Neoproterozoic tectonothermal episode affecting West Africa 800-550 Ma. As such, the Pan African events are similar to the Appalachian orogenic cycle extending from ∼1100 to 250 Ma and the Cordilleran orogenic cycle of 350 Ma to the present. A significant difference is that the Appalachian orogenic cycle has long been recognized as consisting of separate Grenville, Taconic, Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies. Similarly, the Cordilleran orogenic cycle consists of distinct Antler, Sonoma, Nevadan, Sevier, Laramide and ongoing Cascadian-Andean orogenies. Failure to distinguish individual tectonic events in the Anti-Atlas Mountains has been attributable to the dearth of radiometric dates in this region. Since 2000, precision geochronologic dating in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco, has provided a means by which it is now appropriate to designate a Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of separate distinct orogenic events. We herein propose the following distinct orogenic events in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (760-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (680-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620-555 Ma).

  13. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  14. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

    2014-08-01

    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  15. 14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239. PMID:12178120

  17. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  18. Transcontinental latitudinal variation in song performance and complexity in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon).

    PubMed

    Kaluthota, Chinthaka; Brinkman, Benjamin E; Dos Santos, Ednei B; Rendall, Drew

    2016-02-10

    There is growing interest in latitudinal effects on animal behaviour and life history. One recent focus is on birdsong, which is hypothesized to be more elaborated or complex in the north temperate zone compared with the tropics. Current evidence is mixed and based on cross-species comparisons, or single species with restricted distributions. We circumvent these limitations using a transcontinental sample of 358 songs from house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) at 281 locations spanning more than 100° of latitude (52° N-55° S) across the Americas. We found a significant latitudinal gradient in several basic elements of song performance and complexity between north temperate and tropical populations. Furthermore, we document convergence in song patterns between populations at higher latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Effects were strongest for the number of elements in a song, and the rate of element production, both increasing towards the poles, with similar but weaker effects for other song dimensions (e.g. number of unique elements, trills and trill rate). We consider possible causes related to variable habitats and morphology, concluding that the shorter breeding seasons at higher latitudes in both hemispheres may favour greater song elaboration to mediate territory competition and mate choice. PMID:26865297

  19. BRDF of Salt Pan Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of salt pan regolith samples are presented in this study in an effort to understand the role of spatial and spectral variability of the natural biome. The samples were obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20 deg S, 15.93 deg E, alt. 1100 m). It is shown how the BRDF depends on the measurement geometry - incident and scatter angles and on the sample particle sizes. As a demonstration of the application of the results, airborne BRDF measurements acquires with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the regolith samples were collected are compared with the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory measured and field measured BRDF is reported.

  20. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder Insurance Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Weller, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) obtained a full panorama of the Sagan Memorial Station landing site on Sol 2, before the IMP mast was deployed. The images in this panorama were taken in 4 filters (including stereo) and losslessly compressed to provide a high-quality multispectral survey of the landing site even if the IMP mast did not successfully deploy; this data set was therefore called the Insurance Pan. It was completed late in the afternoon of Sol 2, just before the IMP mast was (successfully) deployed. The data were stored in memory and returned to Earth after it became clear that downlink rates were higher than expected. The Insurance Pan horizontal (azimuth) coverage is nearly complete, with gaps caused by pointing errors and data packet losses. Stereo data were acquired in the blue (445 nm) filter, as well as right-eye green (531 nm), orange (600 nm), and near-infrared (752 nm) data.

  1. A model of the biogeographical journey from Proto-pan to Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Myers Thompson, Jo A

    2003-04-01

    Pan paniscus is unique in the group of African apes because of its range south of the Congo River. Examination of the bio-geographical journey of the genus Pan to the species P. paniscus is important when discussing the evolution of African apes. This paper is a review of the paleo-geographic events, the zoogeography, and faunal sorting which influenced P. paniscus divergence from the Proto-pan ancestor within the recent Miocene through Pliocene Epochs, approximately 10-2 MYA. Finally, by elucidating modern day evidence of food plant forms in the southern periphery exploited by P. paniscus in the forest/savanna mosaic habitat, we are able to conclude with those extrinsic events that most influenced the occurrence and distribution of P. paniscus. PMID:12687485

  2. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing

  3. 22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. View looking toward east end of sorghum pan and interior of east end of the boiling house. Walls and final compartment of the sorghum pan are still intact. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. Detection and Behavior of Pan Wakes in Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, L. J.; Showalter, M. R.; Russell, C. T.

    1996-01-01

    Six previously unseen Pan wakes are found interior and exterior to the Encke gap in Saturn's A ring, one in the Voyager 2 photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data and five in the Voyager 1 radio science (RSS) Earth occultation data. Pan orbits at the center of the Encke gap and maintains it...The detection of Pan wakes at longitudes greater than 360(deg) demonstrates that wakes persist for much longer than originally hypothesized and may interact with one another.

  5. Ozone export from East Asia: The role of PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Worden, John R.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Zhu, Liye; Fischer, Emily; Walker, Thomas; Jones, Dylan B. A.

    2016-06-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an important ozone (O3) precursor. The lifetime of PAN is approximately 1 month in the free troposphere, and this allows O3 production to occur in pollution plumes at intercontinental distances from its source. In this study we use the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem global chemical transport model, new satellite measurements of PAN from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and data from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign over North America, to study the role of natural and anthropogenic Asian emissions on free tropospheric (900-400 hPa) PAN distributions and subsequent O3 production. Using the ARCTAS data with GEOS-Chem, we show that while GEOS-Chem is unbiased with respect to the aircraft data, TES version 7 PAN data are biased high for regions with surface temperatures colder than 285 K. However, GEOS-Chem and TES measurements provide a consistent representation (within 15% difference) of PAN abundance over East Asia. Because of the good agreement between model and observations, we use the GEOS-Chem model to evaluate the sources of PAN precursors and the effect of free tropospheric PAN on the export of O3 from Asia to North America. The GEOS-Chem model results show that the largest contributors to free tropospheric PAN over Asia and the northern Pacific are anthropogenic and soil NOx emissions. Biomass burning emissions have important contributions to free tropospheric PAN over northern Pacific (25% in April), while the contribution from lightning over northern Pacific is significant in July (40%). Strong springtime transport in April results in more export of free tropospheric PAN and O3 from East Asian emissions. This free tropospheric PAN contributes about 35% to the abundance of free tropospheric O3 over western North America in spring and 25% in summer.

  6. Global sources and significance of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Payer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) serves as a thermally unstable reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NO and NO2, collectively termed NOx). PAN permits NOx to impact the global distribution of the two most important atmospheric oxidants, ozone (O3) and the OH radical. PAN is also a critical channel through which climate-driven changes to the biosphere will affect atmospheric composition, notably through biogenic NMVOC emissions and fires. We use a 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) constrained by a global suite of observations to evaluate the sources and significance of PAN. We quantify individual NMVOC and NOX contributions to PAN formation, and we identify where PAN has a significant impact on remote O3, OH and nitrogen deposition. We find that a simulation with improved budgets for key NMVOCs (ethane, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetone and select aromatic species) is able to reproduce the main features of the global PAN distribution. We also show that the treatment of PAN formation in fires plays an important role in determining the global impact of this PAN source. The contributions of acetaldehyde, acetone and methylglyoxal to PAN formation reflect the sources and lifetimes of these immediate precursors. Acetaldehyde, which is emitted directly from biogenic sources and formed via hydrocarbon oxidation, is the most important peroxyacetyl radical precursor globally. Methylglyoxal, an oxidation product of both isoprene and aromatic species, is responsible for about a third of peroxyactyl radical formation in the lower troposphere. Isoprene oxidation products, other than methylglyoxal, are also significant for the global PAN budget. With updated (lower) photolysis yields, acetone is less important for PAN formation than previously thought. It is responsible for less peroxyactyl radical formation globally than each of the other immediate precursors below 200 hPa. Lightning

  7. 'Africa Alive Corridors': Forging a new future for the people of Africa by the people of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix Toteu, Sadrack; Malcolm Anderson, John; de Wit, Maarten

    2010-11-01

    ' Africa Alive Corridors' (AAC) addresses major stewardship goals in Africa through a selection of 20 heritage Corridors (varying from 1000 to 4000 km in length and 50 to 100 km wide). These include more than 400 heritage nodes (World Heritage Sites, Biosphere Reserves, biodiversity hotspots, Geoparks, etc.). AAC tracks Africa's journey from around 4 billion years ago to the present day through these chronologically sequenced Corridors. And so, the 4-billion-year autobiography of the continent is told. It encompasses the geological, biological and anthropological/cultural history of Africa's 54 nations - a (hi-) story without borders. The wealth of scientific and biographical knowledge archived in this network of Corridors tells the story of continental drift, mega-geohazards, climate variability and change, and the origin and extinction of biodiversity; and includes our human roots, culture and spirituality, our impact on the Earth and our potential to influence its future. In telling this story of Africa, new research avenues will be discovered and new learning methodologies will be experienced and developed and shared. In this way, the AAC provide loci along which the eight UN-Millennium Development Goals may be readily and realistically achieved. In concert, they can form the basis for a new collective endeavour - of Pan African Earth Stewardship Science. In this, the final - 2010 - phase of IYPE (the International Year of Planet Earth), we aim to make a start at bringing the ' Africa Alive Corridors' into real-life context. Whilst the concept of the Corridors has been formulated and presented at various international forums—most recently in Africa at the launch of IYPE in Arusha, Tanzania, in May 2008—here we present in brief their conceptual framework, and summarize the rationale behind the selection of the 20 African Corridors. Then, we describe, for the first time, how the AAC concept might evolve. To achieve the latter, we focus on an exploratory

  8. Slow-blue PanSTARRS transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Bruce, Alastair; Lawrence, Andy; Ward, Martin; Collinson, James; Elvis, Martin; Gezari, Suvi; Smartt, Steven; Smith, Ken; Wright, Darryl; Fraser, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 50 blue, nuclear "transients" in PanSTARRS-1 has revealed different types of extremely variable AGN. The majority show a gradual brightening by ~2 mag from the SDSS observation a decade ago and may represent a new class of AGN microlensed by foreground galaxies. Spectra from the William Herschel Telescope identify these as z~1 AGN with atypical spectroscopic properties. We present an analysis of their photometric and spectroscopic variability in an effort to constrain the detailed structure of the source AGN.

  9. Studbook of Pan paniscus Schwarz, 1929.

    PubMed

    Guzen, A

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of information provided by various zoos who have, or used to have, Pan paniscus in their collections, as well as information in the International Zoo Yearbook or in the literature, an approximate outline has been given of our knowledge of this animal since the description given in 1929 by Schwarz. The status of species is preferred to that of subspecies. The question whether the bonobo should be regarded as a true dwarf form is considered. It is, however, emphasized that the majority of researchers - and for different reasons - consider the species to be the primate closest to man. PMID:1163394

  10. Insights into the Maize Pan-Genome and Pan-Transcriptome[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Candice N.; Foerster, Jillian M.; Johnson, James M.; Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Muttoni, German; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Lindquist, Erika; Pedraza, Mary Ann; Barry, Kerrie; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Buell, C. Robin

    2014-01-01

    Genomes at the species level are dynamic, with genes present in every individual (core) and genes in a subset of individuals (dispensable) that collectively constitute the pan-genome. Using transcriptome sequencing of seedling RNA from 503 maize (Zea mays) inbred lines to characterize the maize pan-genome, we identified 8681 representative transcript assemblies (RTAs) with 16.4% expressed in all lines and 82.7% expressed in subsets of the lines. Interestingly, with linkage disequilibrium mapping, 76.7% of the RTAs with at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) could be mapped to a single genetic position, distributed primarily throughout the nonpericentromeric portion of the genome. Stepwise iterative clustering of RTAs suggests, within the context of the genotypes used in this study, that the maize genome is restricted and further sampling of seedling RNA within this germplasm base will result in minimal discovery. Genome-wide association studies based on SNPs and transcript abundance in the pan-genome revealed loci associated with the timing of the juvenile-to-adult vegetative and vegetative-to-reproductive developmental transitions, two traits important for fitness and adaptation. This study revealed the dynamic nature of the maize pan-genome and demonstrated that a substantial portion of variation may lie outside the single reference genome for a species. PMID:24488960

  11. Summertime distributions of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN) in Beijing: Understanding the sources and major sink of PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gen; Mu, Yujing; Zhou, Lingxi; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Fang, Shuangxi; Yao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), a major secondary pollutant in the atmosphere, has received much concern for its particular importance in atmospheric chemistry and adverse effects on human and plants. Atmospheric PAN and PPN were measured by using a gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) from June to September 2010, and the source and major sink for PAN were firstly studied in Beijing. The distinct diurnal variations of PAN and PPN with maximum in the afternoon were observed, and the mean and maximum values were 2.61 ± 2.57 ppbv (N = 839) and 12.5 ppbv for PAN and 0.52 ± 0.38 ppbv (N = 152) and 2.16 ppbv for PPN during the measuring period, respectively. Good correlation (R = 0.85) between PAN and PPN with a slope (ΔPPN/ΔPAN) of 0.134 indicated that anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs) dominated the photochemical formation of PANs in Beijing. Further, we found acetaldehyde was the predominant carbonyl precursor of PAN with the contribution of 59.7% to the total peroxyacetyl (PA) radical. Methyl glyoxal, methacrolein, acetone, methyl vinyl ketone, and biacetyl contributed 7.1%, 8.8%, 19.7%, 3.4%, and 1.3% to total PA radical, respectively. Anti-correlation between PAN concentrations and the NO/NO2 ratios was found during the whole investigating period. In addition, the amount of PAN lost by thermal decomposition (TPAN) accounted for remarkable fractions of PAN observed under high temperature during both daytime and nighttime.

  12. Ring complexes and related rocks in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vail, J. R.

    Over 625 igneous complexes throughout Africa and Arabia have been selected and classified on the basis of petrographic association and chronology into six broad age groups forming 29 provinces. The groups range from Mid-Proterozoic to Tertiary and include gabbro, granite, syenite, foid syenite and carbonatite plutonic rocks, the majority in the form of ring-dykes, cone-sheets, plugs, circular intrusions, and their associated extrusive phases. Pan-African late or post-orogenic complexes (720-490 Ma) are common in the Arabian-Nubian and Tuareg shields of north Africa originating from subduction zone derived magmatism. Anorogenic complexes in Egypt, NE and central Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaïre-Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Angola span 550 to 50 Ma and are dominantly alkali granites and foid syenites. Many groups occur as en-echelon bands within linear arrays, and show migrating centres of intrusion in variable directions. In W. Africa there was a progressive shift of emplacement southwards during early Ordovician to Mid-Cretaceous times. Distribution patterns suggest thatdeep seated features, such as shear zones associated with lithospheric plate movements,controlled melting, and the resultant location of the complexes. Economic mineralization is not widespread in the rocks of the African ring complexes and is mainly restricted to small deposits of Sn, W, F, U and Nb.

  13. Pan-European catalogue of flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, Juraj; Mangini, Walter; Viglione, Alberto; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Ceola, Serena

    2016-04-01

    There have been numerous extreme flood events observed in Europe in the past years. One of the way to improve our understanding about causing flood generation mechanisms is to analyse spatial and temporal variability of a large number of flood events. The aim of this study is to present a pan-European catalogue of flood events developed within the SWITCH-ON EU Project. The flood events are identified from daily discharge observations at 1315 stations listed in Global Runoff Data Centre database. The average length of discharge time-series for selected stations is 54 years. For each event, basin boundary and additional hydrological and weather characteristics are extracted. Hydrological characteristics are extracted from the pan-European HYPE model simulations. Precipitation, together with the corresponding proportions of rainfall and snowfall, snowmelt, and evapotranspiration are computed as total amounts between the event start date and event peak date. Soil moisture, soil moisture deficit, and basin accumulated snow water equivalent are computed for the event start date. Weather characteristics are derived from the weather circulation pattern catalogue developed within COST 733 Project. The results are generated in an open data access and tools framework which allows reproduction and extension of results to other regions. More information about the analysis and project are available at: http://www.water-switch-on.eu/lab.html.

  14. Lessons from Africa: A Supplement to Middle School Courses in World Cultures, Global Studies, and World Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    Written by 25 African educators from 15 African nations that make up the African Social Studies Programme (ASSP), a Pan-African organization headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, this document is designed to supplement the sparse material on Africa available in the K-12 curriculum and textbooks in the United States, and these 11 lessons encourage U.S.…

  15. Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): a global budget and source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Millet, D. B.; Mao, J.; Paulot, F.; Singh, H. B.; Roiger, A.-E.; Ries, L.; Talbot, R. W.; Dzepina, K.; Pandey Deolal, S.

    2013-10-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), is the principal tropospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2). PAN enables the transport and release of NOx to the remote troposphere with major implications for the global distributions of ozone and OH, the main tropospheric oxidants. Simulation of PAN is a challenge for global models because of the dependence of PAN on vertical transport as well as complex and uncertain NMVOC sources and chemistry. Here we use an improved representation of NMVOCs in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and show that it can simulate PAN observations from aircraft campaigns worldwide. The immediate carbonyl precursors for PAN formation include acetaldehyde (44% of the global source), methylglyoxal (30%), acetone (7%), and a suite of other isoprene and terpene oxidation products (19%). A diversity of NMVOC emissions is responsible for PAN formation globally including isoprene (37%) and alkanes (14%). Anthropogenic sources are dominant in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere outside the growing season. Open fires appear to play little role except at high northern latitudes in spring, although results are very sensitive to plume chemistry and plume rise. Lightning NOx is the dominant contributor to the observed PAN maximum in the free troposphere over the South Atlantic.

  16. Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): a global budget and source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Millet, D. B.; Mao, J.; Paulot, F.; Singh, H. B.; Roiger, A.; Ries, L.; Talbot, R. W.; Dzepina, K.; Pandey Deolal, S.

    2014-03-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is the principal tropospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2). PAN enables the transport and release of NOx to the remote troposphere with major implications for the global distributions of ozone and OH, the main tropospheric oxidants. Simulation of PAN is a challenge for global models because of the dependence of PAN on vertical transport as well as complex and uncertain NMVOC sources and chemistry. Here we use an improved representation of NMVOCs in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and show that it can simulate PAN observations from aircraft campaigns worldwide. The immediate carbonyl precursors for PAN formation include acetaldehyde (44% of the global source), methylglyoxal (30%), acetone (7%), and a suite of other isoprene and terpene oxidation products (19%). A diversity of NMVOC emissions is responsible for PAN formation globally including isoprene (37%) and alkanes (14%). Anthropogenic sources are dominant in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere outside the growing season. Open fires appear to play little role except at high northern latitudes in spring, although results are very sensitive to plume chemistry and plume rise. Lightning NOx is the dominant contributor to the observed PAN maximum in the free troposphere over the South Atlantic.

  17. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  18. 3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Recommendations from the 2013 PANS Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Frankovich, Jennifer; Cooperstock, Michael; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Latimer, M. Elizabeth; Murphy, Tanya K.; Pasternack, Mark; Thienemann, Margo; Williams, Kyle; Walter, Jolan; Swedo, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract On May 23 and 24, 2013, the First PANS Consensus Conference was convened at Stanford University, calling together a geographically diverse group of clinicians and researchers from complementary fields of pediatrics: General and developmental pediatrics, infectious diseases, immunology, rheumatology, neurology, and child psychiatry. Participants were academicians with clinical and research interests in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcus (PANDAS) in youth, and the larger category of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). The goals were to clarify the diagnostic boundaries of PANS, to develop systematic strategies for evaluation of suspected PANS cases, and to set forth the most urgently needed studies in this field. Presented here is a consensus statement proposing recommendations for the diagnostic evaluation of youth presenting with PANS. PMID:25325534

  20. Public Release of Pan-STARRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Consortium, panstarrs

    2015-08-01

    Pan-STARRS 1 is a 1.8 meter survey telescope, located on Haleakala, Hawaii, with a 1.4 Gigapixel camera, a 7 square degree field of view, and 5 filters (g,r,i,z,y). The public release of data, which is available to everyone, consists of 4 years of data taken between May 2010 and April 2014. Two of the surveys available in the public release are the 3pi survey and the Medium Deep (MD) survey. The 3pi survey has roughly 60 epochs (12 per filter) covering 3/4 of the sky and everything north of -30 degrees declination. The MD survey consists of 10 fields, observed in a couple of filters each night, usually 8 exposures per filter per field, for about 4000 epochs per MD field. The available data product are accessed through the “Postage Stamp Server” and through the Published Science Products Subsystem (PSPS), both of these are available through the Pan-STARRS Science Interface (PSI). The Postage Stamp Server provides images and catalogs for different stages of processing on single exposures, stack images, difference images, and forced photometry. The PSPS is a SQLServer database that can be queried via script or web interface, with a database for each MD field and a large database for the 3pi survey. This database has relative photometry and astrometry and object associations, making it easy to do searches across the entire sky as well as tools to generate lightcurves of individual objects as a function of time.

  1. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2006-05-01

    Africa represents one of the true frontiers for systematic deep seismic reflection profiling of the type pioneered by COCORP, LITHOPROBE, BIRPS, DEKORP, and ECORS in the northern hemisphere. However, there have been a number of notable individual surveys that have sampled key components of the African lithosphere, and several systematic regional geophysical initiatives which suggest African is fertile ground for future efforts. Among the latter are the KRISP refraction/wide-angle program to probe the East African Rift system in the 1990's, the Kaapvaal Experiment to image the deep lithosphere with passive techniques and most recently the EAGLE active/passive experiments in the Afar. Examples of true multichannel deep reflection surveys to delineate crustal structure include the transects of the Limpopo Belt, a Neoarchean mobile zone that sutures the Kaapval and Zimbabwe cratons, deep oil prospecting surveys in the Nosop basin of southern Botswana that reveal dramatic basement reflectors off the NW margin of the Kaapvaal craton, and most recently deep vibroseis surveys within the Kaapvaal craton that indicate a crustal stack of tectonic slivers as well as tectonic shingling of the upper mantle. The passive margin of western Africa, with its strategic oil resources, has been a target of several deep studies using marine seismic surveys, including the PROBE initiative of the late 1980's and more recent deep surveys offshore Angola. Reprocessing of lines from oil exploration grids reveal Proterozoic mid-lower crustal features offshore of Ghana. Among the potentially rich targets for future surveys in Africa are the West African and Congo cratons and their suturing Pan-African (Neoproterozoic) mobile belts. This suite of cratonic lithosphere elements is largely largely untouched by modern high resolution seismic methodologies. New initiatives such as LEGENDS ( targeting the East African Orogen) and exploitation of existing oil industry seismic data for deep information

  2. Modeling monthly pan evaporations using fuzzy genetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kişi, Özgür; Tombul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    SummaryThis study investigates the ability of fuzzy genetic (FG) approach in estimation of monthly pan evaporations. Various monthly climatic data, that are, solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed from two stations, Antalya and Mersin, in Mediterranean Region of Turkey, were used as inputs to the FG technique so as to estimate monthly pan evaporations. In the first part of the study, FG models were compared with neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. Comparison of the models revealed that the FG models generally performed better than the ANFIS, ANN and SS models. In the second part of the study, models were compared to each other in two different applications. In the first application the input data of Antalya Station were used as inputs to the models to estimate pan evaporation data of Mersin Station. The pan evaporation data of Mersin Station were estimated using the input data of Antalya and Mersin stations in the second application. Comparison results indicated that the FG models performed better than the ANFIS and ANN models. Comparison of the accuracy of the applied models in estimating total pan evaporations showed that the FG model provided the closest estimate. It was concluded that monthly pan evaporations could be successfully estimated by the FG approach.

  3. Analyses of the soil surface dynamic of South African Kalahari salt pans based on hyperspectral and multitemporal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Behling, Robert; Mielke, Christian; Schleicher, Anja Maria; Guanter, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The consequences of climate change represent a major threat to sustainable development and growth in Southern Africa. Understanding the impact on the geo- and biosphere is therefore of great importance in this particular region. In this context the Kalahari salt pans (also known as playas or sabkhas) and their peripheral saline and alkaline habitats are an ecosystem of major interest. They are very sensitive to environmental conditions, and as thus hydrological, mineralogical and ecological responses to climatic variations can be analysed. Up to now the soil composition of salt pans in this area have been only assessed mono-temporally and on a coarse regional scale. Furthermore, the dynamic of the salt pans, especially the formation of evaporites, is still uncertain and poorly understood. High spectral resolution remote sensing can estimate evaporite content and mineralogy of soils based on the analyses of the surface reflectance properties within the Visible-Near InfraRed (VNIR 400-1000 nm) and Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR 1000-2500 nm) regions. In these wavelength regions major chemical components of the soil interact with the electromagnetic radiation and produce characteristic absorption features that can be used to derive the properties of interest. Although such techniques are well established for the laboratory and field scale, the potential of current (Hyperion) and upcoming spaceborne sensors such as EnMAP for quantitative mineralogical and salt spectral mapping is still to be demonstrated. Combined with hyperspectral methods, multitemporal remote sensing techniques allow us to derive the recent dynamic of these salt pans and link the mineralogical analysis of the pan surface to major physical processes in these dryland environments. In this study we focus on the analyses of the Namibian Omongwa salt pans based on satellite hyperspectral imagery and multispectral time-series data. First, a change detection analysis is applied using the Iterative

  4. The STM4195 Gene Product (PanS) Transports Coenzyme A Precursors in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Dustin C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coenzyme A (CoA) is a ubiquitous coenzyme involved in fundamental metabolic processes. CoA is synthesized from pantothenic acid by a pathway that is largely conserved among bacteria and eukaryotes and consists of five enzymatic steps. While higher organisms, including humans, must scavenge pantothenate from the environment, most bacteria and plants are capable of de novo pantothenate biosynthesis. In Salmonella enterica, precursors to pantothenate can be salvaged, but subsequent intermediates are not transported due to their phosphorylated state, and thus the pathway from pantothenate to CoA is considered essential. Genetic analyses identified the STM4195 gene product of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a transporter of pantothenate precursors, ketopantoate and pantoate and, to a lesser extent, pantothenate. Further results indicated that STM4195 transports a product of CoA degradation that serves as a precursor to CoA and enters the biosynthetic pathway between PanC and CoaBC (dfp). The relevant CoA derivative is distinguishable from pantothenate, pantetheine, and pantethine and has spectral properties indicating the adenine moiety of CoA is intact. Taken together, the results presented here provide evidence of a transport mechanism for the uptake of ketopantoate, pantoate, and pantothenate and demonstrate a role for STM4195 in the salvage of a CoA derivative of unknown structure. The STM4195 gene is renamed panS to reflect participation in pantothenate salvage that was uncovered herein. IMPORTANCE This manuscript describes a transporter for two pantothenate precursors in addition to the existence and transport of a salvageable coenzyme A (CoA) derivative. Specifically, these studies defined a function for an STM protein in S. enterica that was distinct from the annotated role and led to its designation as PanS (pantothenate salvage). The presence of a salvageable CoA derivative and a transporter for it suggests the possibility that this

  5. A new isosporoid coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae)from the southern house wren Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    doBomfim Lopes, Bruno; Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; da Silva, Lidiane Maria; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-06-01

    A new isosporoid coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is reported from the southern house wren Troglodytes musculus, a very well distributed species in South and Central America. Isospora corruirae sp. nov. oocysts are subspherical to ovoidal, 24.1 × 21.4 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but small spherules and splinter-like granules are frequently present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to piriform, 14.0 × 9.5 μm. Stieda body is prominent knob-like and substieda body is delicate. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered fragments of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with posterior refractile bodies, anterior striations and a nucleus. This is the second description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting a New World wren. PMID:27078670

  6. 76 FR 54480 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... gorilla), white- cheeked gibbon (Hylobates leucogenys), Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), bonobo (Pan paniscus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and Sumatran orangutan...

  7. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  8. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  9. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  10. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  11. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  12. Reconstruction of Holocene southern African continental climate using biomarkers from salt pan sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, Lukas; Schüller, Irka; Wehrmann, Achim; Wilkes, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The climate system of southern Africa is strongly influenced by large scale atmospheric and marine circulation processes and, therefore, very sensitive to global climate change. Recent publications provided evidence for strong spatial and temporal climate variability in southern Africa over the Holocene. It is of major importance to understand the mechanisms driving the southern African climate system in order to estimate regional implications of current global change. However, proxy datasets from continental geoarchives especially of the semi-arid western Kalahari region are still scarce. A main problem is the absence of conventional continental climatic archives, due to the lack of lacustrine systems. In this study we are exploring the utility of sediments from western Kalahari salt pans, i.e. local depressions which are flooded temporarily during rainfall events. Besides the analyses of basic geochemical bulk parameters including TOC, δ13Corg, TIC, δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb, TN, δ15N, the paleo-climatic approach focuses on reconstruction of local vegetation assemblages to identify changes in the ecosystem. This is pursued using plant biomarkers, particularly leaf wax n-alkanes and n-alcohols and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures. Preliminary results show prominent shifts in n-alkane distribution and δ13C values of the C33 homologue during late Pleistocene and early Holocene. These shifts correlate to changes of the TOC content. Our data indicate changes in carbon sources which possibly reflect major environmental changes.

  13. 12. Level 6 gringing pans, pump above dorr thickener. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Level 6 gringing pans, pump above dorr thickener. View to west. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  14. Improvements in analysis of atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, Detlev; Müller, Josef; Klein, Werner

    Common analytical techniques for PAN determination were modified in order to obtain a sensitive and automatic analysis system. PAN was synthesized by nitration of peracetic acid in hexane, The PAN/hexane solution was purified by water extraction. The quantification was performed determining acetate or nitrite by ion chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The validity was checked by liquid i.r. speetroscopy. NMR studies revealed a singulet signal at 2.27 ppm. The precision and sensitivity of the gas Chromatographic analyses were improved by the use of wide bore capillary columns coated with Carbowax 400. The developed system enables automatic and continuous PAN measurements at a 10 min sampling sequence and with a detection limit of 50 ppt.

  15. Recurrent plantar ulceration following pan metatarsal head resection.

    PubMed

    Petrov, O; Pfeifer, M; Flood, M; Chagares, W; Daniele, C

    1996-01-01

    Although the pan metatarsal head resection, since it was originally described and performed by Hoffman in 1911, has proven to be an effective and viable procedure in treating many forefoot deformities, it is not without its own complications. The authors provide an historical perspective of the pan metatarsal head resection, a discussion on the complication of recurrent plantar ulceration after the pan metatarsal head resection, and a review of their own experience with this procedure. A retrospective review was performed of all patients having undergone pan metatarsal resections between August 1980 and April 1993. Twenty procedures were performed on 12 patients with diabetic neuropathy, and 21 procedures were performed on 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The incidence of recurrent plantar ulceration after surgical correction was 25% and 28%, respectively. All 27 patients underwent primary healing. The authors, therefore, conclude that the complication of recurrent plantar ulceration after this procedure is a very likely and distinct possibility. PMID:8986897

  16. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  17. 15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Unusual behavior in the parental care of a house wren (Troglodytes aedon): Post fledging use of an old nest during cold nights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholer, Micah N.

    2015-01-01

    I report on the unusual behavior of an adult House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) leading recently fledged young back to the nest for two consecutive nights. The ambient temperature reached below 0°C during both nights. Despite disadvantages associated with remaining in the nest, this observation suggests that adult birds may assess trade-offs between perceived risks versus the benefits of engaging in other activities, in this case roosting communally for thermoregulation.

  19. Pan-STARRS-1 Medium Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System-1 (Pan-STARRS-1, PS1) has been in full science operation since Spring 2010 and concluded the observing program for the PS1 Science Consortium (PS1SC) in early 2014. The Medium Deep Survey (MDS) component of the program regularly visited 10 fields (~7 sq. deg. each) with significant multi-wavelength overlap from previous and concurrent surveys (e.g. SDSS, DEEP2, CDFS, COSMOS, GALEX) for 25% of the total time allocation. The cadence generally includes the g,r,i,z filters for a MDS field every 3 days over the 6-8 month season the field is visible, with the y filter done primarily during bright time. The nightly stacks of eight exposures typically reach depths of r,i~23.5 mag. Development work continued to improve the single exposure processing though to deep stacks during the transient event discovery and other science consortium programs over the course of the survey, the culmination of those improvements being applied in a more uniformly reprocessed dataset used for the public data release. A summary of the MDS public data release products will be presented.For details on PS1 and the Science Collaboration, visit http://ps1sc.org/

  20. Pan-STARRS-1 Medium Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Mark; PS1-IPP Team, PS1 Science Consortium

    2015-01-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System-1 (Pan-STARRS-1, PS1) has been in full operation since Spring 2010 and concluded the PS1 Science Consortium (PS1SC) observational program in early 2014. The Medium Deep Survey (MDS) component of the program, allocated 25% of the time, regularly visited 10 fields (~7 sq. deg. each) with significant multi-wavelength overlap from previous and concurrent surveys (e.g. SDSS, DEEP2, CDFS, COSMOS, GALEX). The cadence generally includes the g,r,i,z filters for a MDS field every 3 days with a nightly stack depth of r,i~23.5 mag and the y filter primarily during bright time over the 6-8 month season the field is visible. While regularly producing data for the transient event discovery and science consortium programs, development work continued to improve the single exposures though production of deep stacks for reprocessing into the final and public release. The data products, to be publicly available after the post-observing proprietary period, will be summarized.For details on PS1 and the Science Collaboration, visit http://ps1sc.org/

  1. Area-to-point regression kriging for pan-sharpening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qunming; Shi, Wenzhong; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-04-01

    Pan-sharpening is a technique to combine the fine spatial resolution panchromatic (PAN) band with the coarse spatial resolution multispectral bands of the same satellite to create a fine spatial resolution multispectral image. In this paper, area-to-point regression kriging (ATPRK) is proposed for pan-sharpening. ATPRK considers the PAN band as the covariate. Moreover, ATPRK is extended with a local approach, called adaptive ATPRK (AATPRK), which fits a regression model using a local, non-stationary scheme such that the regression coefficients change across the image. The two geostatistical approaches, ATPRK and AATPRK, were compared to the 13 state-of-the-art pan-sharpening approaches summarized in Vivone et al. (2015) in experiments on three separate datasets. ATPRK and AATPRK produced more accurate pan-sharpened images than the 13 benchmark algorithms in all three experiments. Unlike the benchmark algorithms, the two geostatistical solutions precisely preserved the spectral properties of the original coarse data. Furthermore, ATPRK can be enhanced by a local scheme in AATRPK, in cases where the residuals from a global regression model are such that their spatial character varies locally.

  2. BPGA- an ultra-fast pan-genome analysis pipeline.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Narendrakumar M; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Dutta, Chitra

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in ultra-high-throughput sequencing technology and metagenomics have led to a paradigm shift in microbial genomics from few genome comparisons to large-scale pan-genome studies at different scales of phylogenetic resolution. Pan-genome studies provide a framework for estimating the genomic diversity of the dataset, determining core (conserved), accessory (dispensable) and unique (strain-specific) gene pool of a species, tracing horizontal gene-flux across strains and providing insight into species evolution. The existing pan genome software tools suffer from various limitations like limited datasets, difficult installation/requirements, inadequate functional features etc. Here we present an ultra-fast computational pipeline BPGA (Bacterial Pan Genome Analysis tool) with seven functional modules. In addition to the routine pan genome analyses, BPGA introduces a number of novel features for downstream analyses like core/pan/MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing) phylogeny, exclusive presence/absence of genes in specific strains, subset analysis, atypical G + C content analysis and KEGG &COG mapping of core, accessory and unique genes. Other notable features include minimum running prerequisites, freedom to select the gene clustering method, ultra-fast execution, user friendly command line interface and high-quality graphics outputs. The performance of BPGA has been evaluated using a dataset of complete genome sequences of 28 Streptococcus pyogenes strains. PMID:27071527

  3. Migration of ATLAS PanDA to CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Klimentov, Alexei; Koblitz, Birger; Lamanna, Massimo; Maeno, Tadashi; Nevski, Pavel; Nowak, Marcin; Emanuel De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; Wenaus, Torre

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a key component of the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS production jobs, and a substantial amount of user and group analysis jobs, pass through the PanDA system, which manages their execution on the grid. PanDA also plays a key role in production task definition and the data set replication request system. PanDA has recently been migrated from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a process we describe here. We discuss how the new infrastructure for PanDA, which relies heavily on services provided by CERN IT, was introduced in order to make the service as reliable as possible and to allow it to be scaled to ATLAS's increasing need for distributed computing. The migration involved changing the backend database for PanDA from MySQL to Oracle, which impacted upon the database schemas. The process by which the client code was optimised for the new database backend is discussed. We describe the procedure by which the new database infrastructure was tested and commissioned for production use. Operations during the migration had to be planned carefully to minimise disruption to ongoing ATLAS offline computing. All parts of the migration were fully tested before commissioning the new infrastructure and the gradual migration of computing resources to the new system allowed any problems of scaling to be addressed.

  4. BPGA- an ultra-fast pan-genome analysis pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Narendrakumar M.; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Dutta, Chitra

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in ultra-high-throughput sequencing technology and metagenomics have led to a paradigm shift in microbial genomics from few genome comparisons to large-scale pan-genome studies at different scales of phylogenetic resolution. Pan-genome studies provide a framework for estimating the genomic diversity of the dataset, determining core (conserved), accessory (dispensable) and unique (strain-specific) gene pool of a species, tracing horizontal gene-flux across strains and providing insight into species evolution. The existing pan genome software tools suffer from various limitations like limited datasets, difficult installation/requirements, inadequate functional features etc. Here we present an ultra-fast computational pipeline BPGA (Bacterial Pan Genome Analysis tool) with seven functional modules. In addition to the routine pan genome analyses, BPGA introduces a number of novel features for downstream analyses like core/pan/MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing) phylogeny, exclusive presence/absence of genes in specific strains, subset analysis, atypical G + C content analysis and KEGG & COG mapping of core, accessory and unique genes. Other notable features include minimum running prerequisites, freedom to select the gene clustering method, ultra-fast execution, user friendly command line interface and high-quality graphics outputs. The performance of BPGA has been evaluated using a dataset of complete genome sequences of 28 Streptococcus pyogenes strains. PMID:27071527

  5. Evolutionary neural networks for monthly pan evaporation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kişi, Özgür

    2013-08-01

    Estimating pan evaporation is very important for monitoring, survey and management of water resources. This study proposes the application evolutionary neural networks (ENN) for modeling monthly pan evaporations. Solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and pan evaporation data from two stations, Antalya and Mersin, in Mediterranean Region of Turkey are used in the study. In the first part of the study, ENN models are compared with those of the fuzzy genetic (FG), neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. Comparison results indicate that the ENN models generally perform better than the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models. In the second part of the study, models are compared with each other in estimating Mersin’s pan evaporations using input data of both stations. Results reveal that the ENN models performed better than the FG, ANFIS and ANN models. It was concluded that monthly pan evaporations can be successfully estimated by the ENN method. The performance of the ENN model with full weather data as inputs presents 0.749 and 0.759 mm of mean absolute error for the Antalya and Mersin stations, respectively.

  6. Groundwater recharge in the tropics: a pan-African analysis of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in sub-Saharan Africa where rainfall and river discharge are unreliable and per-capita reservoir storage is among the lowest in the world. Groundwater is widely considered a distributed, low-cost and climate-resilient option to meet rapidly growing freshwater demand and alleviate endemic poverty by expanding access to safe water and improving food security through irrigation. Recent research indicates that groundwater storage in Africa is about 100 times greater than annual river discharge yet major uncertainties remain in the magnitude and nature of replenishment through recharge as well as the impacts of land-use and climate change. Here, we present newly compiled, multi-decadal observations of groundwater levels from 5 countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Tanzania, Uganda) and paired measurements of stable isotope ratios of O and H in precipitation and groundwater at 11 locations. These data reveal both a distinct bias in groundwater recharge to intensive rainfall and rapid recharge pathways (e.g. focused, macropore flow) that are inconsistent with conventional recharge models assuming pore-matrix flow defined by the Darcy-Richards equation. Further the records highlight the substantial influence of land-use change (e.g. conversion of natural, perennial cover to croplands) on groundwater recharge. The compiled observations also provide, for the first time, a pan-African baseline to evaluate the performance of large-scale hydrological models and Land-Surface Models incorporating groundwater in this region. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa. As such, groundwater may prove to be a climate-resilient source of freshwater in the tropics, enabling adaptive strategies such as groundwater-fed irrigation and sustaining domestic and industrial water supplies.

  7. Pan Air Geometry Management System (PAGMS): A data-base management system for PAN AIR geometry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    A data-base management system called PAGMS was developed to facilitate the data transfer in applications computer programs that create, modify, plot or otherwise manipulate PAN AIR type geometry data in preparation for input to the PAN AIR system of computer programs. PAGMS is composed of a series of FORTRAN callable subroutines which can be accessed directly from applications programs. Currently only a NOS version of PAGMS has been developed.

  8. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  9. Generation 2030/Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  10. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Elisabeth; Adler, Silke; Ungersböck, Markus; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". The Societas Meteorologicae Palatinae at Mannheim well known for its first European wide meteorological network also established a phenological network which was active from 1781 to 1792. Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies, as one has to address many National Observations Programs (NOP) to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2005 the COST-action 725 was running with the main objective to establish a European reference data set of phenological observations that can be used for climatological purposes, especially climate monitoring, and detection of changes. So far the common database/reference data set of COST725 comprises 7687248 data from 7285 observation sites in 15 countries and International Phenological Gardens (IPG) spanning the timeframe from 1951 to 2000. ZAMG is hosting the database. In January 2010 PEP725 has started and will take over not only the part of maintaining, updating the database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of

  11. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2010-09-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

  12. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, E.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2012-04-01

    PEP725 is a 5 years project with the main object to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. PEP725 is funded by EUMETNET (the network of European meteorological services), ZAMG and the Austrian ministry for science & research bm:w_f. So far 16 European national meteorological services and 7 partners from different nati-onal phenological network operators have joined PEP725. The data access is very easy via web-access from the homepage www.pep725.eu. Ha-ving accepted the PEP725 data policy and registry the data download can be done by different criteria as for instance the selection of a specific plant or all data from one country. At present more than 300 000 new records are available in the PEP725 data-base coming from 31 European countries and from 8150 stations. For some more sta-tions (154) META data (location and data holder) are provided. Links to the network operators and data owners are also on the webpage in case you have more sophisticated questions about the data. Another objective of PEP725 is to bring together network-operators and scientists by organizing workshops. In April 2012 the second of these workshops will take place on the premises of ZAMG. Invited speakers will give presentations spanning the whole study area of phenology starting from observations to modelling. Quality checking is also a big issue. At the moment we study the literature to find ap-propriate methods.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli pantothenate permease (panF) mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Vallari, D S; Rock, C O

    1985-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 defective in the pantothenate permease (panF) were isolated and characterized. The panF mutation resulted in the complete loss of pantothenate uptake and of the ability to use extracellular vitamin for growth. The growth phenotypes of panF panD, panF panB, and panF panC double mutants showed that the cytoplasmic membrane was impermeable to external pantothenate. Analysis of the intracellular and extracellular metabolites from strain DV1 (panF panD) labeled with beta-[3-3H]alanine demonstrated that a carrier-mediated mechanism for efficient pantothenate efflux remained in the panF mutant. Genetic mapping of this nonselectable allele was facilitated by the isolation of three independent Tn10 insertions close to panF. Two- and three-factor crosses located panF at minute 72 of the E. coli chromosome and established the gene order fabE panF aroE. PMID:2995306

  14. PAN Among the Peaks: A preliminary analysis of new peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements in Rocky Mountain National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, S. L.; Fischer, E. V.; Zhou, Y.; Sive, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Several different classes of organic nitrogen compounds are produced when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the presence of nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx). The peroxyacyl nitrates and organic nitrates are particularly important as they serve as temporary or permanent sinks for NOx. PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate, CH3C(O)O2NO2) is the most important NOx reservoir, and its eventual decomposition acts as a pathway by which NOx reaches the remote troposphere. The emissions from oil and gas extraction represent a new VOC regime that could change the local fate of NOx because the particular mix of VOCs emitted from oil and gas operations should favor PAN formation. We present new PAN observations from Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) for the period 11 July to 15 August. The observations were collected during the Colorado Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ). PAN was measured at ROMO with a custom built gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). At the time of submission, preliminary campaign mean and maximum PAN mixing ratios were 170 pptv and 1345 pptv respectively. Initial analyses of the data collected to date suggest that the maximum PAN mixing ratios at ROMO occurred on the afternoons of 22 and 23 July. Co-located measurements of VOCs on 22 July indicate that the elevated PAN coincided with elevated abundances light alkanes and other secondary species (O3 and alkyl nitrates). The ratio of i-pentane to n- pentane (≤1) indicates that this air mass was strongly impacted by oil and gas production operations.

  15. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    SciTech Connect

    Maeno T.; De K.; Wenaus T.; Nilsson P.; Stewart G. A.; Walker R.; Stradling A.; Caballero J.; Potekhin M.; Smith D.

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  16. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  17. The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry; Jedicke, Robert; Grav, Tommy; Granvik, Mikael; Kubica, Jeremy; Milani, Andrea; Vereš, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard; Chang, Daniel; Pierfederici, Francesco; Kaiser, N.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Price, P. A.; Myers, Jonathan; Kleyna, Jan; Hsieh, Henry; Farnocchia, Davide; Waters, Chris; Sweeney, W. H.; Green, Denver; Bolin, Bryce; Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, John L.; Hodapp, K. W.; Chastel, Serge; Chesley, Steve; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Holman, Matthew; Spahr, Tim; Tholen, David; Williams, Gareth V.; Abe, Shinsuke; Armstrong, J. D.; Bressi, Terry H.; Holmes, Robert; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Robert S.; Micheli, Marco; Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.; Scotti, James V.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), a modern software package that produces automatic asteroid discoveries and identifications from catalogs of transient detections from next-generation astronomical survey telescopes. MOPS achieves >99.5% efficiency in producing orbits from a synthetic but realistic population of asteroids whose measurements were simulated for a Pan-STARRS4-class telescope. Additionally, using a nonphysical grid population, we demonstrate that MOPS can detect populations of currently unknown objects such as interstellar asteroids. MOPS has been adapted successfully to the prototype Pan-STARRS1 telescope despite differences in expected false detection rates, fill-factor loss, and relatively sparse observing cadence compared to a hypothetical Pan-STARRS4 telescope and survey. MOPS remains highly efficient at detecting objects but drops to 80% efficiency at producing orbits. This loss is primarily due to configurable MOPS processing limits that are not yet tuned for the Pan-STARRS1 mission. The core MOPS software package is the product of more than 15 person-years of software development and incorporates countless additional years of effort in third-party software to perform lower-level functions such as spatial searching or orbit determination. We describe the high-level design of MOPS and essential subcomponents, the suitability of MOPS for other survey programs, and suggest a road map for future MOPS development.

  18. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G. A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  19. Monthly pan evaporation modeling using linear genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Aytac; Kisi, Ozgur

    2013-10-01

    This study compares the accuracy of linear genetic programming (LGP), fuzzy genetic (FG), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in modeling pan evaporations. Monthly climatic data including solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and pan evaporation from Antalya and Mersin stations, in Turkey are used in the study. The study composed of two parts. First part of the study focuses the comparison of LGP models with those of the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. From the comparison results, the LGP models are found to be better than the other models. Comparison of LGP models with the other models in estimating pan evaporations of the Mersin Station by using both stations' inputs is focused in the second part of the study. The results indicate that the LGP models better accuracy than the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models. It is seen that the pan evaporations can be successfully estimated by the LGP method.

  20. The Bir Safsaf Precambrian inlier of South West Egypt revisited. A model for ~ 1.5 Ga T DM late Pan-African granite generation by crustal reworking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, F.; Montero, P.; Anbar, M. Abu; Molina, J. F.; Scarrow, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    Bir Safsaf is one of the four Precambrian inliers of the southern Egyptian Western Desert; it is located midway between the juvenile crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the Archean terranes of Gebel Kamil, near the Libyan border. Contrary to previous belief, Bir Safsaf is exclusively composed of late Pan-African granitoids, with U/Pb SHRIMP ages between 627 Ma and 595 Ma. The presence of pre-Pan-African materials is limited to scarce inherited zircons with ~ 2.1 Ga and ~ 2.7 Ga, ages that are well-represented in the pre-Pan-African terranes of the neighboring Gebel Kamil inlier. Early Pan-African inherited zircons with ages of ~ 640-650 Ma and ~ 750 Ma are also found. The granitoids of Bir Safsaf show a large geochemical variability, with an overall composition similar to subduction-related granites, but they lack the inter-elemental correlations characteristic of magmatic differentiation, magma mixing or hybridization. This chemically heterogeneous set of granitoids has, nonetheless, nearly uniform initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd, and a ~ 1.5 Ga Nd model age (T DM) despite no new crust being formed at that time in northeast Africa. To reconcile the large chemical variability, the isotopic homogeneity, and the "mixed" Nd model age, we propose that these granitoids were derived from a lithologically heterogeneous pre-Pan African source that, prior to melting, was thoroughly homogenized with respect to Sr and Nd isotopes by convective metasomatism caused by juvenile hydrothermal fluids probably released from a subduction zone.

  1. Portion of Enhanced 360-degree Gallery Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a sub-section of the 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. Another Lander petal is at the right, showing the fully deployed forward ramp.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University

  2. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  3. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  4. Roary: rapid large-scale prokaryote pan genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Page, Andrew J.; Cummins, Carla A.; Hunt, Martin; Wong, Vanessa K.; Reuter, Sandra; Holden, Matthew T.G.; Fookes, Maria; Falush, Daniel; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Parkhill, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A typical prokaryote population sequencing study can now consist of hundreds or thousands of isolates. Interrogating these datasets can provide detailed insights into the genetic structure of prokaryotic genomes. We introduce Roary, a tool that rapidly builds large-scale pan genomes, identifying the core and accessory genes. Roary makes construction of the pan genome of thousands of prokaryote samples possible on a standard desktop without compromising on the accuracy of results. Using a single CPU Roary can produce a pan genome consisting of 1000 isolates in 4.5 hours using 13 GB of RAM, with further speedups possible using multiple processors. Availability and implementation: Roary is implemented in Perl and is freely available under an open source GPLv3 license from http://sanger-pathogens.github.io/Roary Contact: roary@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26198102

  5. Structure and optoelectrical properties of photopolymerized PAn/DNA complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Norihisa; Morimoto, Taro; Ushikubo, Takahiro

    2007-09-01

    A Polyaniline (PAn)/ DNA complex has been successfully prepared by the photopolymerization of dimeric aniline via photocatalytic reaction of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ in the presence of DNA. The reaction occurs even in the solution at pH 3.0 - 6.0, due to the specific local "lower-pH" environment provided by DNA. The PAn in the complex has ordered structure associated with double-helical DNA. The complex contains photocatalyst, Ru(bpy) 3 2+, even after purification and the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ also works as emitting material. A Ru(bpy) 3 2+ complex-based red-emitting diode with a fast turn-on response was successfully fabricated by employing this novel, processable and water-soluble PAn/DNA complex.

  6. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  7. Recent Improvements in the ATLAS PanDA Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero Bejar, J.; Compostella, G.; Contreras, C.; De, K.; Dos Santos, T.; Maeno, T.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) in the ATLAS experiment uses pilots to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. The pilots are designed to deal with different runtime conditions and failure scenarios, and support many storage systems. This talk will give a brief overview of the PanDA pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including CernVM File System integration, the job retry mechanism, advanced job monitoring including JEM technology, and validation of new pilot code using the HammerCloud stress-testing system. PanDA is used for all ATLAS distributed production and is the primary system for distributed analysis. It is currently used at over 130 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its further evolution.

  8. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  9. Evaluation of the tablets' surface flow velocities in pan coaters.

    PubMed

    Dreu, Rok; Toschkoff, Gregor; Funke, Adrian; Altmeyer, Andreas; Knop, Klaus; Khinast, Johannes; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The tablet pan coating process involves various types of transverse tablet bed motions, ranging from rolling to cascading. To preserve satisfactory results in terms of coating quality after scale-up, understanding the dynamics of pan coating process should be achieved. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology of estimating translational surface velocities of the tablets in a pan coater and to assess their dependence on the drum's filling degree, the pan speed, the presence of baffles and the selected tablet properties in a dry bed system and during coating while varying the drum's filling degree and the pan speed. Experiments were conducted on the laboratory scale and on the pilot scale in side-vented pan coaters. Surface movement of biconvex two-layer tablets was assessed before, during and after the process of active coating. In order to determine the tablets' surface flow velocities, a high-speed video of the tablet surface flow was recorded via a borescope inserted into the coating drum and analysed via a cross-correlation algorithm. The obtained tablet velocity data were arranged in a linear fashion as a function of the coating drum's radius and frequency. Velocity data obtained during coating were close to those of dry tablets after coating. The filling degree had little influence on the tablet velocity profile in a coating drum with baffles but clearly affected it in a coating drum without baffles. In most but not all cases, tablets with a lower static angle of repose had tablet velocity profiles with lower slopes than tablets with higher inter-tablet friction. This particular tablet velocity response can be explained by case specific values of tablet bed's dynamic angle of repose. PMID:27264716

  10. Women in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Manon

    1975-01-01

    The role and status of women in Africa has changed profoundly since the end of the colonial period. Many differences in women's status and role are based on geography, history, nationality, political and socioeconomic systems, culture, and religion. (JR)

  11. Chemical Modification for PAN Fibers during Heat-treatment Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Yin, Wenyan

    Chemical modification for Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers during heat-treatment process were systematically studied by DSC, FT-IR, EA, XPS, etal. Comparing with original PAN fibers, chemical reactions, structures and elemental compositions of fibers modified with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solutions were totally changed at a certain extent. KMnO4 had reduced the activation energy of cyclization, decreased the area and widened the peak of exothermic curve, decreased the velocity of cyclization reaction, increased the oxygen content about 67%, hence increased C-O-C and C=O groups and the core/shell ratio.

  12. Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolyte Based on Pva-Pan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, S. Siva; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Rajeswari, N.; Genova, F. Kingslin Mary; Karthikeyan, S.; Raja, C. Sanjeevi

    2013-07-01

    Proton conducting polymer electrolytes based on blend polymer using Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) and Poly Acrylo Nitrile (PAN) doped with ammonium nitrate have been prepared by solution casting method. The highest conductivity at room temperature (305K) has been found to be 1.8×10-3 S cm-1 for 15 mole % NH4NO3 doped PVA-PAN system. X ray Diffraction pattern of the doped and the undoped blend polymer electrolyte confirms the amorphous nature of blend polymer, when salt is added. The complex formation between the blend polymer and the salt has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  13. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  14. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  15. 75 FR 47262 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...This announcement provides notice that the Secretary of Commerce has stayed, for a period of sixty (60) days, closure of the decision record in an administrative appeal filed by Pan American Grain Co. (Pan...

  16. TCGA's Pan-Cancer Efforts and Expansion to Include Whole Genome Sequence - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Carolyn Hutter, Ph.D., Program Director of NHGRI's Division of Genomic Medicine, discusses the expansion of TCGA's Pan-Cancer efforts to include the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PAWG) project.

  17. Pan-African magmatism in the Menderes Massif: geochronological data from leucocratic tourmaline orthogneisses in western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koralay, O. E.; Candan, O.; Chen, F.; Akal, C.; Oberhänsli, R.; Satır, M.; Dora, O. Ö.

    2012-11-01

    The Menderes Massif, exposed in western Anatolia, is a metamorphic complex cropping out in the Alpine orogenic belt. The metamorphic rock succession of the Massif is made up of a Precambrian basement and overlying Paleozoic-early Tertiary cover series. The Pan-African basement is composed of late Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks consisting of partially migmatized paragneisses and conformably overlying medium- to high-grade mica schists, intruded by orthogneisses and metagabbros. Along the southern flank of the southern submassif, we recognized well-preserved primary contact relationship between biotite and leucocratic tourmaline orthogneisses and country rocks as the orthogneisses represent numerous large plutons, stocks and vein rocks intruded into a basement of garnet mica schists. Based on the radiometric data, the primary deposition age of the precursors of the country rocks, garnet mica schist, can be constrained between 600 and 550 Ma (latest Neoproterozoic). The North Africa-Arabian-Nubian Shield in the Mozambique Belt can be suggested as the possible provenance of these metaclastics. The intrusion ages of the leucocratic tourmaline orthogneisses and biotite orthogneisses were dated at 550-540 Ma (latest Neoproterozoic-earliest Cambrian) by zircon U/Pb and Pb/Pb geochronology. These granitoids represent the products of the widespread Pan-African acidic magmatic activity, which can be attributed to the closure of the Mozambique Ocean during the final collision of East and West Gondwana. Detrital zircon ages at about 550 Ma in the Paleozoic muscovite-quartz schists show that these Pan-African granitoids in the basement form the source rocks of the cover series of the Menderes Massif.

  18. Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zaytzeva, Nina; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolay; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennady; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or

  19. 75 FR 61502 - Cooperative Agreement With the Pan American Health Organization for the Development of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the Pan American Health... application to award a cooperative agreement to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) for the... efforts, such as the Pan American Network for Drug Regulatory Harmonization (PANDRH), the ICH...

  20. 75 FR 61698 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 26, 2010. See 75 FR 8919. The Secretary is required under the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co. AGENCY... administrative appeal filed with the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) by Pan American Grain Co. (Pan...

  1. 75 FR 8919 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co. AGENCY.... SUMMARY: This announcement provides notice that Pan American Grain Co., has filed an administrative appeal...@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Notice of Appeal On January 27, 2010, Pan American Grain...

  2. INFLUENCE OF PEROXYACETYL NITRATE (PAN) ON WATER STRESS IN BEAN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 395 micrograms/cu m (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant water potential of PAN-sensitive 'Provider' resulting in visible wilting and reduced ...

  3. The Historical Aspects of the Pan American Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Curtis R.

    The purpose of this study was to produce an accurate account of the origin and development of the Pan American Games. A further purpose was to collect, organize, and systematically compile the results of competition for each festival, and to identify some noteworthy incidents in each series of games. The document first explains that the idea of…

  4. Isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture from pan water evaporation measurements.

    PubMed

    Devi, Pooja; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Rao, M Someshwer; Kumar, Bhishm

    2015-01-01

    A continuous and reliable time series data of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is an important requirement for the wider applicability of isotope mass balance methods in atmospheric and water balance studies. This requires routine sampling of atmospheric moisture by an appropriate technique and analysis of moisture for its isotopic composition. We have, therefore, used a much simpler method based on an isotope mass balance approach to derive the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture using a class-A drying evaporation pan. We have carried out the study by collecting water samples from a class-A drying evaporation pan and also by collecting atmospheric moisture using the cryogenic trap method at the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India, during a pre-monsoon period. We compared the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture obtained by using the class-A drying evaporation pan method with the cryogenic trap method. The results obtained from the evaporation pan water compare well with the cryogenic based method. Thus, the study establishes a cost-effective means of maintaining time series data of the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture at meteorological observatories. The conclusions drawn in the present study are based on experiments conducted at Roorkee, India, and may be examined at other regions for its general applicability. PMID:26332982

  5. 24. Roof detail from liftbed truck, showing pan roof above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Roof detail from lift-bed truck, showing pan roof above breezeway, with sawn redwood trim, tube-type drains; note missing rain gutter at roof edge, deteriorated condition of slates; view to south, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  6. Characterization of low thermal conductivity PAN-based carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzman, Howard A.; Adams, P. M.; Le, T. D.; Hemminger, Carl S.

    1992-01-01

    The microstructure and surface chemistry of eight low thermal conductivity (LTC) PAN-based carbon fibers were determined and compared with PAN-based fibers heat treated to higher temperatures. Based on wide-angle x ray diffraction, the LTC PAN fibers all appear to have a similar turbostratic structure with large 002 d-spacings, small crystallite sizes, and moderate preferred orientation. Limited small-angle x ray scattering (SAXS) results indicate that, with the exception of LTC fibers made by BASF, the LTC fibers do not have well developed pores. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the texture of the two LTC PAN-based fibers studied (Amoco T350/23X and /25X) consists of multiple sets of parallel, wavy, bent layers that interweave with each other forming a complex three dimensional network oriented randomly around the fiber axis. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis finds correlations between heat treated temperatures and the surface composition chemistry of the carbon fiber samples.

  7. Maya Education and Pan Maya Ideology in the Yucatan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Allan

    1998-01-01

    A University of Yucatan (Mexico) professor who taught a Mayan linguistics course to indigenous teachers in Mayan discusses three issues that are central to understanding how indigenous education interacts with pan-Maya identity: the importance of locally developed Maya literature, the symbols used to define Maya culture, and a conflict over Maya…

  8. Pan-African - Mediterranean Migrations: Implications for Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Diane Brook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and adaptation in…

  9. Vaccination to conserved influenza antigens in mice using a novel Simian adenovirus vector, PanAd3, derived from the bonobo Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Vitelli, Alessandra; Quirion, Mary R; Lo, Chia-Yun; Misplon, Julia A; Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Pierantoni, Angiolo; Ammendola, Virginia; Price, Graeme E; Soboleski, Mark R; Cortese, Riccardo; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2013-01-01

    Among approximately 1000 adenoviruses from chimpanzees and bonobos studied recently, the Pan Adenovirus type 3 (PanAd3, isolated from a bonobo, Pan paniscus) has one of the best profiles for a vaccine vector, combining potent transgene immunogenicity with minimal pre-existing immunity in the human population. In this study, we inserted into a replication defective PanAd3 a transgene expressing a fusion protein of conserved influenza antigens nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 (M1). We then studied antibody and T cell responses as well as protection from challenge infection in a mouse model. A single intranasal administration of PanAd3-NPM1 vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses, and protected against high dose lethal influenza virus challenge. Thus PanAd3 is a promising candidate vector for vaccines, including universal influenza vaccines. PMID:23536756

  10. An Intercomparison of Airborne VOC and PAN Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Flocke, F.; Weinheimer, A.; Fall, R.; Goldan, P.; Hübler, G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) an informal airborne intercomparison has been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-art of fast-response, in-situ methods for analyzing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Instrumentation included a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), the Tropospheric Airborne Chromatograph for Oxy-hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbons (TACOH) and a gas chromatograph for PAN detection using electron capture (GC/ECD). The measurements were made in the Greater Houston area and East Texas in August/September 2000 during 13 flights with the NSF/NCAR ELECTRA aircraft. The intercomparison was conducted mainly in the boundary layer but included some encounters with air masses from the free troposphere. Final results from the intercomparison show that measurements of acetaldehyde, isoprene, the sum\\textsuperscript{*} of acetone and propanal, the sum\\textsuperscript{*} methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (\\textsuperscript{*} PTR-MS does not distinguish between isobaric species) and toluene agree very well. Poor agreement was achieved in the case of methanol and the underlying sensitivity problem in the PTR-MS or TACOH system is under investigation. The results of the PAN intercomparison indicate that the PTR-MS technique suffered from an interference most likely associated with the presence of peracetic acid in photochemically aged air. If this interfering signal was traced by periodically inserting a selective PAN scrubber (thermal decomposition) into the sample air stream and subtracted from the original signal, the corrected PTR-MS PAN data are in very good agreement with the GC/ECD results.

  11. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. PMID:24406800

  12. Neogene desertification of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Pickford, Martin; Ségalen, Loïc

    2009-08-01

    Throughout the Neogene, the faunas and floras in Africa recorded global climatic changes. We present an overview of Neogene desertification in Africa by tracing stable isotopes in eggshells and mammalian enamel, by faunal (changes in hypsodonty, etc.) and floral changes in sequences at the latitudinal extremities of the continent and the equator. This work reveals that desertification started in the southwest ca 17-16 Ma, much earlier than the region of the present-day Sahara (ca 8-7 Ma) and long before the deserts in East Africa (Plio-Pleistocene). A consequence of this history is that animals and plants inhabiting the South of the continent had a long period of time in which to adapt to arid, unstable climatic conditions. When parts of East Africa became arid during the Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene, several of these lineages expanded northwards and occupied developing arid niches before local lineages could adapt. Several of the latter became extinct, while others withdrew westwards as the tropical forest diminished in extent. It is proposed that the history of desertification in Africa was related to that of the polar ice caps (Antarctic, Arctic).

  13. 3 CFR 8361 - Proclamation 8361 of April 14, 2009. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supports strong democracies and the development of alternative energy sources. The promotion of transparent... alternative energy sources, and the Pan American community must build upon these promising efforts. As we..., strong democratic governance, and clean energy. Robust, bottom-up economic growth benefits all...

  14. Adsorption Isotherms for Xenon and Krypton using INL HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Veronica J. Rutledge; Jack D. Law

    2014-08-01

    The generation of adsorption isotherms compliments the scale-up of off-gas processes used to control the emission of encapsulated radioactive volatile fission and activation products released during Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) reprocessing activities. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain capacity results for varying Kr and Xe gas concentrations using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN engineered form sorbents. Gas compositions for Kr ranged from 150-40,000 ppmv and 250-5020 ppmv for Xe in a helium balance. The experiments were all performed at 220 K at a flowrate of 50 sccm. Acquired capacities were then respectively fit to the Langmuir equation using the Langmuir linear regression method to obtain the equilibrium parameters Qmax and Keq. Generated experimental adsorption isotherms were then plotted with the Langmuir predicted isotherms to illustrate agreement between the two. The Langmuir parameters were provided for input into the OSPREY model to predict breakthrough of single component adsorption of Kr and Xe on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents at the experimental conditions tested. Kr and Xe capacities resulting from model breakthrough predictions were then compared to experimental capacities for model validation.

  15. Priority: Africa. Programme of Action Proposed by the Director-General (1990-1995). Proceedings of a Seminar on Distance Education (1st, Arusha, Tanzania, September 24-28, 1990). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanzania National Commission of UNESCO, Dar es Salaam.

    This publication presents a report on the first Pan-African meeting on distance education. The materials reveal that development of distance education in Africa depends on three factors: information and research, the training of specialists, and the production or acquisition of materials. A report of the plenary session summarizes presentations by…

  16. Metallurgical and acoustical characterization of a hydroformed, 304 stainless steel, Caribbean-style musical pan

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L.E. Gaytan, S.M.; Lopez, M.I.; Bujanda, D.E.; Martinez, E.Y.; Whitmyre, G.; Price, H.

    2008-03-15

    We report herein the metallurgical and acoustical characterization of hydroformed 304 stainless steel, Caribbean pans. These pans were fully tuned to chromatic tones and compared to a manufactured, low-carbon, Caribbean steel pan standard. Hydroformed platforms had a Vickers microindentation hardness of HV 345, which was reduced by annealing during pan fabrication to HV 270. Skirts welded to the hydroformed head had a microindentation hardness of HV 440. Microstructural characterization by light optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy illustrated microstructures (including grain structures) characteristic of these pan microindentation hardnesses.

  17. The influence of inherited structures on dyke emplacement during Gondwana break-up in southwestern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas; Frimmel, Hartwig

    2013-04-01

    A kinematic analysis of Cretaceous and pre-Cretaceous faulting and fracturing was carried out along the west coast of Southern Africa extending from the greater Cape Town area to the Orange River and beyond into southern Namibia. This study was augmented by the geometric analysis of mainly Cretaceous mafic dykes exposed from SW Angola to the southern tip of Africa. The kinematic analysis shows that the Cretaceous rifting event that led to the opening of the modern South Atlantic was largely controlled by NW-SE and NE-SW-striking structures. In the coastal areas of South Africa the Cretaceous deformation was dominated by NE-SW extension, whereas a general E-W-oriented extension prevailed further north. Analysis of reverse and strike-slip faulting in the Gariep and western Saldania Belts shows that the Pan-African constrictional deformation in South Africa was mainly controlled by ENE-WSW- to ESE-WNW-oriented shortening. Further north, the geometry of the Odgen Rock Mylonites in Namibia is controlled by N-S-striking strike-slip faults. The geometric analysis of the orientation of the mafic dykes also points to an E-W-oriented extension direction in the coastal areas extending from southern Angola to Meob and Conception Bay in west-central Namiba and changes to a generally NE-SW-oriented extension along the west coast of South Africa. Further inland in the Damara Belt sensu strictu, the geometric analysis of dykes belonging to the Hentjes Bay-Outjo Dyke Swarm also indicates NE-SW-oriented extension but, in addition, also a strong component of NW-SE-directed extension controlled dyke emplacement. The results of this study suggest that Pan-African (or older) structural discontinuities were re-utilised during the opening of the South Atlantic in the Early Cretaceous. The extension directions associated with Cretaceous Gondwana break-up structures are subparallel to the Pan-African shortening orientations. The inherited structural anisotropies are generally parallel to

  18. Coastal salt pans: strengthening the new emerging role of Maltese shore platforms for geo-tourism with GIS Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, Ritienne; Schembri, John A.; Mizzi, Raphael; Inkpen, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Salt has been a foremost natural resource for millennia with a wide range of uses from preserving edible foods, and cooking with it, to cleaning, laundry, hygiene, and as a medicinal balm. The Mediterranean, with its long indented coastline, numerous islands and a distinctive climate has been a favourable area for salt production from sea water. It was the source of supply of salt to the Eurasian land mass, and trekking it through to sub-Saharan Africa. With a salinity of around 36 ppt, the Mediterranean is one of the most productive areas in the globe for salt yield per volume of water. In small islands with poor natural resources, the production of salt from sea water, through insolation, aeolian processes and intense human endeavour, offered economic benefits and created a socio-environmental cultural heritage around the sites of production of this staple resource. The Maltese Islands are no exception to this activity with rectangular or oblong pans etched on the softer surface limestone of Malta and Gozo. Located strategically on the foreshore, the rectangular (0.5-1.5 m2), shallow pits (ca 15cm), supplemented by larger reservoirs occupy significant areas as near to the shoreline as possible. There are about 40 artisanal sites along the littoral varying in area from one thousand to 17,000 m2and with their nearest point located between one and ten metres from the water's edge. Some are no longer in use. Their total area around the islands is about 170,000 m2. This aim of this paper is to explore the multiple geographies of still existing salt pans in selected sites on Malta. This research aims to map out the traditional but complex management system present at each selected shore platform site, some of which are considered the best preserved salt pans on the Islands. Consequently, they transform into focal touristic attractions, especially during the summer months when a daily display of soil harvesting work can be witnessed and admired. The mapping and

  19. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  20. Hematology in Africa.

    PubMed

    Makani, Julie; Roberts, David J

    2016-04-01

    This review of hematology in Africa highlights areas of current practice and the immediate needs for development and clinical research. Acute hematological practice is dominated by anemia, sickle cell disease, and the need to provide a safe and rapidly available supply of blood. There is a growing need for specialist services for bleeding and coagulation, hematological malignancy, and palliative care. There are many areas of practice where straightforward measures could yield large gains in patient care. There is an urgent need for good clinical research to describe the epidemiology, natural history, and management of hematological diseases in Africa. PMID:27040965

  1. Changes in flavor volatile composition of oolong tea after panning during tea processing.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; Newkirk, Jordan J; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-05-01

    Panning is a processing step used in manufacturing of some varieties of oolong tea. There is limited information available on effects of panning on oolong tea flavors. The goal of this study was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). SDE and SPME techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in aldehyde or terpene contents of unpanned and panned tea. However, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters contents were significantly reduced by panning. Among 12 major volatiles previously used for identification and quality assessment of oolong tea, trans nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by panning. Panning increased (P < 0.05) contents of linalool oxide, cis jasmone, and methyl salicylate. The GC-O study also showed an increase of aroma active compounds with sweet descriptions and decrease of aroma active compounds with fruity and smoky descriptions after panning. Panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds. Results from this study can be used in quality assessment of panned oolong tea. PMID:27247775

  2. Simulations of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) Photochemistry in the Arctic Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassau, T. M.; Ford, K. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Bottenheim, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a reservoir compound of NOx_ that has the ability to transport NOx_ to remote environments, allowing for NOx_ photochemistry and/or deposition of nitrogen to these clean locations. Measurements of PAN have been made at Alert, Nunavut and Summit, Greenland aimed at understanding the nitrogen budget at each site. These measurements show concentrations of PAN that are only slowly varying, even during ozone depletion events at sunrise. However, calculations of [PAN], using its primary sources and sinks, indicate a dramatic production rate for PAN when the surface is sunlit. This is inconsistent with the measurement data, illustrating that we are missing an important sink for atmospheric PAN above snow-covered surfaces. We performed a zero-dimensional model of PAN photochemistry at Alert, Nunavut and Summit, Greenland, which simulated the known gas-phase chemistry of each region, to discern the predicted PAN behavior in each environment. We then adjusted the model sinks to simulate the ambient PAN data, in order to determine the magnitude of the missing PAN sink. Ambient data from Alert, Nunavut (1998 and 2000), and Summit, Greenland (1999) will be presented, as well as the original model simulations based upon the known gas-phase chemistry of each environment. In addition, we will discuss the magnitude of the missing sink, and the potential for PAN interaction with the snowpack.

  3. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  4. Telecommunications and Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiplagat, B. A., Ed.; Werner, M. C. M., Ed.

    The Telecommunications Foundation of Africa (TFA) was created in 1992 out of a conviction that insufficient telecommunications in Africa are an impediment to economic growth, and that more resources could be mobilized to strengthen this sector. This volume was made by TFA for readers both inside and outside of Africa and the telecommunications…

  5. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  6. The Intraplate Earthquakes of SE Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Domingues, A.

    2014-12-01

    Southeast Africa is a region of complex tectonic inheritance, combining early Archean cratonic blocks - the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons - and several collision belts ranging in age from ~2.6Ga (Limpopo Belt) to the Pan-African Orogeny, 800-500 Ma ago (Zambezi Belt, Mozambique Belt). Mesozoic rifting was the last tectonic event to leave an imprint in the lithosphere of the region. Tertiary deformation is mild and related to the extensional regime of the East African Rift System (EARS) further north. Instrumental seismology started in Johannesburg in 1910 (Saunders et al., 2008). Ambraseys and Adams (1991) conducted a reappraisal of the seismicity of Sub-Saharan Africa from 1900 to 1930, and the compilations by Krige and Maree (1948) and Gutenberg and F. Richter (1949) are main sources for the two subsequent decades. The available data can be considered complete since 1900 for magnitudes above M6 (Ambraseys and Adams, 1991), although major epicentral errors are likely to affect the early decades. Earthquakes above this threshold in the region to the south of Lake Malawi and to the east of the Okavango Rift are reported in 1919 (MS6.5, NE South Africa), 1932 (MS6.8, Natal Bay), 1940 (MS6.2, SE Mozambique), 1951 (MS6.0, Central Mozambique), 1957 (M6.0, Central Mozambique), again in 1957 (M6.2, Central Mozambique), 1958 (M6.0, Southern Zimbabwe), 1959 (M6.1, Southern Zambia) and 2006 (M7.0, Central Mozambique). The four M>6 earthquakes from 1957 to 1959 configure a cluster in time, followed by a shutdown (at M>6) that was to last nearly five decades. While a coincidence is unlikely, a causal link is challenged by the large spatial scatter of about 500 km. However, the fact that the four earthquakes occurred on the border of the Zimbabwe craton may provide a clue to the mechanism promoting the clustering. We combine these data with recent seismicity results (Fonseca et al., 2014) to discuss possible factors controlling the seismotectonics of the region.

  7. Smoke in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences

  8. Africa: Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)

  9. Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Documentation and Information, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This selected, annotated bibliography of information resources in English and/or French is divided into sections on books; documents and articles; UNESCO publications; reference works; and African periodicals. A list of institutions concerned with education in Africa is included, as well as educational documentation and information services in…

  10. AED in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the AED programs in Africa since 1975. Current AED Programs include: (1) HIV/AIDS Prevention and Impact…

  11. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries. PMID:11961693

  12. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has, in…

  13. Pythiosis in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rivierre, Christine; Laprie, Caroline; Guiard-Marigny, Olivier; Bergeaud, Patrick; Berthelemy, Madeleine

    2005-01-01

    We report the first case of pythiosis from Africa in an 8-month-old dog with a chronic and ulcerative cutaneous lesion. The etiologic agent belonged to the genus Pythium. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in a sister group to the other P. insidiosum strains. However, the isolate may belong to a new Pythium species. PMID:15757572

  14. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  15. Who Speaks for Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Judging by the press coverage, it would seem that Europeans are the only ones concerned about conditions in Africa, but perhaps the media is not telling the whole story. According to Mark P. Fancher, chair of the National Conference of Black Lawyers' Section on International Affairs & World Peace and the author of "The Splintering of Global…

  16. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba Moyo); "Classroom Code-Switching…

  17. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  18. Neonatal surgery in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chirdan, Lohfa B; Ngiloi, Petronilla J; Elhalaby, Essam A

    2012-05-01

    The management of neonatal surgical problems continues to pose considerable challenges, particularly in low-resource settings. The burden of neonatal surgical diseases in Africa is not well documented. The characteristics of some neonatal surgical problems are highlighted. Late presentation coupled with poor understanding of the milieu interior of the neonates by incompetent health care providers and poorly equipped hospitals combine to give rise to the unacceptable high morbidity and mortality in most parts of Africa. Proper training of all staff involved in neonatal health care coupled with community awareness must be vigorously pursued by all stakeholders. Various governments throughout the continent of Africa, in conjunction with international donor agencies, must not only provide an adequate budget for health care services and improve infrastructures, but must also deliberately encourage and provide funding for neonatal surgical care and research across the continent. The well-established pediatric surgical training programs, particularly in North and South Africa, should hold the moral responsibility of training all possible numbers of young surgeons from other African countries that do not have any existing pediatric surgical training programs or those countries suffering from remarkable shortage of trained pediatric surgeons. PMID:22475121

  19. Out of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure with her students…

  20. AED in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    For 30 years, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) has worked to support African development. In Uganda, Tanzania, and Botswana AED promoted some of Africa's first AIDS prevention programs. AED is funding research in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and perhaps Zambia that will target stigma and its role in AIDS prevention. Working with governments…

  1. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  2. Libraries in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyia, Christian O.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss library and information work in Africa. Highlights include computerization in Nigerian libraries; education for library and information services in Ghana; an evaluation of African librarianship; the role of Nigerian publishers in national development; and the role of information services in national development…

  3. Pan-Africa/Pan-Brazilian detrital zircons in Lower Palaeozoic schists of SW Norway - enigmatic detrital zircon U-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Udo; Bjørheim, Maren; Clark, Chris

    2013-04-01

    We present Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon age data from metasedimentary rocks (schists and quartzites) located in the town of Stavanger (SW Norway). The metasedimentary sequence is composed of schists, medium grained quartz-rich metawackes and quartzites. Quartzites and meta-quartz-wackes exhibit a mylonitic fabric with newly grown fine-grained muscovite defining the fabric. Accessory minerals are zircon, allanite, detrital apatite, monazite, ilmenite, rutile and zircon. The schists are dark and dominated by quartz and feldspar in a fine chloritic and silica-rich matrix and represent the dominant lithology of the region. While quartzites and metawackes show typical geochemical characteristics for strongly reworked rocks, the schists have very low Zr/Sc and Th/Sc ratios below 0.9 and point together with other trace element ratios (La/Sc, Ti/Zr) to the strong influence of less fractionated, mafic, sources in the detritus, possibly arc derived. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from quartzites range between 740 to 1800 Ma. There is a defined population at 1135 and 1010 Ma tentatively correlated with the Sveconorwegian orogeny. A second population at ~1450 Ma that can be related to a tectono-magmatic event during the Earliest Mesoproterozoic, also recorded in Oslo, southern Sweden and Bornholm, mapped along the proposed southern margin of Baltica. Other detrital zircons record ages between 1586 - 1664 Ma that are not related to the latter event. The oldest U-Pb detrital zircon grain age was 1796 Ma and is potentially associated with the terminal phase of the Svecofennian orogeny. Detrital zircons from the associated schists do show a similar abundance of main age clusters but the oldest found zircons dates to 2013 Ma while the maximum depositional age could be determined by grains of Cambrian to even Ordovician ages with a large 1 sigma error, as such that we rather propose a Cambrian maximum depositional age. It is possible to speculate that the black schists are an equivalent of the Alum shale successions, which is exposed in the Oslo region, southern Sweden and Bornholm (Denmark) and would be then belong to the margin of Baltica. However, detrital zircons with Ediacaran to Lower Palaeozoic ages are exotic to Baltica, and especially unexpected for the proposed passive margin. Magmatic events in SW Baltica of such an age are yet unknown, besides the intrusion of mafic dykes which cannot account for this large number of detrital zircons in the schists. Hence, there are several possibilities to explain this population: 1. The source area was not in Baltica and this sliver of schists is exotic to Baltica and was accreted during the Caledonian orogeny as the rocks show Caledonian deformation and metamorphism. 2. The depositional area had been in Baltica but the source area has drifted away and the schists are younger than Middle Cambrian, possibly Caledonian. 3. The schists are one of the few relicts which reflect magmatic events of Ediacaran and Lower Paleozoic ages (pre-Caledonian) in Baltica, which we have not been aware of so far and for which we have no geodynamic explanation (as the current opinion interprets a passive margin at the western boundary of Baltica) and might indicate unexpectedly young rift magmatism. If possibility (1) is taken into account then the candidates for the origin are somewhat restricted to Gondwana as on the eastern margin of Laurentia massive magmatism of Ediacaran to Lower Paleozoic ages is as well not well constrained.

  4. Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) exhibit sleep related behaviors that minimize exposure to parasitic arthropods? A preliminary report on the possible anti-vector function of chimpanzee sleeping platforms.

    PubMed

    Samson, David R; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Hunt, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Great apes spend half of their lives in a nightly "nest" or sleeping platform (SP), a complex object created by modifying foliage, which functions as a stable substrate on which to sleep. Of the several purported functions of SPs, one hypothesis is that they protect against parasitic infection. Here we investigate the role of SP site choice in avoiding molestation by arthropods. This study presents preliminary data on the insect-repellent properties of preferred sleeping tree species Cynometra alexandri. Insect traps were deployed in gallery forest habitats in which chimpanzees typically "nest." We compared traps placed adjacent to SPs artificially manufactured with C. alexandri trees to an open area within the same habitat. Multiple measures of arthropod counts indicate that simulated C. alexandri SP sites have fewer arthropods than similar non-SP sites. Volatile compounds secreted by C. alexandri foliage are hypothesized to repel annoying arthropods and/or mask chimpanzee olfactory signals. Of the total insects captured (n = 6,318), n = 145 were mosquitoes. Of the total mosquitoes captured, n = 47 were identified as Anopheles (female, n = 12). The prominent malarial vector Anopheles gambiae was identified among the captured mosquito sample. These results suggest that the presence of broken branches of the tree species C. alexandri reduce the amount of insects a chimpanzee is exposed to throughout a night's sleep. This great ape behavioral and socio-technological adaptation may have evolved, in part, to increase quality of sleep as well as decrease exposure to vectors of disease. PMID:23011513

  5. The Equatorial Ridges of Pan and Atlas: Terminal Accretionary Ornaments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnoz, Sébastien; Brahic, André; Thomas, Peter C.; Porco, Carolyn C.

    2007-12-01

    In the outer regions of Saturn’s main rings, strong tidal forces balance gravitational accretion processes. Thus, unusual phenomena may be expected there. The Cassini spacecraft has recently revealed the strange “flying saucer” shape of two small satellites, Pan and Atlas, located in this region, showing prominent equatorial ridges. The accretion of ring particles onto the equatorial surfaces of already-formed bodies embedded in the rings may explain the formation of the ridges. This ridge formation process is in good agreement with detailed Cassini images showing differences between rough polar and smooth equatorial terrains. We propose that Pan and Atlas ridges are kilometers-thick “ring-particle piles” formed after the satellites themselves and after the flattening of the rings but before the complete depletion of ring material from their surroundings.

  6. The equatorial ridges of Pan and Atlas: terminal accretionary ornaments?

    PubMed

    Charnoz, Sébastien; Brahic, André; Thomas, Peter C; Porco, Carolyn C

    2007-12-01

    In the outer regions of Saturn's main rings, strong tidal forces balance gravitational accretion processes. Thus, unusual phenomena may be expected there. The Cassini spacecraft has recently revealed the strange "flying saucer" shape of two small satellites, Pan and Atlas, located in this region, showing prominent equatorial ridges. The accretion of ring particles onto the equatorial surfaces of already-formed bodies embedded in the rings may explain the formation of the ridges. This ridge formation process is in good agreement with detailed Cassini images showing differences between rough polar and smooth equatorial terrains. We propose that Pan and Atlas ridges are kilometers-thick "ring-particle piles" formed after the satellites themselves and after the flattening of the rings but before the complete depletion of ring material from their surroundings. PMID:18063797

  7. On the working conditions of a two-pan balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Carlos R.

    2016-07-01

    In this article we address the assumptions concerning the equilibrium of rigid bodies, commonly used in textbooks, that can lead to completely wrong conclusions. In particular, we show that in an idealised world, where frictions and deformations don’t occur, a steelyard or two-pan balance would not work. This apparent contradiction, that one needs imperfections to make things work, doesn’t appear in textbooks because the corresponding topics are presented in the equilibrium configuration, where the imperfections’ role is no longer necessary. At the end, taking the two-pan balance as example, we show that to avoid of working with imperfections, one must deal with a device whose design has a subtle difference from that one we are used to think about.

  8. PanDaTox: a tool for accelerated metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2012-04-18

    Metabolic engineering is often facilitated by cloning of genes encoding enzymes from various heterologous organisms into E. coli. Such engineering efforts are frequently hampered by foreign genes that are toxic to the E. coli host. We have developed PanDaTox (www.weizmann.ac.il/pandatox), a web-based resource that provides experimental toxicity information for more than 1.5 million genes from hundreds of different microbial genomes. The toxicity predictions, which were extensively experimentally verified, are based on serial cloning of genes into E. coli as part of the Sanger whole genome shotgun sequencing process. PanDaTox can accelerate metabolic engineering projects by allowing researchers to exclude toxic genes from the engineering plan and verify the clonability of selected genes before the actual metabolic engineering experiments are conducted.

  9. Lithium Ion Polymer Electrolyte Based on Pva-Pan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, F. Kingslin Mary; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Rajeswari, N.; Devi, S. Siva; Karthikeyan, S.; Raja, C. Sanjeevi

    2013-07-01

    The polymer blend electrolytes based on polyvinylalcohol(PVA) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) doped with lithium per chlorate (LiClO4) have been prepared by solution casting technique using DMF as solvent. The complex formation between blend polymer and the salt has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the blend polymer electrolyte has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The ionic conductivity of the prepared blend polymer electrolyte has been found by ac impedence spectroscopic analysis. The highest ionic conductivity has been found to be 5.0 X10-4 S cm -1 at room temperature for 92.5 PVA: 7.5PAN: 20 molecular wt. % of LiClO4. The effect of salt concentration on the conductivity of the blend polymer electrolyte has been discussed.

  10. Paleozoic basins in West Africa and the Mauritanide thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-10-01

    The evolution of the Paleozoic basins of West Africa is strongly depending on the structuration of the different belts which are surrounding the West African Craton. We distinguish the "Taoudeni Basin" located in the center of the craton from the basins located on the West African Craton margin (Tindouf, Tamale and several troughs limiting the western side of the Taoudeni Basin). Other basins are located on top of the Pan-African or Hercynian belts (Bové, Kandi, Ouallen in Semmen and Diourbel basins) or on top of the Proterozoic shields (The Ghana basins). Some are evidenced underneath the Mesozoic-Cenozoic coastal basins (Bové and Ghana basins). The sedimentation started with the Marinoan glacial event (620-580 Ma) and ended with the carbonates of the Early Carboniferous. The main tectonic or climatic events that occurred during this period are registered by the sediments. Among them are, the "Série pourprée glaciogenic deposits, the Pan-African II tectonic event (550-500 Ma) which affects the southwestern part of the Taoudeni Basin, the Late Ordovician glaciogenic event, the Early Silurian marine transgression, the Early Devonian marine regression and the Hercynian tectonic event (330-270 Ma) which affects the Paleozoic basins located on the western and northern parts of the West African Craton. The second part of this paper is devoted to a synthetic review of the Mauritanides Belt which is extending from Southern Senegal to the Moroccan High Atlas. This belt includes both old Pan-African belts and Paleozoic sediments (belonging to the western part of the Bové, Taoudeni and Tindouf basins) tectonised and metamorphosed during the Hercynian orogen. The third part points out the close relationships between the Paleozoic basins and the main tectonic event for the main periods of the West African Craton evolution.

  11. PAN AIR summary document (version 1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derbyshire, T.; Sidwell, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the panel aerodynamics (PAN AIR) computer program system are summarized. This program uses a higher order panel method to solve boundary value problems involving the Prandtl-Glauert equation for subsonic and supersonic potential flows. Both aerodynamic and hydrodynamic problems can be solved using this modular software which is written for the CDC 6600 and 7600, and the CYBER 170 series computers.

  12. Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

  13. GIRAF 2009 - Taking action on geoscience information across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine

    2010-05-01

    A workshop in Windhoek Between 16 and 20 March 2009 97 participants from 26 African nations, plus four European countries, and representatives from UNESCO, ICSU and IUGS-CGI, held a workshop at the Namibian Geological Survey in Windhoek. The workshop - GIRAF 2009 - Geoscience InfoRmation In Africa - was organised by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and the Geological Survey of Namibia (GSN) at the Namibian Ministry for Mines and Energy and was mainly financed by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), supported by the IUGS Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI). The participants came to Namibia to discuss one of the most topical issues in the geological domain - geoscience information and informatics. A prime objective was to set up a pan-African network for exchanging knowledge about geoscience information. GIRAF 2009 builds on the results of a preparatory workshop organised by the CGI and funded by the IUGS, which was held in June 2006 in Maputo at the 21st Colloquium on African Geology - CAG21. This preparatory workshop concentrated on identifying general problems and needs of African geological institutions in discussion with representatives of African geological surveys, universities, private companies and non-governmental organisations. The GIRAF 2009 workshop used the results of this discussion to plan and design its programme Aims In detail the five aims of the GIRAF2009 workshop were: to bring together relevant African authorities, national experts and stakeholders in geoscience information; to initiate the building of a pan-African geoscience information knowledge network to exchange and share geoscience information knowledge and best practice; to integrate the authorities, national experts and experts across Africa into global geoinformation initiatives; to develop a strategic plan for Africa's future in geoscience information; to make Africa a

  14. An electronic pan/tilt/zoom camera system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, Steve; Martin, H. Lee

    1991-01-01

    A camera system for omnidirectional image viewing applications that provides pan, tilt, zoom, and rotational orientation within a hemispherical field of view (FOV) using no moving parts was developed. The imaging device is based on the effect that from a fisheye lens, which produces a circular image of an entire hemispherical FOV, can be mathematically corrected using high speed electronic circuitry. An incoming fisheye image from any image acquisition source is captured in memory of the device, a transformation is performed for the viewing region of interest and viewing direction, and a corrected image is output as a video image signal for viewing, recording, or analysis. As a result, this device can accomplish the functions of pan, tilt, rotation, and zoom throughout a hemispherical FOV without the need for any mechanical mechanisms. A programmable transformation processor provides flexible control over viewing situations. Multiple images, each with different image magnifications and pan tilt rotation parameters, can be obtained from a single camera. The image transformation device can provide corrected images at frame rates compatible with RS-170 standard video equipment.

  15. Pan-STARRS PS1 Published Science Products Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heasley, J.; Smith, W.; Eek, R.; Rosen, J.

    This paper describes the requirements and design of the Pan-STARRS PS1 Published Science Products Subsystem (PSPS) that constitutes the primary distribution tool for the very large amount of science data products produced by the Pan-STARRS PS1 prototype telescope. The data management challenges are identified in terms of stressing characteristics: dynamic, fast, spatial, and large; these are countered by mitigating characteristics: simple and lenient. This combination of characteristics is not only distinctly more demanding than traditional survey astronomy data managers, but lies at the boundaries of current commercially available data management technology. The requirements imposed on the PSPS result in devising a design strategy at the boundaries of currently available data management technology. In particular, we describe the capabilities and characteristics of the four main PS1 PSPS components: the Web-Based Interface (WBI), the Data Retrieval Layer (DRL), the Object Data Manager (ODM), and the Solar System Data Manager (SSDM). Potential architectural strategies are examined in the context of the stressing and mitigating characteristics with the conclusion that the ODM should follow an architectural concept that emphasizes the pooling of application, processing, and storage resources. The PS1 PSPS is specifically designed to support the PS1 science mission (see K.C. Chambers et al., these proceedings) while at the same time providing substantial design direction for a future PSPS component of the final PS4 Pan-STARRS. Finally, the limitations and possible scalability of the PS1 design relative to PS4 are discussed.

  16. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero, J.; De, K.; Maeno, T.; Stradling, A.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) [1-2] was designed to meet ATLAS [3] requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot [4] system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec [5-6] based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG [7], EGI [8] and Nordugrid [9-10] infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  17. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region.

    PubMed

    Kline, Keith L; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region. PMID:26105970

  18. Inside the Pan-genome - Methods and Software Overview

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Luis Carlos; Florczak-Wyspianska, Jolanta; de Jesus, Leandro Benevides; Viana, Marcus Vinícius Canário; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Soares, Siomar de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The number of genomes that have been deposited in databases has increased exponentially after the advent of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), which produces high-throughput sequence data; this circumstance has demanded the development of new bioinformatics software and the creation of new areas, such as comparative genomics. In comparative genomics, the genetic content of an organism is compared against other organisms, which helps in the prediction of gene function and coding region sequences, identification of evolutionary events and determination of phylogenetic relationships. However, expanding comparative genomics to a large number of related bacteria, we can infer their lifestyles, gene repertoires and minimal genome size. In this context, a powerful approach called Pan-genome has been initiated and developed. This approach involves the genomic comparison of different strains of the same species, or even genus. Its main goal is to establish the total number of non-redundant genes that are present in a determined dataset. Pan-genome consists of three parts: core genome; accessory or dispensable genome; and species-specific or strain-specific genes. Furthermore, pan-genome is considered to be “open” as long as new genes are added significantly to the total repertoire for each new additional genome and “closed” when the newly added genomes cannot be inferred to significantly increase the total repertoire of the genes. To perform all of the required calculations, a substantial amount of software has been developed, based on orthologous and paralogous gene identification. PMID:27006628

  19. Avalonian (Pan-African) mylonitic deformation west of Boston, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, N.; Skehan, J. W.

    1995-07-01

    West of Boston, Mass., Castle and others (1976) recognized an up to 5km wide, possibly folded, NE-SW trending Burlington Mylonite Zone. We have extended mapping south into Natick and Framington quadrangles, and supplemented it by fixing local directions of tectonic motion, which are more variable than reported by Goldstein (1989). In Natick the mylonite zone is partly migmatized and converted into blastomylonites, forming the lithodemic Rice Gneiss and is intersected by the Dedham Granite dated ca 630 Ma. The granite also invades deformed, folded, and commonly mylonitized Westboro Quartzite. Thus mylonitization, folding, and formation of migmatitic blastomylonites are all earlier than ca 630 Ma, and can collectively be attributed to the main phase of the Avalonian orogeny that in Africa is referred to as the Pan-African I. The sense of movements in the Rice Gneiss is generally sinistral strike-slip with a NE-SW trend of foliation. Other local mylonites have more variable directions of motion. A narrower E-W zone of mylonitization has been recognized by Grimes (M.S. thesis 1993, Boston College) and named the Nobscot Shear Zone. It affects the Milford Granite, also about 630 Ma in age, while similar but narrow shear zones affect other local granites including the Dedham. These zones, dipping steeply north and including the Nobscot, are less intensely mylonitized and are not associated with migmatites. Their age is not known, but since they affect only Precambrian rocks, they are assumed to be late Proterozoic. We attribute these zones to the second stage of the Avalonian or the Pan-African II. The older rocks west of Boston are widely affected by numerous brittle faults. These are all of unknown age, but probably Phanerozoic. The most significant brittle fault in the Burlington area is the mid to late Paleozoic Bloody Bluff Fault. We do not associate large scale mylonitization with that fault, because the mylonites are commonly cut by undeformed or little deformed

  20. Pan1 regulates transitions between stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Mary Katherine; Whitworth, Karen; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis is a well-conserved process by which cells invaginate small portions of the plasma membrane to create vesicles containing extracellular and transmembrane cargo proteins. Dozens of proteins and hundreds of specific binding interactions are needed to coordinate and regulate these events. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model system with which to study clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Pan1 is believed to be a scaffolding protein due to its interactions with numerous proteins that act throughout the endocytic process. Previous research characterized many Pan1 binding interactions, but due to Pan1's essential nature, the exact mechanisms of Pan1's function in endocytosis have been difficult to define. We created a novel Pan1-degron allele, Pan1-AID, in which Pan1 can be specifically and efficiently degraded in <1 h upon addition of the plant hormone auxin. The loss of Pan1 caused a delay in endocytic progression and weakened connections between the coat/actin machinery and the membrane, leading to arrest in CME. In addition, we determined a critical role for the central region of Pan1 in endocytosis and viability. The regions important for endocytosis and viability can be separated, suggesting that Pan1 may have a distinct role in the cell that is essential for viability. PMID:25631817