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Sample records for africa rice center

  1. Connecting with Rice: Carolina Lowcountry and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Collins, Larianne; Wise, Susan S.; Caughman, Monti

    2012-01-01

    Though lasting less than 200 years, large-scale rice production in South Carolina and Georgia "probably represented the most significant utilization of the tidewater zone for crop agriculture ever attained in the United States." Rice is a specialty crop where successful cultivation relied heavily upon "adaptation" to nature via…

  2. Controlling rice bacterial blight in Africa: needs and prospects.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Valérie; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Leach, Jan E

    2012-06-30

    Rice cultivation has drastically increased in Africa over the last decade. During this time, the region has also seen a rise in the incidence of rice bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The disease is expanding to new rice production areas and threatens food security in the region. Yield losses caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae range from 20 to 30% and can be as high as 50% in some areas. Employing resistant cultivars is the most economical and effective way to control this disease. To facilitate development and strategic deployment of rice cultivars with resistance to bacterial blight, biotechnology tools and approaches, including marker-assisted breeding, gene combinations for disease control, and multiplex-PCR for pathogen diagnosis, have been developed. Although these technologies are routinely used elsewhere, their application in Africa remains limited, usually due to high cost and advanced technical skills required. To combat this problem, developers of the technologies at research institutions need to work with farmers from an early stage to create and promote the integration of successful, low cost applications of research biotech products. Here, we review the current knowledge and biotechnologies available to improve bacterial blight control. We will also discuss how to facilitate their application in Africa and delivery to the field.

  3. Rice University observations of the galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    The most sensitive of the four balloon fight observations of the galactic center made by Rice University was conducted in 1974 from Rio Cuarto, Argentina at a float altitude of 4 mbar. The count rate spectrum of the observed background and the energy spectrum of the galactic center region are discussed. The detector used consists of a 6 inch Nal(T 1ambda) central detector collimated to approximately 15 deg FWHM by a Nal(T lamdba) anticoincidence shield. The shield in at least two interaction mean free paths thick at all gamma ray energies. The instrumental resolution is approximately 11% FWHM at 662 keV. Pulses from the central detector are analyzed by two 256 channel PHA's covering the energy range approximately 20 keV to approximately 12 MeV. The detector is equatorially mounted and pointed by command from the ground. Observations are made by measuring source and background alternately for 10 minute periods. Background is measured by rotating the detector 180 deg about the azimuthal axis.

  4. Development and field performance of nitrogen use efficient rice lines for Africa.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Ogawa, Satoshi; Lu, Yingzhi; Wu, Liying; Downs, Christopher; Skinner, Wayne; Lu, Zhongjin; Kridl, Jean C; Ishitani, Manabu; van Boxtel, Jos

    2016-11-27

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a major input cost in rice production, and its excess application leads to major environmental pollution. Development of rice varieties with improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is essential for sustainable agriculture. Here, we report the results of field evaluations of marker-free transgenic NERICA4 (New Rice for Africa 4) rice lines overexpressing barley alanine amino transferase (HvAlaAT) under the control of a rice stress-inducible promoter (pOsAnt1). Field evaluations over three growing seasons and two rice growing ecologies (lowland and upland) revealed that grain yield of pOsAnt1:HvAlaAT transgenic events was significantly higher than sibling nulls and wild-type controls under different N application rates. Our field results clearly demonstrated that this genetic modification can significantly increase the dry biomass and grain yield compared to controls under limited N supply. Increased yield in transgenic events was correlated with increased tiller and panicle number in the field, and evidence of early establishment of a vigorous root system in hydroponic growth. Our results suggest that expression of the HvAlaAT gene can improve NUE in rice without causing undesirable growth phenotypes. The NUE technology described in this article has the potential to significantly reduce the need for N fertilizer and simultaneously improve food security, augment farm economics and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the rice ecosystem.

  5. Geology and geothermal potential of Alid volcanic center, Eritrea, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, Michael A.; Duffield, Wendell A.; Fournier, Robert O.; Giorgis, Leake W.; Janik, Cathy J.; Kahsai, Gabreab; Lowenstern, Jacob; Mariam, Kidane W.; Smith, James G.; Tesfai, Theoderos; ,

    1996-01-01

    Alid volcanic center, a 700-meter-tall mountain in Eritrea, northeast Africa, straddles the axis of an active crustal-spreading center called the Danakil Depression. Boiling-temperature fumaroles are common on Alid, and their gas compositions indicate a reservoir temperature of at least 250 ??C. The history of volcanism and the high reservoir temperature indicated by the Alid fumarole gases suggest that a geothermal resource of electrical grade lies beneath the mountain. Though drilling is needed to determine subsurface conditions, the process of dome formation and the ongoing crustal spreading can create and maintain fracture permeability in the hydrothermal system that feeds the Alid fumaroles.

  6. Suitability Evaluation for Lowland Rice in Inland Valleys in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hideto, Fujii; Muralikrishna, Gumma; Prasad, Thenkabail; Regassa, Namara

    A GIS based model developed by the authors are applied for selecting suitable rice cultivation area in inland valleys that has high potential for rice production in West Africa where rice consumption is increasing very rapidly. The model has the following features. 1) The model is to evaluate the suitability of the land for lowland rice based on score distribution maps respectively made by the data of 29 evaluation parameters. 2) The parameters are classified into 4 categories; bio-physical, technical, socio-economic and health-environmental parameters. 3) Each scored map (layer) is integrated to obtain total scores by multiplying a weight which is determined by the importance of parameters. The suitability for rice in two study sites was evaluated using the model. Mankran and Jolo-Kwaha watershed selected as the study sites from different agro-ecological zone in Ghana. Applying the data of 12 parameters acquired in the study sites to the model, “very suitable” or “suitable” occupies around 30% in Mankran study site and around 60% in Jolo-Kwaha study site.

  7. Rice Production with a Center Pivot Irrigation System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantity of irrigation water needed to maintain flood on rice fields varies by region based on soil properties and weather. Many rice farmers are concerned about water issues of inadequate groundwater recharge, urban competition for water resources, and high energy costs for flood irrigating rice. ...

  8. Videos Bridging Asia and Africa: Overcoming Cultural and Institutional Barriers in Technology-Mediated Rural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mele, Paul; Wanvoeke, Jonas; Akakpo, Cyriaque; Dacko, Rosaline Maiga; Ceesay, Mustapha; Beavogui, Louis; Soumah, Malick; Anyang, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Will African farmers watch and learn from videos featuring farmers in Bangladesh? Learning videos on rice seed management were made with rural women in Bangladesh. By using a new approach, called zooming-in, zooming-out, the videos were of regional relevance and locally appropriate. When the Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) introduced them to…

  9. Geology and geothermal potential of Alid Volcanic Center, Eritrea, Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Clynne, M.A.; Duffield, W.A.; Fournier, R.O.; Janik, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    Alid volcanic center is a 700-meter-tall mountain in Eritrea, northeast Africa. This mountain straddles the axis of an active crustal-spreading center called the Danakil Depression. Though volcanism associated with this crustal spreading is predominantly basaltic, centers of silicic volcanism, including Alid, are present locally. Silicic centers imply a magma reservoir in the crust and thus a possible potent shallow heat source for a hydrothermal-convection system. Boiling-temperature fumaroles are common on Alid, and their gas compositions indicate a reservoir temperature of at least 250{degrees}C. Alid is a 7-km x 5-km structural dome. The domed rocks, in decreasing age, are Precambrian schist and granite, a sequence of intercalated sedimentary rocks and basaltic lavas, and a sequence of basaltic and rhyolitic lava flows. Though isotopic ages are not yet determined, the domed volcanic rocks of Alid appear to be late Tertiary and/or Quaternary. Doming was likely caused by intrusion of relatively low density silicic magma into the upper crust. Subsequent to dome formation, a substantial volume of this magma was erupted from a vent near the west end of the summit area of the dome. This eruption produced a blanket of plinian rhyolite pumice over most, if not all, of the dome and fed pyroclastic flows that covered the part of the Danakil Depression around the base of the dome. The pumice deposits contain abundant inclusions of granophyric, miarolitic pyroxene granite, chemically indistinguishable from the pumice. This granite likely represents the uppermost part of the magma reservoir, which crystallized just prior to the pumice eruption.

  10. The Africa Center for Biostatistical Excellence: a proposal for enhancing biostatistics capacity for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Machekano, Rhoderick; Young, Taryn; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Musonda, Patrick; Sartorius, Ben; Todd, Jim; Fegan, Greg; Thabane, Lehana; Chikte, Usuf

    2015-11-30

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a shortage of well-trained biomedical research methodologists, in particular, biostatisticians. In July 2014, a group of biostatisticians and researchers from the region attended a brainstorming workshop to identify ways in which to reduce the deficit in this critical skill. The workshop recognized that recommendations from previous workshops on building biostatistics capacity in sub-Saharan Africa had not been implemented. The discussions culminated with a proposal to setup an Africa Center for Biostatistical Excellence, a collaborative effort across academic and researcher institutions within the region, as a vehicle for promoting biostatistics capacity building through specialized academic masters programs as well as regular workshops targeting researchers.

  11. Processes Underpinning Development and Maintenance of Diversity in Rice in West Africa: Evidence from Combining Morphological and Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the interplay of artificial and natural selection in rice adaptation in low-input farming systems in West Africa. Using 20 morphological traits and 176 molecular markers, 182 farmer varieties of rice (Oryza spp.) from 6 West African countries were characterized. Principal component analysis showed that the four botanical groups (Oryza sativa ssp. indica, O. sativa ssp. japonica, O. glaberrima, and interspecific farmer hybrids) exhibited different patterns of morphological diversity. Regarding O. glaberrima, morphological and molecular data were in greater conformity than for the other botanical groups. A clear difference in morphological features was observed between O. glaberrima rices from the Togo hills and those from the Upper Guinea Coast, and among O. glaberrima rices from the Upper Guinea Coast. For the other three groups such clear patterns were not observed. We argue that this is because genetic diversity is shaped by different environmental and socio-cultural selection pressures. For O. glaberrima, recent socio-cultural selection pressures seemed to restrict genetic diversity while this was not observed for the other botanical groups. We also show that O. glaberrima still plays an important role in the selection practices of farmers and resulting variety development pathways. This is particularly apparent in the case of interspecific farmer hybrids where a relationship was found between pericarp colour, panicle attitude and genetic diversity. Farmer varieties are the product of long and complex trajectories of selection governed by local human agency. In effect, rice varieties have emerged that are adapted to West African farming conditions through genotype × environment × society interactions. The diversity farmers maintain in their rice varieties is understood to be part of a risk-spreading strategy that also facilitates successful and often serendipitous variety innovations. We advocate, therefore, that farmers and farmer varieties should

  12. Rice University: Building an Academic Center for Nonprofit Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaworth, Angela

    2012-01-01

    According to the author, the setting for their nonprofit education center was close to ideal: Support from a dean who cares deeply about nonprofit organizations; encouragement from the university and its renewed focus on reaching beyond its walls on the eve of its centennial; and a generous gift from alumni who have been affiliated with the…

  13. Filovirus Research in Gabon and Equatorial Africa: The Experience of a Research Center in the Heart of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Eric; Gonzalez, Jean Paul

    2012-01-01

    Health research programs targeting the population of Gabon and Equatorial Africa at the International Center for Medical Research in Franceville (CIRMF), Gabon, have evolved during the years since its inception in 1979 in accordance with emerging diseases. Since the reemergence of Ebola virus in Central Africa, the CIRMF “Emerging Viral Disease Unit” developed diagnostic tools and epidemiologic strategies and transfers of such technology to support the response of the National Public Health System and the World Health Organization to epidemics of Ebola virus disease. The Unit carries out a unique investigation program on the natural history of the filoviruses, emergence of epidemics, and Ebola virus pathogenesis. In addition, academic training is provided at all levels to regional and international students covering emerging conditions (host factors, molecular biology, genetics) that favor the spread of viral diseases. PMID:23170174

  14. South-East Asia is the center of origin, diversity and dispersion of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Dounia; Milazzo, Joëlle; Adreit, Henri; Fournier, Elisabeth; Tharreau, Didier

    2014-03-01

    • Inferring invasion routes and identifying reservoirs of diversity of plant pathogens are essential in proposing new strategies for their control. Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungus responsible for rice blast disease, has invaded all rice growing areas. Virulent genotypes regularly (re)emerge, causing rapid resistance breakdowns. However, the world-wide genetic subdivision of M. oryzae populations on rice and its past history of invasion have never been elucidated. • In order to investigate the centers of diversity, origin and migration of M. oryzae on rice, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 55 populations from 15 countries. • Three genetic clusters were identified world-wide. Asia was the center of diversity and the origin of most migrations to other continents. In Asia, two centers of diversity were revealed in the Himalayan foothills: South China-Laos-North Thailand, and western Nepal. Sexual reproduction persisted only in the South China-Laos-North Thailand region, which was identified as the putative center of origin of all M. oryzae populations on rice. • Our results suggest a scenario of early evolution of M. oryzae on rice that matches the past history of rice domestication. This study confirms that crop domestication may have considerable influence on the pestification process of natural enemies.

  15. Robustness and strategies of adaptation among farmer varieties of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian Rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokuwa, Alfred; Nuijten, Edwin; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Struik, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    This study offers evidence of the robustness of farmer rice varieties (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) in West Africa. Our experiments in five West African countries showed that farmer varieties were tolerant of sub-optimal conditions, but employed a range of strategies to cope with stress. Varieties belonging to the species Oryza glaberrima - solely the product of farmer agency - were the most successful in adapting to a range of adverse conditions. Some of the farmer selections from within the indica and japonica subspecies of O. sativa also performed well in a range of conditions, but other farmer selections from within these two subspecies were mainly limited to more specific niches. The results contradict the rather common belief that farmer varieties are only of local value. Farmer varieties should be considered by breeding programmes and used (alongside improved varieties) in dissemination projects for rural food security.

  16. Improving salt tolerance of lowland rice cultivar 'Rassi' through marker-aided backcross breeding in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bimpong, Isaac Kofi; Manneh, Baboucarr; Sock, Mamadou; Diaw, Faty; Amoah, Nana Kofi Abaka; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Gregorio, Glenn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Wopereis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress affects about 25% of the 4.4 million ha of irrigated and lowland systems for rice cultivation in West Africa (WA). A major quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosome 1 (Saltol) that enhances tolerance to salt stress at the vegetative stage has enabled the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) to develop salt-tolerant rice cultivar(s) in WA. We used 3 cycles of backcrossing with selection based on DNA markers and field-testing using 'FL478' as tolerant donor and the widely grown 'Rassi' as recurrent parent. In the BC3F2 stage, salt-tolerant lines with over 80% Rassi alleles except in the region around Saltol segment were selected. 429 introgression lines (Saltol-ILs) were identified as tolerant at vegetative stage, of which 116 were field-tested for four seasons at the reproductive stage. Sixteen Saltol-ILs had less yield loss (3-26% relative to control trials), and 8 Saltol-ILs showed high yield potential under stress and non-stress conditions. The 16 Saltol-ILs had been included for further African-wide testing prior to release in 6 WA countries. MAS reduced the time for germplasm improvement from at least 7 to about 4 years. Our objective is to combine different genes/QTLs conferring tolerance to stresses under one genetic background using MAS.

  17. A Dialogue with Carl Rogers: Cross-Cultural Challenges of Facilitating Person-Centered Groups in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hain-Hill, Alicia; Rogers, Carl R.

    1988-01-01

    Presents brainstorming dialogue with Carl Rogers which was held in January of 1987, shortly before Rogers's death. Explores basic challenges involved in a large-scale, cross-cultural application of person-centered group work in South Africa. (Author)

  18. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  19. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  20. Crop water use predictions available on-line for sprinkler irrigated rice in the United States and South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important food source for people in most of the world. Traditional rice culture requires flood irrigation which commonly uses 60 to 150 cm of water per growing season. Rice production is limited to fields with enough clay in the soils to retain 5 to 10 cm floodwater on the surface and p...

  1. Larval habitat segregation between the molecular forms of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae in a rice field area of Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Pombi, Marco; Choisy, Marc; Morand, Serge; Dabiré, Roch K.; Simard, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    In West Africa, lineage splitting between the M and S molecular forms of the major Afro-tropical malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae is thought to be driven by ecological divergence, occurring mainly at the larval stage. Here, we present evidences for habitat segregation between the two molecular forms in and around irrigated rice-fields located within the humid savannahs background of western Burkina Faso. Longitudinal sampling of adult mosquitoes emerging from a range of breeding sites distributed along a transect extending from the heart of the rice-fields area into the surrounding savannahs was conducted from June to November 2009. Analysis revealed that the two molecular forms and their sibling species An. arabiensis are not randomly distributed in the area. A major ecological gradient was extracted, in relation to the rice-fields perimeter. The M form was associated with larger breeding sites, which were mainly represented by rice field paddies whereas the S form and An. arabiensis were found to depend upon temporary, rain-filled breeding sites. These results support hypotheses about larval habitat segregation and confirm that both forms have different larval habitat requirement. Segregation appears clearly linked to anthropogenic permanent habitats and the community structure they support. PMID:21501199

  2. WMO SDS-WAS NAMEE Regional Center: Towards continuous evaluation of dust models in Northern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; García-Castillo, Gerardo; Cuevas, Emilio; Terradellas, Enric

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important activities of the Regional Center for Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe of the World Meteorological Organization's Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (WMO SDS-WAS, http://sds-was.aemet.es) is the dust model intercomparison and forecast evaluation, which is deemed an indispensable service to the users and an invaluable tool to assess model skills. Currently, the Regional Center collects daily dust forecasts from models run by nine partners (BSC, ECMWF, NASA, NCEP, SEEVCCC, EMA, CNR-ISAC, NOA and UK Met Office). A multi-model ensemble has also been set up in an effort to provide added-value products to the users. The first problem to address the dust model evaluation is the scarcity of suitable routine observations near the Sahara, the world's largest source of mineral dust. The present contribution presents preliminary results of dust model evaluation using new observational datasets. The current routine evaluation of dust predictions is focused on total-column dust optical depth (DOD) and uses remote-sensing retrievals from sun-photometric (AERONET) and satellite (MODIS) measurements. However, most users of dust forecasts are interested in the concentration near the surface (in the air we breathe) rather than in the total column content. Therefore, evaluation of the predicted surface concentration is also necessary. In this context, the initiative of the African Monsoon Interdisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) International Program to establish permanent measuring stations in the Sahel is extremely important. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) monitors continuously record PM10 in M'Bour (Senegal); Cinzana (Mali) and Banizoumbou (Niger). This surface model evaluation is complemented with the PM10 observation from the Air Quality Control and Monitoring Network (AQCMN) of the Canary Islands (Spain). The region, located in the sub-tropical Eastern Atlantic (roughly 100 km west of the Moroccan coast), is

  3. New Rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivars exhibit different levels of post-attachment resistance against the parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica.

    PubMed

    Cissoko, Mamadou; Boisnard, Arnaud; Rodenburg, Jonne; Press, Malcolm C; Scholes, Julie D

    2011-12-01

    Striga hermonthica and S. asiatica are root parasitic weeds that infect the major cereal crops of sub-Saharan Africa causing severe losses in yield. The interspecific upland NEw RICe for Africa (NERICA) cultivars are popular amongst subsistence farmers, but little is known about their post-attachment resistance against Striga. Here, we evaluate the post-attachment resistance levels of the NERICA cultivars and their parents against ecotypes of S. hermonthica and S.asiatica, characterize the phenotype of the resistance mechanisms and determine the effect of Striga on host biomass. Some NERICA cultivars showed good broad-spectrum resistance against several Striga ecotypes, whereas others showed intermediate resistance or were very susceptible. The phenotype of a resistant interaction was often characterized by an inability of the parasite to penetrate the endodermis. Moreover, some parasites formed only a few connections to the host xylem, grew slowly and remained small. The most resistant NERICA cultivars were least damaged by Striga, although even a small number of parasites caused a reduction in above-ground host biomass. The elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of the resistance mechanisms and tolerance would allow the development of cultivars with multiple, durable resistance for use in farmers' fields.

  4. Novel relapsing fever Borrelia detected in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Parsons, Nola J; Horne, Elizabeth C; Shock, Barbara C; Purdee, Michaelle

    2012-03-01

    The African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, the only penguin species that breeds in Africa, is endangered, and several diseases including avian malaria, babesiosis, and aspergillosis are common in some populations. From 2002 to 2010, spirochetes morphologically consistent with Borrelia were observed on thin blood smears from 115 of 8,343 (1.4%) African penguins admitted to rehabilitation centers in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. Prevalence rates were significantly higher among chicks and juveniles compared with adults and for birds sampled during the summer months of October to February compared with winter months. The majority of infected birds were ultimately released, despite lack of antibiotic treatment; however, at least one bird is believed to have died of borreliosis based on characteristic gross and microscopic lesions. Analysis of partial flaB gene sequences indicated this was a relapsing fever Borrelia most similar to a Borrelia sp. detected in soft ticks from a seabird colony in Japan. This represents the fourth report of a relapsing fever Borrelia sp. in an avian species and highlights the need for additional studies of potentially pathogenic organisms infecting the African penguin in South Africa.

  5. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, James P.; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Sharma, Narottam D.; Woodruff, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0–35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana’s rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana’s anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana’s public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  6. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among instrumental musicians at a center for performing arts in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ajidahun, Adedayo T; Phillips, Julie

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) is high in various countries of the world, but there is a paucity of literature in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMDs among instrumentalists in South Africa, with specific objectives in determining the distribution, symptoms, and pain severity. The self-administered Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to collect information from the participants regarding the lifetime and current prevalence and the distribution of PRMD symptoms. A visual analog scale was used to collect information on the severity of pain, while the questionnaire designed by Blackie, Stone, and Tiernan (1999) was used to collect information on the symptoms of the PRMDs. Twenty participants took part in this study, and the respondents reported a lifetime prevalence (over a period of 12 months) of PRMDs as 14 out of 17 and the current prevalence (in the last 7 days) as 4. Pain severity was mostly mild, and the most affected region was in the upper extremities, with the shoulders being the most affected. Tightening and soreness were the most reported symptom of PRMDs. The prevalence of PRMDs among this population was high, although severity was mild, with the upper extremities being the most affected area.

  7. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  8. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  9. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-04-12

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions.

  10. Pressure covariability over the Atlantic, Europe and N. Africa. application: Centers of action for temperature, winter precipitation and summer winds in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, D. A.; Bartzokas, A.

    1994-03-01

    This paper deals with the surface pressure covariability over the Altantic/European sector of the Northern Hemisphere, using monthly grid point data for the 100 year period 1890 1989. Factor analysis is applied to 90 grid point time series for January, February, July, and August. The initial 90 pressure variables can be reduced to 7 8 factors in winter and 10 in summer. A winter teleconnection was identified, known as the seesaw phenomenon, between the Icelandic low and the Azores subtropical anticyclone. In order to define the centers of action for temperature, winter precipitation and summer northerly wind frequency (etesian days) in Athens and in the Aegean sea, the variability of the factor scores and of these weather elements is compared. It is shown that the center of action for temperature in Athens is found to be in north and northwest Europe (centered over southern Scandinavia). For winter precipitation, the center of action is located in the west and southwest Mediterranean and northwest Africa. Finally, for the etesian winds frequency variability, this center of action is found over the northern Adriatic and northern former Yugoslavia, while there is no evidence of influence by the southwest Asia thermal low.

  11. Direct evidence of non-Zhang-Rice Cu3+ centers in La2Li0.5Cu0.5O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, A. S.; Gippius, A. A.; Tkachev, A. V.; Mahajan, A. V.; Chakrabarty, T.; Presniakov, I. A.; Sobolev, A. V.; Demazeau, G.

    2012-12-01

    A well-isolated Zhang-Rice (ZR) singlet as a ground state of the Cu3+ center in hole-doped cuprates is a leading paradigm in modern theories of high-temperature superconductivity. However, a dramatic temperature evolution of the 6,7Li NMR signal in La2Li0.5Cu0.5O4, a system with a regular lattice of well-isolated Cu3+ centers, reveals significant magnetic fluctuations and suggests a quasidegeneracy to be a generic property of their ground state at variance with the simple ZR model. We argue for a competition of the ZR state with nearby states formed by a “doped” hole occupying purely oxygen nonbonding a2g(π) and eu(π) orbitals rather than a conventional b1g(dx2-y2) Cu 3d-O 2p hybrid. The temperature variation of the 6,7Li NMR line shape and spin-lattice relaxation rate point to a gradual slowing down of some magnetic order parameter's fluctuations without distinct signatures of a phase transition down to T=2 K. This behavior agrees with a stripelike ferrodistortive fluctuating Ammm order in a two-dimensional structure of the (CuLi)O2 planes accompanied by unconventional oxygen orbital antiferromagnetic fluctuations.

  12. Mycobacterial Peritonitis in CAPD Patients in Limpopo: A 6-Year Cumulative Report from a Single Center in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Isla, Ramon A; de la Cruz, Mauro Cuba; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide due to the ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. There are, however, no reports on peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Africa. The aim of this study is to discuss our experience of tuberculous peritonitis in CAPD patients from a rural endemic area of South Africa. This is a retrospective descriptive study of CAPD patients diagnosed with mycobacterium peritonitis infection from January 2008 to August 2014 at the Limpopo Kidney and Dialysis Centre (LKDC) in South Africa. The diagnosis of peritonitis was based on the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) 2010 recommendations. Peritoneal fluid samples were collected in BACTEC Myco/F Lytic Culture Vials (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Dublin, Ireland). Tenckhoff catheter tips were sent for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and TB culture. Mycobacterium infection was considered in patients with clinical features of peritonitis if 1) AFB smear or TB culture was positive or 2) if the patient was smear- or culture-negative but had suggestive radiological features of TB in the lungs or abdomen or 3) if the patient improved clinically following treatment with anti-tuberculous drugs. Of 170 patients on CAPD for the period reviewed, 12 (7.1%) were diagnosed and treated for mycobacterial peritonitis. There was an equal number of males and females, and all the patients were Black Africans with a mean age of 35.4 years (17-51 years). Eight of the 12 patients (66.7%) had had previous episodes of non-tuberculous peritonitis. Four patients (33.3%) had elevated white blood cell count (WCC) while 9 had higher polymorph count in the PD fluid than lymphocyte count. Mycobacterial organism was confirmed in 9/12 (75%), while the diagnosis was made on clinical and radiological features in the remaining 3 patients. Seven patients (58.3%) died, 10 patients were

  13. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  14. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are

  15. Rice: chemistry and technology.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

  16. Hypertension Health Promotion via Text Messaging at a Community Health Center in South Africa: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Haricharan, Hanne J; Brittain, Kirsty; Lau, Yan Kwan; Cassidy, Tali; Heap, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mobile phones to deliver health care (mHealth) is increasing in popularity due to the high prevalence of mobile phone penetration. This is seen in developing countries, where mHealth may be particularly useful in overcoming traditional access barriers. Non-communicable diseases may be particularly amenable to mHealth interventions, and hypertension is one with an escalating burden in the developing world. Objective The objective of this study was to test whether the dissemination of health information via a short message service (SMS) led to improvements in health knowledge and self-reported health-related behaviors. Methods A mixed methods study was carried out among a cohort of 223 hypertension clinic patients, in a resource-poor setting in Cape Town, South Africa, in 2012. Hypertensive outpatients were recruited at the clinic and administered a baseline questionnaire to establish existing knowledge of hypertension. Participants were then randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The intervention group received 90 SMSes over a period of 17 weeks. Thereafter, the baseline questionnaire was readministered to both groups to gauge if any improvements in health knowledge had occurred. Those who received SMSes were asked additional questions about health-related behavior changes. A focus group was then conducted to obtain in-depth feedback about participants’ experience with, and response to, the SMS campaign. Results No statistically significant changes in overall health knowledge were observed between the control and intervention groups. The intervention group had positive increases in self-reported behavior changes. These were reaffirmed by the focus groups, which also revealed a strong preference for the SMS campaign and the belief that the SMSes acted as a reminder to change, as opposed to providing new information. Conclusions Although the content of the SMSes was not new, and did not improve health knowledge, SMSes were

  17. Identification of Germinal Center B Cells in Blood from HIV-infected Drug-naive Individuals in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Béniguel, Lydie; Bégaud, Evelyne; Cognasse, Fabrice; Gabrié, Philippe; Mbolidi, Christophe D.; Sabido, Odile; Marovich, Mary A.; deFontaine, Christiane; Frésard, Anne; Lucht, Frédéric; Genin, Christian; Garraud, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    To better understand the pathophysiology of B cell populations—the precursors of antibody secreting cells—during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we examined the phenotype of circulating B cells in newly diagnosed Africans. We found that all African individuals displayed low levels of naive B cells and of memory-type CD27+ B cells, and high levels of differentiated B cells. On the other hand, HIV-infected African patients had a population of germinal center B cells (i.e. CD20+, sIgM-, sIgD+, CD77+, CD138±), which are generally restricted to lymph nodes and do not circulate unless the lymph node architecture is altered. The first observations could be linked to the tropical environment whereas the presence of germinal center B cells may be attributable to chronic exposure to HIV as it is not observed in HIV-negative African controls and HAART treated HIV-infected Europeans. It may impact the management of HIV infection in countries with limited access to HIV drugs and urges consideration for implementation of therapeutic vaccines. PMID:15154608

  18. Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice.

    PubMed

    Khush, G S

    1997-09-01

    There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70

  19. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries.

  20. Head rice rate measurement based on concave point matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Yang, Tianle; Liu, Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Chen; Li, Rui; Zhou, Tong; Sun, Chengming; Zhou, Yue; Li, Xinlu

    2017-01-01

    Head rice rate is an important factor affecting rice quality. In this study, an inflection point detection-based technology was applied to measure the head rice rate by combining a vibrator and a conveyor belt for bulk grain image acquisition. The edge center mode proportion method (ECMP) was applied for concave points matching in which concave matching and separation was performed with collaborative constraint conditions followed by rice length calculation with a minimum enclosing rectangle (MER) to identify the head rice. Finally, the head rice rate was calculated using the sum area of head rice to the overall coverage of rice. Results showed that bulk grain image acquisition can be realized with test equipment, and the accuracy rate of separation of both indica rice and japonica rice exceeded 95%. An increase in the number of rice did not significantly affect ECMP and MER. High accuracy can be ensured with MER to calculate head rice rate by narrowing down its relative error between real values less than 3%. The test results show that the method is reliable as a reference for head rice rate calculation studies.

  1. Head rice rate measurement based on concave point matching

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Yang, Tianle; Liu, Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Chen; Li, Rui; Zhou, Tong; Sun, Chengming; Zhou, Yue; Li, Xinlu

    2017-01-01

    Head rice rate is an important factor affecting rice quality. In this study, an inflection point detection-based technology was applied to measure the head rice rate by combining a vibrator and a conveyor belt for bulk grain image acquisition. The edge center mode proportion method (ECMP) was applied for concave points matching in which concave matching and separation was performed with collaborative constraint conditions followed by rice length calculation with a minimum enclosing rectangle (MER) to identify the head rice. Finally, the head rice rate was calculated using the sum area of head rice to the overall coverage of rice. Results showed that bulk grain image acquisition can be realized with test equipment, and the accuracy rate of separation of both indica rice and japonica rice exceeded 95%. An increase in the number of rice did not significantly affect ECMP and MER. High accuracy can be ensured with MER to calculate head rice rate by narrowing down its relative error between real values less than 3%. The test results show that the method is reliable as a reference for head rice rate calculation studies. PMID:28128315

  2. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Londo, Jason P; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Schaal, Barbara A

    2006-06-20

    Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.

  3. Stress-Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of One of Africa’s Stable States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    A RESEARCH PAPER FROM THE AFRICA CENTER FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES by Assis Malaquias July 2011 Stress- Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of...control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress- Testing South Africa...articulating African perspectives to U.S. policymakers. Washington, D.C. Stress- Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of One of Africa’s

  4. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive features about a third of the way from the ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  MISR ...

  5. Rice root physiological and morphological traits of diverse genotypes grown in different media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is currently grown in 200 countries and supports one-half of the human population. It is a staple food and the chief source of nutrition in developing countries of South America, Asia and Africa. Plant roots influence mineral uptake and may influence rice grain mineral composi...

  6. Nutrition in Africa.

    PubMed

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  7. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  8. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  9. Registration of 'Jazzman' aromatic long-grain rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jazzman is a U.S.-bred Jasmine-type, soft-cooking aromatic long-grain rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L.) that is glabrous and has no seed dormancy. It was developed from a single cross using a modified pedigree breeding method at the Rice Research Station, Louisiana State University Agriculture Center,...

  10. Weed communities of rain-fed lowland rice vary with infestation by Rhamphicarpa fistulosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houngbédji, Tossimidé; Dessaint, Fabrice; Nicolardot, Bernard; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie

    2016-11-01

    The facultative hemiparasitic plant Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Orobanchaceae) thrives in seasonally wet soils in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in marginal lowland rice growing environments where weeds are already a major constraint for rice production. Because lowland rice production is increasing in tropical Africa, it is important to ascertain the influence of R. fistulosa on weed plant communities in these rice-growing habitats. We investigated weed plant community richness and composition at four different levels of R. fistulosa infestation across two years of surveys from lowland rice fields in northern Togo (West Africa). Despite a lack of significant differences in community richness among sites with different R. fistulosa infestation levels, there were significant differences in community composition, both when estimated from presence-absence data and from relative abundance data, after controlling statistically for geographic proximity among sites. Rhamphicarpa fistulosa infestation, therefore, may influence the competitive balance between rice and its weeds and shape weed community structure. However, experimental studies are required to elucidate the weed host range of R. fistulosa and the direct and indirect effects of this hemiparasite in rice fields in order to predict its net impact on rice and its weed species.

  11. [Epidemiological and clinical aspects of gout in equatorial Africa. Apropos of 60 cases followed in the Department of Rheumatology of the Teaching Hospital Center in Brazzaville].

    PubMed

    Bileckot, R; Ntsiba, H; Mbongo, J A; Sigamong, E V; Masson, C; Brégeon, C

    1991-12-01

    Between December 15, 1988 and November 30, 1990, the application of Rome and New York criteria enabled the diagnosis of 60 cases of gout among patients with arthritis or hyperuricemia seen as out-patients or hospitalised in the Department of Rheumatology of the Brazzavile T.H.G. There were 57 men and 3 women, with a mean age of 51. Gout is the primary form of inflammatory arthropathy in adults in the Congo. Affecting all socio-professional groups, it is diversely associated with obesity, alcoholism, hypertension and diabetes. Initial involvement affects the big toe. Oligo and polyarticular forms predominate because of the absence or delay in specific treatment. This series included 30 per cent of cases of chronic gout. Evidence of renal impairment was found in one third of patients. However, urate lithiasis was absent. Tophi were found preferentially over the elbows. Sickle cell disease was responsible for one case of tophaceous gout. In contrast with the results of studies undertaken before the 1980s, gout is seen to be a common condition in equatorial Africa.

  12. Indoor Temperatures in Patient Waiting Rooms in Eight Rural Primary Health Care Centers in Northern South Africa and the Related Potential Risks to Human Health and Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Street, Renée A; Cele, Nokulunga; Kunene, Zamantimande; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Albers, Patricia N; Mathee, Angela

    2017-01-06

    Increased temperatures affect human health and vulnerable groups including infants, children, the elderly and people with pre-existing diseases. In the southern African region climate models predict increases in ambient temperature twice that of the global average temperature increase. Poor ventilation and lack of air conditioning in primary health care clinics, where duration of waiting time may be as long as several hours, pose a possible threat to patients seeking primary health care. Drawing on information measured by temperature loggers installed in eight clinics in Giyani, Limpopo Province of South Africa, we were able to determine indoor temperatures of waiting rooms in eight rural primary health care facilities. Mean monthly temperature measurements inside the clinics were warmer during the summer months of December, January and February, and cooler during the autumn months of March, April and May. The highest mean monthly temperature of 31.4 ± 2.7 °C was recorded in one clinic during February 2016. Maximum daily indoor clinic temperatures exceeded 38 °C in some clinics. Indoor temperatures were compared to ambient (outdoor) temperatures and the mean difference between the two showed clinic waiting room temperatures were higher by 2-4 °C on average. Apparent temperature (AT) incorporating relative humidity readings made in the clinics showed 'realfeel' temperatures were >4 °C higher than measured indoor temperature, suggesting a feeling of 'stuffiness' and discomfort may have been experienced in the waiting room areas. During typical clinic operational hours of 8h00 to 16h00, mean ATs fell into temperature ranges associated with heat-health impact warning categories of 'caution' and 'extreme caution'.

  13. Indoor Temperatures in Patient Waiting Rooms in Eight Rural Primary Health Care Centers in Northern South Africa and the Related Potential Risks to Human Health and Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Street, Renée A.; Cele, Nokulunga; Kunene, Zamantimande; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Albers, Patricia N.; Mathee, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Increased temperatures affect human health and vulnerable groups including infants, children, the elderly and people with pre-existing diseases. In the southern African region climate models predict increases in ambient temperature twice that of the global average temperature increase. Poor ventilation and lack of air conditioning in primary health care clinics, where duration of waiting time may be as long as several hours, pose a possible threat to patients seeking primary health care. Drawing on information measured by temperature loggers installed in eight clinics in Giyani, Limpopo Province of South Africa, we were able to determine indoor temperatures of waiting rooms in eight rural primary health care facilities. Mean monthly temperature measurements inside the clinics were warmer during the summer months of December, January and February, and cooler during the autumn months of March, April and May. The highest mean monthly temperature of 31.4 ± 2.7 °C was recorded in one clinic during February 2016. Maximum daily indoor clinic temperatures exceeded 38 °C in some clinics. Indoor temperatures were compared to ambient (outdoor) temperatures and the mean difference between the two showed clinic waiting room temperatures were higher by 2–4 °C on average. Apparent temperature (AT) incorporating relative humidity readings made in the clinics showed ‘realfeel’ temperatures were >4 °C higher than measured indoor temperature, suggesting a feeling of ‘stuffiness’ and discomfort may have been experienced in the waiting room areas. During typical clinic operational hours of 8h00 to 16h00, mean ATs fell into temperature ranges associated with heat–health impact warning categories of ‘caution’ and ‘extreme caution’. PMID:28067816

  14. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  16. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  17. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  18. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling. Four different milling temperatures per milling duration were achieved. Cooked rice texture properties were assessed using a uniaxial compression test and rice flour pasting properties measured using a TA-2000 rheometer. Results of this study showed that exposure of rice to high temperatures during milling significantly decreased cooked rice firmness. An increase in milled rice temperature after milling from 10.0 to 13.3 °C resulted in a 5.4 and 8.1 N decrease in cooked rice firmness. Although not always significant, the increase in milled rice temperature during milling resulted in an increase in cooked rice stickiness. The increase in milling temperature also showed significant increase in rice flour pasting properties. Changes in rice functional characteristics were attributed to the changes occurring to rice chemical constituents due to temperature exposure as indicated by the increase in rice protein hydrophobicity. Proteins are known to affect rice starch water holding capacity and other starch gelatinization properties.

  19. Tracing ancestor rice of Suriname Maroons back to its African origin.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Tinde R; Meyer, Rachel S; Aflitos, Saulo A; Carney, Judith A; Veltman, Margaretha A; Copetti, Dario; Flowers, Jonathan M; Havinga, Reinout M; Maat, Harro; Purugganan, Michael D; Wing, Rod A; Schranz, M Eric

    2016-10-03

    African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and African cultivation practices are said to have influenced emerging colonial plantation economies in the Americas(1,2). However, the level of impact of African rice practices is difficult to establish because of limited written or botanical records(2,3). Recent findings of O. glaberrima in rice fields of Suriname Maroons bear evidence of the high level of knowledge about rice among African slaves and their descendants, who consecrate it in ancestor rituals(4,5). Here we establish the strong similarity, and hence likely origin, of the first extant New World landrace of O. glaberrima to landraces from the Upper Guinean forests in West Africa. We collected African rice from a Maroon market in Paramaribo, Suriname, propagated it, sequenced its genome(6) and compared it with genomes of 109 accessions representing O. glaberrima diversity across West Africa. By analysing 1,649,769 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in clustering analyses, the Suriname sample appears sister to an Ivory Coast landrace, and shows no evidence of introgression from Asian rice. Whereas the Dutch took most slaves from Ghana, Benin and Central Africa(7), the diaries of slave ship captains record the purchase of food for provisions when sailing along the West African Coast(8), offering one possible explanation for the patterns of genetic similarity. This study demonstrates the utility of genomics in understanding the largely unwritten histories of crop cultures of diaspora communities.

  20. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  1. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  2. Efficacy of Rice Insecticide Seed Treatments at Selected Nitrogen Rates for Control of the Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Everett, Mallory; Lorenz, Gus; Slaton, Nathan; Hardke, Jarrod

    2015-08-01

    Seed-applied insecticides are the standard control method used in the United States to minimize rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) injury to rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots, and often results in greater yields than rice that receives no seed-applied insecticide. Yield increases from seed-applied insecticides often occur even when insect pressure is low and should not cause yield loss. The research objective was to evaluate the effect of urea-nitrogen rate and seed-applied insecticide on number of rice water weevil larvae, nitrogen uptake, and rice grain yield. Six trials were conducted at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) and the Rice Research Extension Center (RREC) to examine the response of rice plants receiving different insecticide-seed treatments and urea-nitrogen rate combinations. Insecticide-seed treatments included label rates of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and a no-insecticide (fungicide only) control, in combination with season-total nitrogen rates of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg urea-nitrogen/ha. Rice seed that was treated with clothianidin or thiamethoxam generally had equal numbers of rice water weevil larvae, which were significantly fewer compared with rice that received no insecticide with an equivalent urea-nitrogen rate. Nitrogen uptake at panicle differentiation was not affected by insecticide-seed treatments at four of six sites and usually increased positively and linearly as urea-nitrogen rate increased. As urea-nitrogen rate increased, grain yield increased either linearly or nonlinearly. Averaged across urea-nitrogen rates, both insecticide seed treatments had similar yields that were 4 to 7% greater than the grain yields of rice that received no insecticide at four of the five harvested sites.

  3. Relating raw rice color and composition to cooked rice color.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the color of milled rice is economically important. The whiter the rice the more it is preferred by consumers and the more value it has in the market place. Little attention has been given to relating raw rice color to cooked milled rice color and, specifically, to determining the i...

  4. Ebola in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  5. Ebola in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  6. Rice volatiles lure gravid malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Torto, Baldwyn; Fillinger, Ulrike; Hill, Sharon R; Ignell, Rickard

    2016-11-30

    Mosquito oviposition site selection is essential for vector population dynamics and malaria epidemiology. Irrigated rice cultivations provide ideal larval habitats for malaria mosquitoes, which has resulted in increased prevalence of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in sub-Saharan Africa. The nature and origin of the cues regulating this behaviour are only now being elucidated. We show that gravid Anopheles arabiensis are attracted and oviposit in response to the odour present in the air surrounding rice. Furthermore, we identify a synthetic rice odour blend, using electrophysiological and chemical analyses, which elicits attraction and oviposition in laboratory assays, as well as attraction of free-flying gravid mosquitoes under semi-field conditions. This research highlights the intimate link between malaria vectors and agriculture. The identified volatile cues provide important substrates for the development of novel and cost-effective control measures that target female malaria mosquitoes, irrespective of indoor or outdoor feeding and resting patterns.

  7. Rice volatiles lure gravid malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Torto, Baldwyn; Fillinger, Ulrike; Hill, Sharon R.; Ignell, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito oviposition site selection is essential for vector population dynamics and malaria epidemiology. Irrigated rice cultivations provide ideal larval habitats for malaria mosquitoes, which has resulted in increased prevalence of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in sub-Saharan Africa. The nature and origin of the cues regulating this behaviour are only now being elucidated. We show that gravid Anopheles arabiensis are attracted and oviposit in response to the odour present in the air surrounding rice. Furthermore, we identify a synthetic rice odour blend, using electrophysiological and chemical analyses, which elicits attraction and oviposition in laboratory assays, as well as attraction of free-flying gravid mosquitoes under semi-field conditions. This research highlights the intimate link between malaria vectors and agriculture. The identified volatile cues provide important substrates for the development of novel and cost-effective control measures that target female malaria mosquitoes, irrespective of indoor or outdoor feeding and resting patterns. PMID:27901056

  8. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  9. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  10. West Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... (MISR) illustrate the abundance of atmospheric particulate matter across the region. The left-hand panels are natural-color views from ... across the region is noticeable. The distinctive area of dark green vegetation (apparent below and left of image center) are situated in ...

  11. NeuroAIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T Dianne; Weyessa, Tufa Gemechu; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2010-05-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting "NeuroAIDS in Africa." This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region.

  12. North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nicod, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    The total area covered by petroleum rights in the six countries described in this paper increased by more than 17% in 1980 compared to 1979. Joint venture agreements were finalized for 19 blocks over 94,000 km/sup 2/ in the Algerian venture. Although official information is scarce for Algeria and Libya, seismic activity probably increased in 1980 compared to 1979. Exploration drilling activity increased with 121 wildcats drilled compared to 93 during the previous year. This effort led to 40 discoveries, a 34.5% success ratio. Chevron was especially successful in wildcatting, with 6 oil discoveries for 8 wells drilled in the interior basins of Sudan. One Moroccan discovery can be considered as a highlight: the BRPM Meskala 101 well in the Essaouira basin found an apparently large amount of gas in Triassic sandstones. This discovery deserves special attention, since the gas has been found in Triassic pays rather than in the usual Jurassic pays in the Essaouira basin. Oil production in North Africa decreased from about 13.5% in 1980, with about 3,405,000 barrels of oil per day compared to 3,939,500 barrels of oil per day in 1979. When oil output strongly decreased in Algeria (-16.4%) and Libya (-15.6%), Tunisian production peaked at 116,287 barrels of oil per day and Egypt production also peaked at 584,148 barrels of oil per day. Total gas production in 1980 strongly declined from 44%, mostly due to the decline of the Algerian gas production. 8 figures, 40 tables.

  13. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  14. [Anopheles funestus and rice agriculture in the Madagascar highlands].

    PubMed

    Marrama, L; Rajaonarivelo, E; Laventure, S; Rabarison, P

    1995-01-01

    An exhaustive study of the potential habitats of Anopheles funestus was led during 1992 in Ankazobe on the Plateau of Madagascar, 95 km northwest of the capital Tananarive. The rice fields provide more than 90% of the positive habitats versus less than 10% for the nonhuman biotopes. Larva are especially abundant on the surfaces of the rice during grain head formation and maturation. The dense vegetation coverage provides them with shade and protection against predators. After harvesting, the follows can be filled with water and wild vegetation, and then also provide an important share of the habitats. The rice fields are omnipresent on the Plateau where they supply the basis of local alimentation. A. funestus then constitutes a serious risk for all of the villages. The role of the rice fields as habitats for A. funestus has already been noted in Kenya but in West Africa the rice fields do not host this species, even if this species is very abundant in the other types of habitats.

  15. The genome sequence of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and evidence for independent domestication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Muhua; Yu, Yeisoo; Haberer, Georg; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Fan, Chuanzhu; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Zuccolo, Andrea; Song, Xiang; Kudrna, Dave; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Maldonado, Carlos; Chen, Jinfeng; Lee, Seunghee; Sisneros, Nick; de Baynast, Kristi; Golser, Wolfgang; Wissotski, Marina; Kim, Woojin; Sanchez, Paul; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noelle; Sanni, Kayode; Long, Manyuan; Carney, Judith; Panaud, Olivier; Wicker, Thomas; Machado, Carlos A; Chen, Mingsheng; Mayer, Klaus F X; Rounsley, Steve; Wing, Rod A

    2014-09-01

    The cultivation of rice in Africa dates back more than 3,000 years. Interestingly, African rice is not of the same origin as Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) but rather is an entirely different species (i.e., Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Here we present a high-quality assembly and annotation of the O. glaberrima genome and detailed analyses of its evolutionary history of domestication and selection. Population genomics analyses of 20 O. glaberrima and 94 Oryza barthii accessions support the hypothesis that O. glaberrima was domesticated in a single region along the Niger river as opposed to noncentric domestication events across Africa. We detected evidence for artificial selection at a genome-wide scale, as well as with a set of O. glaberrima genes orthologous to O. sativa genes that are known to be associated with domestication, thus indicating convergent yet independent selection of a common set of genes during two geographically and culturally distinct domestication processes.

  16. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Directory of Adult Education Centres in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Dakar (Senegal). Regional Office for Education in Africa.

    The Bureau Regional pour L'Education en Afrique (BREDA) survey, published partly in French, assembled data on the activities of adult education institutions in Africa in order to identify and develop future regional documentation centers. This draft copy of the survey is the first step towards improving international collaboration among…

  18. Rice cropping density and intensity lessened in southeast China during the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bingwen; Qi, Wen; Tang, Zhenghong; Chen, Chongcheng; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and updated time series maps of paddy rice distribution and planting intensity will greatly improve our knowledge. Unfortunately, spatiotemporal explicit information on rice fields is relatively limited, and considerable uncertainties still exist as regards to its inter-annual variations in China. In this study, an improved rice mapping methodology was proposed through combined consideration of vegetation phenology and surface moisture variations from different seasonal rice. This method was applied to southeast China based on 500 m 8 day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhance Vegetation Indices with two bands (EVI2) during the period 2001-2013. Its efficiency was validated with 763 ground survey sites, with an overall accuracy of 95.02 % and the kappa index of 0.9217. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated that rice cropping density and intensity lessened in southeast China during the period 2001-2013. Particularly, the paddy rice-planted areas reduced by 30.09 %, changing from 231,005 to 161,484 km(2). Among them, the planted areas of double rice decreased by 49.34 %, changing from 34,215 to 17,335 km(2). Therefore, averaged rice cropping intensity in southeast China decreased from 1.148 to 1.107. The primary dynamic patterns were from single rice or a rotation of rice plus other crops to non-rice (93,386 km(2)) and double rice to non-double rice (24,132 km(2)). When analyzed at provincial and altitudinal gradient levels, it was obvious that areas with greater rice cropping density or intensity were associated with more remarkable reductions. Graphical abstract The left graph shows that the rice cropping density lessened in Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu, Henan provinces and other three provincial-level administrative units (Zhejiang, Fujian and Shanghai) from 2001 to 2013. The middle graph indicates the movement of gravity center as well as the variations in the total planted areas of single rice, rice plus

  19. Shaping a better rice plant.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan

    2010-06-01

    Two studies describe how regulatory variation at the rice gene OsSPL14 can lead to altered plant morphology and improve grain yield. These studies support the possibility of improving rice yield through changing plant architecture.

  20. Soviet Arms Transfers to Sub-Saharan Africa: What are they Worth in the United Nations?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-02

    Military Influence on Africa’s International Relations. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985. Gann, L.H. and Duignan, Peter. Africa South of...Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University , and Praeger Publishers, 1983. Campbell, Kurt M. "Southern Africa in Soviet...Vol. I, No. 5. Washington, D.C.: The Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University , 1979. Fukuyama, Francis. The Tenth Period

  1. Perspectives of RH. Africa.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Three Japanese journalists visited Tanzania and Ghana during July 5-21 to observe how reproductive health (RH) services are delivered as part of community-based services promoted by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tanzania's Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral UNFPA programs, and JOICFP. The tour was organized by JOICFP with the support of UNFPA. In Tanzania, the team was welcomed in Mukuranga District where MOH staff deliver UNFPA-funded RH services. The journalists observed public health nurses deliver outreach services and provide information on safe delivery and family planning to expectant mothers They also spoke with a Japanese midwife based at a health center in Tanga and traveled to JOICFP's project area in Kilimanjaro Region. In Ghana, the group observed a clinic run by the MOH and activities of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The effectiveness of government-NGO collaboration was observed in Bontrease. Back in Japan, two of the journalists shared their experiences in Africa through a series of published articles, while the third journalist will air his digital video on Television Tokyo.

  2. Methane potential and biodegradability of rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process.

    PubMed

    Contreras, L M; Schelle, H; Sebrango, C R; Pereda, I

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural solid residues are a potential renewable energy source. Rice harvesting and production in Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba, currently generates residues without an environmentally sustainable disposal route. Rice residues (rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process) are potentially an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion. For this paper, rice residues were placed for 36 days retention time in anaerobic batch reactor environments at both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Biogas and methane yield were determined as well as biogas composition. The results showed that rice straw as well as rice residues from the drying process had the highest biogas and methane yield. Temperature played an important role in determining both biogas yield and kinetics. In all cases, rice straw produced the highest yields; under mesophilic conditions the biogas yield was 0.43 m(3) kg(VS)(-1), under thermophilic conditions biogas yield reached 0.52 m(3) kg(VS)(-1). In the case of the rice husk, the biodegradability was very low. Methane content in all batches was kept above 55% vol. All digested material had a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, even though significant biodegradation was recorded with the exception of rice husk. A first-order model can be used to describe the rice crop residues fermentation effectively.

  3. Effect of rice variety and nutrient management on rice productivity in organic rice system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic rice has been increasing for decades. However, the information on sustainable organic rice production systems is still lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil amendment products, nitrogen rate, and variety on rice grain yield, yield components, ...

  4. Organic Rice Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has grown steadily with the majority of the acreage now being located in Texas and California. A wide range of organic products are marketed including conventional long and medium grain rice, aromatic or scented rice, rice with colored bran, and rice f...

  5. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16 (Supplement), March 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; Strey, Gerry, Comp.

    A supplement to the bibliography of materials dealing with Africa in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin, this bibliography on rural development in Africa is divided into three major sections as follows: (1) General (400 entries); (2) Central Africa including a general section (2 entries); Cameroon (26 entries); Central…

  6. Generation 2030/Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  7. Islam in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-09

    orders as well as followers in West Africa and Sudan, and, like other orders, strives to know God through meditation and emotion. Sufis may be Sunni or...Shi’ite, and their ceremonies may involve chanting, music, dancing, and meditation . West Africa and Sudan have various Sufi orders regarded

  8. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and…

  9. Teaching about Francophone Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Mary; Timbo, Adama

    Lessons and resources for Social Studies and French courses are included in this document. The major goals of these materials are to help students (1) explore the history and geography of Francophone Africa, (2) examine French influences in contemporary Africa, (3) recognize and appreciate cultural differences and similarities in values and…

  10. Rice bran phytonutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bran layer of the whole grain rice contains potential health-beneficial compounds. These include vitamin E homologs (tocopherols, tocotrienols), oryzanol fractions, simple phenolics and poly-phenolics. These are antioxidants that are believed to provide protection against diseases such as cancer...

  11. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  12. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  13. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  14. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  15. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  16. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  17. AfricaArray: Building science capacity and improving seismic networks in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Dirks, P.; Graham, G.

    2007-05-01

    AfricaArray is a long-term initiative to promote coupled training and research programs in geophysics for building and maintaining a scientific workforce for Africa's natural resource sector. The main goals of AfricaArray are to: 1) maintain and develop further geophysical training programs in Africa, in response to industry, government and university needs, 2) promote geophysical research in Africa, and establish an Africa-to-Africa research support system, 3) obtain geophysical data, through a network of shared observatories, to study scientific targets of economic and societal interest, as well as fundamental geological processes shaping the African continent. AfricaArray is supported by a public-private partnership consisting of many government organizations in the US and Africa, and mining and oil companies. AfricaArray has been built on existing programs and expertise within partner institutions and is being implemented in three phases over ten years. During Phase 1 (1/2005 - 12/2007), the educational program at the University of the Witwatersrand is being expanded and improved to provide B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degree training in geophysics for students from across Africa. Seismic stations are being installed or upgraded in participating countries to form a network of shared scientific observatories, and technical personnel are being trained to operate and maintain the seismic equipment. Data from the seismic stations are being used for student thesis research projects, and the seismic network is helping to catalyze scientific community building through educational and research collaborations. During subsequent phases (2007-2014), the in-situ education and research program will grow to provide B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. training for many more African students, the network of shared scientific observatories will be expanded, temporary networks of seismic stations will be installed, sustainable centers of excellence in geophysics will be established at other

  18. Patterns of irrigated rice growth and malaria vector breeding in Mali using multi-temporal ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar.

    PubMed

    Diuk-Wasser, M A; Dolo, G; Bagayoko, M; Sogoba, N; Toure, M B; Moghaddam, M; Manoukis, N; Rian, S; Traore, S F; Taylor, C E

    2006-02-01

    We explored the use of the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (ERS-2 SAR) to trace the development of rice plants in an irrigated area near Niono, Mali and relate that to the density of anopheline mosquitoes, especially An. gambiae. This is important because such mosquitoes are the major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, and their development is often coupled to the cycle of rice development. We collected larval samples, mapped rice fields using GPS and recorded rice growth stages simultaneously with eight ERS-2 SAR acquisitions. We were able to discriminate among rice growth stages using ERS-2 SAR backscatter data, especially among the early stages of rice growth, which produce the largest numbers of larvae. We could also distinguish between basins that produced high and low numbers of anophelines within the stage of peak production. After the peak, larval numbers dropped as rice plants grew taller and thicker, reducing the amount of light reaching the water surface. ERS-2 SAR backscatter increased concomitantly. Our data support the belief that ERS-2 SAR data may be helpful for mapping the spatial patterns of rice growth, distinguishing different agricultural practices, and monitoring the abundance of vectors in nearby villages.

  19. Patterns of irrigated rice growth and malaria vector breeding in Mali using multi-temporal ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar

    PubMed Central

    Diuk-Wasser, M. A.; Dolo, G.; Bagayoko, M.; Sogoba, N.; Toure, M. B.; Moghaddam, M.; Manoukis, N.; Rian, S.; Traore, S. F.; Taylor, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the use of the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (ERS-2 SAR) to trace the development of rice plants in an irrigated area near Niono, Mali and relate that to the density of anopheline mosquitoes, especially An. gambiae. This is important because such mosquitoes are the major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, and their development is often coupled to the cycle of rice development. We collected larval samples, mapped rice fields using GPS and recorded rice growth stages simultaneously with eight ERS-2 SAR acquisitions. We were able to discriminate among rice growth stages using ERS-2 SAR backscatter data, especially among the early stages of rice growth, which produce the largest numbers of larvae. We could also distinguish between basins that produced high and low numbers of anophelines within the stage of peak production. After the peak, larval numbers dropped as rice plants grew taller and thicker, reducing the amount of light reaching the water surface. ERS-2 SAR backscatter increased concomitantly. Our data support the belief that ERS-2 SAR data may be helpful for mapping the spatial patterns of rice growth, distinguishing different agricultural practices, and monitoring the abundance of vectors in nearby villages. PMID:17710188

  20. Processes of diversification and dispersion of rice yellow mottle virus inferred from large-scale and high-resolution phylogeographical studies.

    PubMed

    Traore, O; Sorho, F; Pinel, A; Abubakar, Z; Banwo, O; Maley, J; Hebrard, E; Winter, S; Sere, Y; Konate, G; Fargette, D

    2005-06-01

    Phylogeography of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was reconstructed from the coat protein gene sequences of a selection of 173 isolates from the 14 countries of mainland Africa where the disease occurred and from the full sequences of 16 representative isolates. Genetic variation was linked to geographical distribution and not to host species as isolates from wild rice always clustered with isolates from cultivated rice of the same region. Genetic variation was not associated to agro-ecology, viral interference and insect vector species. Distinct RYMV lineages occurred in East, Central and West Africa, although the Central African lineage included isolates from Benin, Togo and Niger at the west, adjacent to countries of the West African lineage. Genetic subdivision at finer geographical scales was apparent within lineages of Central and West Africa, although less pronounced than in East Africa. Physical obstacles, but also habitat fragmentation, as exemplified by the small low-lying island of Pemba offshore Tanzania mainland, explained strain localization. Three new highly divergent strains were found in eastern Tanzania. By contrast, intensive surveys in Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea at the west of Africa did not reveal any new variant. Altogether, this supported the view that the Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspot was the centre of origin of RYMV and that the virus spread subsequently from east to west across Africa. In West Africa, specific strains occurred in the Inner Niger Delta and suggested it was a secondary centre of diversification. Processes for diversification and dispersion of RYMV are proposed.

  1. Agricultural origins: centers and noncenters.

    PubMed

    Harlan, J R

    1971-10-29

    I propose the theory that agriculture originated independently in three different areas and that, in each case, there was a system composed of a center of origin and a noncenter, in which activities of domestication were dispersed over a span of 5,000 to 10,000 kilometers. One system includes a definable Near East center and a noncenter in Africa; another system includes a North Chinese center and a noncenter in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific; the third system includes a Mesoamerican center and a South American noncenter. There are suggestions that, in each case, the center and noncenter interact with each other. Crops did not necessarily originate in centers (in any conventional concept of the term), nor did agriculture necessarily develop in a geographical "center."

  2. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  3. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains.

    PubMed

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  4. Enabling Energy Efficiency in South Africa's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    South Africa is leading a number of efforts to support a thriving economy while also reducing energy use. Increasing energy demand coupled with a highly energy intensive economy and energy inefficient industries provide the backdrop for strong government action underway in South Africa. This brochure details how the Clean Energy Solutions Center supported development of the Regulations on Allowance for the Energy Efficiency Savings legislation designed to provide a framework for effective energy efficiency regulation, incentives and energy reduction targets for South Africa's commercial buildings sector.

  5. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  6. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    PubMed

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  7. Investing in Science and Technology to Meet Africa’s Maritime Security Challenges (Africa Security Brief, Number 10, February 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    of national security. Much of it is centered in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research ( CSIR ). CSIR embodies an effort to build a...ready, and committed to building a strong South Africa. Efforts at CSIR speak directly to maritime security and the challenges faced by Africa...operational security forces to deal with tech- nology on their own, CSIR is providing the scientific partnership needed to comprehensively and

  8. An Alternative for High-Risk Students: The School-Community Guidance Center Evaluation, 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Linda H.; Baenen, Nancy R.

    This study presents an evaluation of a program in which the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's School-Community Guidance Center (SCGC) employed three project specialists to work with incorrigible and delinquent students at three locations: Travis County's Gardner House Detention Center and F. R. Rice High School and F. R. Rice Middle…

  9. Migration, isolation and hybridization in island crop populations: the case of Madagascar rice.

    PubMed

    Mather, Kristie A; Molina, Jeanmaire; Flowers, Jonathan M; Rubinstein, Samara; Rauh, Brad L; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Caicedo, Ana L; McNally, Kenneth L; Purugganan, Michael D

    2010-11-01

    Understanding how crop species spread and are introduced to new areas provides insights into the nature of species range expansions. The domesticated species Oryza sativa or Asian rice is one of the key domesticated crop species in the world. The island of Madagascar off the coast of East Africa was one of the last major Old World areas of introduction of rice after the domestication of this crop species and before extensive historical global trade in this crop. Asian rice was introduced in Madagascar from India, the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia approximately 800-1400 years ago. Studies of domestication traits characteristic of the two independently domesticated Asian rice subspecies, indica and tropical japonica, suggest two major waves of migrations into Madagascar. A population genetic analysis of rice in Madagascar using sequence data from 53 gene fragments provided insights into the dynamics of island founder events during the expansion of a crop species' geographic range and introduction to novel agro-ecological environments. We observed a significant decrease in genetic diversity in rice from Madagascar when compared to those in Asia, likely the result of a bottleneck on the island. We also found a high frequency of a unique indica type in Madagascar that shows clear population differentiation from most of the sampled Asian landraces, as well as differential exchange of alleles between Asia and Madagascar populations of the tropical japonica subspecies. Finally, despite partial reproductive isolation between japonica and indica, there was evidence of indica/japonica recombination resulting from their hybridization on the island.

  10. Contemporary Problems in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Patrick; Winchester, N. Brian

    1987-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of political and economic developments of the past 25 years in Africa. Maintains this was a period of experimentation with vast differences in the ways in which governments dealt with human and natural problems. (JDH)

  11. Child Labour in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The question of child labor in Africa is complicated by the failures of the educational system, family relations, traditional forms of apprenticeship, proliferation of the informal economic sector, and continuing existence of a rural economy. Hazardous working conditions prevail. (SK)

  12. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    of cooked rice. Nonetheless, the efficiency of electromagnetic induction heating (IH) rice cookers in warm mode has improved approximately 12 percent from 1993 to 2004 due to the 'low temperature warming method' developed by manufacturers. The Energy Conservation Center of Japan (IEEJ) releases energy saving products database on the web regularly, on which the energy saving performance of each product is listed and ranked. Energy saving in rice cookers mostly rest with insulation of the pot. Technology developed to improve the energy efficiency of the rice cookers includes providing vacuum layers on both side of the pot, using copper-plated materials, and double stainless layer lid that can be heated and steam can run in between the two layers to speed the heating process.

  13. Chinese rice production area adaptations to climate changes, 1949-2010.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengguo; Liu, Zhenhuan; Anderson, Weston; Yang, Peng; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; You, Liangzhi

    2015-02-17

    Climate change has great impact on cropping system. Understanding how the rice production system has historically responded to external forces, both natural and anthropogenic, will provide critical insights into how the system is likely to respond in the future. The observed historic rice movement provides insights into the capability of the rice production system to adapt to climate changes. Using province-level rice production data and historic climate records, here we show that the centroid of Chinese rice production shifted northeastward over 370 km (2.98°N in latitude and 1.88°E in longitude) from 1949 to 2010. Using a linear regression model, we examined the driving factors, in particular climate, behind such rice production movement. While the major driving forces of the rice relocation are such social economic factors as urbanization, irrigation investment, and agricultural or land use policy changes, climate plays a significant role as well. We found that temperature has been a significant and coherent influence on moving the rice center in China and precipitation has had a significant but less spatially coherent influence.

  14. [Effect of climate change on rice irrigation water requirement in Songnen Plain, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-gang; Wang, Xiao-li; Xiao, Ye; Yang, Fei; Wang, Chen-xi

    2015-01-01

    Based on meteorological data from China national weather stations and climate scenario grid data through regional climate model provided by National Climate Center, rice water requirement was calculated by using McCloud model and Penman-Monteith model combined with crop coefficient approach. Then the rice irrigation water requirement was estimated by water balance model, and the changes of rice water requirement were analyzed. The results indicated that either in historical period or in climate scenario, rice irrigation water requirement contour lines during the whole growth period and Lmid period decreased along southwest to northeast, and the same irrigation water requirement contour line moved north with decade alternation. Rice irrigation water requirement during the whole growth period increased fluctuantly with decade alternation at 44.2 mm . 10 a-1 in historical period and 19.9 mm . 10 a-1 in climate scenario. The increase in rice irrigation water requirement during the Lmid period with decade alternation was significant in historical period, but not significant in climate scenario. Contribution rate of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement would be fluctuantly increased with decade alternation in climate scenario. Compared with 1970s, contribution rates of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement were 23.6% in 2000s and 34.4% in 2040s, which increased 14.8 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2000s and would increase 21.2 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2040s.

  15. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  16. AIDS in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-09

    have recommended that Africans infected with HIV be treated with an antibiotic/ sulfa drug combination known as cotrimoxazole in order to prevent...response is the subject of much debate. An estimated 500,000 Africa AIDS patients were being treated with antiretroviral drugs in mid-2005, up from 150,000...whether drugs can be made widely accessible without costly health infrastructure improvements. U.S. concern over AIDS in Africa grew in the 1980s, as the

  17. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  18. Decolonizing Bioethics in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay-Adeyelure, O.C.

    2017-01-01

    The global spread of bioethics from its North-American and European provenance to non-Western societies is currently raising some concerns. Part of the concern has to do with whether or not the exportation of bioethics in its full Western sense to developing non-Western states is an instance of ethical imperialism or bioethical neocolonialism. This paper attempts an exploration of this debate in the context of bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather than conceding that bioethics has a colonial agenda in Africa, this paper defends the position that the current bioethics trend in sub-Saharan Africa is an unintended imperialistic project. It argues that its colonizing character is not entirely a product of the Western programmed goals of training and institution building; rather, it is a structural consequence of many receptive African minds and institutions. Though bioethics in Africa is turning out as a colonizing project, one serious implication of such trend, if unchecked urgently, is that bioethics’ invaluable relevance to Africa is being incapacitated. This paper, therefore, attempts a decolonizing trajectory of bioethics in Africa. Contrary to the pretense of ‘African bioethics,’ which some African scholars are now defending, this paper through the logic of decolonization makes case for ‘bioethics in Africa’. In such logic, the principle of existential needs is prioritized over the principle of identity and authenticity that define African voice in bioethics. PMID:28344985

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of some locally-produced rice (Oryza spp) cultivars in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, Fidelis C. K.; Owureku-Asare, Mavis; Agyei-Amponsah, Joyce; Agbemavor, Wisdom S. K.; Egblewogbe, Martin N. Y. H.; Apea-Bah, Franklin B.; Sarfo, Adjoa; Apatey, John; Doku, Henry; Ofori-Appiah, Dora; Ayeh, Ernestina

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple crop in Ghana and much of West Africa, where it serves as an important convenience food for urban consumers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation as insect disinfestation technique on some physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of selected locally-produced rice cultivars in Ghana. Four local rice cultivars and an imported (commercial) type were purchased, cleaned and irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. The irradiated rice cultivars were milled and their physicochemical, functional and pasting properties determined. There were reductions in pH and swelling power, as well as increase in solubility of rice cultivars after gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation did not change the XRD pattern of the rice cultivars. Gamma irradiation significantly (P<0.05) decreased peak time for BAL and VNT rice cultivars. Gamma irradiation significantly (P<0.05) decreased PV, HPV, BDV, FV and SBV for all the rice cultivars. This study shows that flours from gamma irradiated rice cultivars have potential in food formulations that require low viscosity.

  20. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  1. South Africa, Namibia Diamond Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image covers a portion of the Richtersveld National Park and Orange River (top of image) in the Northern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa. The Orange River marks the boundary between South Africa to the south and Namibia to the north. This is an area of active mining for diamonds, which were washed downstream from the famous Kimberley Diamond Area, millions of years ago when the river was much larger. The mining is focused on ancient drainages of the Orange River which are currently buried by think layers of sand and gravel. Scientists are investigating whether these ancient drainages can be seen with the radar's ability to penetrate sand cover in extremely dry regions. A mine, shown in yellow, is on the southern bank of the river in an abandoned bend which is known as an 'oxbow.' The small bright circular areas (left edge of image) west of the mine circles are fields of a large ostrich farm that are being watered with pivot irrigation. The large dark area in the center of the image is the Kubus Pluton, a body of granite rock that broke through the surrounding rocks about 550 million years ago. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is about 55 by 60 kilometers (34 by 37 miles) centered at 28.4 degrees south latitude, 16.8 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired on April 18, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

  2. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  3. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  4. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  5. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  6. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  7. Center Size and Center Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helburn, Suzanne; Morris, John

    1996-01-01

    Examined the impact of child care center size on cost, quality, and profits per child. Examined centers ranging from 40 to 80 children and found total cost and revenue per child were similar for small, medium, and large centers. Found profits per child were highest in large centers and that there was no relationship between center quality and…

  8. Historical Amnesia? The Politics of Textbooks in Post-Apartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polakow-Suransky, Sasha S.

    The issue of history, specifically history textbooks, has been at the center of South Africa's educational reform debates for years. One of the consequences of South Africa's delayed curricular reform is the continued use of apartheid-era history textbooks, which, among other things, deny European colonization and conquest and claim that whites…

  9. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  10. Neogene desertification of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Pickford, Martin; Ségalen, Loïc

    2009-08-01

    Throughout the Neogene, the faunas and floras in Africa recorded global climatic changes. We present an overview of Neogene desertification in Africa by tracing stable isotopes in eggshells and mammalian enamel, by faunal (changes in hypsodonty, etc.) and floral changes in sequences at the latitudinal extremities of the continent and the equator. This work reveals that desertification started in the southwest ca 17-16 Ma, much earlier than the region of the present-day Sahara (ca 8-7 Ma) and long before the deserts in East Africa (Plio-Pleistocene). A consequence of this history is that animals and plants inhabiting the South of the continent had a long period of time in which to adapt to arid, unstable climatic conditions. When parts of East Africa became arid during the Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene, several of these lineages expanded northwards and occupied developing arid niches before local lineages could adapt. Several of the latter became extinct, while others withdrew westwards as the tropical forest diminished in extent. It is proposed that the history of desertification in Africa was related to that of the polar ice caps (Antarctic, Arctic).

  11. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, You Hoon; Oh, Se Jo; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Lee, Soo Young

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months) with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP) in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF]) was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoblots. The patients' medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heat-treated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms. PMID:22232624

  12. Injury Patterns Among Illegal Migrants from Africa in Israel.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Amotz; Radomislensky, Irina; Peleg, Kobi

    2015-08-01

    In recent years Israel has become a destination for many migrants from Africa that illegally cross the Egyptian-Israeli border. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of injuries among illegal migrants in Israel. The study was carried out retrospectively using data from 19 trauma centers that participated in the Israel National Trauma Registry between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. Illegal migrants from Africa were compared to the local population. Migrants were injured more often than the local population from intentional injuries (57.11 %). Migrants were also less likely than the local population (58.38 %) to sustain a minor injury (i.e., injury severity ≤8). The study also shows the hospitalization cost as a result of injuries among migrants from Africa. Preventive measures among illegal migrants from Africa should prioritize intentional injuries and industrial site injuries.

  13. SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimadoya, M.

    2013-12-01

    The study of SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE) was held in Indonesia on 2012, as part of Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE), which is a component for the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The study was expected to give a breakthrough result, by using radar technology and paradigm shift of the standard production estimation system from list frame to area frame approach. This initial product estimation system is expected to be refined (fine tuning) in 2013, by participating as part of Technical Demonstration Site (Phase -1A) of Asia-RICE. The implementation period of this initial study was from the date of March 12 to December 10, 2012. The implementation of the study was done by following the approach of the BIMAS-21 framework, which has been developed since 2008. The results of this study can be briefly divided into two major components, namely: Rice-field Baseline Mapping (PESBAK - Peta Sawah Baku) and Crop Growth Monitoring. Rice-fields were derived from the mapping results of the Ministry of Agriculture (Kemtan), and validated through Student Extension Campaign of the Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). While for the crop growth, it was derived from the results of image analysis process. The analysis was done, either on radar/Radarsat-2 (medium resolution) or optical/ MODIS (low resolution), based on the Planting Calendar (KATAM) of Kemtan. In this case, the planting season II/2012-2013 of rice production centers in West Java Province (Karawang, Subang and Indramayu counties). The selection of crop season and county were entirely dependent on the quality of the available PESBAK and procurement process of radar imagery. The PESBAK is still in the form of block instead of fields, so it can not be directly utilized in this study. Efforts to improve the PESBAK can not be optimal because the provided satellite image (ECW format) is not the original one. While the procurement process of

  14. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  15. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  16. Emergency nursing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brysiewicz, Petra; Bruce, Judy

    2008-04-01

    The role of the emergency nurse in South Africa is a challenging one due to a variety of reasons. This article describes the healthcare system of South Africa with particular attention to the emergency medical system as well as the reason why most emergency clients present to the emergency departments. The actual experience of working as an emergency nurse in South Africa is highlighted.

  17. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  18. Out of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure…

  19. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  20. Who Speaks for Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Judging by the press coverage, it would seem that Europeans are the only ones concerned about conditions in Africa, but perhaps the media is not telling the whole story. According to Mark P. Fancher, chair of the National Conference of Black Lawyers' Section on International Affairs & World Peace and the author of "The Splintering of…

  1. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  2. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  3. AED in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the AED programs in Africa since 1975. Current AED Programs include: (1) HIV/AIDS Prevention and Impact…

  4. AED in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    For 30 years, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) has worked to support African development. In Uganda, Tanzania, and Botswana AED promoted some of Africa's first AIDS prevention programs. AED is funding research in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and perhaps Zambia that will target stigma and its role in AIDS prevention. Working with governments…

  5. Africa: Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)

  6. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  7. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba…

  8. Trends Abroad: South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Douglas H.

    1970-01-01

    In South Africa today there is a complex structure of laws and regulations which impose a variety of restrictions on individual liberties including the freedom to publish and read literary material. The successive steps by which this state of affairs has been reached are briefly described. (NH)

  9. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  10. Rice scene radiation research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Data requirements, tasks to be accomplished, and the technical approaches to be used in identifying the characteristics of rice for crop inventories are listed as well as methods for estimating crop development and assessing its conditions.

  11. Rice in an interdependent world.

    PubMed

    Falck, V T

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the outcome of the increasing need and dependence on rice as an essential food, and the potential hazards of this trajectory in an interdependent world, and to propose the need for a supranational system to guide decisions made in areas of mutual dependency among nations. All rice producing countries of the world should be responsible for assuring sufficient quantities and qualities of rice for the world's population. However, there are hazards related to emphasis on rice yields associated with the neglect of overall nutritional needs and also the potential for environmental impact given the need for sustainable development. Scientific measurement and data analyses of interdependent supranational variables are needed to guide policies and practices to insure conditions for life will be favorable for people everywhere.

  12. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava.

    PubMed

    Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W

    2006-05-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed.

  13. Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

  14. Assessment of the virulence spectrum and its association with genetic diversity in Magnaporthe oryzae populations from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutiga, Samuel Kilonzo; Rotich, Felix; Ganeshan, Veena Devi; Mwongera, David Thuranira; Mgonja, Emmanuel; Were, Vincent Mbashira; Harvey, Jagger W; Zhou, Bo; Wasilwa, Lusike; Feng, Chunda; Ouedraogo, Ibrahima; Wang, Guo-Liang; Mitchell, Thomas; Talbot, Nick; Correll, James C

    2017-04-03

    A collection of 122 isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae, from nine sub-Saharan African countries, was assessed for virulence diversity and genetic relatedness. The virulence spectrum was assessed by pathotype analysis with a panel of 43 rice genotypes consisting of differential lines carrying 24 blast resistance genes (R- genes), contemporary African rice cultivars, and susceptible checks. The virulence spectrum among isolates ranged from 5-80%. Five isolates were avirulent to the entire rice panel, while two isolates were virulent to ~75% of the panel. Overall, cultivar 75-1-127, the Pi9 R-gene donor, was resistant to all isolates (100%), followed by four African rice cultivars (AR105, NERICA 15, 96%; NERICA 4, 91%, and F6-36, 90%). Genetic relatedness of isolates was assessed by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) derived from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and by vegetative compatibility tests. Phylogenetic analysis of SNPs of a subset of isolates (n=78) revealed seven distinct clades which differed in virulence. Principal component analysis showed isolates from East Africa were genetically distinct from those from West Africa. Vegetative compatibility tests of a subset of isolates (n=65) showed no common groups among countries. This study shows that blast disease could be controlled by pyramiding of Pi9 together with other promising R-genes into rice cultivars which are adapted to East and West African regions.

  15. Teaching in West Africa: Dig beneath the Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briam, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience teaching English to adult learners at the American Cultural Center in Dakar, Senegal, a poor, primarily Muslim country and former French colony in West Africa. Her class was composed of about 30 students, whose age ranged from about 18 to 50. They were mostly men and mostly Senegalese, along with a…

  16. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  17. Sirens, Knuckles and Boots! Apartheid in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goheen, Diane; Printz, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Describes a high school's Ethnic Week study on South Africa and the global issue of apartheid. Discusses the role of the school's library media center in planning and implementing the program. Notes that the impact of the week-long study carried on throughout the school year. (RS)

  18. Detection algorithm for multiple rice seeds images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Ying, Y. B.

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a digital image analysis algorithm for detection of multiple rice seeds images. The rice seeds used for this study involved a hybrid rice seed variety. Images of multiple rice seeds were acquired with a machine vision system for quality inspection of bulk rice seeds, which is designed to inspect rice seeds on a rotating disk with a CCD camera. Combining morphological operations and parallel processing gave improvements in accuracy, and a reduction in computation time. Using image features selected based on classification ability; a highly acceptable defects classification was achieved when the algorithm was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability.

  19. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  20. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. ...Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his writ around this globe of ours. ...There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountian? Why - 35 years ago - why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we intend to win, and the others too.'

  1. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to begained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his wirt around this globe of ours. There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain? Why 35 years ago why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we attend to win, and the others , too.'

  2. Pullulanase from rice endosperm.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Susumu; Konno, Haruyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) in non-germinating seeds was compared with that in germinating seeds. Moreover, pullulanase from the endosperm of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Hinohikari) seeds was isolated and its properties investigated. The pI value of pullulanase from seeds after 8 days of germination was almost equal to that from non-germinating seeds, which shows that these two enzymes are the same protein. Therefore, the same pullulanase may play roles in both starch synthesis during ripening and starch degradation during germination in rice seeds. The enzyme was isolated by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulofine column chromatography, preparative isoelectric focusing, and preparative disc gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was homogeneous by SDS/PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 100 000 based on its mobility on SDS/PAGE and 105 000 based on gel filtration with TSKgel super SW 3000, which showed that it was composed of a single unit. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.7. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by beta-cyclodextrin. The enzyme was not activated by thiol reagents such as dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol or glutathione. The enzyme most preferably hydrolyzed pullulan and liberated only maltotriose. The pullulan hydrolysis was strongly inhibited by the substrate at a concentration higher than 0.1%. The degree of inhibition increased with an increase in the concentration of pullulan. However, the enzyme hydrolyzed amylopectin, soluble starch and beta-limit dextrin more rapidly as their concentrations increased. The enzyme exhibited alpha-glucosyltransfer activity and produced an alpha-1,6-linked compound of two maltotriose molecules from pullulan.

  3. Genetic analysis of atypical U.S. red rice phenotypes: indications of prior gene flow in rice fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a troublesome weed problem in rice fields of the southern U.S. Outcrossing between rice and red rice occurs at low rates, resulting in a broad array of plant types. SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic backgrounds of atypical red rice types obtained from rice farms in comparis...

  4. Outcrossing potential between U.S. red rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese indica rice (Oryza sativa) lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice in southern U.S. rice fields remains a widespread, economically challenging problem despite nearly a decade of rice production systems that include true-breeding rice cultivars and indica-derived hybrid rice with resistance to imazethapyr. Both of these herbicide-resistant rice systems hav...

  5. Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) emergence characteristics and influence on rice (O. sativa) yield at different planting dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated rice yield losses due to red rice infestation vary by cultivar, red rice density, and duration of interference. The competition effects of red rice could be influenced further by emergence characteristics, red rice biotype, and planting time of cultivated rice. We aimed to characterize th...

  6. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  7. The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province

    PubMed Central

    d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Jin, Guiyun; Bocinsky, R. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China. PMID:26125619

  8. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  9. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  10. Volatiles induction in rice stink bug host grasses and rice plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice stink bug (RSB), Oebalus pugnax F., is an important pest of heading rice in the United States. Little is known about plant volatiles production following herbivory by the rice stink bug. RSB feeding induced volatiles production in different RSB host grasses and rice varieties, and may help expl...

  11. Utilization of weedy rice for development of japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Ma, Dian Rong; Xu, Zheng Jin; Deng, Hua Feng; Chen, Wen Fu; Yuan, Long Ping

    2011-05-01

    Two representative weedy rice lines, three typical japonica varieties and three typical indica varieties were used for 6 pairs of reciprocal crosses. The morphological traits of twelve F(1) hybrid lines, their parents and four elite cultivars were investigated for heterosis over mid-parent (HM), over parent (HP) and competitive heterosis (CH) analysis. Traits detected in weedy rice lines seemed larger than those in cultivars and excellent heterosis was produced in weedy rice crossing with japonica rice. Although weedy rice kept closer relationships with japonica rice compared to indica rice. But the heterosis of reciprocal crosses between weedy rice and japonica was closed to those of crosses between indica rice and japonica rice. In six of one hundred and eighteen weedy rice lines, the fertility restore gene for BT type cytoplasmic male sterility (BT-CMS) were detected. Weedy rice was very valuable germplasm resources with the abundant polymorphism. Meanwhile, the disadvantage, lodging, shattering and incompact plant type, should be modified by hybridization, backcross and multiple cross with japonica rice. Although it is difficult to use weedy rice directly, weedy rice may be available to breed both male sterile line and restorer line through improvement, developing japonica hybrid rice.

  12. The impact of planting date on management of the rice water weevil in Louisiana rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Early planting of rice to avoid damaging infestations of the rice water weevil has long been suggested as a management tactic. A five-year study was conducted to characterize the influ...

  13. Genetic diversity for rice grain mineral concentrations observed among genetically and geographically giverse rice accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With about half of the world’s people dependent on rice as their main food source, improving the nutritional value of rice could have major impact on human health. While rice in the USA is often artificially fortified, natural enhancement of the rice grain’s nutritional value, i.e. from genetic impr...

  14. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    PubMed

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2016-07-20

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and <0.005; Mg = 1130 and 265; Mn = 18.2 and 9.6; Se = 0.025 and 0.028; and Zn = 17.0 and 14.4. In brown and white rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg(-1), and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg(-1), dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could

  15. The African Laser Centre: Transforming the Laser Community in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtingwa, Sekazi

    2012-02-01

    We describe the genesis and programs of the African Laser Centre (ALC), which is an African nonprofit network of laser users that is based in Pretoria, South Africa. Composed of over thirty laboratories from countries throughout the continent of Africa, the ALC has the mission of enhancing the application of lasers in research and education. Its programs include grants for research and training, equipment loans and donations, student scholarships, faculty grants for visits to collaborators' institutions, conferences, and technician training. A long-term goal of the ALC is to bring a synchrotron light source to Africa, most probably to South Africa. One highly popular program is the biennial conference series called the US-Africa Advanced Studies Institute, which is funded by the ALC in collaboration with the U.S. National Science Foundation and the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste. The Institutes typically bring about thirty faculty and graduate students from the U.S. to venues in Africa in order to introduce U.S. and African graduate students to major breakthroughs in targeted areas that utilize lasers. In this presentation, we will summarize the ALC achievements to date and comment on the path forward.

  16. A Passion for Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    The malaria center is at the heart of the kind of work Michigan State University's (MSU) African Studies Center has been engaged in on the African continent since it was founded half a century ago. The university is marking the center's 50th anniversary this year with a series of events that include large photo exhibits at one of the university's…

  17. Rice protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome with transient specific IgE to boiled rice but not to retort-processed rice.

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Kosaka, Takuya; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Miyagawa, Kazuhiko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-02-01

    Described herein is the case of an 8-month-old girl with atypical food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome due to rice. She presented with vomiting and poor general activity 2 h after ingestion of boiled rice. Oral food challenge test using high-pressure retort-processed rice was negative, but re-exposure to boiled rice elicited gastrointestinal symptoms. On western blot analysis the patient's serum was found to contain IgE bound to crude protein extracts from rice seed or boiled rice, but not from retort-processed rice. The major protein bands were not detected in the electrophoresed gel of retort-processed rice extracts, suggesting decomposition by high-temperature and high-pressure processing. Oral food challenge for diagnosing rice allergy should be performed with boiled rice to avoid a false negative. Additionally, some patients with rice allergy might be able to ingest retort-processed rice as a substitute for boiled rice.

  18. Internet Performance to Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    We report the first results ever for real-time Internet performance to Africa using the PingER methodology. Multiple monitoring hosts were used to enable comparisons with performance from different parts of the world. From these preliminary measurements, we have found that Internet packet losses to some African sites in recent months range from very poor to bad (> 12%), some getting better, others are holding steady or getting worse. This, together with the average monthly Round Trip Times, imply end-to-end maximum TCP throughputs that are order of magnitudes different between countries in the region. Africa is shown to be far from the Internet performance in industrialized nations due to the poor infrastructure in place today. These monitoring efforts can provide valuable information to analyze the relative rates of future improvement and today they help us to quantify the digital divide and can provide quantitative information to policy makers.

  19. Tuberculosis in tropical Africa

    PubMed Central

    Roelsgaard, E.; Iversen, E.; Bløcher, C.

    1964-01-01

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere. In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another. Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes. PMID:14178027

  20. Thermal characteristics of ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours.

    PubMed

    An, H J; King, J M

    2007-01-01

    Thermal properties of conventionally and ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours at various frequencies and voltages were studied. There was an increase in gelatinization temperature for conventionally heated rice starches since they were pregelatinized and became more rigid due to starch-chain interactions. In addition, there was a decrease in enthalpy (energy needed) for conventionally and ohmically heated starches during gelatinization; thus, the samples required less energy for gelatinization during DSC analysis. Ohmically heated commercial starch showed the greatest decrease in enthalpy probably because of the greatest extent of pregelatinization through ohmic heating. Brown rice flour showed the greatest gelatinization temperature resulting from the delay of starch granule swelling by lipid and protein. Enthalpy of ohmically heated starches at 20 V/cm was the lowest, which was most likely due to the lower voltage resulting in a more complete pregelatinization from a longer heating time required to reach 100 degrees C. Ohmic treatment at 70 V/cm decreased onset gelatinization temperature of white flour; therefore, it produced rice flour that swelled faster, whereas the conventionally heated sample showed a better thermal resistance.

  1. Generating public awareness in Africa. Advocacy for reproductive health: Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyong'o, D

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 the IPPF Africa Region undertook advocacy missions to six countries in the region to sensitize national leaders about family planning (FP). This mission was governed by the six challenges laid down in the IPPF's strategic plan, Vision 2000, and the program of action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. In Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania the concerns were adolescent sexuality, family life education, and services to youth. In Uganda unsafe abortion; while in the Central African Republic and Guinea sexual and reproductive health, unsafe abortion, the sexuality of youth, and the empowerment of women were the main issues. Documentation packages prepared for the mission included annual reports, periodicals, conference reports, booklets, and position papers. The target audiences were political leaders, national, regional, and international organizations, religious, educational, and media leaders, and the public. Press conferences were organized and lobbying was conducted with national family planning associations to strengthen networking and coalition building. In Ethiopia the IPPF president's visit pertained to the sexuality of young people. In Kenya the mission coincided with the controversy of introducing family life education in primary schools. A seminar in Nairobi brought together 100 influential people who came to an agreement on the necessity of such education. In Tanzania the advocacy team crusaded for reproductive health services for young people. The country's president fully supported FP activities even allowing the use of hospitals and health centers for the distribution of contraceptives. There was a visit to a teenage mothers' center providing vocational training and reproductive health counseling in Dar es Salaam. In Uganda UNFPA, USAID, and national family planning association representatives met to forge closer working relations and examine the issue of tax exemption for imported contraceptives

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    PubMed

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology.

  3. Terrorism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  4. Mozambique Coast, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The serene coastline of Mozambique (17.0S, 39.5E) Africa and the Indian Ocean offer some of the best beaches and recreational diving water in the world. Offshore reefs provide interesting coral formations that host a wide variety of marine life. Inland, the coastal savannas of this tropical nation are filled with a wide range of wildlife in some of the last animal refuges on the African continent.

  5. The Dragon Enters Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    1950s. China’s establishment of modern relations with Africa started with the 1955 Bandung Conference where 29 developing nations, including China and a...few Af1ican nations, met to show solidarity by denouncing neocolonialism and pledging to stand up to the western powers. 2 The Bandung Conference ...problems; The report caused western banks and loan agencies to bail on a donor’s conference scheduled for July of 2002. The collapse of the donor’s

  6. Islamic Militancy in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    has also actively resisted Western influences—seen as negatively affecting Muslims ’ religiosity .3 Both al Shabaab and Boko Haram have their roots in...focused on local concerns. u Islamic militant organizations in Africa generally only command the support of small minorities within Muslim communities...educated activist, inspired by the Islamist Muslim Students’ Society of Nigeria1 (MSSN), formed in 1954, and in particular Ibrahim al Zakzaki, as

  7. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  8. France in Black Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    disease and the lack of support from the metropole (mother 4 France Acquires and Adninisters an Empire country), French rule over the small...as socially 9 France in Black Africa undesirable in an officer corps still dominated by the aristocracy; they were apt to be republicans, anticler- ics ...the interior. Endemic tropical diseases like yellow fever and malaria claimed a high proportion of Europeans who attempted to live in this region up to

  9. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  10. Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The

  11. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  12. Astronomy Across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ted

    2014-01-01

    African astronomy is growing rapidly. The Southern African Large Telescope is the largest optical telescope in the southern hemisphere, MeerKat and the Square Kilometer Array will revolutionize radio astronomy in the coming decade, and Namibia hosts HESS II, the world’s largest gamma-ray telescope. A growing community of observational and theoretical astronomers utilizes these multi-wavelength observational facilities. The largest concentrations of researchers are in southern Africa, but the community is now expanding across the continent. Substantial resources are being invested in developing the next generation of African astronomers. The African Astronomical Society was formed in 2011 to foster and coordinate the growth of the science in Africa. The IAU has located its global Office of Astronomy for Development in South Africa, with the mandate to find innovative ways of using astronomy to promote social and educational development around the world. African astronomy offers abundant opportunities for collaborative research with colleagues from across the globe. This special session will introduce many of the aspects of African astronomy to the US community, with the aim of engendering new partnerships and strengthening existing ones.

  13. Dermatophytosis in northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nweze, E I; Eke, I

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by dermatophytes are a global problem and a major public health burden in the world today. In Africa, especially in the northern geographical zone, dermatophytic infections are being reported at an alarming rate. This is mostly because of some local but unique cultural practices, socioeconomic and environmental conditions, lack of reliable diagnostic personnel and facilities and ineffective treatment. Interestingly, the pathogen spectrum and the clinical manifestation are most times different from what is seen in other continents. Several epidemiological studies have been performed on the incidence and aetiology of dermatophytoses in northern Africa. However, there is currently no review article with up-to-date information on the relevant findings reported so far in this region. This information is necessary for clinicians who treat dermatophytic infections all over the world since agents of dermatophytes are no longer restricted because of the rapid mobility of humans from one part of the world to another. Moreover, the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is known to change over time, thus requiring the update of information from time to time. A review of relevant studies published on dermatophytoses in northern Africa is presented. This covers all of old Sudan, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco.

  14. [Epidemic typhus in Africa].

    PubMed

    Ndihokubwayo, J B; Raoult, D

    1999-01-01

    Epidemic typhus is caused by a small strictly intracellular virus named Rickettsia prowazekii, a member of the Rickettsial family. It is transmitted to man by the body louse, Pediculus humanus. Although now rare in Western countries, exanthematic typhus remains common in the Southern hemisphere due to poverty, inadequate clothing hygiene, and poor socioeconomic conditions. In Africa, outbreaks have historically occurred in Burundi, Rwanda, southwest Ouganda, and Ethiopia. The largest outbreak of epidemic typhus since the World War II was reported in Burundi where ongoing civil war since October 1993 has forced 10 p. 100 of the population of Burundi to live in cold, promiscuity, and malnutrition of makeshift refugee camps. The purpose of this report based on our two-year experience working with this unfortunate population is to describe the characteristics of this disease in Africa where the epidemic form had become rare until recently. Indeed political unrest as well as numerous civil wars are now epidmiological factors favorizing outbreaks of epidemic typhus at any time. This overview also provides an opportunity to recall epidemiological, bacteriological, and clinical aspects of typhus as well as diagnosis and treatment of the disease in the context of Africa.

  15. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  16. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  17. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma and flavor of cooked rice are major criteria for preference among consumers. Small variations in these sensory properties can make rice highly desired or unacceptable to consumers. Human sensory analyses have identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental ana...

  18. Understanding rice heterosis using deep sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis is a complex biological phenomenon where the offspring show better performance compared to the inbred parents. Although rice breeders have used heterosis in hybrid rice production for nearly 40 years, the genetic and molecular mechanism underlying the heterosis in rice is still poorly und...

  19. Is ALL Rice Bran Created Equal?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of whole grain rice is increasing in the U.S. This increase is likely due to increased consumer awareness of the importance of whole grains in the diet. Whole grain rice is superior nutritionally compared to milled rice because, except for carbohyrates, it contains more phytochemicals an...

  20. Red Yeast Rice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  1. A CLE-WOX signalling module regulates root meristem maintenance and vascular tissue development in rice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Huangwei; Liang, Wanqi; Li, Juan; Hong, Fan; Wu, Yunfei; Wang, Likai; Wang, Juan; Wu, Ping; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Qifa; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Dabing

    2013-12-01

    CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (ESR)-related (CLE) proteins belong to a small peptide family conserved in plants. Recent studies in Arabidopsis and rice have revealed a key role for CLEs in mediating cell-cell communication and stem cell maintenance during plant development, but how CLE signalling controls root development in the rice remains largely unknown. Here it is shown that exogenous application of a synthetic dodeca-amino acid peptide corresponding to the CLE motif of the rice FON2-LIKE CLE PROTEIN2 (FCP2p) protein or overexpression of FCP2 terminates root apical meristem (RAM) activity and impairs late metaxylem formation. FCP2p treatment suppresses the expression of the rice QUIESCENT-CENTER-SPECIFIC HOMEOBOX (QHB) gene, a putative orthologue of Arabidopsis WUSCHEL (WUS)-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5) gene, in both quiescent centre and late metaxylem cells; whereas inducible overexpression of QHB reduces the sensitivity of rice to FCP2p treatment. These results together suggest that in rice RAM maintenance and late metaxylem development are probably controlled by the mutual regulation between FCP2 and QHB. Moreover, a cross-species peptide treatment experiment in Arabidopsis implies that FCP2 has both evolutionarily conserved and species-specific roles in root development.

  2. Rice, indica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Indica varieties, which are generally recalcitrant to tissue culture and transformation, occupy 80 % of rice cultivation area in the world. Therefore, transformation method for indica rice must be improved greatly so that global rice production would take full advantage of cutting-edge biotechnology. An efficient protocol for indica transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is hereby described. Immature embryos collected from plants in a greenhouse are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens after pretreatment with heat and centrifuging. The protocol was successfully tested in many elite indica cultivars such as IR8, IR24, IR58025B, IR64, IR72, Suweon 258, and Nanjing 11, yielding between 5 and 15 of independent transgenic plants per immature embryo. The use of immature embryos is recommended because gene transfer to them could be much more efficient and much less genotype dependent than gene transfer to callus.

  3. Breeding high-yielding drought-tolerant rice: genetic variations and conventional and molecular approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Dixit, Shalabh; Ram, T.; Yadaw, R. B.; Mishra, K. K.; Mandal, N. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increased occurrence and severity of drought stress have led to a high yield decline in rice in recent years in drought-affected areas. Drought research at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) over the past decade has concentrated on direct selection for grain yield under drought. This approach has led to the successful development and release of 17 high-yielding drought-tolerant rice varieties in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa. In addition to this, 14 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) showing a large effect against high-yielding drought-susceptible popular varieties were identified using grain yield as a selection criterion. Six of these (qDTY 1.1, qDTY 2.2, qDTY 3.1, qDTY 3.2, qDTY 6.1, and qDTY 12.1) showed an effect against two or more high-yielding genetic backgrounds in both the lowland and upland ecosystem, indicating their usefulness in increasing the grain yield of rice under drought. The yield of popular rice varieties IR64 and Vandana has been successfully improved through a well-planned marker-assisted backcross breeding approach, and QTL introgression in several other popular varieties is in progress. The identification of large-effect QTLs for grain yield under drought and the higher yield increase under drought obtained through the use of these QTLs (which has not been reported in other cereals) indicate that rice, because of its continuous cultivation in two diverse ecosystems (upland, drought tolerant, and lowland, drought susceptible), has benefited from the existence of larger genetic variability than in other cereals. This can be successfully exploited using marker-assisted breeding. PMID:25205576

  4. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice.

  5. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  6. Field evaluation of four spatial repellent devices against Arkansas rice-land mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice land habitat near Stuttgart, Arkansas after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, ARS, USDA in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On® (a.i. metofluthrin, S.C....

  7. Monitoring and First Discovery of the Mexican Rice Borer Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, has expanded its range from the Lower Rio Grande Valley to east Texas, and now into southwest Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Agricultural and Forestry and Louisiana State University AgCenter scientists forecast that natural and unintended movement will r...

  8. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  9. Iron biofortification of myanmar rice.

    PubMed

    Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75 and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high-yields or high-qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high-Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  10. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  11. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  12. Incorporating rice residues into paddy soils affects methylmercury accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Jialu

    2016-06-01

    Paddy fields are characterized by frequent organic input (e.g., fertilization and rice residue amendment), which may affect mercury biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation. To explore potential effects of rice residue amendment on methylmercury (MMHg) accumulation in rice, a mercury-contaminated paddy soil was amended with rice root (RR), rice straw (RS) or composted rice straw (CS), and planted with rice. Incorporating RS or CS increased grain MMHg concentration by 14% or 11%. The observed increases could be attributed to the elevated porewater MMHg levels and thus enhanced MMHg uptake by plants, as well as increased MMHg translocation to grain within plants. Our results indicated for the first time that rice residue amendment could significantly affect MMHg accumulation in rice grain, which should be considered in risk assessment of MMHg in contaminated areas.

  13. Impacts of seeding rate on interactions between rice and rice water weevils.

    PubMed

    Stout, M J; Harrell, D; Tindall, K V; Bond, J

    2009-10-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most widely distributed and destructive early season insect pest of rice, Oryza sativa L., in the United States. Economic losses result primarily from feeding by the larval stage of this insect on the roots of flooded rice plants. Prior studies suggest that infestations of rice water weevil larvae are more severe at low plant densities. Moreover, because feeding by the rice water weevil reduces rice plant tillering, a process particularly important to yield at low seeding rates, infestations by weevil larvae may have a greater impact on rice yields when rice is seeded at low rates. In total, six experiments were conducted over a 3-yr period in Louisiana and Missouri to investigate the impacts of rice seeding rate on levels of infestations by, and yield losses from, the rice water weevil. An inverse relationship between seeding rate and densities of rice water weevil larvae and pupae on a per area basis was found in two of the six experiments. Furthermore, in two of the three experiments conducted with 'Bengal' (a susceptible cultivar) in Louisiana, percentages of yield loss were significantly higher at lower seeding rates than at higher seeding rates. Overall, these results indicate that rice sown at low rates is more vulnerable to infestation by rice water weevils and more susceptible to yield losses from weevil injury. The significance of these findings in light of recent trends toward the use of lower seeding rates in drill-seeded rice is discussed.

  14. Dialogue on Climate, Water, Energy and Human Security in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    DIALOGUE ON CLIMATE,  WATER , ENERGY AND HUMAN SECURITY  IN AFRICA  The Africa Center for Security Studies, US Africa Command, and the US Army Corps of...organizations  responsible  for managing  water   resources  in  these  basins/regions  on  a  transboundry basis, and  to  launch more  robust co‐operation...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dialogue on Climate, Water , Energy and Human Security in Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF

  15. Zika virus outside Africa.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Edward B

    2009-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.

  16. Weedy (red) rice: An emerging constraint to global rice production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be an essential aspect of food security for the 21st century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising productio...

  17. Insights into molecular mechanism of blast resistance in weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy rice is a serious pest in direct-seeded rice fields in the U.S. and worldwide. Under suitable conditions, weedy rice can reduce crop yields up to 70%. However, weedy rice may carry novel disease resistance genes. Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease wo...

  18. Guayule rubber for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-17

    It is reported that Agtec together with South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, is investigating the possibility of large-scale production of guayule. The rubber-yielding shrub grows in semi-arid climates and may be the source of a $35-million natural rubber industry in South Africa.

  19. Africa in World Cultures Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Maintains that many world geography and culture textbooks that deal with Africa present misinformation and misleading generalities. Reviews three recent textbooks--"Insights: Sub-Saharan Africa," by Ella C. Leppert, "People and Progress: A Global History," by Milton Finkelstein, and "World Cultures," by Clarence L.…

  20. Africa's Megafans and Their Tectonic Setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Burke, K.

    2016-01-01

    fans lies on the western margin of the Congo Basin (Mayombe Swell), and on the coastal slopes of the Namibia Swell. Sheer size may have militated aginst the recognition of many megafans: the largest in the Sahara are the Teghahart (378 km, Hoggar Swell, Algeria), and the Wadi Albalata (340 km, Uweinat Swell, Egypt). In southern Africa the largest are the Cubango (320 km, Bié Swell, Angola/ Namibia), and the Limpopo (230 km, Mozambique). (ii) Rift zones (a) Steer's horns basins-wide depressions centered on rifts. The largest contiguous group (n=14) developed in a steer's-horns basin occupies the wide Muglad depression (200-350 km, South Sudan). Four rift-related megafans lie SE of Lake Chad (Chad). Nine megafans occupy the complex Anza Rift in Kenya/South Somalia. The Salamat megafan (Chad), is unusual because it oriented parallel with the linked Salamat, Doseo and Doba rift axes, and is consequently one of the longest in Africa (465 km). (b) Rift depressions sensu stricto. Most rifts are too narrow to provide a transverse dimension large enough to accommodate megafans. Although well-known, the Okavango Rift (NW Botswana, NE Namibia) is unique in Africa in hosting three megafans within identifiable faulted margins. The Nile megafan is Africa's largest (476 km) and comprises the vast Sudd wetland (South Sudan). An explanation for its remarkable size may be its location in a depression at the junction of two conducive tectonic zones, the East African Swell margin and the Muglad steer's-horns depression. Discharge of the River Nile, the largest in the region, has allowed the Nile megafan to outcompete neighboring megafans for space.

  1. Relapsing Fever Borreliae in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The study of relapsing fever borreliae in Africa has long suffered from the use of non-specific laboratory tools for the direct detection of these spirochetes in clinical and vector specimens. Accordingly, Borrelia hispanica, Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis have traditionally been distinguished on the basis of geography and vector and the unproven hypothesis that each species was exclusive to one vector. The recent sequencing of three relapsing fever Borrelia genomes in our laboratory prompted the development of more specific tools and a reappraisal of the epidemiology in Africa. Five additional potential species still need to be cultured from clinical and vector sources in East Africa to further assess their uniqueness. Here, we review the molecular evidence of relapsing fever borreliae in hosts and ectoparasites in Africa and explore the diversity, geographical distribution, and vector association of these pathogens for Africans and travelers to Africa. PMID:23926141

  2. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  3. Population Distribution, Settlement Patterns and Accessibility across Africa in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions. PMID:22363717

  4. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  5. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  6. Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stem borers in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kfir, Rami; Overholt, W A; Khan, Z R; Polaszek, A

    2002-01-01

    Cereals (maize, sorghum, millet, rice) are extremely important crops grown in Africa for human consumption. Of the various insect pests attacking cereal crops in Africa, lepidopteran stem borers are by far the most injurious. All 21 economically important stem borers of cultivated grasses in Africa are indigenous except Chilo partellus, which invaded the continent from India, and C. sacchariphagus, which has recently been found in sugarcane in Mozambique. C. partellus is competitively displacing indigenous stem borers in East and southern Africa. A parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes, was introduced from Pakistan for biological control of C. partellus and caused a 32-55% decrease in stem borer densities. This article is an attempt to summarize the status of knowledge about economically important cereal stem borers in Africa with emphasis on their distribution, pest status and yield losses, diapause, natural enemies, cultural control, host plant resistance, and biological control. Special attention is given to Busseola fusca and C. partellus, the most important pests of maize and grain sorghum.

  7. Occurrence of aflatoxins in human foodstuffs in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Loetter, L.H.; Kroehm, H.J.

    1988-02-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of Aspergillus spp and have been reported as contaminants in a number of foodstuffs, namely corn, rice, peanuts, and cereals. In the Republic of South Africa, aflatoxin levels in human foodstuffs are limited to a maximum of 10 ..mu..g/kg for the total and 5 ..mu..g/kg for aflatoxin B/sub 1/. During 1985 and 1986, samples of sorghum beer, sorghum cereal, peanuts, peanut butter and maize meal were purchased from supermarkets in Johannesburg and analyzed for aflatoxins. A total of 414 samples were analyzed during the survey. In 1985, roughly a third of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, with no levels in excess of the legal limit. In 1986 the percentage of contaminated samples rose significantly, but the levels of contamination remained low, with only one sample exceeding the legal maximum.

  8. The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A

    2008-02-27

    Sub-Saharan Africa could have a shortfall of nearly 90Mt of cereals by the year 2025 if current agricultural practices are maintained. Biotechnology is one of the ways to improve agricultural production. Insect-resistant varieties of maize and cotton suitable for the subcontinent have been identified as already having a significant impact. Virus-resistant crops are under development. These include maize resistant to the African endemic maize streak virus and cassava resistant to African cassava mosaic virus. Parasitic weeds such as Striga attack the roots of crops such as maize, millet, sorghum and upland rice. Field trials in Kenya using a variety of maize resistant to a herbicide have proven very successful. Drought-tolerant crops are also under development as are improved varieties of local African crops such as bananas, cassava, sorghum and sweet potatoes.

  9. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  10. Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Jerry; Hess, Tim; Daccache, Andre; Wheeler, Tim

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a serious threat to crop productivity in regions that are already food insecure. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of eight major crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is - 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of - 17% (wheat), - 5% (maize), - 15% (sorghum) and - 10% (millet) and across South Asia of - 16% (maize) and - 11% (sorghum) were estimated. No mean change in yield was detected for rice. The limited number of studies identified for cassava, sugarcane and yams precluded any opportunity to conduct a meta-analysis for these crops. Variation about the projected mean yield change for all crops was smaller in studies that used an ensemble of > 3 climate (GCM) models. Conversely, complex simulation studies that used biophysical crop models showed the greatest variation in mean yield changes. Evidence of crop yield impact in Africa and South Asia is robust for wheat, maize, sorghum and millet, and either inconclusive, absent or contradictory for rice, cassava and sugarcane.

  11. Rice domestication: histories and mysteries.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L

    2012-09-01

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the world's most important food crops, culturally, nutritionally and economically (Khush 1997). Thus, it is no surprise that there is intense curiosity about its genetic and geographical origins, its response to selection under domestication, and the genetic structure of its wild relative, Oryza rufipogon. Studies of Oryza attempting to answer these questions have accompanied each stage of the development of molecular markers, starting with allozymes and continuing to genome sequencing. While many of these studies have been restricted to small sample sizes, in terms of either the number of markers used or the number and distribution of the accessions, costs are now low enough that researchers are including large numbers of molecular markers and accessions. How will these studies relate to previous findings and long-held assumptions about rice domestication and evolution? If the paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Huang et al. 2012) is any indication, there will be some considerable surprises in store. In this study, a geographically and genomically thorough sampling of O. rufipogon and O. sativa revealed two genetically distinct groups of wild rice and also indicated that only one of these groups appears to be related to domesticated rice. While this fits well with previous studies indicating that there are genetic subdivisions within O. rufipogon, it stands in contrast to previous findings that the two major varieties of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated from two (or more) subpopulations of wild rice.

  12. Genetic variation and host-parasite specificity of Striga resistance and tolerance in rice: the need for predictive breeding.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayongo, Nicholas; Dieng, Ibnou; Bisikwa, Jenipher; Irakiza, Runyambo; Masoka, Isaac; Midega, Charles A O; Scholes, Julie D

    2017-02-13

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause devastating yield losses to upland rice in Africa. Little is known about genetic variation in host resistance and tolerance across rice genotypes, in relation to virulence differences across Striga species and ecotypes. Diverse rice genotypes were phenotyped for the above traits in S. asiatica- (Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested fields (Kenya and Uganda) and under controlled conditions. New rice genotypes with either ecotype-specific or broad-spectrum resistance were identified. Resistance identified in the field was confirmed under controlled conditions, providing evidence that resistance was largely genetically determined. Striga-resistant genotypes contributed to yield security under Striga-infested conditions, although grain yield was also determined by the genotype-specific yield potential and tolerance. Tolerance, the physiological mechanism mitigating Striga effects on host growth and physiology, was unrelated to resistance, implying that any combination of high, medium or low levels of these traits can be found across rice genotypes. Striga virulence varies across species and ecotypes. The extent of Striga-induced host damage results from the interaction between parasite virulence and genetically determined levels of host-plant resistance and tolerance. These novel findings support the need for predictive breeding strategies based on knowledge of host resistance and parasite virulence.

  13. Markets for rice husk-to-energy systems and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Velupillai, L.; Mahin, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    A worldwide study of markets for U.S. equipment and systems for the production of energy from rice husks was conducted in 1995-96 by a team based at the Louisiana State University (LSU) Agricultural Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The project was carried out in cooperation with Agrilectric Power Inc. and Riceland Foods, Inc., and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study included: (a) a global overview of the rice industry, rice husk availability and utilization, and husk-to-energy technologies, and (b) case studies of husk utilization and potential markets for husk-to-energy systems and equipment in five countries - the United States, Italy, China, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. The case studies in Italy, China, and Thailand were based in each case on a field trip to the country by a member of the project team. The study covered the following husk-to-energy technologies: furnace and boiler systems, steam engine systems, steam turbine systems, and gasifier/engine systems.

  14. Toward understanding of rice innate immunity against Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Azizi, P; Rafii, M Y; Abdullah, S N A; Nejat, N; Maziah, M; Hanafi, M M; Latif, M A; Sahebi, M

    2016-01-01

    The blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, causes serious disease on a wide variety of grasses including rice, wheat and barley. The recognition of pathogens is an amazing ability of plants including strategies for displacing virulence effectors through the adaption of both conserved and variable pathogen elicitors. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) were reported as two main innate immune responses in plants, where PTI gives basal resistance and ETI confers durable resistance. The PTI consists of extracellular surface receptors that are able to recognize PAMPs. PAMPs detect microbial features such as fungal chitin that complete a vital function during the organism's life. In contrast, ETI is mediated by intracellular receptor molecules containing nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains that specifically recognize effector proteins produced by the pathogen. To enhance crop resistance, understanding the host resistance mechanisms against pathogen infection strategies and having a deeper knowledge of innate immunity system are essential. This review summarizes the recent advances on the molecular mechanism of innate immunity systems of rice against M. oryzae. The discussion will be centered on the latest success reported in plant-pathogen interactions and integrated defense responses in rice.

  15. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p < 0.05). These results may be useful for improving the content of nutraceuticals, such as isoflavones, in soybeans.

  16. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  17. The 3,000 rice genomes project: new opportunities and challenges for future rice research.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yang; Wang, Jun; Zeigler, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important staple grown by millions of small-holder farmers. Sustaining rice production relies on the intelligent use of rice diversity. The 3,000 Rice Genomes Project is a giga-dataset of publically available genome sequences (averaging 14× depth of coverage) derived from 3,000 accessions of rice with global representation of genetic and functional diversity. The seed of these accessions is available from the International Rice Genebank Collection. Together, they are an unprecedented resource for advancing rice science and breeding technology. Our immediate challenge now is to comprehensively and systematically mine this dataset to link genotypic variation to functional variation with the ultimate goal of creating new and sustainable rice varieties that can support a future world population that will approach 9.6 billion by 2050.

  18. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  19. Detection and quantification of trace elements in rice and rice products using x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foran, Kelly A.; Fleming, David E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to examine the presence of arsenic (As) and other trace elements (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc) in rice and rice products. A portable XRF analyzer was used to test samples, and amplitudes for the analyzed elements were identified in the resulting data. The detection limit of the system was sufficiently low to detect As in some rice and rice product samples.

  20. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  1. The role of momilactones in rice allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Peters, Reuben J

    2013-02-01

    Large field screening programs and laboratory experiments in many countries have indicated that rice is allelopathic and releases allelochemical(s) into its environment. A number of compounds, such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, phenylalkanoic acids, hydroxamic acids, terpenes, and indoles, have been identified as potential rice allelochemicals. However, the studies reviewed here demonstrate that the labdane-related diterpenoid momilactones are the most important, with momilactone B playing a particularly critical role. Rice plants secrete momilactone B from their roots into the neighboring environments over their entire life cycle at phytotoxic levels, and momilactone B seems to account for the majority of the observed rice allelopathy. In addition, genetic studies have shown that selective removal of the momilactones only from the complex mixture found in rice root exudates significantly reduces allelopathy, demonstrating that these serve as allelochemicals, the importance of which is reflected in the presence of a dedicated momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in the rice genome.

  2. Oscillating Transcriptome during Rice-Magnaporthe Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sharma, T R; Das, Alok; Thakur, Shallu; Devanna, B N; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Priyanka; Vijayan, Joshitha; Kumar, Shrawan

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases of rice. Deciphering molecular mechanism of host-pathogen interactions is of great importance in devising disease management strategies. Transcription being the first step for gene regulation in eukaryotes, basic understanding of the transcriptome is sine qua non for devising effective management strategy. The availability of genome sequences of rice and M. oryzae has facilitated the process to a large extent. The current review summarizes recent understanding of rice-blast pathosystem, application of transcriptomics approaches to understand the interactions employing different platforms, major determinants in the interaction and possibility of using certain candidate for conditioning enhanced disease resistance (Effector Triggered Immunity and PAMP Triggered Immunity) and downstream signalling in rice. A better understanding of the interaction elements and effective strategies hold potential to reduce yield losses in rice caused by M. oryzae.

  3. Novel transgenic rice-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccination can induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. To control rampant mucosal infectious diseases, the development of new effective oral vaccines is needed. Plant-based vaccines are new candidates for oral vaccines, and have some advantages over the traditional vaccines in cost, safety, and scalability. Rice seeds are attractive for vaccine production because of their stability and resistance to digestion in the stomach. The efficacy of some rice-based vaccines for infectious, autoimmune, and other diseases has been already demonstrated in animal models. We reported the efficacy in mice, safety, and stability of a rice-based cholera toxin B subunit vaccine called MucoRice-CTB. To advance MucoRice-CTB for use in humans, we also examined its efficacy and safety in primates. The potential of transgenic rice production as a new mucosal vaccine delivery system is reviewed from the perspective of future development of effective oral vaccines.

  4. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  5. Effects of rice harvest moisture on kernel damage and milled rice surface free fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Parker, Amanda M; Proctor, Andrew; Eason, Robert L; Jain, Vishal

    2007-01-01

    Surface free fatty acid (FFA) on milled rice is a key factor in determining rice quality and acceptability to the brewing industry. Rice FFA oxidizes, causing off-flavors and odors to develop, compromising the brewing quality of milled rice. The effect of harvest moisture (13%, 16%, and 20%), harvester type (1688 Case and 9500 John Deere), and rice variety (Cocodrie and Bengal) on harvest damaged rough rice and milled rice surface FFA after drying to 12% moisture and 6 mo rough rice storage was examined. The Case harvester produced more damaged kernels than the John Deere harvester, but this was not reflected in surface FFA development. There were no significant FFA differences in variety or harvester type. Rice harvested at a higher moisture content (20%) produced significantly greater FFA values, with a peak near 0.1%, than rice harvested at lower moisture contents (13% and 16%), which had FFA values near 0.08%. Retention of bran by damaged kernels at high harvest moisture probably was responsible for promoting surface FFA development, but if bran was lost at lower harvest moistures, surface FFA, development was limited. Harvest moisture affected milled rice FFA, although rough rice was dried to 12% immediately after harvesting.

  6. Global Gene Expression of Rice after Infections with Rice Blast and Sheath blight Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) production worldwide has been challenged by increased new virulent pathogens. Over the years, genetic diversity needed for fighting diseases has been decreasing in cultivated rice around the globe. This presents a real challenge for rice crop protection. In an effort to develo...

  7. Effect of volunteer rice infestation on grain quality and yield of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants arise from shattered seeds of the previous crop, which could reduce the yield of cultivated rice and the commercial value of harvested grain. Volunteer rice plants from a cultivar other than the current crop produce grains that may differ in physico-chemical t...

  8. Relative competitive ability of rice with strawhull and blackhull red rice biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed interference depends largely upon the species composition of the weed community and an ability to compete with the cultured crop. Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. The focus of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of rice against common, genetically ...

  9. Introgression of Clearfield(TM) rice crop traits into weedy red rice outcrosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of introgression of crop alleles into weedy rice populations. Seeds of 89 weedy rice accessions collected from Arkansas fields in 11 counties, with a history of Clearfield(TM) rice production, were planted in 2011 and treated with two applications of im...

  10. Variability of the recent climate of eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Carl J., III; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.

    2004-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the recent variability of the eastern African climate. The region of interest is also known as the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA), and comprises the countries of Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda, and Tanzania.The analysis was based primarily on the construction of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of gauge rainfall data and on CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data, derived from a combination of rain-gauge observations and satellite estimates. The investigation is based on the period 1961-2001 for the short rains season of eastern Africa of October through to December. The EOF analysis was supplemented by projection of National Centers for Environmental Prediction wind data onto the rainfall eigenmodes to understand the rainfall-circulation relationships. Furthermore, correlation and composite analyses have been performed with the Climatic Research Unit globally averaged surface-temperature time series to explore the potential relationship between the climate of eastern Africa and global warming.The most dominant mode of variability (EOF1) based on CMAP data over eastern Africa corresponds to El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) climate variability. It is associated with above-normal rainfall amounts during the short rains throughout the entire region, except for Sudan. The corresponding anomalous low-level circulation is dominated by easterly inflow from the Indian Ocean, and to a lesser extent the Congo tropical rain forest, into the positive rainfall anomaly region that extends across most of eastern Africa. The easterly inflow into eastern Africa is part of diffluent outflow from the maritime continent during the warm ENSO events. The second eastern African EOF (trend mode) is associated with decadal variability. In distinct contrast from the ENSO mode pattern, the trend mode is characterized by positive rainfall anomalies over the northern sector of

  11. Total and inorganic arsenic in Iranian rice.

    PubMed

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Munera-Picazo, Sandra; Burló, Francisco; Hojjati, Mohammad; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that arsenic (As) exposure, particularly to inorganic species (i-As), has adverse effects on humans. Nowadays, the European Union (EU) has still not regulated the maximum residue limit of As in commercial samples of rice and rice-based products, although it is actively working on the topic. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is collecting data on total arsenic (t-As) and i-As from different rice-producing regions not only from EU countries but also from other parts of the world to finally set up this maximum threshold. As Iran is a rice-producing country, the aim of this work was to evaluate the contents of t-As and i-As in 15 samples of Iranian white, nonorganic, and aromatic rice collected from the most important rice-producing regions of the country. The means of t-As and i-As were 120 and 82 μg/kg, respectively. The experimental i-As mean in Iranian rice was below the Chinese standard for the i-As in rice, 150 μg/kg, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) limit, 200 μg/kg. Therefore, Iranian rice seems to have reasonable low i-As content and it is safe to be marketed in any market, including China and the EU.

  12. Arsenic in rice: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša Fidler; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure, we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all of the rice products, strict regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. Although rice protein-based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content should be declared and the potential risks should be considered when using these products.

  13. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers.

  14. Distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy and its implication in larvicidal application in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    Distribution of mosquito larvae in inundated rice fields is poorly known despite its profound implications in implementation of vector control programs. Based on oviposition behavior of gravid females and biotic and abiotic conditions of the rice field, distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy may vary greatly. As a guide to implementation of mosquito vector control program targeting the aquatic stages in the rice fields in Mwea, studies were conducted to determine the distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy. Twenty-eight cages measuring 50 cm3 were distributed randomly within the paddy during the transplanting stage of the rice growth cycle, and were examined twice per week up to the flowering stage to determine mosquito oviposition pattern. A total of 17,218 mosquito larvae were collected at the periphery and a further 17,570 at the center of the paddy. These comprised 7,461 larvae from the genus Anopheles and 27,327 from genus Culex. The number of pupae collected at the periphery was 1,004 and 1.5 times greater than the number collected at the center. Significantly higher counts of Anopheles larvae were collected at the center (1.00 +/- 0.11) than at the periphery (0.55 +/- 0.05) of the paddy during transplanting stage, but the difference was not significant during the tillering stage. In contrast, significantly higher numbers of Culex larvae were collected from the periphery (3.09 +/- 0.39) than at the center (2.81 +/- 0.24) of the paddy. More pupae were also collected at the center than at the periphery of the paddy. These findings indicate the distribution of Anopheles and Culex larvae in rice fields to be nonrandom; however, for successful achievement of an integrated vector control program targeting the diverse mosquito fauna occurring in rice fields, there is need to target the whole paddy for larvicidal application.

  15. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O; Onyuka, Enos A; Scholes, Julie D

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha(-1) were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha(-1) with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas.

  16. The School-Community Guidance Center: Alternative Education for High-Risk Students 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lesley Anne; Baenen, Nancy

    The School-Community Guidance Center (SCGC) is an Austin, Texas alternative education program for high-risk students. It employs three project specialists to work with high-risk and delinquent students at two locations, Rice secondary school and a juvenile detention center. Most of the students are referred for disciplinary reasons. Students in…

  17. Africa: sexual minorities at risk.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Cécile

    2011-04-01

    Violence against homosexuality is growing in Africa, where most of the countries on the continent continue to criminalize same-sex relations, fostering a climate of hate that, in some cases, is abetted by politicians.

  18. A strategy to provide long-term control of weedy rice while mitigating herbicide resistance transgene flow, and its potential use for other crops with related weeds.

    PubMed

    Gressel, Jonathan; Valverde, Bernal E

    2009-07-01

    Transgenic herbicide-resistant rice is needed to control weeds that have evolved herbicide resistance, as well as for the weedy (feral, red) rice problem, which has been exacerbated by shifting to direct seeding throughout the world-firstly in Europe and the Americas, and now in Asia, as well as in parts of Africa. Transplanting had been the major method of weedy rice control. Experience with imidazolinone-resistant rice shows that gene flow to weedy rice is rapid, negating the utility of the technology. Transgenic technologies are available that can contain herbicide resistance within the crop (cleistogamy, male sterility, targeting to chloroplast genome, etc.), but such technologies are leaky. Mitigation technologies tandemly couple (genetically link) the gene of choice (herbicide resistance) with mitigation genes that are neutral or good for the crop, but render hybrids with weedy rice and their offspring unfit to compete. Mitigation genes confer traits such as non-shattering, dwarfism, no secondary dormancy and herbicide sensitivity. It is proposed to use glyphosate and glufosinate resistances separately as genes of choice, and glufosinate, glyphosate and bentazone susceptibilities as mitigating genes, with a six-season rotation where each stage kills transgenic crop volunteers and transgenic crop x weed hybrids from the previous season.

  19. Hastings Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... on, and advocacy for, wiser health care and science policy. In addition to her leadership role at The Hastings Center, she is a professor at Harvard Medical School, where she directs the school’s Fellowship in Bioethics, a program that ...

  20. Lightning medicine in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Ryan; Trengrove, Estelle; Jandrell, Ian R; Saayman, Gert

    2012-06-06

    South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a concerted and co-ordinated attempt be made to report and collate data regarding lightning strike victims in South Africa.

  1. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-19

    quotes Trevor Howard, a former member of the 23d Battalion, an elite unit led by South African officers and white mercenaries recruited by the puppet...intervene only to raise their flag," claims Trevor Howard. AFRICA CONCORD says that it is crucial for South Africa to maintain the UNITA terrorist...racist army had.to mobilize its best land and air facilities to preclude the seizure of Mavinga by the Angolan Armed Forces. Trevor Howard documented the

  2. Northwest Africa - A Climatological Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    A climatological study of NorthwestAfrica, includingAlgeria, Tunisia, Morocco , Western Sahara, and the northern parts of Mauritania, Mali, and Niger...additional hazards. 14. Subject Terms: CLIMATOLOGY, METEOROLOGY, WEATHER, GEOGRAPHY, AFRICA, ALGERIA, MOROCCO , TUNISIA, WESTERN SAHARA, MAURITANIA, MALI, NIGER...line where mean annual rainfall exceeds 250 boundary. This zone includes most of Morocco , mm (the area south of this line is described in and the

  3. UNESCO’s New Earth Science Education Initiative for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missotten, R.; Gaines, S. M.; de Mulder, E. F.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Education Science Culture and Communication Organization (UNESCO) has recently launched a new Earth Science Education Initiative in Africa. The overall intention of this Initiative is to support the development of the next generation of earth scientists in Africa who are equipped with the necessary tools, networks and perspectives to apply sound science to solving and benefiting from the challenges and opportunities of sustainable development. The opportunities in the earth sciences are great, starting with traditional mineral extraction and extending into environmental management such as climate change adaptation, prevention of natural hazards, and ensuring access to drinking water. The Earth Science Education Initiative has received strong support from many different types of partners. Potential partners have indicated an interest to participate as organizational partners, content providers, relevant academic institutes, and funders. Organizational partners now include the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf), International Center for Training and Exchanges in the Geosciences (CIFEG), Association of African Women Geoscientists (AAWG), International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE), and International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). The activities and focus of the Initiative within the overall intention is being developed in a participatory manner through a series of five regional workshops in Africa. The objective of these workshops is to assess regional capacities and needs in earth science education, research and industry underlining existing centers of excellence through conversation with relevant regional and international experts and plotting the way ahead for earth science education. This talk will provide an update on the outcomes of the first three workshops which have taken place in Luanda, Angola; Assiut, Egypt; and Cape Town; South Africa.

  4. International Outreach in Africa - Complementary Efforts Using Common Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T.; Almeida, W. G.; Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Herrmann, S.; Hoswell, E.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Traore, A.; Spangler, T.; Warner, T.; Weingroff, M.; Ribeiro, N. A.; Soares, E.; Nascimento, A.; Lona, J.; Real, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    For the past few years, the U.S. Unidata Program Center (Unidata, a program in UCAR) and Brazil's Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC, a division of INPE) have collaborated in outreach efforts where free-and-open exchange of hydro-meteorological data and the provision of free analysis/visualization tools are helping to build a hemispheric community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the U.S. university community for over a decade. Unidata-CPTEC efforts have resulted in the creation of the Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil, a data sharing network that has extended access to real-time data to over 15 institutions in South America and most recently countries in West Africa and the African Sahel. UCAR and CPTEC are involved in separate, but philosophically-related and complementary outreach efforts in Africa: UCAR has embarked on an effort, The UCAR Africa Initiative, whose goal is assisting in building sustainable atmospheric-sciences capacity in Africa. CPTEC is collaborating with national weather services in three West African countries, universities in Brazil and Portugal, and one private Portuguese company in SICLIMAD, a project aimed at contributing to sustainable development in West Africa. This presentation will provide an overview of the efforts being undertaken as part of The UCAR Africa Initiative; an overview and update on CPTEC's efforts in SICLIMAD; and explore avenues for greater collaboration on African issues and endeavors.

  5. Selection Under Domestication: Evidence for a Sweep in the Rice Waxy Genomic Region

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Caicedo, Ana L.; Polato, Nicholas; McClung, Anna; McCouch, Susan; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated by Asian Neolithic farmers >11,000 years ago, and different cultures have selected for divergent starch qualities in the rice grain during and after the domestication process. An intron 1 splice donor site mutation of the Waxy gene is responsible for the absence of amylose in glutinous rice varieties. This mutation appears to have also played an important role in the origin of low amylose, nonglutinous temperate japonica rice varieties, which form a primary component of Northeast Asian cuisines. Waxy DNA sequence analyses indicate that the splice donor mutation is prevalent in temperate japonica rice varieties, but rare or absent in tropical japonica, indica, aus, and aromatic varieties. Sequence analysis across a 500-kb genomic region centered on Waxy reveals patterns consistent with a selective sweep in the temperate japonicas associated with the mutation. The size of the selective sweep (>250 kb) indicates very strong selection in this region, with an inferred selection coefficient that is higher than similar estimates from maize domestication genes or wild species. These findings demonstrate that selection pressures associated with crop domestication regimes can exceed by one to two orders of magnitude those observed for genes under even strong selection in natural systems. PMID:16547098

  6. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  7. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s: 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  8. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s. 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  9. Gene flow from transgenic rice to red rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the field.

    PubMed

    Busconi, M; Baldi, G; Lorenzoni, C; Fogher, C

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we simulate a transgenic rice crop highly infested with red rice to examine transgene transfer from a transgenic line (A2504) resistant to glufosinate ammonium to cohabitant red rice. The red rice was sown along with the transgenic line at the highest density found in naturally infested crops in the region. Agricultural practices similar to those used to control red rice infestation in northern Italy rice fields were used to reproduce the local rice production system. During the first 2 years, the field was treated with herbicide at the appropriate time; in the first year the dosage of herbicide was three times the recommended amount. In this first year, detectable red rice plants that escaped herbicide treatment were manually removed. Nevertheless, two herbicide-resistant hybrid plants (named 101 and 104) were identified in the experimental field during the second year of cultivation. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation suggests the hybrid nature of these two plants, deriving from crossing events involving A2504, respectively, with red rice (plant 101) and the buffer cultivar Gladio (plant 104). The progeny of two subsequent generations of the two plants were examined and the presence of the transgene detected, indicating stable transfer of the transgene across generations. In conclusion, despite control methods, red rice progeny tolerant to the herbicide can be expected following use of transgenic rice and, consequently, difficulties in controlling this weed with chemicals will emerge in a relatively short time.

  10. Ethanol sensitivity of rice and oat coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2002-05-01

    The ability to avoid the ethanol-induced injury was evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles. The growth of the rice and oat coleoptiles was inhibited by ethanol exogenously applied at concentrations greater than 200 and 30 mM, respectively. At 300 mM ethanol, oat coleoptiles were brown and flaccid but rice coleoptiles did not show any visible symptoms of toxicity. The acetaldehyde level in rice and oat coleoptiles was increased by exogenously applied ethanol and the increases were greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At 300 mM ethanol, the acetaldehyde concentrations in the rice and oat coleoptiles were 46 and 87 nmol g-1 FW under aerobic conditions, respectively, and 52 and 124 nmol g-1 FW under anaerobic conditions, respectively. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) in the direction of ethanol to acetaldehyde was greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles and ADH protein in oat coleoptiles was more induced by exogenously applied ethanol than that in rice coleoptiles. These results suggest that in vivo conversion rate of ethanol to acetaldehyde by ADH is lower in rice than oat coleoptiles, which may be one of the reasons that ethanol sensitivity of rice is much lower than that of oat coleoptiles. The great ability of rice to avoid the ethanol-induced injuries may contribute its anoxia tolerance when glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation replace the Krebs cycle as the main source of energy under anaerobic conditions.

  11. Human infections due to Salmonella Blockley, a rare serotype in South Africa: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella have increased worldwide over the last couple of decades. Salmonella enterica serotype Blockley (Salmonella Blockley) infections is associated with chickens and is a rarely isolated serotype in human infections in most countries. Case presentation We report a case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2011. Three African males (aged 4, 14 and 16) presented to a clinic with diarrhoea, stomach cramps and headache. They started experiencing signs of illness a day after they consumed a common meal, consisting of meat, rice and potatoes. Stool specimens from the patients cultured Salmonella Blockley. The strains showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Conclusion This is the first recorded case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in South Africa. PMID:23050633

  12. Neuropsychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-21

    This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  13. Cardiomegaly in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    The term "cardiomegaly" is found in 5-7% of chest X-ray film evaluations in tropical Africa. However, "cardiomegaly" is a descriptive term, devoid of any aetiological meaning. Therefore, providing information about the aetiological factors leading to heart enlargement in a group of Africans (Nigerians) was the purpose of this study. In the years 2002-2011, 170 subjects (aged 17-80 years, mean age 42 years) in whom "cardiomegaly" was revealed by chest radiographs were studied at the Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele. The patients underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and several appropriate laboratory tests. Arterial hypertension was found to be most frequently associated with heart enlargement (39.4%), followed by dilated cardiomyopathy (21.76%), endomyocardial fibrosis (14.1%), valvular defects (9.4%), cardiac enlargement in the course of sickle-cell anaemia (6.47%), and schistosomal cor pulmonale (3.52%). This study is a contribution to a better aetiological elucidation of "cardiomegaly" in the tropics and emphasizes the importance of arterial hypertension as one of its causative factors. The dire need for effective treatment of hypertensive patients becomes evident. A high prevalence of elevated blood pressure seems to reflect an impact of civilization-related factors on the African communities.

  14. Reducing Soil CO2 Emission and Improving Upland Rice Yield with no-Tillage, Straw Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilization in Northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dossou-Yovo, E.; Brueggemann, N.; Naab, J.; Huat, J.; Ampofo, E.; Ago, E.; Agbossou, E.

    2015-12-01

    To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha-1) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha-1, and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha-1). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6 to 10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO2 emission. Much larger soil CO2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage planting significantly reduced soil CO2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha-1 in combination with 3 Mg ha-1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha-1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

  15. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    vorticity by divergent wind. The IF for a given target point indicates the regions in which the anomalous upper-level divergence is most efficient in producing streamfunction anomalies around the target point. For action centers of circulation anomalies directly associated with precipitation anomalies in southern Africa, these regions with higher forcing efficiency coincide in South America with the indications of the precipitation correlation patterns with southern Africa. These results are confirmed by simulations. It is shown that strong teleconnections exist between South African daily rainfall and that over various areas of South America, with the latter leading by four to five days, for both winter and summer, involving regions with strong rainfall in these seasons. During the summer, the mechanisms involve both a modulation of the local Walker cell as well as extra-tropical Rossby wave trains. For winter, the latter mechanism is more important. While in summer tropical convective anomalies over South America play an important role, in winter the subtropics become more important. In both cases, these modulations lead to regional changes in circulation over southern Africa that are favorable for the dominant synoptic rainfall-producing weather systems such as cut-off lows and tropical extratropical cloud bands. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Program PROAFRICA (CNPq-Brazil), and IAI-CRN3035, which is supported by the US NSF (Grant GEO-1128040).

  16. Evidence for the emergence of new rice types of interspecific hybrid origin in West African farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Edwin; van Treuren, Robbert; Struik, Paul C; Mokuwa, Alfred; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Richards, Paul

    2009-10-06

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess genetic diversity in West Africa (including the countries The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Togo) using 315 rice samples morphologically classified prior to analysis. We show evidence for farmer interspecific hybrids of African and Asian rice, resulting in a group of novel genotypes, and identify possible mechanisms for in-field hybridization. Spontaneous back-crossing events play a crucial role, resulting in different groups of genetic diversity in different regions developed by natural and cultural selection, often under adverse conditions. These new groups of genotypes may have potential relevance for exploitation by plant breeders. Future advances in crop development could be achieved through co-operation between scientists and marginalized farmer groups in order to address challenges of rapid adaptation in a world of increasing socio-political and climatic uncertainty.

  17. Dissecting the genetic diversity in African rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African cultivated rice, Oryza glaberrima, and its progenitor, O. barthii are excellent sources of important genes for rice improvement because they exhibit tolerance to several abiotic and biotic stresses. Development of advance backcross (ABC) populations between an unadapted donor parent and ada...

  18. Ricecraft: Rice Is for More Than Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice Council of America, Houston, TX.

    Rice can be the basis for mosaics, flower arrangements, games, toys, and many things children would like to make. It can add new dimensions to making candles, coasters, and jewelry. Working with rice can aid in the development of appreciation of texture, symmetry, coordination, imagination and, at the same time, result in hand-made gifts for…

  19. Low oil-uptake rice batters.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice starch and flour are popular for use in foods, because they are known to be nutritious, gluten-free, and hypoallergenic – properties which make them particularly desirable for use in infant foods, and in products for people with celiac disease (gluten intolerance). One application for rice sta...

  20. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  1. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  2. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  3. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  4. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  5. Simulating rice response to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, U.; Padilla, J.L. |

    1995-12-31

    The response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to elevated CO{sub 2} concentration and temperature increase was simulated using the CERES-rice model. CERES-rice belongs to the International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transfer (IBSNAT) family of crop and nutrient dynamics models. Long-term historical data from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) wetland site was used to quantify the climatic change effects. The model simulated such beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment as increased grain yields, reduced transpiration, increased water use efficiency, improved use of intercepted radiation, reduced N losses, and higher N use efficiency. The trends were reversed for all of the above parameters with increase in temperature. CERES-rice simulated these negative trends in low input rice production as well. Based on the model`s prediction, some of the negative effects of temperature increase in warmer regions of the world could be offset by use of rice varieties that are tolerant to high temperature-induced spikelet sterility, and planting varieties with longer growth duration, particularly, longer grain filling duration. With improved varieties and good management future impact of climate change could be capitalized to have positive effects on rice production. Although the model has been extensively tested, it is critical to validate it with field data from extreme temperature and CO{sub 2} level studies. 33 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  7. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  8. Important sensory properties differentiating premium rice cultivars.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rice-consuming countries worldwide, specific cultivars are recognized as premium, “gold standard” cultivars, while others are recognized as being superior, but not the best. It has been difficult to ascertain whether preferences for premium rice cultivars are driven by discernable differences in...

  9. Influence of intermittent irrigation, red rice biotype, and rice grain type on outcrossing between red rice and imidazolinone-resistant rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether outcrossing rates between red rice and imazethapyr resistant rice are affected as a function of irrigation management is unclear. Potentially, differences between conventionally-flooded (CNV) and intermittently flooded (INT) systems could affect plant water deficits, as well as vegetative a...

  10. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  11. Melamine milk powder and infant formula sold in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar

    2010-09-01

    This is the first study proving the existence of melamine in milk powder and infant formula exported to the African market. A total of 49 milk powder batches were collected in Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa), the center of international trade in East Africa, which serves as a commercial bottleneck and shipment hub for sub-Saharan, Central, and East Africa. Two categories of samples were collected between October and December 2008, immediately after the melamine contamination of Chinese products became public: (i) market brands of all international companies supplying the East African market and (ii) illegally sold products from informal channels. Melamine concentration was determined with the AgraQuant Melamine Sensitive Assay. Despite the national import prohibition of Chinese milk products and unlabeled milk powder in Tanzania, 11% (22 of 200) of inspected microretailers sold milk powder on the local black market. Manufacturers could be identified for only 55% (27) of the 49 investigated batches. Six percent (3 of 49) of all samples and 11% (3 of 27) of all international brand name products tested revealed melamine concentrations up to 5.5 mg/kg of milk powder. This amount represents about twice the tolerable daily intake as suggested by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. Based on our study, we can assume that the number of affected children in Africa is substantial.

  12. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  13. Assistance Focus: Africa (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  14. Elucidation of molecular dynamics of invasive species of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated rice fields are aggressively invaded by weedy rice in the U.S. and worldwide. Weedy rice results in loss of yield and seed contamination. The molecular dynamics of the evolutionary adaptive traits of weedy rice are not fully understood. To understand the molecular basis and identify the i...

  15. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  16. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  17. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  18. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  19. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  20. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  1. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  2. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  3. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  4. Modification of physical properties of freeze-dried rice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.

    1971-01-01

    Freeze cycling process consists of alternately freezing and thawing precooked rice for two cycles, rice is then frozen and freeze-dehydrated in vacuum sufficient to remove water from rice by sublimitation. Process modifies rice grain structure and porosity, enabling complete rehydration in one minute in hot water.

  5. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  6. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  7. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  8. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  9. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  10. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  11. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  12. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  13. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  14. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  15. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  16. Identification of Some Degradation Products of Golden Rice Beta- carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR2) is genetically modified rice, which can contain as high as 37 ug of beta-carotene per g of dry rice. It was developed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a major malnutrition problem in many parts of the developing world, especially in South and South Eastern Asia, where rice is ...

  17. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  18. Rice Bran: Production, Composition, Functionality and Food Applications, Physiological Benefits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal and human studies show cholesterol-lowering with rice bran in hypercholesterolemic individuals. Specific rice bran fractions showing hypocholesterolemic activity include rice bran oil, unsaponifiable matter, dietary fiber and protein. There is a dose response to the level of rice bran and r...

  19. Rice blast research: improving our arsenal and using it

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease is a constant threat to U.S. rice production, and there have been sporadic outbreaks of the disease for many decades. However, the U.S. southern rice growing area has been fortunate because the pathogen population has been relatively stable compared to other rice producing areas i...

  20. Infection of rice plants by rice black streaked dwarf virus improves an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), of rice planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-10-01

    The effects of rice plants infected by rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) on the host preference, duration of immature stages, sex ratio, and adult longevity and parasitic capacity of an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, were evaluated. Tests of response to plant volatiles using an olfactometer showed that A. nilaparvatae preferred rice plants harboring rice brown planthopper eggs over plants free of rice brown planthopper eggs. However, both the response to plant volatiles and the host selectivity test showed no significant differences in host preference between RBSDV-infected plants and healthy plants when both contained rice brown planthopper eggs. The developmental duration at immature stage of the male A. nilaparvatae in rice brown planthopper eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants was significantly prolonged, and the parasitic capacity of rice brown planthopper eggs was significantly increased in comparison with the A. nilaparvatae parasite in rice brown planthopper eggs on healthy rice plants. There were no significant differences between RBSDV-infected rice plants and healthy rice plants in other ecological fitness parameters, including the developmental duration of female adults, female percentage, and adult longevity of A. nilaparvatae.

  1. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Residues of chlorantraniliprole in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Chai, Wei-Gang; Wu, Yin-Liang

    2012-04-01

    The fate of chlorantraniliprole was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of chlorantraniliprole in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice. Chlorantraniliprole residues were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. The extract was cleaned up with QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The average recoveries were 76.9-82.4% from soil, 83.6-89.3% from rice straw, 95.2-103.1% from paddy water and 84.9-87.7% from brown rice. The relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The limits of detection (LODs) of chlorantraniliprole calculated as a sample concentration (S/N ratio of 3) were 0.012 μg L(-1) for paddy water, 0.15 μg kg(-1) for soil, brown rice and rice straw. The results of the kinetics study of chlorantraniliprole residue showed that chlorantraniliprole degradation in soil, water and rice straw coincided with C=0.01939e(-0.0434t), C=0.01425e(-0.8111t), and C=1.171e(-0.198t), respectively; the half-lives were about 16.0 d, 0.85 d and 3.50 d, respectively. The degradation rate of chlorantraniliprole in water was the fastest, followed by rice straw. The final residues of chlorantraniliprole on brown rice were lower than maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 14 d Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI). Therefore, a dosage of 150 mL a.i.hm(-2) was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals.

  3. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2014-02-01

    The humanitarian crises caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought forecasts with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model precipitation forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for March-May and October-December rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the consensus forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF), which is the present operational product for precipitation forecast over East Africa. Complementing the original ECMWF precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  4. Expanding radio astronomy in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylard, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

  5. Rice endosperm is cost-effective for the production of recombinant griffithsin with potent activity against HIV.

    PubMed

    Vamvaka, Evangelia; Arcalis, Elsa; Ramessar, Koreen; Evans, Abbey; O'Keefe, Barry R; Shattock, Robin J; Medina, Vicente; Stöger, Eva; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Protein microbicides containing neutralizing antibodies and antiviral lectins may help to reduce the rate of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) if it is possible to manufacture the components in large quantities at a cost affordable in HIV-endemic regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. We expressed the antiviral lectin griffithsin (GRFT), which shows potent neutralizing activity against HIV, in the endosperm of transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa), to determine whether rice can be used to produce inexpensive GRFT as a microbicide ingredient. The yield of (OS) GRFT in the best-performing plants was 223 μg/g dry seed weight. We also established a one-step purification protocol, achieving a recovery of 74% and a purity of 80%, which potentially could be developed into a larger-scale process to facilitate inexpensive downstream processing. (OS) GRFT bound to HIV glycans with similar efficiency to GRFT produced in Escherichia coli. Whole-cell assays using purified (OS) GRFT and infectivity assays using crude extracts of transgenic rice endosperm confirmed that both crude and pure (OS) GRFT showed potent activity against HIV and the crude extracts were not toxic towards human cell lines, suggesting they could be administered as a microbicide with only minimal processing. A freedom-to-operate analysis confirmed that GRFT produced in rice is suitable for commercial development, and an economic evaluation suggested that 1.8 kg/ha of pure GRFT could be produced from rice seeds. Our data therefore indicate that rice could be developed as an inexpensive production platform for GRFT as a microbicide component.

  6. Invertebrate mercury bioaccumulation in permanent, seasonal, and flooded rice wetlands within California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Miles, A. Keith; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined methylmercury (MeHg) bioavailability in four of the most predominant wetland habitats in California's Central Valley agricultural region during the spring and summer: white rice, wild rice, permanent wetlands, and shallowly-flooded fallow fields. We sampled MeHg and total mercury (THg) concentrations in two aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa at the inlets, centers, and outlets of four replicated wetland habitats (8 wetlands total) during two time periods bounding the rice growing season and corresponding to flood-up and pre-harvest (96 total samples). In general, THg concentrations (mean ± standard error) in Notonectidae (Notonecta, back swimmers; 1.18 ± 0.08 µg g− 1 dry weight [dw]) were higher than in Corixidae (Corisella, water boatmen; 0.89 ± 0.06 µg g− 1 dw, MeHg: 0.74 ± 0.05 µg g− 1 dw). MeHg concentrations were correlated with THg concentrations in Corixidae (R2 = 0.80) and 88% of THg was in the MeHg form. Wetland habitat type had an important influence on THg concentrations in aquatic invertebrates, but this effect depended on the sampling time period and taxa. In particular, THg concentrations in Notonectidae, but not Corixidae, were higher in permanent wetlands than in white rice, wild rice, or shallowly-flooded fallow fields. THg concentrations in Notonectidae were higher at the end of the rice growing season than near the time of flood-up, whereas THg concentrations in Corixidae did not differ between time periods. The effect of wetland habitat type was more prevalent near the end of the rice growing season, when Notonectidae THg concentrations were highest in permanent wetlands. Additionally, invertebrate THg concentrations were higher at water outlets than at inlets of wetlands. Our results indicate that although invertebrate THg concentrations increased from the time of flood-up to draw-down of wetlands, temporarily flooded habitats such as white rice, wild rice, and shallowly-flooded fallow fields did not

  7. Changes in rice allelopathy and rhizosphere microflora by inhibiting rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changxun; Zhuang, Yuee; Xu, Tiecheng; Li, Yingzhe; Li, Yue; Lin, Wenxiong

    2013-02-01

    Gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in allelopathic rice PI312777 was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi). Transgenic rice showed lower levels of PAL gene expression and PAL activity than wild type rice (WT). The concentrations of phenolic compounds were lower in the root tissues and root exudates of transgenic rice than in those of wild type plants. When barndyardgrass (BYG) was used as the receiver plant, the allelopathic potential of transgenic rice was reduced. The sizes of the bacterial and fungal populations in rice rhizospheric soil at the 3-, 5-, and 7-leaf stages were estimated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR), which showed a decrease in both populations at all stages of leaf development analyzed. However, PI312777 had a larger microbial population than transgenic rice. In addition, in T-RFLP studies, 14 different groups of bacteria were detected in WT and only 6 were detected in transgenic rice. This indicates that there was less rhizospheric bacterial diversity associated with transgenic rice than with WT. These findings collectively suggest that PAL functions as a positive regulator of rice allelopathic potential.

  8. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  9. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  10. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-01

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. PMID:27940610

  11. Rice Domestication Revealed by Reduced Shattering of Archaeological rice from the Lower Yangtze valley

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W.; Jiang, Leping; Chen, Xugao

    2016-01-01

    Plant remains dating to between 9000 and 8400 BP from a probable ditch structure at the Huxi site include the oldest rice (Oryza sativa) spikelet bases and associated plant remains recovered in China. The remains document an early stage of rice domestication and the ecological setting in which early cultivation was taking place. The rice spikelet bases from Huxi include wild (shattering), intermediate, and domesticated (non-shattering) forms. The relative frequency of intermediate and non-shattering spikelet bases indicates that selection for, at the very least, non-shattering rice was underway at Huxi. The rice also has characteristics of japonica rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica), helping to clarify the emergence of a significant lineage of the crop. Seeds, phytoliths and their context provide evidence of increasing anthropogenesis and cultivation during the occupation. Rice spikelet bases from Kuahuqiao (8000–7700 BP), Tianluoshan (7000–6500 BP), Majiabang (6300–6000 BP), and Liangzhu (5300–4300 BP) sites indicate that rice underwent continuing selection for reduced shattering and japonica rice characteristics, confirming a prolonged domestication process for rice. PMID:27324699

  12. A re-evaluation of the origin of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Michael A; Forbi, Joseph C; Sue, Amanda; Layden, Jennifer E; Switzer, William M; Opare-Sem, Ohene K; Phillips, Richard O; Khudyakov, Yury E

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified into seven genotypes based on genetic diversity, and most genotypes have been found in Africa. Infections with HCV genotype 2 (HCV2) are most prevalent in West Africa and it was suggested that HCV2 originated in West Africa. To better understand the evolutionary epidemiology of HCV2 in Africa, we examined new NS5B sequences of HCV2 strains obtained from Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria sequenced at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with those available from West, North and Central Africa. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a discrete trait model showed that Ghana was the most likely geographical region for the origin of HCV2. Spread of HCV2 from Ghana did not appear to be through diffusion to adjacent countries along the coast. Rather, it was transmitted from Ghana to many distant countries in Africa, suggesting that certain routes of geographical dissemination were historically more efficient than mere proximity and that the HCV2 epidemic history in West Africa is extremely complex.

  13. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-12-17

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.

  14. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-01-01

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13–36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia. PMID:24297875

  15. Glycaemic index of some commercially available rice and rice products in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Ranawana, D V; Henry, C J K; Lightowler, H J; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic response to nine types of rice (white basmati, brown basmati, white and brown basmati, easy-cook basmati, basmati and wild rice, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice, Thai red rice, Thai glutinous rice) and two types of rice vermicelli (Guilin rice vermicelli, Jiangxi rice vermicelli) commercially available in the United Kingdom were compared against a glucose standard in a non-blind, randomized, repeated-measure, crossover design trial. Fourteen healthy subjects (six males, eight females), mean age 38 (standard deviation 16) years and mean body mass index 21.3 (standard deviation 2.3) kg/m(2), were recruited for the study. Subjects were served portions of the test foods and a standard food (glucose), on separate occasions, each containing 50 g available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects (-5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. For each type of food, its glycaemic index (GI) was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose curve as a percentage of each subject's average incremental area under the blood glucose curve for the standard food. The 10 foods exhibited a range of GI values from 37 to 92. The study indicated that rice noodles, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice and white basmati rice were low-GI foods, whilst all of the other foods were medium-GI and high-GI foods. The information presented in this paper may be useful in helping people select low-GI foods from the customary foods consumed by the British and Asian populations.

  16. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  17. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  18. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  19. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  20. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  1. Analysis of rice blast resistance gene Pi-z in rice germplasm using pathogenicity assays and DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-z(t) gene in rice confers resistance to a wide range of races of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. The objective of this study was to characterize Pi-z(t) in 117 rice germplasm accessions using DNA markers and pathogenicity assays. The existence of Pi-z(t) in rice germplasm was detec...

  2. Evolutionary dynamics and structure of the rice blast resistance locus Pi-ta in wild, cultivated, and US weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been used to control rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryza, in rice growing areas worldwide for decades. To understand the evolutionary process and natural selection of Pi-ta during rice domestication, we first examined sequences of the genomic region of Pi-ta in geograph...

  3. Training and practice of pediatric surgery in Africa: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Elhalaby, Essam A; Uba, Francis A; Borgstein, Eric S; Rode, Heinz; Millar, Alastair J W

    2012-05-01

    The evolution and recognition of pediatric surgery as a specialty in Africa can be divided into 4 distinct phases, starting from early 1920s till the present. The pace of development has been quite variable in different parts of Africa. Despite all recent developments, the practice of pediatric surgery in Africa continues to face multiple challenges, including limited facilities, manpower shortages, the large number of sick children, disease patterns specific to the region, late presentation and advanced pathology, lack of pediatric surgeons outside the tertiary hospitals, and inadequate governmental support. Standardization of pediatric surgery training across the continent is advocated. Collaboration with well-established pediatric surgical training centers in Africa and other developed countries is necessary. The problems of delivery of pediatric surgical services need to be addressed urgently, if the African child is to have access to essential pediatric surgical services like his or her counterpart in the high-income parts of the world.

  4. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  5. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  6. Africa; Expanding market creates more gas lines

    SciTech Connect

    Quarles, W.R.; Thiede, K.; Parent, L.

    1990-11-01

    The authors report on pipeline development activities in Africa. They discuss how a growing European market for gas has increased potential pipeline construction in Africa, especially for Algeria, Egypt, and Libya.

  7. Geoscience Initiative Develops Sustainable Science in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Durrheim, Ray; Dirks, Paul; Graham, Gerhard; Gibson, Roger; Webb, Susan

    2011-05-01

    AfricaArray (http://www.AfricaArray.org) is a 20-year initiative in the geosciences to meet the African Union's New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) requirements for continent-wide cooperation in human resources development and capacity building. The name AfricaArray refers to arrays of scientists working on linked projects across the continent, arrays of shared training programs and recording stations, and, above all, a shared vision that Africa will retain capacity in an array of technical and scientific fields vital to its sustainable development. AfricaArray officially launched in January 2005 and, with support from many public and private partners, has become multifaceted, promoting a broad range of educational and research activities and supporting a multiuser sensor network (Figure 1). Though fostering geophysics education and research in South Africa was its initial focus, AfricaArray has expanded to 17 countries and is now branching out into all areas of the geosciences (Earth, atmosphere, and space).

  8. Insulating panels with rice husk

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, J.; Veras, J.

    1986-01-01

    This study includes the quantitative results of tests caried out on 7.5 x 15.0 cm cylindrical test pieces and fullsized panels with a cement and rice husk, produced by using means belonging to the so-called ''appropriate technologies''. These results are summarized and analyzed with a view to providing a possible alternative for substituting other insulating materials, which are generally imported, in developing countries. The technical results presented point towards a promising future for the task undertaken, within the context of a research project on ''materials, technologies and prototypes for very low-cost housing'' which, in a - multinational capacity, is being developed at the Instituto E. Torroja.

  9. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  10. Association of Rice and Rice-Product Consumption With Arsenic Exposure Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Karagas, Margaret R.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Rice—a typical first food and major ingredient in various infant foods—contains inorganic arsenic (As), but the extent of As exposure from these foods has not been well characterized in early childhood. OBJECTIVE To determine the types and frequency of rice and rice-containing products consumed by infants in the first year of life and the association with As biomarker concentrations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Included were infants from singleton births of pregnant women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study from 2011 to 2014 whose parents were interviewed during their first year of life. Enrolled women from selected clinics were aged 18 to 45 years, living in the same residence since their last menstrual period, in households served by a private water system, and had no plans to move during pregnancy. Data on infants’ intake of rice and rice products were collected from interviews with their parents at 4, 8, and 12 months’ follow-up and from a 3-day food diary at 12 months from March 2013 to August 2014. EXPOSURES Infants’ intake of rice and rice products. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total urinary As and the sum of As species measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Commonly reported infant rice snacks were tested for As. RESULTS We obtained dietary data on 759 of 951 infants (79.8% participation rate). Of these, 391 infants (51.7%) were male, and the mean (SD) gestational age was 39.4 (1.7) weeks. An estimated 80% were introduced to rice cereal during their first year. At 12 months, 32.6% of infants (42 of 129) were fed rice snacks. Among infants aged 12 months who did not eat fish or seafood, the geometric mean total urinary As concentrations were higher among those who ate infant rice cereal (9.53 μg/L) or rice snacks (4.97 μg/L) compared with those who did not eat rice or rice products (2.85 μg/L; all P < .01). Infant rice

  11. Russian Interests in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    in the same year, reached ZAR188 billion. Russia’s trade with its most important African partner is, in fact, the smallest of all of the BRIC ...Brazil, Russia, India, and China) coun- tries, the notional grouping of BRIC and South Africa, to be discussed in more detail.76 The growth in trade...AFRICA Russia is attracted by the notion of cooperation in Africa between countries making up the BRICS (Bra- zil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

  12. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  13. Arsenic Transport in Rice and Biological Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Risk from Rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanshan; Han, Yong-He; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds ∼3 billion people. Due to the wide occurrence of arsenic (As) pollution in paddy soils and its efficient plant uptake, As in rice grains presents health risks. Genetic manipulation may offer an effective approach to reduce As accumulation in rice grains. The genetics of As uptake and metabolism have been elucidated and target genes have been identified for genetic engineering to reduce As accumulation in grains. Key processes controlling As in grains include As uptake, arsenite (AsIII) efflux, arsenate (AsV) reduction and AsIII sequestration, and As methylation and volatilization. Recent advances, including characterization of AsV uptake transporter OsPT8, AsV reductase OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2, rice glutaredoxins, and rice ABC transporter OsABCC1, make many possibilities to develop low-arsenic rice.

  14. Arsenic Transport in Rice and Biological Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Risk from Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanshan; Han, Yong-He; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q.

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds ∼3 billion people. Due to the wide occurrence of arsenic (As) pollution in paddy soils and its efficient plant uptake, As in rice grains presents health risks. Genetic manipulation may offer an effective approach to reduce As accumulation in rice grains. The genetics of As uptake and metabolism have been elucidated and target genes have been identified for genetic engineering to reduce As accumulation in grains. Key processes controlling As in grains include As uptake, arsenite (AsIII) efflux, arsenate (AsV) reduction and AsIII sequestration, and As methylation and volatilization. Recent advances, including characterization of AsV uptake transporter OsPT8, AsV reductase OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2, rice glutaredoxins, and rice ABC transporter OsABCC1, make many possibilities to develop low-arsenic rice. PMID:28298917

  15. Validating the Rice neural network and the Wing Kp real-time models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Ramkumar; Reiff, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    The Rice neural network models of Kp have been running in real time at http://mms.rice.edu/realtime/forecast.html since October 2007; Dst and AE models were added to our operations in May 2010. All these models use the Boyle index as basis functions computed from ACE real time inputs. Later, two more driving functions were included in November 2012: (a) the "Ram" functions that had dynamic pressure term added to the Boyle index and (b) the Newell functions. The Wing models are a set of neural network-based Kp forecast models adopted by NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center in March 2011 to supersede the Costello Kp model. This study indicates that any of the three Rice neural net predictors had a better success rate than the Wing model in predicting Kp (r=0.828 with Boyle, r=0.843 with Ram, and r=0.820 with Newell for 1 h predictions; similarly, r=0.739, 0.769, and 0.755 for 3 h predictions) in real time. In a head-to-head challenge using harvested real-time outputs between April 2011 and February 2013, the Rice Boyle Kp models predicted better than the Wing models (0.771 versus 0.714 for 1 h predictions and 0.770 versus 0.744 for 3 h predictions). In addition, Wing's prediction was missing more often than the Rice prediction (≈6% versus 4.6%), meaning it had less reliability. The Rice models also predict AE(r=0.811 with Boyle; 0.806 with Ram; 0.765 with Newell, and 0.743 with Boyle; 0.747 with Ram for 1 h and 3 h predictions) and pressure-corrected Dst (r=0.790; 0.767, and 0.704, and r=0.795; 0.797 and 0.707 for 1 h and 3 h predictions).

  16. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  17. Urbanization in Africa. A Resource Unit. Project Africa, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, William E.

    The introduction to this suggested resource unit discusses several different approaches to the study of urbanization and its impact in Africa south of the Sahara. Part I of this unit includes an annotated bibliography of selected sources. The brief descriptions of selected materials should prove useful in classroom study, and in the development of…

  18. South Africa's early experiment in social medicine: its pioneers and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, S

    1997-01-01

    The election of a democratic, nonracial government in South Africa has moved the health needs of the majority of the population to center stage. In the search for precedents, health policymakers have turned to South Africa's pioneering of health centers and social medicine in the 1940s. This paper looks at the intellectual context in which these ideas were first developed; the particular political circumstances and relationships between doctors and the state in the late 1930s, which facilitated the establishment of health centers; the role that the health centers were intended to play in South Africa's wider postwar health plans; and the reasons for the centers' failure. Contrary to conventional wisdom, it argues that the failure of the health centers and the wider health plans predated the advent of the National Party to power in 1948, and resulted mainly from the marginalization of the centers as a low-cost option for the poor, which was itself a consequence of underfunding and the vested interests of local health authorities and private practitioners. PMID:9096553

  19. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis.

  20. Africa in Classical Antiquity: A Curriculum Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    1977-01-01

    A curriculum resource developed by the School District of Philadelphia deals with Africa in Classical Antiquity. Each unit contains suggestions for lower, middle and upper schools. Topics covered are: history of Africa; great Africans in the Graeco-Roman world; racial attitudes; blacks in classical art, and Africa in classical literature. (CHK)

  1. Southern Africa’s Transnational Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    distribution of Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is prevalent throughout Southern Africa. In most incidences, Cannabis profits dwarfs local income...had its source in Tanzania and Tanzanians have identified markets for their fake US dollars in South Africa. Cannabis South Africa, Lesotho...Swaziland, Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia National and International markets Page 23. the listed states are the major cannabis - producing

  2. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections…

  3. Language in Education in Eastern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, T. P., Ed.

    This volume contains the papers given at the first Eastern Africa Conference on Language and Linguistics, held in Dar es Salaam in December 1968, under the auspices of the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa. The chief aim of the Conference was to bring together scholars and teachers working in Eastern Africa interested…

  4. West Africa land use land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Cushing, W. Matthew; Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.; Hutchinson, John A.; Dalsted, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    The West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project provides AGRHYMET and its 17 participating countries a comprehensive two-kilometer (2-km) resolution land use land cover (LULC) dataset of the region for three time periods; 1975, 2000, and 2013. Hundreds of Landsat images were visually interpreted to develop a 2-km LULC dataset for each of the three time periods. To assist in validating the interpretations, thousands of aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images were used. From the initial datasets produced by national teams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an independent, detailed review of the interpretations. In concurrence with the respective country teams, the data have been revised to produce an accurate and consistent LULC assessment from within the countries and respective transboundary areas. This West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project represents an effort to document and quantify the impacts of change in both time and space, of the environmental and land resource trends across West Africa. The project was carried out through the AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, in partners from 17 participating countries, the Sahel Institute (INSAH), the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), and with major support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) West Africa Regional Program. The overarching goal of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project is to promote the awareness of the trends and use of spatial information about natural resource trends among national and regional decision-makers. For a complete description of project visit https://eros.usgs.gov/westafrica

  5. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Gaston, G.; Daniels, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  6. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Vieira Lopes Espinho to the rank of colonel. We promote the following majors to the rank of lieutenant colonel: (Bastos Leite Cafundana Manuel Fatia...was informed concerning the varied vegetable species being tested to ascertain their ability to withstand the hot season. Example of Laxity Prime...irrigation system can make it possible to grow all types of crops, such as rice, corn, wheat, beans and green vegetables . To enable the people to

  7. Critical Importance of alpha-glucosidase contained in rice kernel for alcohol fermentation of rice polish.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Kazuhide; Aramaki, Isao

    2002-01-01

    In our previous study, we proposed a new alcoholic beverage called nuka-sake, which is made from uncooked rice polish without any enzyme source such as koji. In nuka-sake brewing, the uncooked rice polish serves not only as the fermentation material but also as the enzyme source. In the present study, the results of both laboratory-scale nuka-sake brewing runs with various grades of rice polish and analysis of amylolitic enzyme distribution in rice polish suggested that alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) is a key enzyme of parallel fermentation in nuka-sake brewing. Miglitol, a specific inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase, strongly inhibited glucose production from rice polish. To obtain further evidence regarding the contribution of alpha-glucosidase, this enzyme was purified from rice grain kernels (Yamadanishiki cultivar) and supplied for both rice polish saccharification and nuka-sake brewing. The purified alpha-glucosidase promoted both glucose production from rice polish and alcohol fermentation in nuka-sake brewing. Based on these results, it was considered that the alpha-glucosidase contained in rice polish plays an important role in glucose production. This role may be a rate-limiting factor for parallel fermentation in nuka-sake brewing. Moreover, oligosaccarides accumulated during the saccharification of uncooked rice polish, implying the contribution of not only alpha-glucosidase but also alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1). Through this result, it can be speculated that the starch contained in rice polish will be decomposed to glucose as a result of the action of alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase contained in rice polish.

  8. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  9. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  10. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  11. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  12. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  13. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  14. A map of rice genome variation reveals the origin of cultivated rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuehui; Kurata, Nori; Wei, Xinghua; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Wang, Ahong; Zhao, Qiang; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Kunyan; Lu, Hengyun; Li, Wenjun; Guo, Yunli; Lu, Yiqi; Zhou, Congcong; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yongchun; Feng, Lei; Furuumi, Hiroyasu; Kubo, Takahiko; Miyabayashi, Toshie; Yuan, Xiaoping; Xu, Qun; Dong, Guojun; Zhan, Qilin; Li, Canyang; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Lu, Tingting; Feng, Qi; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Han, Bin

    2012-10-25

    Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently developed from crosses between japonica rice and local wild rice as the initial cultivars spread into South East and South Asia. The domestication-associated traits are analysed through high-resolution genetic mapping. This study provides an important resource for rice breeding and an effective genomics approach for crop domestication research.

  15. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    PubMed

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  16. Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

    2014-07-01

    In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 μg g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed.

  17. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  18. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Emmah; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Dutra, Emanuel; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Pappenberger, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF), which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  19. Monitoring Optimism in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mari

    2007-01-01

    An article with exactly this same title was published in Social Indicators Research (41:279-304, 1997). The purpose of the current article is to update the findings discussed in that first article. Therefore the abstract published previously is still relevant: The last few decades have been the most crucial and eventful ones in South Africa's…

  20. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This document contains articles on SubSaharan Africa. Topics include: internal affairs, political science , education , and commerce.

  1. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  2. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  3. Peace Education in Postcolonial Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether efforts by donor agencies and Third World governments toward achieving basic education for all will lead to further development of peace education in Africa; whether the outcomes of the 1990 Education for All (EFA) conference in Thailand will promote positive peace; and whether the new EFA strategy will lead to a self-reliant…

  4. Basic space sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo, Richard S.

    Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this ``Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,'' Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

  5. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…

  6. Africa in Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekiros, Astair; Wiley, Marylee

    Based on an examination of 50 general social studies textbooks, the report discusses the most frequently found biases, misconceptions, omissions, inaccuracies, and misrepresentations. Criteria for judging the textbooks include: readable and suitable materials; accurate and current content; presentation of Africa as a diverse continent; open…

  7. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    brought him organe juice and yogurt ," the statement said. "Newspaper reports that Dean Farisani is on a hunger strike are not true. That is...materials— [?worth] R3.3 billion during December to bring its total export earnings for 1986 to R41.8 billion. South Africa’s import of manufactured

  8. Christian Higher Education in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…

  9. Peacekeeping Operations in West Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government or the Department of Defense. In accordance with Air...1 DEFINITON OF — PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

  10. Madagascar Adventure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  11. Refugee Data Center: Paving the Road to Resettlement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Livia J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Refugee Data Center (RDC) (New York City), a hub for linking refugees with voluntary resettlement agencies. The RDC maintains a database on refugees as they progress toward final resettlement in the United States. At present, RDC files include refugees from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America. (SLD)

  12. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  13. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region. PMID:27688742

  14. Oryzabase. An integrated biological and genome information database for rice.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Nori; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Oryzabase is to create a comprehensive view of rice (Oryza sativa) as a model monocot plant by integrating biological data with molecular genomic information (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/rice/oryzabase/top/top.jsp). The database contains information about rice development and anatomy, rice mutants, and genetic resources, especially for wild varieties of rice. The anatomical description of rice development is unique and is the first known representation for rice. Developmental and anatomical descriptions include in situ gene expression data serving as stage and tissue markers. The systematic presentation of a large number of rice mutant and mutant trait genes is indispensable, as is description of research in wild strains, core collections, and their detailed characterization. Several genetic, physical, and expression maps with full genome and cDNA sequences are also combined with biological data in Oryzabase. These datasets, when pooled together, could provide a useful tool for gaining greater knowledge about the life cycle of rice, the relationship between phenotype and gene function, and rice genetic diversity. For exchanging community information, Oryzabase publishes the Rice Genetics Newsletter organized by the Rice Genetics Cooperative and provides a mailing service, rice-e-net/rice-net.

  15. [Effects of rice plants on methane emission from paddy fields].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhongjun; Cai, Zucong

    2003-11-01

    Methane emission from rice paddy fields is the net result of the combination of many processes, i.e., CH4 production, CH4 oxidation and CH4 transportation in paddy soil. Rice plants play a key role in the CH4 emission from paddy fields, particularly in all the processes involved. The positive and negative effects of rice plants on CH4 emission from paddy fields are well recognized as the main factors influencing the temporal variation of CH4 emission flux in paddy field. Process-based studies about the effects of rice plants on methane emission from paddy fields were summarized, and different roles of rice plants on this emission were discussed. Root exudates and litters of rice plants could serve as the substrate for methanogenesis and enhance the CH4 production of paddy soils, resulting in a high CH4 emission peak, particularly in rice late growing season. Rhizospheric CH4 oxidation induced by rice root-excreted oxygen constitutes a main biogenic sink of CH4, which could account for 36-90% of CH4 produced in paddy soil over the entire growing season of rice. Up to 80% and more of CH4 released from rice field during a growing season could be emitted by rice plant-mediated transport. The fully developed aerenchyma of rice plants could be of importance in CH4 emission during rice growing seasons, and responsible for the CH4 emission peak observed at rice early growing season.

  16. Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?

    PubMed

    Miller, J B; Pang, E; Bramall, L

    1992-12-01

    We determined the glycemic (GI) and insulin-index (II) values for 12 rice products, using eight healthy subjects. The products were brown and white versions of three commercial varieties of rice [two varieties with normal amylose content (20%) and the other with 28% amylose], a waxy rice (0-2% amylose), a converted rice, a quick-cooking brown rice, puffed rice cakes, rice pasta, and rice bran. The GI of the rices ranged from 64 +/- 9 to 93 +/- 11, where glucose = 100. The high amylose rice gave a lower GI and II (P < 0.01) than did the normal-amylose and waxy-rice varieties. The converted rice and most other rice products gave a high GI. Insulin indices correlated positively with GI (r = 0.75, P < 0.05), although they were lower than expected. These results indicate that many varieties of rice, whether white, brown, or parboiled, should be classified as high GI foods. Only high-amylose varieties are potentially useful in low-GI diets.

  17. Responding to Outreach and Training Challenges in Health Information: A Case Study from Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimalizeni, Michael; Chimwaza, Gracian; Chataira, Blessing; Msengezi, Chipo

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the experience and lessons learned by Information Training and Outreach Center for Africa (ITOCA) in rolling out an on-line distance learning course. Key objectives were to explore the efficacy of online courses in increasing skills and awareness of electronic resources access initiatives. This is in the context of responding…

  18. Command and Control in Africa: Three Case Studies before and after Tactical C2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Views July–August 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 119 Command and Control in Africa Three Case Studies before and after Tactical C2 Maj Damon ...agencies such as the National Air and Space Intelligence Center and the National Geospatial Agency. Maj Damon Matlock, USAF Major Matlock (BS, Regents

  19. Molecular breeding for developing drought tolerant and disease resistant maize in sub Saharan Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), in collaboration with public and private partners, is working on developing and disseminating drought tolerant maize for sub Saharan Africa (SSA) using pedigree selection and molecular breeding. In this paper, we provide an overview of ...

  20. Africa Bibliographic Centre (ABC): An Experiment in African Documentation and Library Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, O. C.

    This description of the Africa Bibliographic Centre (ABC) concept--which is still in a formative stage--provides brief summaries of the 12 components of the system, including an African lending library, bibliographic publishing, a commission on information and bibliographic systems, an African microfiche publications center, African abstracting…

  1. "Until We Get up Again to Fight": Education Rights and Participation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapliyal, Nisha; Vally, Salim; Spreen, Carol Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the possibilities for democratic and direct participation that have emerged through socially engaged research on education rights in South Africa. The Education Rights Project is located in a university-based research and advocacy center for education rights and social justice that has been working with township…

  2. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Reiner Jr., Robert C.; Battle, Katherine E.; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J.; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  3. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  4. Transplantation in Africa - an overview.

    PubMed

    Muller, Elmi

    Africa is underdeveloped in terms of treatment options for patients with end-stage renal failure. Economic growth and corresponding increases in health expenditures in the African region mean that we can confidently anticipate increased demand for organ transplantation within the region over the next few years. Renal failure in Africa occurs mainly due to glomerular nephropathies, hypertension, diabetes, and HIV. For the subset of the population that might be considered medically suitable for transplantation, demand for transplantation is tightly constrained by the availability of specialist physicians and surgeons, pathology facilities, capacity to achieve acceptable graft outcomes, cultural and religious attitudes towards organ donation, trust in the health system, and the extent to which patients are able to meet the costs of surgery and ongoing immunosuppression. There are currently several countries in Africa which are building up living-related-donor transplantation. Active living-donor transplantation already takes place in South Africa, Tunisia, and Sudan, but deceased donation is only available in South Africa. Whereas living-donor transplantation might be successfully driven by a motivated individual and a single institution, deceased-donor transplantation requires dialysis programs, tissue typing and crossmatching facilities, an organ procurement program, an on-call surgical team, capacity to fund this infrastructure, and an appropriate legislative framework. A significant and recurring barrier to transplantation in the African region is the high cost of transplantation and follow-up care, and, in particular, the cost of maintenance immunosuppression. A positive environment that could potentially change this scenario will have to include governmental funding, academic support to clinicians as well as a legislative framework, which is still needed in many African countries.

  5. Arabian Peninsula and northeast Africa as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Arabian Peninsula (on left) and northeast Africa (on right) as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft at an altitude of 340 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of the earth, looking southeast. Saudia Arabia, South Arabia, Yemen and Aden Protectorate are at left. At bottom right is Ethiopia. French Somaliland is in center on right shore. Somali is at upper right. Body of water at bottom is Red Sea. Gulf of Aden is in center; and at top left is Indian Ocean.

  6. Final Report. Center for Scalable Application Development Software

    SciTech Connect

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    2014-10-26

    The Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) was established as a part- nership between Rice University, Argonne National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, University of Tennessee – Knoxville, and University of Wisconsin – Madison. CScADS pursued an integrated set of activities with the aim of increasing the productivity of DOE computational scientists by catalyzing the development of systems software, libraries, compilers, and tools for leadership computing platforms. Principal Center activities were workshops to engage the research community in the challenges of leadership computing, research and development of open-source software, and work with computational scientists to help them develop codes for leadership computing platforms. This final report summarizes CScADS activities at Rice University in these areas.

  7. Genetic shift in local rice populations during rice breeding programs in the northern limit of rice cultivation in the world.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Kenji; Obara, Mari; Ikegaya, Tomohito; Tamura, Kenichi

    2015-09-01

    The rapid accumulation of pre-existing mutations may play major roles in the establishment and shaping of adaptability for local regions in current rice breeding programs. The cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., which originated from tropical regions, is now grown worldwide due to the concerted efforts of breeding programs. However, the process of establishing local populations and their origins remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized DNA polymorphisms in the rice variety KITAAKE from Hokkaido, one of the northern limits of rice cultivation in the world. Indel polymorphisms were attributed to transposable element-like insertions, tandem duplications, and non-TE deletions as the original mutation events in the NIPPONBARE and KITAAKE genomes. The allele frequencies of the KITAAKE alleles markedly shifted to the current variety types among the local population from Hokkaido in the last two decades. The KITAAKE alleles widely distributed throughout wild rice and cultivated rice over the world. These have accumulated in the local population from Hokkaido via Japanese landraces as the ancestral population of Hokkaido. These results strongly suggested that combinations of pre-existing mutations played a role in the establishment of adaptability. This approach using the re-sequencing of local varieties in unique environmental conditions will be useful as a genetic resource in plant breeding programs in local regions.

  8. Molecular biology of rice tungro viruses.

    PubMed

    Hull, R

    1996-01-01

    Rice tungro, the most important virus disease of rice in South and Southeast Asia, is caused by a complex of two viruses, rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). RTBV is a plant pararetrovirus with bacilliform particles, the structure of which is based on T = 3 icosahedral symmetry cut across the threefold axis.The particles encapsidate a circular double-stranded DNA of 8 kbp that encodes four proteins. The current information on the properties, functions, and expression of these proteins is discussed, as is the evidence for replication by reverse transcription. Two major strains of RTBV have been recognized, one from the Indian subcontinent and the other from Southeast Asia. RTSV particles contain a single-stranded RNA genome of 12 kb that encodes a large polyprotein and possibly one or two smaller proteins. The properties and processing of the polyprotein are described and the resemblance to picornaviruses noted.

  9. Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) | New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    RICE use pistons that alternatively move back and forth to convert pressure into rotating motion. They're commonly used at power and manufacturing plants to generate electricity and to power pumps and compressors.

  10. President Kennedy's Speech at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape presents unedited film footage of President John F. Kennedy's speech at Rice University, Houston, Texas, September 12, 1962. The speech expresses the commitment of the United States to landing an astronaut on the Moon.

  11. Rice plant development: from zygote to spikelet.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Ikeda, Kyoko; Yamaki, Shinichiro; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    Rice is becoming a model plant in monocotyledons and a model cereal crop. For better understanding of the rice plant, it is essential to elucidate the developmental programs of the life cycle. To date, several attempts have been made in rice to categorize the developmental processes of some organs into substages. These studies are based exclusively on the morphological and anatomical viewpoints. Recent advancement in genetics and molecular biology has given us new aspects of developmental processes. In this review, we first describe the phasic development of the rice plant, and then describe in detail the developmental courses of major organs, leaf, root and spikelet, and specific organs/tissues. Also, for the facility of future studies, we propose a staging system for each organ.

  12. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    PubMed

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  13. Value-added uses of co-products from the milling of rice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to the polished whole white rice, various co-products, including rice bran and broken rice, are generated during the milling of rice. In spite of plentiful supply and high nutrition, rice bran, and to a lesser extent, broken rice kernels are under-priced and under-utilized. The present ...

  14. Introgression of resistance-conferring ALS mutations in herbicide-resistant weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice (Oryza sativa) competes aggressively with rice, reducing yields and grain quality. Clearfield™ rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) rice introduced in 2002 to control weedy rice, has resulted in some ALS-resistant weedy rice apparently due to gene flow. Studies were conduct...

  15. Evolutionary insights into the origins of weediness in U.S. red rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a widespread, economically challenging problem in Southern U.S. rice fields. The two major U.S. red rice types, strawhull and blackhull, are thought to have arisen independently from Asian rice populations in the distant past. Red rice is a weedy relative of rice, a genomic model...

  16. Direct and reverse pollen-mediated gene flow between GM rice and red rice weed

    PubMed Central

    Serrat, X.; Esteban, R.; Peñas, G.; Català, M. M.; Melé, E.; Messeguer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Potential risks of genetically modified (GM) crops must be identified before their commercialization, as happens with all new technologies. One of the major concerns is the proper risk assessment of adventitious presence of transgenic material in rice fields due to cross-pollination. Several studies have been conducted in order to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) to both conventional rice and red rice weed (O. sativa f. spontanea) under field conditions. Some of these studies reported GM pollen-donor rice transferring GM traits to red rice. However, gene flow also occurs in the opposite direction, in a phenomenon that we have called reverse gene flow, resulting in transgenic seeds that have incorporated the traits of wild red rice. We quantified reverse gene flow using material from two field trials. A molecular analysis based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms was carried out, being complemented with a phenotypic identification of red rice traits. In both field trials, the reverse gene flow detected was greater than the direct gene flow. The rate of direct gene flow varied according to the relative proportions of the donor (GM rice) and receptor (red rice) plants and was influenced by wind direction. The ecological impact of reverse gene flow is limited in comparison with that of direct gene flow because non-shattered and non-dormant seeds would be obtained in the first generation. Hybrid seed would remain in the spike and therefore most of it would be removed during harvesting. Nevertheless, this phenomenon must be considered in fields used for elite seed production and in developing countries where farmers often keep some seed for planting the following year. In these cases, there is a higher risk of GM red rice weed infestation increasing from year to year and therefore a proper monitoring plan needs to be established.

  17. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  18. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  19. Production of Aflatoxin on Rice

    PubMed Central

    Shotwell, Odette L.; Hesseltine, C. W.; Stubblefield, R. D.; Sorenson, W. G.

    1966-01-01

    A method has been developed for the production of aflatoxin by growing Aspergillus flavus strain NRRL 2999 on the solid substrate rice. Optimal yields, more than 1 mg of aflatoxin B1 per g of starting material, were obtained in 5 days at 28 C. A crude product containing aflatoxins was isolated by chloroform extraction and precipitation with hexane from concentrated solutions. The crude product consisted of 50% aflatoxin in the following ratio: B1-B2-G1-G2, 100:0.15:0.22:0.02. Aflatoxin B1 was separated from almost all the impurities and from the other aflatoxins by chromatography on silica gel with 1% ethyl alcohol in chloroform. Analytically pure aflatoxin B1 was recrystallized from chloroform-hexane mixtures. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5970829

  20. Isolation and characterization of rice cesium transporter genes from a rice-transporter-enriched yeast expression library.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Tomohiro; Otani, Masahiro; Ono, Kohei; Mimura, Takuro; Oda, Koshiro; Minamii, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Matsuo, Yuzy; Kawamukai, Makoto; Akihiro, Takashi

    2017-03-28

    A considerable portion of agricultural land in central-east Japan has been contaminated by radioactive material, particularly radioactive Cs, due to the industrial accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Understanding the mechanism of absorption, translocation, and accumulation of Cs(+) in plants will greatly assist in developing approaches to help reduce the radioactive contamination of agricultural products. At present, however, little is known regarding the Cs(+) transporters in rice. A transporter-enriched yeast expression library was constructed and the library was screened for Cs(+) transporter genes. The 1452 full length cDNAs encoding transporter genes were obtained from the Rice Genome Resource Center and 1358 clones of these transporter genes were successively subcloned into yeast expression vectors; which were then transferred into yeast. Using this library, both positive and negative selection screens can be performed, which have not been previously possible. The constructed library is an excellent tool for the isolation of novel transporter genes. This library was screened for clones that were sensitive to Cs(+) using a SD-Gal medium containing either 30 or 70 mM CsCl; resulting in the isolation of thirteen Cs(+) sensitive clones. (137) Cs absorption experiments were conducted and confirmed that all of the identified clones were able to absorb (137) Cs. Three potassium transporters, two ABC transporters, and one NRAMP transporter were among the thirteen identified clones.

  1. Mississippi Technology Transfer Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Mississippi Technology Transfer Center at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., was officially dedicated in 1987. The center is home to several state agencies as well as the Center For Higher Learning.

  2. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  3. Characterization of rice blast resistance gene Pi61(t) in rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of resistance (R) genes to races of Magnaporthe oryzae in rice germplasm is essential for the development of rice cultivars with long lasting blast resistance. In the present study, one major quantitative trait locus, qPi93-3, was fine mapped using a recombinant inbred line (RIL), F8 ...

  4. Identification of broad spectrum rice blast resistance genes with IRRI Rice monogenic lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, is the most destructive rice disease worldwide. This disease is managed with a combination of the use of resistant cultivars, application of fungicides, and improved cultural practices. Among them, the use of resistant cultivars is the mos...

  5. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication.

  6. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  7. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  8. Feasibility of Simultaneous Rough Rice Drying and Disinfestations by Infrared Radiation Heating and Rice Milling Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics, milling quality and effectiveness of disinfestation of rough rice under conditions of infrared (IR) radiation heating. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M202) samples with low (20.6%) and high (25.0%) moisture contents (M...

  9. Germinated brown rice as a value added rice product: A review.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swati Bhauso; Khan, Md Khalid

    2011-12-01

    Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered whole food because only the outermost layer i.e. the hull of the rice kernel is removed which causes least damage to its nutritional value. Brown rice can be soaked in water at 30 °C for specified hours for germination to get GBR. Soaking for 3 h and sprouting for 21 h has been found to be optimum for getting the highest gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in GBR, which is the main reason behind the popularity of GBR. The intake of GBR instead of white rice ameliorates the hyperglycemia, boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, inhibits development of cancer cells and assists the treatment of anxiety disorders. Germination process could be used as enzymatic modification of starch that affects pasting properties of GBR flour. GBR would improve the bread quality when substituted for wheat flour. It is concluded that GBR has potential to become innovative rice by preserving all nutrients in the rice grain for human consumption in order to create the highest value from rice.

  10. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Presently dozens of ri...

  11. Development and characterization of a emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  12. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  13. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    PubMed

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  14. Effect of temperature on Chinese rice wine brewing with high concentration presteamed whole sticky rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23 °C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18 °C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33 °C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  15. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  16. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor Land Management Practices and the Development of Marshlands to Rice Fields in Rwanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusabimana, M. R.; Blach, D.; Mwiza, F.; Muzungu, E.; Swaminathan, R.; Tate, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Rwanda, a small country with the highest population density in Sub-Saharan Africa, is one of the world's poorest countries. Although agriculture is the backbone of Rwandan economy, agricultural productivity is extremely low. Over 90 % of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and only 52 % of the total land surface area is arable. Of this land, approximately 165,000 hectares are marshlands, of which only 57 % has been cultivated. Rwandan government has invested in the advancement of agriculture with activities such as irrigation, marshland reclamation, and crop regionalization. In 2001, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI) released the Rural Sector Support Program (RSSP), which aimed at converting marshlands into rice fields at various development sites across the country. The focus of this project was to monitor rice fields in Rwanda utilizing NASA Earth observations such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager. Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) was used to depict the progress of marshland to rice field conversion as it highlights the presence of irrigated rice fields from the surrounding area. Additionally, Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) was used to estimate rice yield at RSSP sites. Various simulations were run to find perfect conditions for cultivating the highest yield for a given farm. Furthermore, soil erosion susceptibility masks were created by combining factors derived from ASTER, MERRA, and ground truth data using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The end results, maps, and tutorials were delivered to the partners and policy makers in Rwanda to help make informed decisions. It can be clearly seen that Earth observations can be successfully used to monitor agricultural and land management practices as a cost effective method that will enable farmers to improve crop yield production and food security.

  17. Rice yellow mottle virus in Madagascar and in the Zanzibar Archipelago; island systems and evolutionary time scale to study virus emergence.

    PubMed

    Rakotomalala, Mbolarinosy; Pinel-Galzi, Agnès; Mpunami, Anatolia; Randrianasolo, Albert; Ramavovololona, Perle; Rabenantoandro, Yvonne; Fargette, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), of the genus Sobemovirus, is a major threat to rice cultivation in Africa. Long range transmission of RYMV, difficult to study experimentally, is inferred from a detailed analysis of the molecular diversity of the virus in Madagascar and in the Zanzibar Archipelago (Zanzibar and Pemba Islands; Tanzania) compared with that found elsewhere in Africa. A unique successful introduction of RYMV to Madagascar, which is ca. 400 km from mainland Africa, contrasted with recurrent introductions of the virus to the Zanzibar Archipelago, ca. 40 km from the East African coast. Accordingly, RYMV dispersal over distances of hundreds of kilometers is rare whereas spread of the virus over distances of tens of kilometers is relatively frequent. The dates of introduction of RYMV to Madagascar and to Pemba Island were estimated from three sets of ORF4 sequences of virus isolates collected between 1966 and 2011. They were compared with the dates of the first field detection in Madagascar (1989) and in Pemba Island (1990). The estimates did not depend substantially on the data set used or on the evolutionary model applied and their credible intervals were narrow. The estimated dates are recent - 1978 (1969-1986) and 1985 (1977-1993) in Madagascar and in Pemba Island, respectively - compared to the early diversification of RYMV in East Africa ca. 200 years ago. They predated by 5-10 years the first field detections in these islands. The interplay between virus sources, rice cultivation and long range dispersal which led to RYMV emergence and spread is enlightened.

  18. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  19. Child neurology services in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Newton, Charles R

    2011-12-01

    The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level.

  20. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  1. Where Europe meets Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Plant Gene and Alternatively Spliced Variant Annotator. A plant genome annotation pipeline for rice gene and alternatively spliced variant identification with cross-species expressed sequence tag conservation from seven plant species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-Chi; Wang, Sheng-Shun; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chuang, Trees-Juen

    2007-03-01

    The completion of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome draft has brought unprecedented opportunities for genomic studies of the world's most important food crop. Previous rice gene annotations have relied mainly on ab initio methods, which usually yield a high rate of false-positive predictions and give only limited information regarding alternative splicing in rice genes. Comparative approaches based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) can compensate for the drawbacks of ab initio methods because they can simultaneously identify experimental data-supported genes and alternatively spliced transcripts. Furthermore, cross-species EST information can be used to not only offset the insufficiency of same-species ESTs but also derive evolutionary implications. In this study, we used ESTs from seven plant species, rice, wheat (Triticum aestivum), maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), soybean (Glycine max), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), to annotate the rice genome. We developed a plant genome annotation pipeline, Plant Gene and Alternatively Spliced Variant Annotator (PGAA). Using this approach, we identified 852 genes (931 isoforms) not annotated in other widely used databases (i.e. the Institute for Genomic Research, National Center for Biotechnology Information, and Rice Annotation Project) and found 87% of them supported by both rice and nonrice EST evidence. PGAA also identified more than 44,000 alternatively spliced events, of which approximately 20% are not observed in the other three annotations. These novel annotations represent rich opportunities for rice genome research, because the functions of most of our annotated genes are currently unknown. Also, in the PGAA annotation, the isoforms with non-rice-EST-supported exons are significantly enriched in transporter activity but significantly underrepresented in transcription regulator activity. We have also identified potential lineage-specific and conserved isoforms, which are

  3. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  4. Deadly Fire in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An explosive fire in Kruger National Park in the northern Republic of South Africa has killed at least 21 people and injured several others, perhaps fatally. This true-color image from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the location of that fire and several others in the region indicated in red. Kruger National Park runs along the border of The Republic of South Africa, which takes up most of the western half of the image, and Mozambique, which takes up most of the eastern half. The deadly fire started on Tuesday, September 4, and burned just to the right of the center of this image, near the town of Skukuza. The fire spread rapidly in the winds that blow across South Africa at the end of the region's dry season. This image, made from MODIS data acquired on September 5, shows the perimeter of the fire burning and emitting heavy smoke. An irregularly shaped burn scar stands out in dark brown against the landscape, indicating the extent of the fire. What appears to be another large burn scar can be seen just to the southeast. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. The VIRCA Project: virus resistant cassava for Africa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel J; Halsey, Mark; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Anderson, Paul; Gichuki, Simon; Miano, Douglas; Bua, Anton; Alicai, Titus; Fauquet, Claude M

    2012-01-01

    The VIRCA (Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa) project is a collaborative program between the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA the National Crops Resources Research Institute, Uganda and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kenya. VIRCA is structured to include all aspects of the intellectual property, technology, regulatory, biosafety, quality control, communication and distribution components required for a GM crop development and delivery process. VIRCA's goal is to improve cassava for resistance to the viral diseases cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) using pathogen-derived RNAi technology, and to field test, obtain regulatory approval for and deliver these products to small landholder farmers. During Phase I of the project, proof of concept was achieved by production and testing of virus resistant plants under greenhouse and confined field trials in East Africa. In VIRCA Phase II, two farmer-preferred varieties will be modified for resistance to CBSD and CMD, and lead events identified after molecular and field screening. In addition to delivery of royalty-free improved planting materials for farmers, VIRCA capacity building activities are enhancing indigenous capability for crop biotechnology in East Africa.

  6. Transfusion Medicine in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conference Summary.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Walter Sunny; Kyeyune, Dorothy; Otekat, Grace; Natukunda, Bernard; Hume, Heather; Kasirye, Phillip G; Ddungu, Henry; Kajja, Isaac; Dhabangi, Aggrey; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Seguin, Claire; Barnes, Linda; Delaney, Meghan

    2015-07-01

    In November 2014, a 3-day conference devoted to transfusion medicine in sub-Saharan Africa was held in Kampala, Uganda. Faculty from academic institutions in Uganda provided a broad overview of issues pertinent to transfusion medicine in Africa. The conference consisted of lectures, demonstrations, and discussions followed by 5 small group workshops held at the Uganda Blood Transfusion Service Laboratories, the Ugandan Cancer Institute, and the Mulago National Referral Hospital. Highlighted topics included the challenges posed by increasing clinical demands for blood, the need for better patient identification at the time of transfusion, inadequate application of the antiglobulin reagent during pretransfusion testing, concern regarding proper recognition and evaluation of transfusion reactions, the expanded role for nurse leadership as a means to improve patient outcomes, and the need for an epidemiologic map of blood usage in Africa. Specialty areas of focus included the potential for broader application of transcranial Doppler and hydroxyurea therapy in sickle cell disease, African-specific guidelines for transfusion support of cancer patients, the challenges of transfusion support in trauma, and the importance of African-centered clinical research in pediatric and obstetric transfusion medicine. The course concluded by summarizing the benefits derived from an organized quality program that extended from the donor to the recipient. As an educational tool, the slide-audio presentation of the lectures will be made freely available at the International Society of Blood Transfusion Academy Web site: http://www.isbtweb.org/academy/.

  7. Human Heredity and Health (H3) in Africa Kidney Disease Research Network: A Focus on Methods in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Charlotte; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Burke, David; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tiffin, Nicki; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Kimmel, Paul L; Ojo, Akinlolu; Adu, Dwomoa; Parekh, Rulan S

    2015-12-07

    CKD affects an estimated 14% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa, but very little research has been done on the cause, progression, and prevention of CKD there. As part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, the H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network was established to study prevalent forms of kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa and increase the capacity for genetics and genomics research. The study is performing comprehensive phenotypic characterization and analyzing environmental and genetic factors from nine clinical centers in four African countries (Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Kenya) over a 5-year period. Approximately 4000 participants with specified kidney disease diagnoses and 4000 control participants will be enrolled in the four African countries. In addition, approximately 50 families with hereditary glomerular disease will be enrolled. The study includes both pediatric and adult participants age <1 to 74 years across a broad spectrum of kidney diseases secondary to hypertension-attributed nephropathy, diabetes, HIV infection, sickle cell disease, biopsy-proven glomerular disease, and CKD of unknown origin. Clinical and demographic data with biospecimens are collected to assess clinical, biochemical, and genetic markers of kidney disease. As of March 2015, a total of 3499 patients and controls have been recruited and 1897 had complete entry data for analysis. Slightly more than half (50.2%) of the cohort is female. Initial quality control of clinical data collection and of biosample and DNA analysis is satisfactory, demonstrating that a clinical research infrastructure can be successfully established in Africa. This study will provide clinical, biochemical, and genotypic data that will greatly increase the understanding of CKD in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Human Heredity and Health (H3) in Africa Kidney Disease Research Network: A Focus on Methods in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Osafo, Charlotte; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Burke, David; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tiffin, Nicki; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.; Rasooly, Rebekah S.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Ojo, Akinlolu; Parekh, Rulan S.

    2015-01-01

    CKD affects an estimated 14% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa, but very little research has been done on the cause, progression, and prevention of CKD there. As part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, the H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network was established to study prevalent forms of kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa and increase the capacity for genetics and genomics research. The study is performing comprehensive phenotypic characterization and analyzing environmental and genetic factors from nine clinical centers in four African countries (Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Kenya) over a 5-year period. Approximately 4000 participants with specified kidney disease diagnoses and 4000 control participants will be enrolled in the four African countries. In addition, approximately 50 families with hereditary glomerular disease will be enrolled. The study includes both pediatric and adult participants age <1 to 74 years across a broad spectrum of kidney diseases secondary to hypertension-attributed nephropathy, diabetes, HIV infection, sickle cell disease, biopsy-proven glomerular disease, and CKD of unknown origin. Clinical and demographic data with biospecimens are collected to assess clinical, biochemical, and genetic markers of kidney disease. As of March 2015, a total of 3499 patients and controls have been recruited and 1897 had complete entry data for analysis. Slightly more than half (50.2%) of the cohort is female. Initial quality control of clinical data collection and of biosample and DNA analysis is satisfactory, demonstrating that a clinical research infrastructure can be successfully established in Africa. This study will provide clinical, biochemical, and genotypic data that will greatly increase the understanding of CKD in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26138261

  9. 34 CFR 656.4 - What types of Centers receive grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES General § 656.4 What types of Centers receive grants... (such as East Asia, Africa, or the Middle East) and offer instruction in the principal language...

  10. 34 CFR 656.4 - What types of Centers receive grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES General § 656.4 What types of Centers receive grants... (such as East Asia, Africa, or the Middle East) and offer instruction in the principal language...

  11. 34 CFR 656.4 - What types of Centers receive grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES General § 656.4 What types of Centers receive grants... (such as East Asia, Africa, or the Middle East) and offer instruction in the principal language...

  12. 34 CFR 656.4 - What types of Centers receive grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES General § 656.4 What types of Centers receive grants... (such as East Asia, Africa, or the Middle East) and offer instruction in the principal language...

  13. 34 CFR 656.4 - What types of Centers receive grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES General § 656.4 What types of Centers receive grants... (such as East Asia, Africa, or the Middle East) and offer instruction in the principal language...

  14. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Polytechnic in London, suggests that Botshabelo is an example ; of what the Government intended when it accept- ed the concept of "orderly urbanisation ...the goodies. This "final solution" approach was tried in 1960, after the Sharpe- ville disturbances, and failed; and it was tried again in 1976...South Africa’s total population of 29 million was urbanised . Projections for the year 2000 were that the total population would increase to about 4

  15. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Farms Over Peasant Farming (SOUTHERN AFRICA FOCUS, Feb 87) 69 SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE Pinto da Costa Reshuffles Cabinet, Creates New Ministries...Voting Slated 134 ECONOMIC Statistics Reveal Shortage of Engineering Graduates (Mandy Jean Woods; BUSINESS DAY, 10 Feb 87) 135 Self-Help Projects...Ocean Newsletter. It is not certain that Jacques Chirac’s government is excessively worried, satisfied as it is at having secured a modus vivendi

  16. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-06

    the training. He added that if the information was true then it was lamentable, but a solution would be found through contacts with the Moroccan ...Virginia 22201. JPRS-SSA-87-018 6 MARCH 1987 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA REPORT CONTENTS ANGOLA Minister on Moroccan Aid to UNITA, U.S. Talks (Luanda...Sacked 1 30 LIBERIA Briefs Moroccan Cooperation Memorandum Signed 31 Matthews Advises on Reconciliation 31 Hongkong Steel Mill Construction 32

  17. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  18. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Nation’s Business Schools Say More Management Training Needed (Andrew Gillingham; BUSINESS DAY, 26 Jan 87) 98 Country’s Management Needs Said To Be...in specific sectors of mining." /9274 CSO: 3400/926 97 SOUTH AFRICA NATION’S BUSINESS SCHOOLS SAY MORE MANAGEMENT TRAINING NEEDED...Europe’s 1:12. And SA shapes even worse in comparison with the US, where the ratio is one manager to five workers. SA business schools say that, on

  19. Confronting Africa’s Sobels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    operations as American troops attempt to differentiate allies from enemies. In Africa, sometimes they are one and the same. Sobel , a portmanteau of...night” or, as the villagers called them, “ sobels .” On closer examination, it can be observed that the relationship between the soldiers of the...rich land, changed over time, thus making the sobel phenom- enon more like the sobel phenomena. Unfortunately, the presence of sobels is often an

  20. Refining American Strategy in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    that Americans seek a little further away. In addition, economic opportunities in Africa are growing. By volume, about 14 percent of U.S. crude oil ...Eastern Europe and continued to supply the Angolan rebels (who could pay with the proceeds of diamond sales).100 This is simply the starkest example...Cowling Publications Assistant Ms. Rita A. Rummel ***** Composition Mrs. Christine A. Williams Cover Artist Mr. James E. Kistler

  1. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Cotonou Domestic Service, 31 Mar 87) GHANA Military ’Exercise Full Impact’ Ends (Accra Domestic Service, 29 Mar 87) Radio Commentary Hails Planned...4 Sanctions Hit Natal Coal Mine 104 - e - BENIN COOPERATION AGREEMENTS SIGNED WITH MAURITANIA AB011622 Cotonou Domestic Service in French 1930...encourage the World Council of Churches and people like Senator Edward Kennedy to "hammer us until we are finished ." He said South Africa’s future

  2. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, M.; Kusdiyantini, E.; Wuryanti, W.; Winarni, T. A.; Widyanto, S. A.; Muharam, H.

    2015-06-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog.

  3. Relationship between disease resistance and rice oxalate oxidases in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian Yong; Nie, Zhuan Hua; Wang, Wen Juan; Leung, David W M; Xu, Da Gao; Chen, Bai Ling; Chen, Zhe; Zeng, Lie Xian; Liu, E E

    2013-01-01

    Differential expression of rice oxalate oxidase genes (OsOxO1-4) in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L.) in response to biotic stress was assayed using RT-PCR. OsOxO4 was induced transiently at 12 h in plants inoculated with the pathogens of bacterial blight and that of the wounding control. Inoculation with the rice blast pathogen induced OsOxO2 expression compared to the mock spray control. Overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 in rice resulted in elevated transcript levels of the respective transgene as well as OsOxO3 in leaves compared to that in untransformed wild type (WT). In a line of RNA-i transgenic rice plants (i-12), expression of all four OsOxO genes except that of OsOxO2 was severely inhibited. Oxalate oxidase (OxO, EC 1.2.3.4) activity in plants overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 was substantially higher than that in WT and the RNA-i lines. It was found that transgenic rice plants with substantially higher OxO activity were not more resistant to rice blast and bacterial blight than WT. In contrast, some RNA-i lines with less OxO activity seemed to be more resistant to rice blast while some overexpressing lines were more susceptible to rice blast than WT. Therefore, OxO might not be a disease resistance factor in rice.

  4. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N2O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH4 and N2O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N2O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect.

  5. HapRice, an SNP haplotype database and a web tool for rice.

    PubMed

    Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a promising tool to examine the genetic diversity of rice populations and genetic traits of scientific and economic importance. Next-generation sequencing technology has accelerated the re-sequencing of diverse rice varieties and the discovery of genome-wide SNPs. Notably, validation of these SNPs by a high-throughput genotyping system, such as an SNP array, could provide a manageable and highly accurate SNP set. To enhance the potential utility of genome-wide SNPs for geneticists and breeders, analysis tools need to be developed. Here, we constructed an SNP haplotype database, which allows visualization of the allele frequency of all SNPs in the genome browser. We calculated the allele frequencies of 3,334 SNPs in 76 accessions from the world rice collection and 3,252 SNPs in 177 Japanese rice accessions; all these SNPs have been validated in our previous studies. The SNP haplotypes were defined by the allele frequency in each cultivar group (aus, indica, tropical japonica and temperate japonica) for the world rice accessions, and in non-irrigated and three irrigated groups (three variety registration periods) for Japanese rice accessions. We also developed web tools for finding polymorphic SNPs between any two rice accessions and for the primer design to develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers at any SNP. The 'HapRice' database and the web tools can be accessed at http://qtaro.abr.affrc.go.jp/index.html. In addition, we established a core SNP set consisting of 768 SNPs uniformly distributed in the rice genome; this set is of a practically appropriate size for use in rice genetic analysis.

  6. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E.; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China. PMID:26012494

  7. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  8. OsFIE2 plays an essential role in the regulation of rice vegetative and reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Li, Shisheng; Zhou, Bing; Peng, Xiongbo; Kuang, Quan; Huang, Xiaolong; Yao, Jialing; Du, Bo; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are gene repressors that help to maintain cellular identity during development via chromatin remodeling. Fertilization-independent endosperm (FIE), a member of the PcG complex, operates extensively in plant development, but its role in rice has not been fully investigated to date. We report the isolation and characterization of a PcG member in rice, which was designated OsFIE2 for Oryza sativa Fertilization-Independent Endosperm 2. OsFIE2 is a single-copy gene in the rice genome and shows a universal expression pattern. The OsFIE2 RNAi lines displayed pleiotropic phenotypes in vegetative and reproductive organ generation. In unfertilized lines, endosperm formation could be triggered without embryo formation, which indicates that FIE is indeed involved in the suppression of autonomous endosperm development in rice. Furthermore, lateral root generation was promoted early in the roots of OsFIE2 RNAi lines, whereas the primary root was premature and highly differentiated. As the root tip stem cell differentiated, QHB, the gene required for stem cell maintenance in the quiescent center, was down-regulated. Our data suggest that the OsFIE2-PcG complex is vital for rice reproduction and endosperm formation. Its role in stem cell maintenance suggests that the gene is functionally conserved in plants as well as animals.

  9. Data Center Highlights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-01-03

    ... images from FM-5 on NPP CALIPSO Lidar L3 Aerosol Profile & Lidar, IIR, WFC L2 Version 3.02 data MOPITT V5 data - CO ... Data To Africa NASA News and Features: EOSDIS customer satisfaction ratings ...

  10. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  11. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2013-08-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in the East African region have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with adequate lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts and drought indices, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), promises to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The October-December rain season has higher skill that the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF) which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extend and intensity of the drought event.

  12. Population research potentials in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hyden, G

    1980-01-01

    There is a need in Africa to test prevailing theories and concepts in population studies to see how they apply to this culture. Most of the prevailing perspective on population issues can be influenced by development strategies and policies affecting demographic variables. So research designed to determine the longterm consequences of rural settlement policies on subsequent access to family planning or family planning policies are also needed, as are studies which zero in on the work and results of specific population projects. The following issues are considered worth special consideration in Africa, where the vast majority of women live in rural areas where family planning services will not reach for some time. The areas of investigation which seem most pertinent in sub-saharan Africa are: side effect of contraceptive devices and agents; infertility assessments, social and medical consequences of adolescent pregnancies, the means of offering effective population education in rural African areas, the possible effects of fertility control programs on demographic transition, and potential funding sources.

  13. 'Red Yeast Rice' Statin Alternative Not Harmless Either, Study Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163221.html 'Red Yeast Rice' Statin Alternative Not Harmless Either, Study Says The ... A natural cholesterol-lowering supplement called red yeast rice could pose the same health risks to users ...

  14. Developing and delivering biofortified Rice to the consumer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofortified rice varieties include those that have been enhanced for protein, vitamins, minerals, or other nutritional compounds. Delivering biofortified rice varieties carries with it extra challenges as compared to conventional varieties. Nutritional compounds must be present at significantly hig...

  15. Biological and molecular characterization of a putative new sobemovirus infecting Imperata cylindrica and maize in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sérémé, Drissa; Lacombe, Séverine; Konaté, Moumouni; Pinel-Galzi, Agnès; Traoré, Valentin Stanislas Edgar; Hébrard, Eugénie; Traoré, Oumar; Brugidou, Christophe; Fargette, Denis; Konaté, Gnissa

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from both the grass Imperata cylindrica and maize plants that had yellow mottle symptoms in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The virus has isometric particles ca. 32 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was restricted to Rottboellia exaltata. Virions were isolated from leaves of systemically infected maize plants. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanically inoculating uninfected Imperata or maize with either purified virus or sap from infected Imperata plants. Virion preparations were used to produce a specific polyclonal antiserum, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was set up. The full genome of the virus was sequenced, and it comprised 4,547 nucleotides. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the virus is closely related to rice yellow mottle virus, a sobemovirus that infects monocotyledons in Africa, and is more distantly related to cocksfoot mottle virus, another sobemovirus that infects monocotyledons. Although the virus can infect R. exaltata experimentally, it differs from Rottboellia yellow mottle virus, a member of a tentative species of the genus Sobemovirus that also infects monocotyledons in Africa. Particle morphology, serological properties, genomic organization, and phylogenetic analysis are all consistent with assignment of the new virus to the genus Sobemovirus. The name Imperata yellow mottle virus is proposed.

  16. A meta-analysis of telemedicine success in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wamala, Dan S.; Augustine, Kaddu

    2013-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) tools to improve the efficiency of professionalism at work is increasing every time under the dynamic digital environment. Tools such as telemedicine, tele-education, and health informatics have of late been incorporated in the health sector to enable easy access to essential services, for example, in medical areas from referral centers by the patients on one hand and enabling the doctor to doctor consultations for the benefit of patients. Unfortunately, observations indicate dearth efforts and commitment to optimize use of the tools in the majority of the countries south of the Sahara. Sub-Saharan Africa has been left almost behind the rest of the world in terms of development going through decades of economic exploitation by especially the west through its natural and human resources. These factors, ethnic conflicts and endless wars have continued to ruin sub-Saharan Africa’s socio-economic development. Information was obtained through a network of telemedicine practitioners in different African countries using internet communication, through E-mail and reviewing existing literature of their activities. This information was compiled from representative countries in each African region and the previous authors’experiences as telemedicine practioners. Most of these countries have inadequate ICT infrastructure, which yet creates sub-optimal application. Sub-Saharan Africa, made up of 33 of the 48 global poorest countries has to extend its ICT diffusion and policy to match the ever developing global economy. In some countries such as Ethiopia and South Africa there is significant progress in Telemedicine while in countries such as Burkina Faso and Nigeria the progress is slow because of lack of political support. Almost all reference to Africa is made in due respect to sub-Saharan Africa, one with big social, economic, and political problems with resultant high morbidity and mortality rates. This also

  17. Mercury cycling in a flooded rice paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Feng, Xinbin

    2012-09-01

    In 2008 and 2009, mercury (Hg) cycling was investigated in a flooded rice paddy in the Wanshan Hg mining region of eastern Guizhou, China, in the rice-planted (2008 and 2009) and fallow (2009) sections of the same paddy. In the rice-planted section, pore water was more acidic and pore water methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were higher compared to the fallow section. However, iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) cycling differed in 2008 and 2009, with higher sediment Fe concentrations in 2009, when pore water MeHg and sulfate concentrations were more strongly correlated in the rice-planted section. We explored whether elevated sediment Fe contributed to S cycling and hence, Hg(II)-methylation. Critical pH values for formation of FeS(s) were estimated. Based on pore water pH collected in both sections of the paddy, the fallow section was more often a sink for FeS(s), while FeS(s) did not form in the rice-planted section, although sulfide concentrations were low in both sections in both years (i.e.,<10 μM). We hypothesized Fe(III) oxidized sulfide, and intermediate S species (e.g., polysulfides) were further oxidized to sulfate instead of forming FeS(s), thus prolonging sulfate reduction and promoting Hg(II)-methylation in the rice-planted section in 2009. Results suggested Fe(III) reduction increased electron acceptors for sulfate-reducing bacteria, which indirectly enhanced Hg(II)-methylation. Additionally, highest sediment MeHg concentrations were observed in the fallow section after the paddy was dried and re-wetted, indicating water-saving rice cultivation practices (e.g., alternating wetting and drying), may cause MeHg concentrations in paddy soil to spike, which should be further investigated.

  18. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  19. African rice (Oryza glaberrima): History and future potential

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Olga F.

    2002-01-01

    The African species of rice (Oryza glaberrima) was cultivated long before Europeans arrived in the continent. At present, O. glaberrima is being replaced by the introduced Asian species of rice, Oryza sativa. Some West African farmers, including the Jola of southern Senegal, still grow African rice for use in ritual contexts. The two species of rice have recently been crossed, producing a promising hybrid. PMID:12461173

  20. Basmati Rice Fraud under the Magnifying Glass of DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fridez, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Basmati rice is a perfumed rice of high commercial value which is easily adulterated. A list of rice varieties accepted as true Basmati is the subject of an agreement between Europe, Pakistan and India. Each rice variety can be characterized by DNA profiling, thus offering to the control authorities a powerful tool to detect fraud. Mixtures of authentic Basmati and non-Basmati varieties can be quantified. During the last six years, about one third of the analysed samples proved to be fraudulent.

  1. Intense convection over West Africa during AMMA SOP3 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenouo, André; Sall, Saïdou Moustapha; Badiane, Daouda; Gaye, Amadou Thierno; Kamga Mkankam, F.

    2016-11-01

    ERA-Interim product from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) assimilation of African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) resources, Meteosat satellite images, and synoptic observations were used to study local- and regional-scale environments associated with intense convective systems during the AMMA-SOP3 experiment over West Africa in the Northern Hemisphere of summer 2006. The convective system, from the 21st to 23rd of August 2006, was more active at 0000 and 1800 UTC showing diurnal cycle of deep convection over West Africa where the African easterly waves (AEWs) are developed downstream. Downstream barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions associated with strong AEWs are important for the maintenance of AEW activity in West Africa. Barotropic energy conversions dominate south of the African easterly jet (AEJ), while baroclinic energy conversions are most important north of the AEJ. From a dynamical viewpoint, the low-level vorticity presents strong positive values over the sea and Sahara zone, indicating that exists on the cyclonic shear side of the African easterly jet, which is consistent with baroclinic growth. The 925-hPa equivalent potential temperature structure show a maximum over the Sahara which corresponds to the depression observed in this region. A mosaic of three hourly infrared (IR) satellite images, depicts a very distinct signal from an initial region of convection, developing through several stages and moving off the African coast. These observations, along with those available from the World Weather Watch, provide an opportunity to carry out numerical weather prediction (NWP) studies over West Africa utilizing high resolution limited area models.

  2. Women, food and nutrition in Africa: perspective from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Basse, M T

    1984-01-01

    If proper nutrition and good health for all Africans is to be attained by the year 2000, then several hard to control socio-economic factors must be addressed. Simply put they are: illiteracy, financial resources, parasitic and infectious disease control, and improper eating habits. However even economic progress is no guarantee of improvement for it has disadvantages all its own such as a widening gap between the urban and rural population in terms of their standard of living, and the rural exodus of people which results in reduced food production. While new crops may take the place of the traditional ones, many of these are grown near urban centers to feed the inhabitants or are exported for profit. The result is that the rural population suffers nutritionally. It is for all these reasons that the nutritional situation in Africa must be considered critical by national and international relief and development organizations. Other factors are the Sahelian drought which has been raging since 1972 and the oil crisis which has affected the balance of payments of foreign aid loans. The focus of this article is on the nutritional effects these problems have had on the rural women of Africa. The role of women as food producers, processors and household food providers area all considered. From this discussion, some consideration of the outlook for nutrition in Africa can be addressed. It is the author's final conclusion that educating the women of Africa about improved farming and veterinary methods will best help raise the standard of living for their households.

  3. Epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Prevett, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Over 10 million people in Africa have epilepsy of which most have no access to appropriate treatment. Epilepsy in Africa is different- the incidence is higher, and the causes and cultural attitudes towards it differ. This article examines the epidemiology, causes and treatment of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa and looks at the challenges to improve access to treatment and potential solutions and the implications for neurologists in more developed countries.

  4. Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Road to Democracy in South Africa," Peace Review 15, no. 3 (09 2003): 268. 32 Lowenberg, 64. 33 Wood, 143. 34 Ibid, 175. 35 Peter Gastrow...Winter 1997): 11. Frankel, Philip. Soldiers in a Storm. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2000. Gastrow, Peter . Bargaining for Peace South Africa...132. Louw, Antoinette . "Citizen Perceptions of Crime and Policing in South Africa." Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies. Johannesburg, South

  5. [Epidemic characteristics and security implications of Africa schistosomiasis on people who go to Africa].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Yang, Ya; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2015-08-01

    With the economic globalization, and the economic and trade cooperation and cultural communication between China and African countries, more and more Chinese people go to Africa for work or travel. However, there is a quick increase of imported schistosomiasis patients who return from Africa. This paper analyzes the security implications of epidemic characteristics of Africa schistosomiasis on the people who go to Africa, and put forward several suggestions to help them to prevent from schistosomiasis.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Phosphoproteins in the Rice Nucleus During the Early Stage of Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Yang, Pingfang; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-02

    The early stage of seed germination is the first step in the plant life cycle without visible morphological change. To investigate the mechanism controlling the early stage of rice seed germination, we performed gel-and label-free nuclear phosphoproteomics. A total of 3467 phosphopeptides belonging to 102 nuclear phosphoproteins from rice embryos were identified. Protein-synthesis-related proteins were mainly phosphorylated. During the first 24 h following imbibition, 115 nuclear phosphoproteins were identified, and significant changes in the phosphorylation level over time were observed in 29 phosphoproteins. Cluster analysis indicated that nucleotide-binding proteins and zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins increased in abundance during the first 12 h of imbibition and then decreased. The in silico protein-protein interactions for 29 nuclear phosphoproteins indicated that the Sas10/Utp3 protein, which functions in snoRNA binding and gene silencing, was the center of the phosphoprotein network in nuclei. The germination rate of seeds was significantly slowed with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. The mRNA expression of the zinc finger CCCH-type protein did not change, and the zinc finger BED-type protein was upregulated in rice embryos during the early stage of germination with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear proteins are involved in rice seed germination. Furthermore, transcription factors such as zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins might play a key role through nuclear phosphoproteins, and Sas10/Utp3 protein might interact with nuclear phosphoproteins in rice embryos to mediate the early stage of seed germination.

  7. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products.

  8. Identification of rice blast resistance genes using international monogenic differentials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases of rice that severely affects crop production in Jilin Province, Northeast China, where temperate japonica rice is primarily grown. In the present study, 44 representative local blast isolat...

  9. Investigating the Potential for Rice Production with Sprinkler Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almost all rice (Oryza sativa L.) produced in the US Mid-South is grown in a flooded culture that requires considerably more irrigation water than other crops grown in the region. One approach investigated for reducing the water requirements for rice involved producing rice with sprinkler irrigation...

  10. Thermomechanical property of rice kernels studied by DMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thermomechanical property of the rice kernels was investigated using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The length change of rice kernel with a loaded constant force along the major axis direction was detected during temperature scanning. The thermomechanical transition occurred in rice kernel...

  11. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  12. Developing sustainable management practices for organic rice production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organically produced rice has been increasing with up to 50,000 acres now produced in the USA. Although acreage of conventional rice production has decreased in Texas by 36% during the last 15 years, it is now home to some 15,000 acres of organic rice, which has brought new vitality to ot...

  13. Rice growth monitoring using simulated compact polarimetric C band SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Li, Kun; Liu, Long; Shao, Yun; Brisco, Brian; Li, Weiguo

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a set of nine compact polarimetric (CP) images were simulated from polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data acquired over a test site containing two types of rice field in Jiangsu province, China. The types of rice field in the test site were (1) transplanted hybrid rice fields, and (2) direct-sown japonica rice fields. Both types have different yields and phenological stages. As a first step, the two types of rice field were distinguished with 94% and 86% accuracy respectively through analyzing CP synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations and their behavior in terms of scattering mechanisms during the rice growth season. The focus was then on phenology retrieval for each type of rice field. A decision tree (DT) algorithm was built to fulfill the precise retrieval of rice phenological stages, in which seven phenological stages were discriminated. The key criterion for each phenological stage was composed of 1-4 CP parameters, some of which were first used for rice phenology retrieval and found to be very sensitive to rice phenological changes. The retrieval results were verified at parcel level for a set of 12 stands of rice and up to nine observation dates per stand. This gave an accuracy of 88-95%. Throughout the phenology retrieval process, only simulated CP data were used, without any auxiliary data. These results demonstrate the potential of CP SAR for rice growth monitoring applications.

  14. Determination of sockage for accurate rough rice quality assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of dockage of freshly harvested rice is crucial for precise development of a universal rice shrinking chart. The objectives of this research were to determine the effect of different factors, including rice variety, farm location, harvest moisture and time, drying, dropping, weather ev...

  15. Effective disinfection of rough rice using infrared radiation heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (IR) heating and tempering treatments on disinfection of Aspergillus flavus in freshly harvested rough rice and storage rice. Rice samples with initial moisture contents (IMCs) of 14.1 to 27.0% (wet basis) were infected with A. fl...

  16. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion.

  17. Moisture diffusivity of rough rice under infrared radiation drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To design efficient infrared (IR) dryers for rough rice, it is important to understand the drying behavior of rough rice under IR heating. The objective of this study was to determine the moisture diffusivity of rough rice under IR heating followed by cooling. The effects of initial moisture content...

  18. Water absorption properties of ultrasonic treated brown rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the effect of ultrasonic treated on brown rice, it is important to research the water absorption processing of brown rice before and after ultrasonic treatment. The objective of this study was investigate and modeling water absorption characteristics of brown rice using Peleg’s equatio...

  19. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Rice Isolate Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Spence, Carla A.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105, a strain isolated from rice rhizosphere, has shown antagonistic activities against a rice fungal pathogen, and could be important in defense against rice blast. We report the draft genome sequence of EA105, which is an estimated size of 6.6 Mb. PMID:25540352