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Sample records for africa south africa

  1. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  2. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and…

  3. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and…

  4. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  5. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  6. Audiology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, De Wet

    2006-05-01

    Audiology in South Africa is an established profession facing the challenge of serving a diverse population in predominantly developing contexts. The profession has developed over the last half century from an adjunct to speech-language pathology into a profession in its own right. Several tertiary institutions offer undergraduate training in audiology with optional postgraduate qualifications. Institutions are continually adapting to a profession characterised by rapid change--evidenced even in the very composition of the profession itself. This article aims to provide an overview of the development and current status of audiology as a profession in South Africa.

  7. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  8. Emergency nursing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brysiewicz, Petra; Bruce, Judy

    2008-04-01

    The role of the emergency nurse in South Africa is a challenging one due to a variety of reasons. This article describes the healthcare system of South Africa with particular attention to the emergency medical system as well as the reason why most emergency clients present to the emergency departments. The actual experience of working as an emergency nurse in South Africa is highlighted.

  9. Trends Abroad: South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Douglas H.

    1970-01-01

    In South Africa today there is a complex structure of laws and regulations which impose a variety of restrictions on individual liberties including the freedom to publish and read literary material. The successive steps by which this state of affairs has been reached are briefly described. (NH)

  10. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  11. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  12. Terrorism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  13. Cape Agulhas, South Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-13

    The southernmost tip of Africa is marked by the Cape Agulhas lighthouse. The warm Atlantic Agulhas current meets the cold water Indian Ocean Benguela current, creating treacherous seas that have claimed many ships over the last 450 years. The image covers an area of 22.5 by 41.1 kilometers, was acquired September 27, 2006, and is located at 34.8 degrees south, 20 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21014

  14. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  15. Guayule rubber for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-17

    It is reported that Agtec together with South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, is investigating the possibility of large-scale production of guayule. The rubber-yielding shrub grows in semi-arid climates and may be the source of a $35-million natural rubber industry in South Africa.

  16. Lightning medicine in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Ryan; Trengrove, Estelle; Jandrell, Ian R; Saayman, Gert

    2012-06-06

    South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a concerted and co-ordinated attempt be made to report and collate data regarding lightning strike victims in South Africa.

  17. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  18. Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-08

    The Bushveld Igneous Complex BIC is a large layered igneous intrusion within the earth crust, exposed at the edge of the Transvaal Basin in South Africa. Numerous mines, tailings piles, and leach ponds are shown in blue.

  19. South Africa Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has a large energy-intensive coal mining industry. The country has limited proved reserves of oil and natural gas and uses its large coal deposits to meet most of its energy needs, particularly in the electricity sector. South Africa also has a sophisticated synthetic fuels industry, producing gasoline and diesel fuels from the Secunda coal-to-liquids (CTL) and Mossel Bay gas-to-liquids (GTL) plants

  20. Neuropsychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-21

    This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  1. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  2. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  3. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  4. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  5. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  6. Theme: Education with Production in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ben; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes " A Bridge Too Far: Democracy, Development and Education in Rural South Africa (Parker); "Khuphuka: A Skills Training and Employment Programme in Durban, South Africa" (Comninos); "Reconstruction and Development Programme and Tertiary Institutions in South Africa"; and "Report on the First Session of the…

  7. Professionalising Principalship in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; van Vuuren, Herman

    2007-01-01

    At the present juncture, South Africa is one of the few countries that do not require a compulsory and specific qualification for principalship. This particular need has been part of a discussion among educational leaders for the past thirty to forty years. Despite all the laudable efforts to redesign the landscape of Educational Leadership and…

  8. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…

  9. Monitoring Optimism in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mari

    2007-01-01

    An article with exactly this same title was published in Social Indicators Research (41:279-304, 1997). The purpose of the current article is to update the findings discussed in that first article. Therefore the abstract published previously is still relevant: The last few decades have been the most crucial and eventful ones in South Africa's…

  10. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  11. South Africa: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in South Africa begins with an overview of the distribution among the population of the official languages, Afrikaans and English, and the principle languages of the Black majority: Zulu, Xhosa, Tswana, Nothern Sotho (Pedi), Southern Sotho, Tsonga, Swazi, and Venda. The influence of apartheid policy on…

  12. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  13. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…

  14. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  15. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  16. Monitoring Optimism in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mari

    2007-01-01

    An article with exactly this same title was published in Social Indicators Research (41:279-304, 1997). The purpose of the current article is to update the findings discussed in that first article. Therefore the abstract published previously is still relevant: The last few decades have been the most crucial and eventful ones in South Africa's…

  17. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections…

  18. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Population policy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-Dan, O

    1993-01-01

    This report examines the current state and likely future directions of population policy in South Africa with particular reference to family planning activities set against the background of apartheid and its demise. In the apartheid era, population policy was perceived by most blacks as an instrument for the control of their number and movements. Recently, policy has been adjusted by the national Population Development Program in response to the changing sociopolitical situations in the country. A national post-apartheid population policy is likely to retain many of the components of this new program. However, a future nonracist and democratic society would probably invite a review of population activities in the country and raise wider issues concerning rationales, organization, and strategies for the delivery of family planning in South Africa.

  1. Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Road to Democracy in South Africa," Peace Review 15, no. 3 (09 2003): 268. 32 Lowenberg, 64. 33 Wood, 143. 34 Ibid, 175. 35 Peter Gastrow...Winter 1997): 11. Frankel, Philip. Soldiers in a Storm. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2000. Gastrow, Peter . Bargaining for Peace South Africa...132. Louw, Antoinette . "Citizen Perceptions of Crime and Policing in South Africa." Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies. Johannesburg, South

  2. South Africa: defiance campaign continues.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) has continued its "defiance campaign against patent abuse and AIDS profiteering." In partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), and with the support of Oxfam and the Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), on 28 January 2002 three TAC members returned to South Africa from Brazil carrying generic versions of the antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP). Some of the imported capsules contain a combination of AZT and 3TC.

  3. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  4. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.

  5. Private Observatories in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  6. Health promotion in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Onya, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion first entered the South African health system in 1990. Today, Health Promotion is a Directorate located within the Social Sector Cluster (SSC) within Primary Health Care (PHC), District and Development operations which falls under the Deputy Director General for Health Service Delivery in the National Department of Health (DoH). The first significant piece of new policy for health promotion in South Africa appeared in the African National Congress (ANC) health policy document, health care services including reproductive health care. At the moment, health promotion service delivery is the responsibility of the national, provincial and local governments with provincial and local governments mainly implementing and the National Health Promotion Directorate offering support. Funding for health promotion activities comes from the Department of Health budget allocation by the National Treasury. One major problem for Health Promotion development is infrastructure. There is significant community participation in South Africa including health promotion policy and strategy document development. Health Promotion research and evaluation is limited. The National Department of Health considers the settings approach to be crucial in driving the progress of health promotion. There are very few trained health promotion specialists either capable or in the position to inform politicians and opinion leaders about the relationship between health and social determinants, and the evidence of effectiveness of health promotion action. Mechanisms for demonstrating evidence of health promotion effectiveness in terms of health, social, economic and political impact are lacking and occupational standards for health promotion education and training are needed.

  7. The silent struggle. South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shiner, C

    1994-01-01

    South Africa's new Constitution will include a women's rights charter that addresses issues such as domestic violence. The Women's National Coalition, which drafted the charter, united South African women across political, racial, ethnic, and social class boundaries. Despite vastly different priorities, the women were able to agree on the centrality of the domestic violence issue. One in six South African women is battered by her husband and one out of two is raped. The charter mandates the state to provide education to police and the courts about violence against women and to offer counseling and shelters. A problem faced by the group is the inability of federal law to override customary laws that give village chiefs the right to control the lives of Black women. Similarly, the charter's call for gender equality in development funding is not binding on international agencies. Nonetheless, the charter is expected to create a political climate of greater awareness of and respect for women's rights.

  8. Country watch: South Africa.

    PubMed

    Everett, K; Schaay, N

    1994-01-01

    Photo-comics are an ideal format for education of South African youth about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) given their low literacy rate and the widespread popularity of comic books. An example of the success of this strategy is "Roxy: Life, Love, and Sex in the Nineties," a comic produced as part of a school-based AIDS prevention program run by the National AIDS Research Program. The comic tells the story of an adolescent girl who learns her friend committed suicide because she was infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Roxy learns about AIDS and discusses the risk factors with her friends. Focus group discussions were used to generate story ideas and pretesting of the comic book took place among several student groups. By July 1993, 30,000 copies of "Roxy" had been distributed to students, churches, youth groups, civic associations, and organizations working with street children. In addition, the comic was reproduced in a magazine, "Upbeat," that is popular among out-of-school youth. Qualitative evaluation through 8 student focus groups revealed that young people from various cultural backgrounds strongly identify with the themes, characters, and situations depicted in "Roxy." Of particular significance were the realistic portrayals of romantic and sexual relationships, relationships with parents, and dilemmas posed by pressures to use drugs and alcohol. The comic includes a sex education chart with concise condom use instructions.

  9. The Africa South America Intercontinental Teleconnection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. H.; Hsieh, J.-S.; Hagos, S. M.

    2004-07-01

    The influence of heating over Africa on the South American precipitation climatology, and the influence of South America on Africa, is examined through the application of GCM simulations with idealized boundary conditions and perpetual solstice (January and July) conditions.The presence of Africa is associated with a pronounced (up to 4 mm day-1) decrease in precipitation in Brazil's Nordeste region during austral summer. Low-level moisture divergence and dry-air advection associated with the downbranch of a Walker circulation induced by heating over southern Africa is amplified over the Nordeste due to the response of the land surface. The response is much smaller during austral winter due to differences in the heat source over Africa and a reduced sensitivity in the surface heat balance over tropical South America. Forcing from South America in January shifts the position of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) to the southwest over southern Africa in association with the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). In July, a Rossby wave train generated over South America induces a response in the surface temperature of Africa that leads to stronger precipitation in central and western Africa.This study suggests a zonal mode of variability for South American and African circulation and precipitation fields. The resulting perturbations depend as much on land surface atmosphere interactions as on the direct forcing from the adjacent continent, and the mechanisms are highly nonlinear.


  10. South Africa Divestiture. Target Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Joel

    This student resource guide prepared by the South Africa Catalyst Project for the United States Student Association (USSA) focuses on the student anti-apartheid movement and divestiture activities of American students. Divestiture of university-held stock in U.S. corporations operating in South Africa is the major focus of the student…

  11. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  12. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear Energy Set to Increase,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 9, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 38 David...Foresees Massive Expansion,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 5, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 41 Sven Lunsche

  13. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  14. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  15. South Africa Divestiture. Target Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Joel

    This student resource guide prepared by the South Africa Catalyst Project for the United States Student Association (USSA) focuses on the student anti-apartheid movement and divestiture activities of American students. Divestiture of university-held stock in U.S. corporations operating in South Africa is the major focus of the student…

  16. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  17. Researching Postgraduate Educational Research in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…

  18. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  19. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  20. Are Community Colleges Right for South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, James L.; Gibson-Benninger, Barbara

    Post-apartheid South Africa has been struggling with the question of how to restructure its institutions of higher education to both foster an equitable society and contribute to economic and technological development. Proponents of community colleges in the United States suggest that these institutions may best meet South Africa's needs.…

  1. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  2. American Business Should Stay in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger M.

    1978-01-01

    Some 350 American firms, with holdings worth approximately $1.7 billion, now operate in South Africa. American students want them to get out of the country. The author evaluates the net effects of such action, and considers how American corporations can improve the racial situation in South Africa. (Author/RK)

  3. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  4. Conscientious Objectives: Campuses Respond to South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexter, Holly

    1985-01-01

    In the wake of political pressures and deteriorating conditions in South Africa, many campuses are reviewing their investment policies and considering other contributions. The rising interest in educational initiatives is discussed including establishment of scholarships for South African students. (MLW)

  5. South Africa, Namibia Diamond Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image covers a portion of the Richtersveld National Park and Orange River (top of image) in the Northern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa. The Orange River marks the boundary between South Africa to the south and Namibia to the north. This is an area of active mining for diamonds, which were washed downstream from the famous Kimberley Diamond Area, millions of years ago when the river was much larger. The mining is focused on ancient drainages of the Orange River which are currently buried by think layers of sand and gravel. Scientists are investigating whether these ancient drainages can be seen with the radar's ability to penetrate sand cover in extremely dry regions. A mine, shown in yellow, is on the southern bank of the river in an abandoned bend which is known as an 'oxbow.' The small bright circular areas (left edge of image) west of the mine circles are fields of a large ostrich farm that are being watered with pivot irrigation. The large dark area in the center of the image is the Kubus Pluton, a body of granite rock that broke through the surrounding rocks about 550 million years ago. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is about 55 by 60 kilometers (34 by 37 miles) centered at 28.4 degrees south latitude, 16.8 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired on April 18, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

  6. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  7. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  8. Strengthening pharmacovigilance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mehta, U; Dheda, M; Steel, G; Blockman, M; Ntilivamunda, A; Maartens, G; Pillay, Y; Cohen, K

    2014-02-01

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a national pharmacovigilance workshop held in August 2012 in South Africa (SA). A survey of current pharmacovigilance activities, conducted in preparation for the meeting, identified multiple programmes collecting drug safety data in SA, with limited co-ordination at national level. The meeting resolved that existing pharmacovigilance programmes need to be strengthened and consolidated to ensure that important local safety issues are addressed, data can be pooled and compared and outputs shared more widely. Pharmacovigilance activities should inform treatment guidelines with the goal of improving patient care. A variety of pharmaco-epidemiological approaches should be employed, including nesting drug safety studies within existing sentinel cohorts and the creation of a pregnancy exposure registry. The attendees agreed on key principles that will inform a national pharmacovigilance plan and compiled a list of priority pharmacovigilance issues facing public health programmes in SA.

  9. Echinococcus felidis in hippopotamus, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Roux, Francois; Nakao, Minoru; Sasaki, Mizuki; Lavikainen, Antti

    2017-08-30

    Hydatid cysts of Echinococcus felidis are described from the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) from Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Among six hippopotami investigated, hepatic hydatids were found in three. The identification was based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. In addition, the rostellar hook morphology was analysed. This is the first morphological description of the metacestode of E. felidis, and the first molecularly confirmed report of the intermediate host of E. felidis in South Africa. The definitive host of E. felidis in South Africa is the lion (Panthera leo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytoplankton bloom off South Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired December 26, 2011 Off the coast of South Africa, near where the South Atlantic meets the Southern Indian Ocean, a massive summer phytoplankton bloom colored the waters with a swirl of turquoise, green and white in late December 2011. Although this circular bloom has the appearance of a precious antique gaming marble, it is actually the result of millions of tiny plant-like organisms (phytoplankton) which are growing where nutrient-rich waters mix together. Each spring and summer, lengthening sunshine comes to the southern oceans, providing light to spur the growth of these microscopic plants. The lengthening light also melts sea ice, which can release additional nutrients into the sea. Blooms such as this one become a banquet for krill, fish and other marine species which survive in these cool waters. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image on December 26, 2011 as it passed over the region. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  12. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  13. Systemic shigellosis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Keddy, Karen H; Sooka, Arvinda; Crowther-Gibson, Penny; Quan, Vanessa; Meiring, Susan; Cohen, Cheryl; Nana, Trusha; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Seetharam, Sharona; Hoosen, Anwar; Naicker, Preneshni; Elliott, Eugenne; Haffejee, Sumayya; Whitelaw, Andrew; Klugman, Keith P

    2012-05-01

    Systemic disease due to shigellae is associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and other immunosuppressed states. We examined the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of systemic shigellosis in South Africa, where rates of HIV infection are high. From 2003 to 2009, 429 cases of invasive shigellosis were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. At selected sites, additional information was captured on HIV serostatus and outcome. Isolates were serotyped and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed. Most cases of systemic shigellosis were diagnosed on blood culture (408 of 429 cases; 95%). HIV prevalence was 67% (80 of 120 cases), highest in patients aged 5-54 years, and higher among females (55 of 70 cases; 79%) compared with males (25 of 48 cases; 52%; P = .002). HIV-infected people were 4.1 times more likely to die than HIV-uninfected cases (case-fatality ratio, 29 of 78 HIV-infected people [37%] vs 5 of 40 HIV-uninfected people [13%]; P = .008; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-11.8). The commonest serotype was Shigella flexneri 2a (89 of 292 serotypes [30.5%]). Pentavalent resistance occurred in 120 of 292 isolates (41.1%). There was no difference in multidrug resistance between HIV-infected patients (33 of 71 [46%]) and uninfected patients (12 of 33 [36%]; 95% CI, .65--3.55). Systemic shigellosis is associated with HIV-infected patients, primarily in older girls and women, potentially due to the burden of caring for sick children in the home; interventions need to be targeted here. Death rates are higher in HIV-infected versus uninfected individuals.

  14. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  15. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  16. Evaluating the MBA in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Mala; Lange, Lis; Naidoo, Prem

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Quality Committee of the Council on Higher Education in South Africa recently carried out an evaluation of all MBA programmes offered in the country by South African as well as foreign higher education institutions. The MBA review is located within the context of the implementation of a comprehensive external quality assurance…

  17. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  18. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Selvarani; Storbeck, Claudine

    2015-01-01

    With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014) in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority and extends beyond the two provinces currently showing growth.

  19. Asbestos-Related Disease in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered—and continue to suffer—from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

  20. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  1. Primary health care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Buch, E

    1989-01-01

    Even though most countries have committed to primary health care (PHC), South Africa, a middle-income country, has an inadequate PHC system. The poor system has roots in the colonial period and apartheid reinforces this system. Race, class, and place of residence determine the type of health care individuals receive. South Africa falls far short of all 5 principles of PHC. Just 12% of the health budget goes to 40% of the population who live in the homelands which shows the inequitable distribution of health care resources and inadequate quality health care for all. Similarly, South Africa has not altered its communication and education techniques to improve preventive and promotive health services. It has not implemented any successful national campaigns such as a campaign against diarrhea deaths. South Africa does not make good use of available appropriate technology such as breast feeding, oral rehydration, refrigeration, and the ventilated improved pit latrine which lead to health for all. People in South Africa discuss community participation but it is not likely to occur without general political democracy. Some people have made local attempts at community participation but they tend to use inflexible means and request either cash or contributions in kind from people who have little. The elite in South Africa has not recognized the need to correct socioeconomic inequalities. The Population Development Plan Programme among white farmer-owners has showed some support for a multisectoral approach to improve health care, however. For example, it acknowledges that non-health-care interventions such as better salaries, literacy, and living conditions, lead to better health. The Department of National Health has discussed improved coordination of the budget to allow priority determination of national PHD and manpower plans. Nongovernmental organizations are beginning to use the PHC approach instead of the charitable approach.

  2. Africa activism: money for AIDS not for war; South Africa antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    2003-04-04

    Africa Action seeks organizational endorsements for prioritizing an epidemic that has already killed 25 million people. Separately, South Africa's Treatment Action Campaign seeks international support for government cooperation in making antiretroviral treatment available there.

  3. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  4. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  5. AIDS and palliative care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Craig

    2007-01-01

    As a result of limited access to antiretroviral treatment, many South Africans die yearly of AIDS. It is important that the end-of-life needs of these people be met. This article examines the major challenges involved in providing quality end-of-life care to people with AIDS in South Africa. Published reports are reviewed, as is the author's experience living and working in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The issues discussed include the nature of the South African health care system, with emphasis on the scarcity of palliative care resources for AIDS patients, ineffective control of pain, models of care such as the integrated community-based home care model that relies heavily on community caregivers to meet the needs of people dying of AIDS, the living conditions of AIDS patients and their families, and AIDS-related stigma. Broad recommendations are presented for improving palliative care services for people with AIDS in the South African context.

  6. Tele-Education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. Method: A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Conclusion: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained

  7. Preschool Educare in South Africa. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    This fact sheet presents information about the educare situation in South Africa to illustrate the glaring disparities between the races, until recently officially classified as White, Indian, Colored, and Black. These statistics delineate: (1) the under-6 population by race, geographic, and economic background; (2) costs, fees, and…

  8. School Governance in the New South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Heystek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses early experiences of school governing bodies in South Africa. Examines governing bodies' powers to set fees, resulting impact on resources for different types of schools, and implications for equity and equality. Explores governing bodies' admission policies and how this led to school populations differentiated by class and race. (CAJ)

  9. Will Democracy Come to South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, N. Brian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses prospects for democracy in South Africa. Explores the complexities and contradictions endemic to the process of overcoming 300 years of racist laws and practices. Considers the risks of concessions for both Black and White leaders; problems resulting from enduring political and economic inequalities; and constitutional alternatives.…

  10. Relative Deprivation in Contemporary South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelgryn, Ans E. M.; Bornman, Elirea

    1996-01-01

    Identifies relative deprivation as a subjective feeling of discontent based on a belief that one is getting less than one feels entitled to. Investigates the relationship between relative deprivation, ethnic identification, and racial attitudes in South Africa. Discusses the connections between these beliefs and recent sociopolitical changes. (MJP)

  11. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  12. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  13. Variable Star Observing in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hers, Jan

    1986-12-01

    Variable star observing by amateurs in South Africa has a long history, dating back to the previous century. Amateurs all over the world still play an important role in the study of variable stars contributing important observations to the professional community.

  14. Standards-Based Accountability in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of standards-based accountability (SBA) interventions aimed at improving school performance often focuses on the testing component, at the expense of capacity building. This was the case in South Africa when a SBA programme was instituted by government in 2000, which was accompanied by substantial rises in senior certificate…

  15. Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Stephen D; Zibrowius, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    We describe and figure the 20 species of stylasterid hydrozoans known from South Africa. These consist of seven new species, six range extensions, and seven species previously known from South African. Most of the specimens reported resulted from expeditions of the Pieter Faure (1898-1903) and Meiring Naude (1975-1987), and are deposited primarily in the South African Museum (Cape Town). A replacement name (Errina australis) is proposed for the junior homonym Errina hicksoni Cairns, 1991. A brief history of species discovery of the South African stylasterids is presented. The new morphological term dactyloglossa is introrduced to define a baffle-like structure found in dactylopores of some species. Of the 20 South African species, 12 (60%) are not yet known outside that area. Three patterns of distribution were noted: species confined to the tropical region of South Africa, those found in both the tropical and warm temperate regions of S. Africa, and those found only in the warm temperate regions, three in the latter group sharing their distribution with cold temperate southern South America and two with warm temperate New Zealand, representing a circum-southern temperate distribution.

  16. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  17. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  18. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  19. Peritoneal Dialysis in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Okpechi, Ikechi G.; Rayner, Brian L.; Swanepoel, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which encompasses 70% of the least-developed countries in the world. Most people in SSA have no access to any form of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Given its ease of performance and patient independence, peritoneal dialysis (PD) should be an ideal form of RRT in SSA, but several complex and interdependent factors make PD a difficult option in SSA. The present review describes the practice of PD in SSA, with emphasis on Cape Town, South Africa. ♦ Methods and Results: After a review of the recent PubMed literature on RRT in SSA and an appraisal of nephrology practice in South Africa, factors that make the provision of RRT (especially PD) a challenge in SSA include the low number of qualified health care workers, socio-demographic issues (poor housing, electricity, and water supplies), and the cost of PD fluids in the region. Although South Africa has the largest PD population in all of SSA, the growth of PD in South Africa is specifically impeded by the system of RRT rationing, which favors HD; the methods of funding for dialysis and for remuneration of doctors in private practice; and many other socio-economic factors. The peritonitis rate remains relatively high, and it is a significant contributor to morbidity in PD patients in Cape Town. ♦ Conclusions: In many parts of SSA, PD could be the main dialysis modality. However, African governments must start taking responsibility for their people by providing adequate funds for renal replacement programs. Attempts to produce PD fluids locally and to train and educate health care workers will greatly improve the use of PD as a RRT option in SSA. PMID:22641735

  20. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  1. Pfizer donates drug to South Africa's poor.

    PubMed

    This article reports on Pfizer's AIDS drug donation to South Africa. The donated drug, Diflucan, treats cryptococcal meningitis, a lethal brain infection that occurs in one out of 10 HIV patients. Its daily dose in South Africa costs about US$15, far more than poor people can afford. The HIV and AIDS Treatment Action Campaign, an advocacy group, had lobbied New York-based Pfizer for a year to reduce the drug's price. The donation offered hope among activists that other pharmaceutical companies would follow suit and offer HIV- and AIDS-related drugs at a discount or for free. After the announcement of the donation, the group is now lobbying Glaxo Wellcome, maker of Zidovudine. The group is asking to make the drug available for free to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Glaxo Wellcome, however, has no plans of offering Zidovudine for free, although the drug was offered 75% cheaper in developing nations.

  2. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  3. Carbon reduction emissions in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Temchin, Jerome

    2002-02-28

    This project is a feasibility study for a control system for existing backup generators in South Africa. The strategy is to install a system to enable backup generators (BGs) to be dispatched only when a large generator fails. Using BGs to provide ''ten minute reserve'' will save energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by an estimated nearly 500,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year.

  4. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  5. Exploring Our Cosmic Dawn from South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Aaron; PAPER; Kilimetre Array South Africa, Square

    2014-01-01

    The Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) is a dedicated experiment for using radio emission from neutral hydrogen to access one of the last major phase transitions in our Universe --- the epoch when the first luminous objects ionized the bulk of the hydrogen in the universe. PAPER has been deployed in the Karoo desert of South Africa since 2009, and has been co-developed with the help of Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKASA), students and researchers at the University of Cape Town, and many interns from local technical colleges. Shared efforts between SKASA and UC Berkeley developing digital signal processing hardware for PAPER helped begin the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), which now includes hundreds of organizations around the world who use CASPER technology in a wide range of astronomy applications. We discuss the history and current status of collaboration between PAPER and organizations in South Africa, its numerous synergistic benefits, and the prospects for broadening and enriching this collaboration as part of a next-generation instrument to succeed PAPER: the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA).

  6. Internationalisation of Higher Education in Southern Africa with South Africa as a Major Exporter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwaramba, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which South Africa has strategically marketed its educational services and positioned itself as the educational hub of Southern Africa. The analysis reveals that South African universities' export of higher education services has been modeled in line with three of the four modes of supply identified in World…

  7. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  8. Urbanisation and women's health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pick, W; Cooper, D

    1997-03-01

    For many decades the migrant labor system and the influx control legislation in South Africa exacerbated male-dominant patterns of migration typical of Africa. In recent years, however, and especially following the easing of influx control legislation in 1986, migration in South Africa has increasingly involved women. This paper reports on a study conducted in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, which explored the relationship between urbanisation and the health of women. The objectives were to relate age, migration, length of stay in urban areas, employment status, and occupation to the health, including reproductive health, of women living in Khayelitsha. Interviews with 659 women (61 households had no senior woman) revealed that women enjoyed considerable social support through their neighbours, church organisations, and women's organisations. Women who lived in the most deprived section of Khayelitsha enjoyed more support from their neighbours but reported less satisfaction with the area in which they lived. Child-care support was poor and a considerable proportion of the women were disempowered by their male partners. More than 90 percent of the women had access to antenatal care. Recent immigrants had more pregnancies, were less aware of screening for cervical cancer, less likely to have had a Pap smear, less knowledgeable about where to have a Pap smear done, and less likely to have heard AIDS. More women were aware of AIDS (86%) than Pap smears (45%). More than half of those of childbearing age used contraception, mainly intramuscular hormones (76%). A significant proportion (53%) of the women reported that they had had their first pregnancy as teenagers and younger, less educated women were more likely to have had adolescent pregnancies. Policy makers are confronted by a compelling need to redress well-known urban-rural inequalities in health care in South Africa. Policy attention must also be given to the increasing urbanisation of women and the growing health care

  9. 76 FR 14920 - Trade Mission to South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Africa has one of the highest rates of public investment in education in world terms. However, there are... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to South Africa AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Africa September 19-23, 2011, to help U.S. firms find business partners and help export equipment...

  10. [Immigration and immigrants in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Bouillon, A

    1998-01-01

    "The reversal of [South Africa's] pro-active (white) immigration policy in 1990 has been supplemented by an unprecedented level of repression of ¿illegal' immigration. Although they have never been recognised as such, black immigrants are the most numerous component of the South African immigrant population. After giving an account of this situation, this article endeavours to take stock of the immigrant population as a whole, by covering the whole range of permanent, temporary, refugee and ¿illegal' immigrant status and populations." (EXCERPT)

  11. Fires in South Africa, snow in Lesotho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation that brought snow fall to the Drakensberg Mountains in Lesotho in southern Africa was not enough to quench the numerous fires (marked with red dots) burning throughout the Republic of South Africa. These Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 18, 2002, and July 2, 2002, show the snowfall in landlocked Lesotho contrasting sharply with the country's brown, mountainous terrain. (In the false-color image, vegetation is bright green, bare soil is brown, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In northeast Republic of South Africa, right along the border with Mozambique, the smooth, gray-brown terrain shows the boundaries of Kruger National Park. The Park was established in the late 1800s to protect game species, such as elephants, antelope, and bison, which were being hunted in great numbers. In this image, dark brown patches reveal the location of previous fires. The vegetation has yet to come back, and the landscape is virtually bare. NASA scientists study fire behavior in Kruger as part of the SAFARI field campaign. Running southward through Mozambique and into the Indian Ocean is the muddy Limpopo River--known to many through Rudyard Kipling's 'Just-so' story about how the elephant got its trunk. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Fires in South Africa, snow in Lesotho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation that brought snow fall to the Drakensberg Mountains in Lesotho in southern Africa was not enough to quench the numerous fires (marked with red dots) burning throughout the Republic of South Africa. These Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 18, 2002, and July 2, 2002, show the snowfall in landlocked Lesotho contrasting sharply with the country's brown, mountainous terrain. (In the false-color image, vegetation is bright green, bare soil is brown, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In northeast Republic of South Africa, right along the border with Mozambique, the smooth, gray-brown terrain shows the boundaries of Kruger National Park. The Park was established in the late 1800s to protect game species, such as elephants, antelope, and bison, which were being hunted in great numbers. In this image, dark brown patches reveal the location of previous fires. The vegetation has yet to come back, and the landscape is virtually bare. NASA scientists study fire behavior in Kruger as part of the SAFARI field campaign. Running southward through Mozambique and into the Indian Ocean is the muddy Limpopo River--known to many through Rudyard Kipling's 'Just-so' story about how the elephant got its trunk. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy.

  14. Outbreak of Rickettsia africae infections in participants of an adventure race in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P E; Roux, V; Caumes, E; Donzel, M; Raoult, D

    1998-08-01

    African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma ticks, is an emerging rickettsiosis in southern Africa. Because of increased tourism to this area, several cases in tourists have been reported recently. We report 13 cases of R. africae infection diagnosed in France that occurred in competitors returning from an adventure race in South Africa and compare our data with previously reported findings. Most of our patients presented with fever, headache, multiple inoculation eschars, and regional lymphadenopathies, but only 15.4% had a cutaneous rash. Diagnosis was confirmed either by isolation of R. africae from an eschar biopsy specimen or by serological methods, including cross-adsorption between R. africae and Rickettsia conorii. The purpose of this study was to raise physicians' awareness of R. africae infections in an attempt to facilitate the rapid diagnosis and treatment of imported African tick-bite fever in developed countries.

  15. A Multimedia Approach to Music Education in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    le Roux, Irene; Potgieter, H. M.

    The population in South Africa represents a microcosm of the world. The music of various cultural groups and countries is heard daily. A typical South African style is being developed by the blending of these various styles. The Unit for Telematic Teaching and Learning and the Department of Music of the University of Pretoria (South Africa) have…

  16. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…

  17. Telerehabilitation In South Africa – Is There A Way Forward?

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa. Future actions are outlined. PMID:25945178

  18. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  19. Rights of the Child in South Africa: Violence against Girls in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninger-Budel, Carin

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of South Africa. Noting that the Convention is the only "mainstream" human rights instrument that…

  20. Paediatric diagnostic audiology testing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Selvarani

    2016-03-01

    With the increased emphasis on the importance of early identification of paediatric hearing loss within developing countries such as South Africa and Nigeria there has been a recognition of the ethical obligation to ensure access to timely diagnostic and intervention services for children identified with hearing loss; regardless of their geographic or socioeconomic status. There are limited studies on diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in a developing world context. The objective of this study was to determine processes used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa, across the private and public healthcare sectors, and to profile the age of testing for each component of the diagnostic test battery. Diagnostic audiology testing data of 230 children enrolled in an early intervention programme was analysed to profile the reporting of diagnostic audiology testing as well as diagnostic audiology procedures employed. Results were analysed according to province as well as healthcare sector to compare diagnostic services across regions as well as healthcare sectors. The differences in audiology practice and tests employed with paediatric clients across the regions of Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal and Western Cape indicates that services across regions and across the public and private sector are not equitable. Each region is equally unlikely to complete a full, comprehensive diagnostic evaluation on paediatric clients. The age of testing highlights the increased age of diagnosis of hearing loss. Paediatric diagnostic audiology is a section of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention services that requires attention in terms of the appropriateness of procedures as well as equity of services. Further studies on diagnostic practice and resources in South Africa will provide information on factors that are preventing adherence to international best practice guidelines for paediatric diagnostic audiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The abortion debate in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rees, H

    1991-01-01

    Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives

  2. South Africa: a legacy of family disruption.

    PubMed

    Budlender, Debbie; Lund, Francie

    2011-01-01

    This article draws together unusual characteristics of the legacy of apartheid in South Africa: the state-orchestrated destruction of family life, high rates of unemployment and a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The disruption of family life has resulted in a situation in which many women have to fulfil the role of both breadwinner and care giver in a context of high unemployment and very limited economic opportunities. The question that follows is: given this crisis of care, to what extent can or will social protection and employment-related social policies provide the support women and children need?

  3. Allergic rhinitis in South Africa: 2012 guidelines.

    PubMed

    Green, R J; Hockman, M; Friedman, R; Vardas, E; Cole, P; Halkas, A; Feldman, C

    2012-06-07

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an important disease in South Africa. The South African Allergic Rhinitis Working Group (SAARWG) has published previous guidelines for AR diagnosis and management. Areas of concern have arisen that require additional information, including the management of AR in infancy, appropriate and inappropriate allergy testing, cost of AR management, diagnosis and distinguishing the condition from sinusitis, use of over-the-counter medications, and the concept of the 'united airway'. Clinicians should consider the possibility of AR in infants with recurrent nasal symptoms. Allergy testing should be used wisely and based on local allergens. Total IgE testing is not routinely required to prove allergy. Acute and chronic sinusitis should be considered in conjunction with AR; treatment of rhinitis will improve these conditions. Over-the-counter medications should be used sparingly and with caution. Concern for long-term use of topical decongestants must be noted. Asthma should always be considered in AR diagnosis. Immunotherapy is available in SA and may be extremely useful in selected AR patients. The SAARWG proposed an algorithm for the diagnosis and management of rhinitis in South Africa. AR is common, important and troubling to patients; therefore, every effort should be made to target therapy correctly. Patient education is important in the management of AR.

  4. Education Rights, Education Policies and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore education policy changes in South Africa through a rights-based framework. We situate our analysis in the context of deepening poverty and inequality arguing that progress (or the lack thereof) in schools cannot be divorced from poverty and its consequences. We show that education reform in South Africa has been situated…

  5. "Affordable" Private Schools in South Africa. Affordable for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languille, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The paper sets out to challenge the notions of "affordable" private schools in the context of South Africa. It is guided by one main question: "affordable private schools for whom?" It argues that, contrary to claims by its public and private proponents, affordable private schools in South Africa do not cater for poor children.…

  6. "Affordable" Private Schools in South Africa. Affordable for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languille, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The paper sets out to challenge the notions of "affordable" private schools in the context of South Africa. It is guided by one main question: "affordable private schools for whom?" It argues that, contrary to claims by its public and private proponents, affordable private schools in South Africa do not cater for poor children.…

  7. Investigating Preschool Education and Care in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg, Owen C.; Vergnani, Tania

    Recognizing the complexities of apartheid with its implications for conducting systems-related research within the vortex of South Africa, a study investigated the implementation of a national system of preschool provision for South Africa. The investigation began by studying two earlier reports: the Reilly-Hofmeyr report of 1983 and the report of…

  8. Researching LGB Youth in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric M.

    2006-01-01

    Very few large-scale research projects involving lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have taken place in South Africa. However, there have been several important small-scale studies. One of the major obstacles that researchers of LGB youth encounter in South Africa is the lack of access to these adolescents. There are no national networks for social…

  9. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  10. Worker Education in South Africa: Lessons and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vally, Salim; Bofelo, Mphutlane Wa; Treat, John

    2013-01-01

    Worker education played a crucial role in the development of the trade union movement in South Africa and in the broader struggle for social transformation. This article reviews key moments and dynamics in the trajectory of worker education in South Africa. We argue that international developments, the rise of neoliberalism, and the negotiated…

  11. Student Mobility and Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility elsewhere, which are…

  12. Worker Education in South Africa: Lessons and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vally, Salim; Bofelo, Mphutlane Wa; Treat, John

    2013-01-01

    Worker education played a crucial role in the development of the trade union movement in South Africa and in the broader struggle for social transformation. This article reviews key moments and dynamics in the trajectory of worker education in South Africa. We argue that international developments, the rise of neoliberalism, and the negotiated…

  13. Researching LGB Youth in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric M.

    2006-01-01

    Very few large-scale research projects involving lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have taken place in South Africa. However, there have been several important small-scale studies. One of the major obstacles that researchers of LGB youth encounter in South Africa is the lack of access to these adolescents. There are no national networks for social…

  14. Contexts of Educational Policy Change in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Chilisa, Bagele

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how different histories and contexts of political and educational change in Botswana and South Africa have shaped the more regular classroom practice observed in Botswana. It does this through an interpretive synthesis and comparison of four key moments of educational change in Botswana and South Africa during the twentieth…

  15. Education Rights, Education Policies and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore education policy changes in South Africa through a rights-based framework. We situate our analysis in the context of deepening poverty and inequality arguing that progress (or the lack thereof) in schools cannot be divorced from poverty and its consequences. We show that education reform in South Africa has been situated…

  16. Obstacles to Success--Doctoral Student Attrition in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…

  17. Investigating Preschool Education and Care in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg, Owen C.; Vergnani, Tania

    Recognizing the complexities of apartheid with its implications for conducting systems-related research within the vortex of South Africa, a study investigated the implementation of a national system of preschool provision for South Africa. The investigation began by studying two earlier reports: the Reilly-Hofmeyr report of 1983 and the report of…

  18. Expanding Doctoral Education in South Africa: Pipeline or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the status of the PhD in South Africa and the feasibility of the country's aspiration to increase by fivefold the production of PhDs by 2025. Based on the first empirical studies on doctoral education in South Africa, it argues that in order to move towards this target, an expanded and coordinated…

  19. Educational Access in South Africa. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, S.; Dieltens, V.; Carrim, N.; Kgobe, P.; Moyo, G.; Rembe, S.

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in South Africa. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides a statistical analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Review on Educational Access in South Africa (Motala et al, 2007) [ED508808]…

  20. Relative deprivation and mortality in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Salti, Nisreen

    2010-03-01

    This paper tests the relative income hypothesis by considering the relationship between mortality, income and relative deprivation in South Africa using individual-level data on income and five measures of relative deprivation each with a different reference group. We find that income tends to be protective of, and relative deprivation detrimental to health, but the latter often gives a better account of mortality than does income alone. For some population groups the fit is improved in specifications which include both income and relative deprivation. Overall, there seems to be solid evidence in support of the relative income hypothesis, particularly for the more economically disadvantaged population groups. Relative deprivation is especially significant when age is the reference group, suggesting that the comparison of socio-economic standing that has an impact on health tends to happen within cohorts. The results are robust to splitting the sample into urban/rural subsamples and to looking at the incidence of illness as the health outcome rather than mortality. While little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effect of relative deprivation on health and mortality, the consistent evidence in favor of age as a reference group, particularly in a context like South Africa's suggests that intra-cohort comparisons should be an avenue for more in depth investigation. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of Biobanks in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Andanda, Pamela; Govender, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The availability of biological samples and data is critical for the establishment of biobanks for health research purposes. Such availability should be ensured in accordance with relevant national legislation and ethical principles. In this article, we consider the extent to which the current legal and ethical regulatory frameworks in South Africa are capable of governing the use of stored biological samples in a manner that facilitates health research while at the same time protecting the interests of sample donors. These two attributes are essential for establishing biobanks in the country. Our evaluation of the frameworks is based on desk review of the current literature with a special focus on oversight mechanisms in place that ensure compliance with national legislation and ethical review processes to facilitate future and secondary uses of data, the extent to which informed consent policies foster sharing of research samples, data and protocols as well as mechanisms for safeguarding confidentiality. We established that there is an urgent need to streamline South Africa's legal and ethical frameworks because they are currently ambiguous and disjointed. There is equally a need to bring the frameworks in line with the current developments at the national and international levels.

  2. The HIV-1 epidemic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Puren, A J

    2002-01-01

    The first reported cases of HIV-1 infection in South Africa occurred in 1982. Two distinct HIV-1 epidemic patterns were recognized. Initially the infection was prevalent in white males who had sex with males. The HIV-1 clade B was associated with this group. By 1989, the second epidemic was recognized primarily in the black population. Infections in this case were mainly heterosexual in origin. The HIV-1 clade involved was mainly C. The national HIV-1 sero-prevalence in antenatal attendees was less than 1% in 1990 and by 1994 this figure had risen to 7.5%. The most recent antenatal surveillance for HIV-1 sero-prevalence in 1999 revealed the following. The national prevalence rate for 1999 was 22.4% compared with the 1998 rate of 22.8%. The data highlighted the profound effect the epidemic had and will have on the disease burden in South Africa and by extension on the social and economic fronts. This view was emphasised by the impact HIV-1 infection had on tuberculosis. For example, sentinel surveys have attributed 44% of tuberculosis cases to HIV-1 infection. Moreover, the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections will certainly exacerbate the HIV-1 epidemic.

  3. History of Newcastle disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Abolnik, Celia

    2017-02-24

    Poultry production in South Africa, a so-called developing country, may be seen as a gradient between two extremes with highly integrated commercial enterprises with world-class facilities on one hand and unimproved rural chickens kept by households and subsistence farmers on the other. Although vaccination against Newcastle disease is widely applied to control this devastating infection, epizootics continue to occur. Since the first official diagnosis in 1945, through the sporadic outbreaks of the 1950s and early 1960s, to serious epizootics caused by genotype VIII (late 1960s-2000), genotype VIIb (1993-1999), genotype VIId (2003-2012) and most recently genotype VIIh (2013 to present), South Africa's encounters with exotic Newcastle disease follow global trends. Importation - probably illegal - of infected poultry, poultry products or exotic birds and illegal swill dumping are likely routes of entry. Once the commercial sector is affected, the disease spreads rapidly within the region via transportation routes. Each outbreak genotype persisted for about a decade and displaced its predecessor.

  4. Roles of genetic counselors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié; Krause, Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Genetic counseling is a growing health profession in South Africa. Training (set up in 1988) and registration are in place, but job creation remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles played by genetic counselors in the provision of genetic services, in South Africa. A questionnaire comprising items on the types of roles they performed was constructed and counselors were asked to make the log-books, in which they recorded their daily counseling activities, available. A check list was drawn up so that relevant information could be collected systematically from these log-books. Then departmental statistics were accessed from the two universities providing genetic services and genetic counselor training. Structured interviews were conducted with the genetic counselors (16 of 23 participated), and data were collected from their completed questionnaires, log-books and the departmental statistics, for the years 2007 and 2008. These data were analyzed and the findings showed that the counselors counseled about one third (39 %) of all the cases seen at genetic clinics per annum, and the total numbers were increasing. They counseled for 57 different genetic disorders, and their clients represented the range of local ethnic groups. They also had educational, research, marketing and administrative roles. They expected to expand these roles and advance the profession in future. Genetic counselors are versatile, playing several significant roles. As these become better recognized, demand for their services should increase, jobs should be created and the service expanded.

  5. Hypertension: detection and management in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    High blood pressure in South Africa is estimated to have caused 46,888 deaths and 390,860 disability-adjusted life years in 2000. Detection and management of hypertension remains suboptimal due to inadequate public health care facilities. Mass migration of rural blacks to urban areas and rapid changes in lifestyle and risk factors account for the rising prevalence of hypertension, but genetic factors may also play an important contributory role. Black South Africans also appear to be more prone to complications of hypertension, particularly stroke, heart failure, and hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and respond poorly to ACE inhibitors as monotherapy. Proactive public health interventions at a population level need to be introduced to control this growing epidemic.

  6. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-07

    World Factbook , UNAIDS. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations Background The people of South Africa are highly diverse. Black Africans make...strengths, however, the country ranks as one of the most unequal societies in the world in terms of income distribution. The majority of black South Africans...which the ANC won almost 70% of the votes. South Africa’s politics continue to be dominated by the ANC, which has enjoyed support among many black

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  8. Improving PMTCT Uptake in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S. M.; Peltzer, K.; Villar-Loubet, O.; Shikwane, M. E.; Cook, R.; Jones, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the widespread availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs, many women in sub-Saharan Africa do not participate in PMTCT. This pilot study aimed to utilize partner participation in an intervention to support PMTCT uptake. Methods Couples (n = 239) were randomized to receive either a comprehensive couples-based PMTCT intervention or the standard of care. Results Compared to the standard of care, participants receiving the intervention increased HIV- and PMTCT-related knowledge (F1,474 = 13.94, p = .004) and uptake of PMTCT, as defined by infant medication dosing (74% vs. 46%, χ2 = 4.69, p = .03). Discussion Results indicate that increasing male attendance at antenatal clinic visits may be “necessary but not sufficient” to increase PMTCT uptake. Increasing HIV knowledge of both partners and encouraging active male participation in the PMTCT process through psychoeducational interventions may be a strategy to increase the uptake of PMTCT in South Africa. PMID:23778240

  9. Free Tropospheric Aerosols Over South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elina, Giannakaki; Pfüller, Anne; Korhonen, Kimmo; Mielonen, Tero; Laakso, Lauri; Vakkari, Ville; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Beukes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Tiitta, Petri; Chiloane, Kgaugelo; Piketh, Stuart; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lehtinen, Kari

    2016-06-01

    Raman lidar data of one year was been analyzed to obtain information relating aerosol layers in the free troposphere over South Africa, Elandsfontein. In total, 375 layers were observed above the boundary layer during the period 30th January 2010 - 31st January 2011. The seasonal behavior of aerosol layer geometrical characteristics as well as intensive and extensive optical properties were studied. In general, layers were observed at higher altitudes during spring (2520 ± 970 m) while the geometrical layer depth did not show any significant seasonal dependence. The variations of most of the intensive and extensive optical properties analyzed were high during all seasons. Layers were observed at mean altitude of 2100 m ± 1000 m with lidar ratio at 355 nm of 67 ± 25 and extinction-related Ångström exponent between 355 and 532 nm of 1.9 ± 0.8.

  10. Occupational stress of nurses in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rothmann, S; van der Colff, J J; Rothmann, J C

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the construct validity and reliability of the Nursing Stress Indicator (NSI) and to identify differences between occupational stressors of professional and enrolled nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A sample of professional nurses (N = 980) and enrolled and auxiliary nurses (N = 800) in South Africa was used. The NSI was developed as measuring instrument and administrated together with a biographical questionnaire. Five reliable stress factors, namely Patient Care, Job Demands, Lack of Support, Staff Issues, and Overtime were extracted. The most severe stressors for nurses included health risks posed by contact with patients, lack of recognition and insufficient staff. Watching patients suffer, demands of patients and staff issues were also severe stressors for professional nurses. The severity of stressors was higher for professional nurses (compared with enrolled and auxiliary nurses). Organisations that employ nurses should implement programmes to monitor and manage stress, specifically regarding staff issues and job demands.

  11. Hepatitis E virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Richie G; Wallace, Sebastian; Sonderup, Mark; Korsman, Stephen; Chivese, Tawanda; Gavine, Bronwyn; Edem, Aniefiok; Govender, Roxy; English, Nathan; Kaiyamo, Christy; Lutchman, Odelia; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Pas, Suzan D; Webb, Glynn W; Palmer, Joanne; Goddard, Elizabeth; Wasserman, Sean; Dalton, Harry R; Spearman, C Wendy

    2016-01-01

    AIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Children’s Hospital and their affiliated teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, were sampled. Healthy adults attending blood donor clinics were also recruited. Patients with known liver disease were excluded and all major ethnic/race groups were included to broadly represent local demographics. Relevant demographic data was captured at the time of sampling using an interviewer-administered confidential questionnaire. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was self-disclosed. HEV IgG testing was performed using the Wantai® assay. RESULTS HEV is endemic in the region with a seroprevalence of 27.9% (n = 324/1161) 95%CI: 25.3%-30.5% (21.9% when age-adjusted) with no significant differences between ethnic groups or HIV status. Seroprevalence in children is low but rapidly increases in early adulthood. With univariate analysis, age ≥ 30 years old, pork and bacon/ham consumption suggested risk. In the multivariate analysis, the highest risk factor for HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 7.679, 95%CI: 5.38-10.96, P < 0.001) was being 30 years or older followed by pork consumption (OR = 2.052, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001). A recent clinical case demonstrates that HEV genotype 3 may be currently circulating in the Western Cape. CONCLUSION Hepatitis E seroprevalence was considerably higher than previously thought suggesting that hepatitis E warrants consideration in any patient presenting with an unexplained hepatitis in the Western Cape, irrespective of travel history, age or ethnicity. PMID:27956810

  12. Hepatitis E virus: Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madden, Richie G; Wallace, Sebastian; Sonderup, Mark; Korsman, Stephen; Chivese, Tawanda; Gavine, Bronwyn; Edem, Aniefiok; Govender, Roxy; English, Nathan; Kaiyamo, Christy; Lutchman, Odelia; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Pas, Suzan D; Webb, Glynn W; Palmer, Joanne; Goddard, Elizabeth; Wasserman, Sean; Dalton, Harry R; Spearman, C Wendy

    2016-11-28

    To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Children's Hospital and their affiliated teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, were sampled. Healthy adults attending blood donor clinics were also recruited. Patients with known liver disease were excluded and all major ethnic/race groups were included to broadly represent local demographics. Relevant demographic data was captured at the time of sampling using an interviewer-administered confidential questionnaire. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was self-disclosed. HEV IgG testing was performed using the Wantai(®) assay. HEV is endemic in the region with a seroprevalence of 27.9% (n = 324/1161) 95%CI: 25.3%-30.5% (21.9% when age-adjusted) with no significant differences between ethnic groups or HIV status. Seroprevalence in children is low but rapidly increases in early adulthood. With univariate analysis, age ≥ 30 years old, pork and bacon/ham consumption suggested risk. In the multivariate analysis, the highest risk factor for HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 7.679, 95%CI: 5.38-10.96, P < 0.001) was being 30 years or older followed by pork consumption (OR = 2.052, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001). A recent clinical case demonstrates that HEV genotype 3 may be currently circulating in the Western Cape. Hepatitis E seroprevalence was considerably higher than previously thought suggesting that hepatitis E warrants consideration in any patient presenting with an unexplained hepatitis in the Western Cape, irrespective of travel history, age or ethnicity.

  13. Identifying deaths from AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Pam; Nannan, Nadine; Bourne, David; Laubscher, Ria; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2005-01-28

    To quantify the HIV/AIDS deaths misclassified to AIDS-related conditions in South Africa. Retrospective analysis of vital registration data. Cause-specific death rates for 1996 and 2000-2001 were calculated using vital registration cause-of-death profiles applied to a model (ASSA2000) estimate of total mortality rates by age and sex. The difference in the age-specific death rates for these two periods was examined to identify conditions where there was a noticeable increase in mortality following the same age pattern as the HIV deaths, thus likely to be misclassified AIDS deaths. The increase in the age-specific death rates for HIV-related deaths showed a distinct age pattern, which has been observed elsewhere. Out of the 22 potential causes of death investigated, there were nine that increased in the same distinct age pattern (tuberculosis, pneumonia, diarrhoea, meningitis, other respiratory disease, non-infective gastroenteritis, other infectious and parasitic diseases, deficiency anaemias and protein energy malnutrition) and could be considered AIDS-related conditions. The increase in these conditions accounted for 61% of the total deaths related to HIV/AIDS. When added to the deaths classified as HIV-related on the death certificate, the total accounts for 93% of the ASSA2000 model estimates of the number of AIDS deaths in 2000. As a large proportion of AIDS deaths appear to be classified to AIDS-related conditions, without reference to HIV, interpretation of death statistics in South Africa cannot be made on face value as a large proportion of deaths caused by HIV infection are misclassified.

  14. Expansion of student activities in Africa: from south to north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Rim; Ben Salem, Amine; Gueddana, Amor; Zghal, Mourad; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Heidt, Alexander M.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2014-07-01

    Optics and photonics research in Africa has gradually grown in the past ten years with a very active optical community involved in state-of-the-art research. Despite relatively low resources, optics research in the continent is competitive with many international benchmarks and has had a significant impact within the African continent. In the past five years, a group of dynamic students have developed the student chapter network from Tunisia to South Africa. The first student chapters of the optical society of America (OSA) and the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE) were established in South Africa (in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and in the University of Stellenbosch), followed by a chapter in Tunisia (Engineering school of communications of Tunis, Sup'Com). In this paper, we will present the major activities of the student chapters of Tunisia and South Africa, and how they are promoting optics and photonics in Africa.

  15. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in 2012…

  16. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in 2012…

  17. Enabling Energy Efficiency in South Africa's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    South Africa is leading a number of efforts to support a thriving economy while also reducing energy use. Increasing energy demand coupled with a highly energy intensive economy and energy inefficient industries provide the backdrop for strong government action underway in South Africa. This brochure details how the Clean Energy Solutions Center supported development of the Regulations on Allowance for the Energy Efficiency Savings legislation designed to provide a framework for effective energy efficiency regulation, incentives and energy reduction targets for South Africa's commercial buildings sector.

  18. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Suffla, Shahnaaz; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Arendse, Najuwa

    2008-01-01

    Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic context, suggesting that

  19. AIDS epidemic runs riot in South Africa.

    PubMed

    1997-05-27

    Based on current health surveys in South Africa, the HIV and AIDS epidemic there is spreading faster than health workers can develop a policy to combat it. 120 million male and 90,000 female condoms have been distributed to the areas that are most affected. According to Health Minister Nkosazana Zuma, the percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women in the North-West Province rose from 8.3% in 1995 to 25% in 1997. In June 1996, 1.7 million people were at risk; this number rose to 2.5 million in 1997, 90,000 of whom will develop advanced AIDS by the end of the year. According to independent researchers, 800 people are infected daily, which means that 16% of South Africa's workers are already infected. This figure could rise to 20% by the year 2000 according to Professor Ronald Green-Thompson. At that time, the cost to the South African economy would be between US$25 million and US$2.3 billion. The World Health Organization (WHO) is touring provinces for the first time to select sites for use by assessment teams in July. Dr. Liz Floyd, head of the HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases unit, states that, although US$6.1 million (US$2.3 million more than in 1996) have been designated to fight the epidemic, new measures have to be found to avoid an infection rate of 1 in 5 young women by the end of the year. The unit conducts annual surveys among women attending public prenatal clinics. Infection appears to be linked to poverty, migration, family breakdowns, and prostitution. The greatest increase has been among women aged 20-24 years. According to Floyd, "the supply of condoms is still uneven and unreliable, especially in high density peri-urban settlements and shanty towns. Primary care for the youth and home-based schemes are poorly coordinated and erratic." Zuma believes that schools should be targeted; she hopes to educate children in 7400 secondary and 13,500 primary schools. Donor agencies, churches, workers, and business people have become involved, including

  20. Behavior therapy in South Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, T

    1982-12-01

    Behavior therapy in South Africa has, after strong beginnings, undergone a slump which seems largely due to the drain of leading behavior therapists from this country. During the last decade there has been evidence of a revival of this approach, due largely to the increasing place of behavior therapy in clinical training curricula. Questionnaire and interview data from universities and hospitals indicated that therapy training was "eclectic" in the sense that interns and registrars were expected to master the basics of several approaches; and this was reflected in clinical practice in that most therapists used behavior therapy in conjunction with other approaches. It was noted that relatively little research in behavior therapy was published by South Africans, but that this appeared to be increasing in the last few years. Cross-cultural issues were assuming increasing importance as psychotherapeutic services were increasingly extended to the indigenous African population of this country, and it was suggested that behavior therapy was an effective approach in this context when due consideration was given to the cultural beliefs and patterns of the particular patient.

  1. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive features about a third of the way from the ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  MISR ...

  2. Showdown over South Africa: The Second Coming of Student Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marc

    1979-01-01

    Student activists are charging that university investments are helping support South Africa's discriminatory practices. Confrontations between students and administrators and trustees are described, and instances of divestiture are reported. (LBH)

  3. Gymnanthemum koekemoerae (Compositae, Vernonieae), a new species from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Gymnanthemum (Compositae, Vernonieae) from South Africa is described. It can be distinguished from other species in the genus by the five-flowered capitula and widely obtuse leaf blades.

  4. Gymnanthemum koekemoerae (Compositae, Vernonieae), a new species from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Gymnanthemum (Compositae, Vernonieae) from South Africa is described. It can be distinguished from other species in the genus by the five-flowered capitula and widely obtuse leaf blades. PMID:24843294

  5. [The campaign against AIDS in Africa: the potential role of South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Der Ryst, E

    1996-01-01

    The political transformation of South Africa in 1992 and its enthusiastic reception by the international community have created possibilities for a new role in the struggle against HIV and AIDS in Africa. South Africa is probably the most developed African country, with enormous potential for economic growth. The country should take the lead in coordinating cooperative African programs to study and prevent AIDS. The HIV epidemic is spreading rapidly in the country. A 1995 study in prenatal clinics showed over 12% of pregnant women to be seropositive. The epidemic has especially affected the most impoverished sectors of the population. Political instability in the country and its northern neighbors over the past 15-20 years, distrust by the non-White population of programs backed by White government officials, the large number of uneducated young people, the great cultural diversity, and the influx of refugees from the north are probably all factors in the spread of AIDS. The excellent medical facilities in South Africa, including seven well-equipped medical schools, offer a unique opportunity for study of HIV. Means should be found to promote HIV research, including collaborative projects with neighboring countries, phase 3 vaccine trials, and clinical trials of new antiretroviral and antitubercular products. Large industrial concerns and international donors should be encouraged to support research on HIV control in South Africa and elsewhere on the continent, emphasizing studies of potential benefit to Africa. Support for HIV research in Africa might contribute to retaining medical school graduates in the country who currently seek research opportunities abroad. A medical scholarship program and the South African AIDS control program should be extended to other African countries.

  6. Economics of health in South Africa: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1989-01-01

    Some of the background to the present structure of medicine in South Africa, an outline of some economic aspects of our current (inadequate) health care service and tentative suggestions regarding the directions in which our health services should be moving to facilitate the legitimization (political) and accumulation (economic) processes required to meet the needs and demands of all the people of an internationally recognized, just and free South Africa are presented.

  7. South Africa's AIDS care thrown into confusion.

    PubMed

    Baleta, A

    1999-11-13

    A storm of controversy was sparked in South Africa when President Thabo Mbeki claimed that zidovudine has toxic side effects and is dangerous to health. In October 28, 1999, Mbeki said that the government was under pressure to ensure availability of the drug in public hospitals. He also argued that there are pending cases about the drug's toxicity and that it would be responsible to ignore the warnings of medical researchers. Glaxo Wellcome, the drug's manufacturers, said that the president appeared to have been "gravely misinformed." Their spokesman further said that the drug was approved a decade ago by regulatory authorities worldwide, and neither was there any legal action on its safety pending anywhere. Moreover, the drug was endorsed by WHO, UNAIDS, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. AIDS activist also rejected Mebki's claims. Lastly, Human Rights Commission ruled that the government's decision to prevent the use of the drug in the public health sector could go against the constitutional right for universal health care accessibility, including primary health care and reproductive health.

  8. Astronomy at the University of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, D. P.

    2000-12-01

    Unisa is the largest correspondence university in Africa and the only South African university currently offering a BSc in Astronomy. The astronomy modules can be included in any standard BSc Physics programme. Besides using the radio and optical telescopes at HartRAO and SAAO, Unisa also has its own Observatory on the main campus equipped with modern instrumentation for training students and doing niche research projects. Unisa est la plus importante université d'enseignement par correspondance en Afrique et la seule université d'Afrique du Sud qui forme des licenciés ès sciences (BSc) en Astronomie. Les modules d'astronomie peuvent être inclus dans tout programme standard de Physique pour BSc. En plus d'utiliser les télescopes radio et optiques à HartRAO et SAAO, Unisa a aussi sur le campus principal son propre Observatoire équipé d'une instrumentation moderne pour la formation des étudiants et pour mener à bien des projets de recherche dans des niches scientifiques modernes.

  9. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  10. Kimberley, Orange Free State, South Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-727-059 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Plains of the Orange Free State, South Africa are featured in this 70mm frame exposed from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. If the photograph is oriented with the largest clouds at the top edge, so that the cloud shadows fall to the upper right of each cloud, then north is to the top. The Vaal River flows along the top and through the upper left of the photograph; the reservoir of the Bloemhofdam on the Sand River can be seen between clouds at the upper right of the photograph. Kimberley can be seen as a gray smudge southeast of a contorted set of bends in the Vaal river (upper left center). With high magnification four dark dots, large open-pit mine shafts, can be seen within the gray smudge of the city. Kimberley, the capital of Northern Cape Province, was founded in 1878 after the discovery of diamonds in 1969 - 71, and reached by railway in 1885. Diamond mining and gem cutting remain prominent in the economy. The reddish soil and scattered salt pans (playa lakes) across the plateau suggest the semi-arid climate, suitable for cattle ranching. Reservoirs on most streams now provide water for the towns as well as irrigation for agriculture.

  11. Undisciplining Knowledge Production: Development Driven Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2006-01-01

    South African higher education institutions are increasingly under scrutiny to produce knowledge that is more relevant to South Africa's social and economic needs, more representative of the diversity of its knowledge producers, and more inclusive of the variety of the sites where knowledge is produced. Only a small percentage of South Africans…

  12. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  13. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  14. Undisciplining Knowledge Production: Development Driven Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2006-01-01

    South African higher education institutions are increasingly under scrutiny to produce knowledge that is more relevant to South Africa's social and economic needs, more representative of the diversity of its knowledge producers, and more inclusive of the variety of the sites where knowledge is produced. Only a small percentage of South Africans…

  15. Focus on South Africa. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Vivian, Ed.

    Essays on English in South Africa and its neighboring countries include: "A History of English in South Africa" (Len Lanham); "English in South African Society: A Preliminary Overview" (Bill Branford); "Black English in South Africa" (David Gough); "Language Contact, Transmission, Shift: South African Indian…

  16. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and..., South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of...

  17. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  18. Stress Patterns Across South Africa: Something Amiss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, Marco; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Delvaux De Fenffe, Damien; Durrheim, Ray; Fagereng, Ake; Heidbach, Oliver; Van Der Merwe, Nielen; Saalmann, Kerstin; Saunders, Ian; Hodge, Matthew; Logue, Andrew; Malephane, Hlompho; Muaka, Joseph J.

    2013-04-01

    To mitigate the uncertainties in assessing the geohazards and rock conditions that affect the nuclear, mining (including hydrocarbon extraction) and civil engineering activities in South Africa, the authors are working to improve the data coverage concerning the present day stress field. In principle, this implies constraining the principal compressive stresses (σ1>σ2>σ3) or at least the maximum horizontal compressive stress (σH) because knowledge of these parameters may determine the reactivation potential of known faults, or the behaviour of large excavations and wells. By contrast, much of the subcontinent is under-represented in the World Stress Map database. For this reason we have taken a number of steps, firstly by installing a compact Trillium seismic sensor at Stofkloof (Namaqualand; adjacent to the Vaalputs low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility) and 1-sec sensors at Aggeneys and Koffiemeul (Bushmanland). All stations are equipped with Reftek data loggers and powered by solar panels. The data from these stations will be integrated with data from the national network to obtain focal mechanism solutions for seismic events in the Northern Cape - southernmost Namibia region (also known as the Grootvloer cluster). These neotectonic stress tensors are then combined with σH parameters obtained from calliper logs of off-shore wells and from the geometry of joints, faults and sheared fractures in palaeosols (Bushmanland), soils and calcrete (NW Free State) and aeolianites (southern Cape). We also include underground rock engineering phenomenological observations and measurements, and data in the public domain. Our data consistently indicate a NNW-SSE oriented σH (Wegener Stress Anomaly or WSA) that prevails across most of central, southern and western South Africa, Namibia up to the Ruacana hydroelectric power plant at the Angola border. However, in the Congo basin, a few earthquake focal mechanisms suggest rotation of the regional

  19. Birth stories from South Africa: Voices unheard.

    PubMed

    Hastings-Tolsma, Marie; Nolte, Anna G W; Temane, Annie

    2017-07-12

    The manner that birth events unfold can have a lasting impact on women. Giving voice to women's experiences is key in the creation of care that embodies humanistic, family-centred service. The aim of this research was to describe the experiences of women receiving care during childbirth. The design was qualitative and descriptive using thematic analysis to analyse women's birth stories. A purposive sample of women (N=12) who had recently given birth in South Africa was selected. Participants were recruited who had delivered across a variety of settings: public, private, and maternity hospital, as well as at home. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and field notes. Four themes were noted: cocoon of compassionate care, personal regard for shared decision-making, beliefs about birth, and protection. Themes demonstrated both caring and non-caring behaviours including feelings of sadness, loneliness and being unwanted, being scared and uncertain, and overall dissatisfaction with the birth experience. Irrespective of setting, patients felt the absence of shared decision-making; the exception was where care was with midwives in an independent maternity hospital or at home. A period of high vulnerability, birth is often met with care perceived as non-caring and lacking in compassion. Many women reported failure to be included as a partner in decision-making where birth occurred in private or public hospital settings. Where a midwifery model of care was in place, experiences were uniformly positive. Fundamental change is needed in midwifery education and scope of practice, with overhaul of health system resourcing. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydropedological interpretation of arid soilscapes, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinnefeld, Martin; Van Tol, Jacobus; Le Roux, Pieter

    2017-04-01

    Hydropedological investigations in arid regions are scarce due to the low the low contribution of these areas to water resources. Infrequent rainfall and few flow events also complicates measurements hydrological studies. Hydropedological studies, relating soil morphological properties and their spatial distribution to hydrological response, have been studied in detail in semi-arid, temperate, and sub-humid regions. In this paper, we investigated the relation between soil morphological properties and selected hydrological properties of soils in an arid landscape. We also studied the spatial distribution of the morphological properties to conceptualise the hydrological behaviour of different soilscapes in the area. A total of 806 soil profiles, covering an area of 4836 ha in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa were described and classified. The geology is dominated by Dwyka tillite overlain by aeolian sands with scattered Dolerite buttes. Thirteen modal profiles, representing the dominant soils types were selected, sampled at horizon level, and analysed for pH, CEC, iron, manganese, carbonate content. In situ measurements of saturated and near saturated (tension) hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were conducted to determine the water conducting macroporosity (WCM). Undisturbed cores were collected on which water retention characteristics were determined under laboratory conditions. Results indicate that dry soil colour, degree of structure development and the presence, absence, and abundance of carbonates as well as the degree of precipitation, are important indicators of hydrological response. For example; grey soils typically have lower Ks with higher storage capacity than soils dominated by red colours, whereas abundant carbonate precipitations in the soil matrix have lower WCM due to clogging of macropores. The dominant soil distribution pattern indicates that rapid vertical flow, through and out of the pedon, might contribute to recharge of an accumulative

  1. Adult Literacy in Africa--Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania. Literacy Bibliographies 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Inst. for Adult Literacy Methods, Teheran (Iran).

    Approximately 200 items are listed in this bibliography of materials pertaining to adult literacy in Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, the Sudan, and Tanzania. The listed materials are categorized according to country and deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) adult education and adaptation to change in Nigeria; (2) adult…

  2. South Africa. Weather and Climate. Section 23

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    iIghlands. ILowest vlsi lIIehs tire Ilimsever, evvm ii it best’e sect ionsi skies inrt’ frets tn tI y only I motstlIy cmiiifi i d to t lie inorni ig hour1...go 73 68 52 612 67 74 ?A 40 A4 74 ,� Wlllowmorp ....................... 87 NO At 74 6? 62 61 6f ?0 785 g10 A4 ?5 40 41 Routh-Weat Africa

  3. Geology, prospects in Orange basin offshore western South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Muntingh, A. Ltd., Parow )

    1993-01-25

    With the fast changing political situation in South Africa it has become possible for Soekor (Pty.) Ltd. To invite international companies to participate in oil and gas exploration in the South African part of the Orange basin. This paper reports on the Orange basin, which comprises a 130,000 sq km area off western South Africa that extends northwards into Namibia, represents a large frontier basin with known hydrocarbon accumulations and the potential for giant fields. Comprehensive seismic coverage and a recent deep-water seismic survey in the Orange basin indicate exciting opportunities in the form of shallow and deep-water plays.

  4. Gastroenterology training in private hospitals: India vs South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Puri, Amarender Singh; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, nurses and doctors are emigrating in significant numbers. Job satisfaction, safety and ensuring career progression are important in retaining doctors to make a career in Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to budgetary constraints many hospitals have not been upgraded. Coming home after overseas training seems difficult. In RSA it takes a minimum of 13 years for a young specialist to become registered and 15 years for subspecialists. Career progression, creating more specialist trainees in public and private hospitals and shortening the period of professional training are potential solutions to the problem. India, which has a population of more than 1 billion people, is struggling with similar problems. For the past 10-15 years, private hospitals have assisted in manpower development for medical specialist and subspecialist careers. Currently their private sector trains 60% of their recognised (sub)specialities fellows. A national task force for specialist training in RSA should be instituted. It should discuss, based on the current status and projected specialist and subspecialist personnel requirements, the future structure and logistics of training needs. This is required in all subspecialities including gastroenterology, as has been done in India. It is hoped that as a consequence well-trained doctors, similar to those in India, might move to provincial hospitals in rural areas, upgrading the medical services and keeping medical power in South Africa. South Africa should become a model for Sub-Saharan Africa, as India already is for South-East Asia. PMID:20180232

  5. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  6. New Insights into Samango Monkey Speciation in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré L.; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M. Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study. PMID:25798604

  7. Proved and potential vectors of yellow fever in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    De Meillon, Botha

    1954-01-01

    This paper, based on records obtained from the Entomology Department of the South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg, gives a summary of the distribution, adult habits, and breeding-places of the proved and potential vectors of yellow fever in South Africa. PMID:13209304

  8. Learning and Equitable Access in the Western Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, David; Soudien, Crain

    2009-01-01

    Silent exclusion, when children register and attend school but learn little, is a critical feature of educational access in South Africa. Several international studies (e.g. TIMMS, SACMEQ) have shown that despite high levels of investment, South African schools perform poorly in relation to other countries at similar levels of income. Equitable…

  9. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  10. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  11. An Overview of Education Management in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloi, Kholeka; Bush, Tony

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine three main issues, which are directly linked to school management developments in South Africa since 1994: (1) school leadership and management; (2) professionalization of principalship through the South African Standard for Principalship (SASP); and (3) leading and managing the learning school. In exploring these…

  12. Looking Back at Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative picture of doctoral education in South Africa up to 2010, from the time the first doctorate was awarded in 1899. It identifies the different institutional profiles and emphases of doctoral graduation in South African universities at various periods of time in the context of economic, political and social…

  13. Ethical Issues in Using Interactive Radio in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Gordon; Potter, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Equal access to quality education forms a central principle in the South African Constitution. After South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994, the prevailing situation in many under-resourced schools was a lack of access to quality education. We outline six ethical issues in the decision to use radio to advance access and educational…

  14. The journey: Women in physics in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diale, M.; Maphanga, R. R.; Tibane, M. M.; Thaoge, M. L.; Gledhill, I.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts by the group Women in Physics in South Africa are described, ranging from informal networking in departmental lunches, to programs to increase the visibility and entrepreneurial skills of women physicists, to outreach and community engagement. The current president of the South African Institute of Physics is female, and the arrival of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project should open many doors for women.

  15. Professional Counseling in South Africa: A Landscape under Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus G.; van der Westhuizen, Carol N.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the history, status, and trends of the counseling profession in South Africa and on the similarities with the development of the counseling profession in the United States. A need exists for South African professional counselors to refocus their research efforts to reflect the realities of the 21st century and link…

  16. Ethical Issues in Using Interactive Radio in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Gordon; Potter, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Equal access to quality education forms a central principle in the South African Constitution. After South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994, the prevailing situation in many under-resourced schools was a lack of access to quality education. We outline six ethical issues in the decision to use radio to advance access and educational…

  17. An Overview of Education Management in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloi, Kholeka; Bush, Tony

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine three main issues, which are directly linked to school management developments in South Africa since 1994: (1) school leadership and management; (2) professionalization of principalship through the South African Standard for Principalship (SASP); and (3) leading and managing the learning school. In exploring these…

  18. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  19. Quality of Life in South Africa: Measurement and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, V.; And Others

    Research on the quality of life in South Africa is increasing as a result of a growing concern to improve the living conditions and overall quality of life for many underprivileged South Africans. Perceptions of well-being and basic needs were investigated in a nationwide study conducted in 1982-83. Components of the variable "quality of…

  20. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  1. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…

  2. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oelofse, Suzan Hh; Nahman, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between a third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted globally are constrained by limited data, particularly from developing countries. This article attempts to quantify total food waste generation (including both pre-consumer food losses, as well as post-consumer food waste) in South Africa. The estimates are based on available food supply data for South Africa and on estimates of average food waste generation at each step of the food supply chain for sub-Saharan Africa. The preliminary estimate of the magnitude of food waste generation in South Africa is in the order of 9.04 million tonnes per annum. On a per capita basis, overall food waste in South Africa in 2007 is estimated at 177 kg/capita/annum and consumption waste at 7 kg/capita/annum. However, these preliminary figures should be used with caution and are subject to verification through ongoing research.

  3. Psychiatric genetics in South Africa: cutting a rough diamond.

    PubMed

    Wright, G E; Niehaus, D J; Koen, L; Drögemöller, B I; Warnich, L

    2011-11-01

    Psychiatric disorders place a considerable healthcare burden on South African society. Incorporating genetic technologies into future treatment plans offers a potential mechanism to reduce this burden. This review focuses on psychiatric genetic research that has been performed in South African populations with regards to obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Preliminary findings from these studies suggest that data obtained in developed countries cannot necessarily be extrapolated to South African population groups. Psychiatric genetic studies in South Africa seem to involve relatively low-cost methodologies and only a limited number of large national collaborative studies. Future research in South Africa should therefore aim to incorporate high-throughput technologies into large scale psychiatric studies through the development of collaborations. On a global level, the vast majority of psychiatric genetic studies have been performed in non-African populations. South Africa, as the leading contributor to scientific research in Africa, may provide a foundation for addressing this disparity and strengthening psychiatric genetic research on the continent. Although the elucidation of the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders has proved challenging, examining the unique genetic profiles found in South African populations could provide valuable insight into the genetics of psychiatric disorders.

  4. The specialist physician's approach to rheumatoid arthritis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bester, Frederik C J; Bosch, Fredricka J; van Rensburg, Barend J Jansen

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is expected to increase in Africa and South Africa. Due to the low numbers of rheumatologists in South Africa, specialist physicians also have to care for patients with RA. Furthermore several new developments have taken place in recent years which improved the management and outcome of RA. Classification criteria were updated, assessment follow-up tools were refined and above all, several new biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were developed. Therefore it is imperative for specialist physicians to update themselves with the newest developments in the management of RA. This article provides an overview of the newest developments in the management of RA in the South African context. This approach may well apply to countries with similar specialist to patient ratios and disease profiles.

  5. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  6. "Cape Town, South Africa taken from Atlantis during STS-106"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-19

    STS106-713-057 (19 September 2000) --- One of the STS-106 crew members on board the Space Shuttle Atlantis used a handheld 70mm camera to photograph this image of Cape Town and the Karroo Ranges in South Africa. Cape Town occupies the north end of the Cape of Good Hope peninsula and extends to the shore of False Bay. The city is home to about 2.7 million people. Tourism and viticulture contribute importantly to the local economy, and the city is a service center for government and industry -- particularly mining. The great folded mountain ranges of South Africa were formed during the assembly of the ancient super continent of Gondwana. Broad N-trending folds of the Cedarburg range, South Africa formed first, according to geologists, about 230 million years ago, and the W-trending Karroo ranges formed a little later.

  7. Space Weather over South Africa: progress towards a RWC for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Kotze, Pieter; Theron, Herman

    The Hermanus Magnetic Observatory (HMO) in Hermanus, South Africa has recently been appointed as the Regional Warning Center (RWC) for Space Weather in Africa by the International Space Environment Service (ISES). As with other magnetic observatories the HMO's core function is to measure the Earth's magnetic field and to this end HMO operates three INTER- MAGNET field stations. However, in addition to this core function, the HMO also undertakes fundamental space physics research, postgraduate student training, science outreach and provides magnetic related services to various industries. The management of the ionospheric data from the South African ionosondes also falls under the responsibility of the HMO. And during 2008 the fourth South African ionosonde will be commissioned on the grounds of the observatory. Since 2001 the HMO has been a national facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF) and is rapidly building the reputation of being the national facility responsible for space physics in South Africa. For a number of years HMO has being supplying geomagnetic and ionospheric data and models to various users. However, now that HMO has become the RWC for Africa, a concerted effort is being made to package these products into a user friendly way for space weather purposes, and also to increase the number of products available. Several postgraduate projects are under way which will not only increase the number of available products, but also provide relevant expertise to the rest of Africa. A proposal has been submitted for a purpose-built space weather center in Hermanus, and a preliminary website has been set up. This paper will provide a review of what HMO can offer to Space Weather users, what is currently available and what is planned for the future especially in light of the upcoming solar maximum.

  8. Education and Skills for Development in South Africa: Reflections on the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, S.; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    In July 2005, President Mbeki announced the launch of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA), a new development strategy designed to help the South African state meet the ANC's 2004 election pledges, namely: (1) halve unemployment; (2) halve poverty; (3) accelerate employment equity; and (4) improve broad-based…

  9. Investment in South Africa: A Challenge to Schools of Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunson, Paul M.

    1980-01-01

    Points out the rift between the non-discrimination ethic of social workers and the apartheid policy in South Africa. University corporate investments in South Africa are questioned, especially those from universities with graduate schools of social work. (LAB)

  10. Media Performance in South Africa: A Shift from Vertical to Horizontal Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, John; Kantor, Lara

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Media Monitoring Project (MMP) of South Africa, an organization that monitored the media ahead of and during South Africa's first democratic elections. Describes the MMP's roots and its activities and impact before, during, and after the election. (SR)

  11. Media Performance in South Africa: A Shift from Vertical to Horizontal Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, John; Kantor, Lara

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Media Monitoring Project (MMP) of South Africa, an organization that monitored the media ahead of and during South Africa's first democratic elections. Describes the MMP's roots and its activities and impact before, during, and after the election. (SR)

  12. The feasibility of malaria elimination in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Following the last major malaria epidemic in 2000, malaria incidence in South Africa has declined markedly. The decrease has been so emphatic that South Africa now meets the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold for malaria elimination. Given the Millennium Development Goal of reversing the spread of malaria by 2015, South Africa is being urged to adopt an elimination agenda. This study aimed to determine the appropriateness of implementing a malaria elimination programme in present day South Africa. Methods An assessment of the progress made by South Africa in terms of implementing an integrated malaria control programme across the three malaria-endemic provinces was undertaken. Vector control and case management data were analysed from the period of 2000 until 2011. Results Both malaria-related morbidity and mortality have decreased significantly across all three malaria-endemic provinces since 2000. The greatest decline was seen in KwaZulu-Natal where cases decreased from 42,276 in 2000 to 380 in 2010 and deaths dropped from 122 in 2000 to six in 2010. Although there has been a 49.2 % (8,553 vs 4,214) decrease in the malaria cases reported in Limpopo Province, currently it is the largest contributor to the malaria incidence in South Africa. Despite all three provinces reporting average insecticide spray coverage of over 80%, malaria incidence in both Mpumalanga and Limpopo remains above the elimination threshold. Locally transmitted case numbers have declined in all three malaria provinces but imported case numbers have been increasing. Knowledge gaps in vector distribution, insecticide resistance status and drug usage were also identified. Conclusions Malaria elimination in South Africa is a realistic possibility if certain criteria are met. Firstly, there must be continued support for the existing malaria control programmes to ensure the gains made are sustained. Secondly, cross border malaria control initiatives with neighbouring countries must

  13. Bangkok 2004. Sex workers and law reform in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Jayne

    2004-12-01

    The Sisonke movement in South Africa aims to galvanize sex workers to fight for equal rights and for improvements in their living and working conditions. This article, based on Jayne Arnott's presentation to a plenary session at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok on 14 July 2004, outlines the legislation that governs the sex trade in South Africa; reviews related legal and policy developments since the end of apartheid in 1994; describes the present environment; and outlines the contribution that sex workers themselves are making to the fight for reform.

  14. Lifelong Learning Within Higher Education in South Africa: Emancipatory Potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Shirley

    1999-11-01

    In South Africa under apartheid higher education was inaccessible to the majority. This article argues that in the new South Africa there is an opportunity to redress this situation and promote equity though lifelong learning. This would involve greatly widening access and providing programmes to develop broadly applicable abilities such as computer literacy and problem-solving skills, which would increase the economic competitiveness and personal empowerment of learners. At the same time, the author argues, new educational approaches are needed to promote active citizenship.

  15. Sleights of Hand: South Africa's Gold Mines and Occupational Disease.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Jock

    2016-02-01

    South Africa's gold mines were the first to compensate silicosis and tuberculosis as occupational diseases. They were also the first mines to introduce a state-sanctioned regime of medical surveillance. Despite those innovations, the major mining houses are currently facing class actions by former miners with occupational lung disease. The obvious reason for this medical and legislative failure is to be found in the economic fabric of South Africa's gold industry. In this article, I will argue that it is also found in the system of mine medicine, which was designed to hide rather than reveal the actual disease rates. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  17. The United States and the Republic of South Africa: ’Benign Neglect’ Revisited.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-07

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference (with Martin Luther King as its president), the National Urban League , and the National Association for the...South Africa gained control over South West Africa (now Namibia) at the end of World War I under the provisions of a mandate from the League of Nations ...8217󈧛 In March 1946 South Africa proposed to the United Nations (the successor to the League of Nations ) that it be allowed to annex South West Africa

  18. Compulsory licensing and the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Saslow, E L

    1999-10-01

    One cannot look at the high prevalence and persistent, dramatic spread of HIV in developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, without also examining economic and public health systems. Recent developments in South Africa have highlighted an emerging controversy surrounding the issue of access to essential medicines and drug pricing. Sparked by a South African amendment, Article 15(C) of the Medicines and Related Substances Act 101, passed in 1997, that would allow the South African Minister of Health to provide less expensive generic forms of essential medicines, including anti-HIV therapies, to South Africa, law- and policymakers as well as activists have been taking sides in a complicated debate that mixes important health issues with international trade law, patent protection, economic incentives, and United States domestic law. Threatened by what could be a weakening of patent protection, pharmaceutical firms in the United States, South Africa, and Europe have generally opposed the efforts of the South African government to allow production of such generic products, claiming that the 1997 amendment violates international trade law, particularly the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. AIDS activists and consumer advocates generally support the efforts of the South African government, claiming that international law is flexible in cases of national emergency. Lobbied by the pharmaceutical industry, United States government officials have proposed bilateral trade sanctions in an effort to pressure South Africa to repeal the 1997 amendment. These issues are reviewed in this report. Relevant provisions of Article 15(C) and the TRIPS Agreement are available on the Internet or from the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR).

  19. ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

  20. Design Thinking: A Methodology towards Sustainable Problem Solving in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munyai, Keneilwe

    2016-01-01

    This short paper explores the potential contribution of design thinking methodology to the education and training system in South Africa. Design thinking is slowly gaining traction in South Africa. Design Thinking is gaining traction in South Africa. There is offered by the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design Thinking at the University of Cape Town…

  1. State of Transition: Post-Apartheid Educational Reform in South Africa. Monographs in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    This book reviews the major dimensions of post-apartheid educational change and continuity in South Africa since 1994. It sets educational reform in the context of the nature of the anti-apartheid struggle inside South Africa and in the global economic environment in which South Africa re-entered the world stage as a legitimate actor. Recognizing…

  2. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa.

  3. Training opportunities for public health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shisana, O

    1994-03-01

    South Africa has 4 public health training institutions: the Transvaal School of Public Health, the Public Health Programme of the University of the Western Cape, the Natal Institute of Community Health Education, and the Eastern Cape School of Public Health. They are interinstitutional (universities, polytechnic schools, health service providers, statutory research councils, and nongovernmental organizations). A steering committee heads up each institution. One person leads the committee, managing all activities and making sure that all activities fulfill the requirements of the steering committee. The Epidemiological Society of Southern Africa also contributes to public health training through its annual forum for public health researchers and meetings of public health personnel, where they talk about public health training needs. Interest in public health training reemerged in the late 1980s, mainly due to the dismantling of apartheid, which called for a restructuring of the public health service. Primary health care is the focus of all South Africa's public health institutions. Courses convey community-oriented approaches in the design of health programs and research. They use a multidisciplinary approach to education. They examine socioeconomic conditions affecting health as well as the biomedical aspects of public health. The Transvaal School of Public Health targets post-basic and post-graduate health staff at the middle or senior level positions. On the other hand, the Eastern Cape School of Public Health targets field workers, primary health care workers, and public health professionals. Currently, the programs only provide a Master of Public Health. As South Africa makes its way to democracy and with adequate funding, public health training in South Africa will result in positive efforts helping all of Africa.

  4. Forensic medicine in South Africa--time for change?

    PubMed

    Saayman, G; van Oosten, F F

    1994-01-01

    Forensic medical services in South Africa are rendered by state-employed district surgeons and forensic pathologists, who are obliged to utilize the physical infrastructure and personnel of the South African Police in their examinations. Recent highly publicized incidents have (again) highlighted the alleged involvement of the South African Police and/or state security forces in political killings and deaths in custody. The perception has arisen that the South African Police is often a party to a dispute and yet may have virtually unlimited access to evidence and findings, thereby gaining unfair advantage and opportunity for prejudicing the eventual outcome of the investigation. Furthermore, the perceived allegiance (and even possible subservience) of doctors to the South African Police has tarnished the reputation of forensic medical practitioners in this country. It is imperative that the public and the courts perceive the rendering of medicolegal services to be independent and scientifically objective. A model is proposed for the restructuring of medicolegal services in South Africa so as to be autonomous and without the integral involvement of the South African Police. Regard should be had to the opportunity for change now presenting itself in South Africa.

  5. Stress-Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of One of Africa’s Stable States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    advantage while improving the state’s effectiveness to maintain stability in the face of popular protests. Stress-Testing South Africa 3 A Paradox...base and control of rural areas to sustain an insurgency, effective military action proved problematic. MK’s difficulties notwithstanding, in the... effectiveness of state institutions at all levels of government.19 Even in cases where party members are blatantly corrupt or incompetent, they remain in

  6. Challenging Assumptions: Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nicky; Vanska, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the Nokia Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa, which made use of mobile technology to support mathematics learning at 30 public secondary schools. It draws on the evaluation of this project from January to June 2010. The article discusses learner access to mobile devices, learner and teacher uptake and…

  7. Education Policy Studies in South Africa, 1995-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; Osman, Ruksana; Buchler, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings pertaining to scholarship in education policy drawn from a wider study on all education research in South Africa from 1995 to 2006. This study, which defined education research as broadly pertaining to teaching and/or learning, obtained extensive data from a wide range of sources, including universities, public…

  8. Research at Private Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; van Vuuren, Rex; Augustyn, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about whether and what kinds of research are being undertaken at private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in South Africa. This article draws on a recent survey of all registered PHEIs undertaken by a group of interested private higher education providers. This survey was facilitated by the Council on Higher Education…

  9. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  10. Education and the Distribution of Income in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Provides empirical evidence concerning the education/earnings distribution relationship in South Africa. Investment in education is directly related to earnings across racial groups. An increase in the average education level is associated with a narrower dispersion of earnings. A more equal education distribution is associated with a more equal…

  11. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  12. Networking for School Leadership in South Africa: Perceptions and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Moorosi, Pontso

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings from the evaluation of the pilot of a new entry qualification for school principals in South Africa. The programme, Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) School Leadership, had networking as a distinctive feature, and this article examines candidates' perceptions and experiences of networking as a leadership…

  13. Sirens, Knuckles and Boots! Apartheid in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goheen, Diane; Printz, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Describes a high school's Ethnic Week study on South Africa and the global issue of apartheid. Discusses the role of the school's library media center in planning and implementing the program. Notes that the impact of the week-long study carried on throughout the school year. (RS)

  14. Competition and Cooperation in South Africa's Biotechnology Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerck, Gilton

    2005-01-01

    This article asserts that the normative, institutional and policy framework of an economy moulds the structure and performance of its innovation system. Three case studies of industry?higher education partnerships in South Africa's biotechnology sector challenge both the notion of a simple convergence within and between national innovation systems…

  15. An Overview of Education and Drama in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Terri Anne

    2016-01-01

    South Africa labours under a bimodal education system in which inequality is deeply entrenched. Approximately 83% of schools are classed as being "dysfunctional" and many learners are not effectively equipped for meaningful futures. Learners who are able to attend the few functional schools are generally able to attain better jobs and…

  16. Mathematics Registers in Indigenous Languages: Experiences from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Through reporting on an initiative in South Africa that aimed to provide epistemological access to teachers and learners of mathematics (and science) through translating mathematical concepts into two indigenous languages, this paper argues for the urgent development of mathematical registers in indigenous languages for mathematics and …

  17. Elusive Equity in Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the drive to expand the quantity and quality of PhD's in South Africa and the impact this has had on under-represented groups, in particular black graduates. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data, the paper argues that while there has been a significant increase in the number of black students in doctoral education,…

  18. Institutionalising Teacher Clusters in South Africa: Dilemmas and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jita, Loyiso C.; Mokhele, Matseliso L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher clusters are being used as a substitute for the more traditional approaches to the professional development of teachers. With this goal in mind, many provincial education departments in South Africa have sought to institutionalise and encourage the formation of teacher clusters as vehicles for the continuing professional…

  19. Coping with Rapid Change: Special Focus on South Africa's Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Stephen, Ed.; Herman, Harold, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The research described by contributors to this special theme issue deals with the core issues of education in the context of South Africa. These issues include teacher control over the process of educational reform and balancing the need for reform with the maintenance of standards in an industrializing society. These essays demonstrate the highly…

  20. Institutionalising Teacher Clusters in South Africa: Dilemmas and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jita, Loyiso C.; Mokhele, Matseliso L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher clusters are being used as a substitute for the more traditional approaches to the professional development of teachers. With this goal in mind, many provincial education departments in South Africa have sought to institutionalise and encourage the formation of teacher clusters as vehicles for the continuing professional…

  1. Scholarship in Teacher Education in South Africa, 1995-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; Osman, Ruksana; Buchler, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings pertaining to scholarship in teacher education drawn from a wider study on all education research in South Africa from 1995 to 2006. The study, which defined education research as broadly pertaining to teaching and/or learning, obtained extensive data from a wide range of sources: universities, non-government…

  2. Bureaucratic Accountability in the Education Action Zones of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm

    2006-01-01

    The Education Action Zone programme in Gauteng province, South Africa, has been widely seen as a very successful school improvement initiative, with particular significance as it represents a unique model of top-down, bureaucratic accountability as a vehicle for turning- around dysfunctional secondary schools. In this article I evaluate the impact…

  3. Africa South of the Sahara: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography has been compiled as an introduction to reference resources for college-level African studies and to suggest useful tools for literature searches. It is a guide to materials in the library of McGill University. Call numbers are included. The titles cited refer to Africa South of the Sahara as a whole or to large…

  4. The Status of Teaching as a Profession in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Corene

    2016-01-01

    Using ten universally accepted criteria for a profession and following the Structural-Functional Model of professionalism, this study evaluates the status of teaching as a profession in South Africa. The study found that policies and structures have been put in place since the beginning of the new millennium to enhance the professional status of…

  5. Neo-Nationalism in Higher Education: Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.

    2017-01-01

    Given the rise of regional hubs, emerging economies are experiencing international student growth as higher education providers in their respective regions. This study examined the neo-national experiences of international students in South Africa. Neo-nationalism refers to a new nationalism based national order in the new global economy. The…

  6. South Africa's Vocational Colleges Struggle to Do Their Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    With youth unemployment in South Africa hovering around 50 percent and close to half the population living in poverty, a university degree has come to be seen by many as the only way out. And universities are straining under the burden: This admissions cycle, the University of Johannesburg alone rejected more than 70,000 applicants in filling an…

  7. A provisional name for taxon of Phanerochaete from South Africa

    Treesearch

    T.H. De Koker; H. Burdsall; B.J.H. Janse; Rajinder Lal

    2000-01-01

    Phanerochaete “pseudomagnoliae” nom. prov. isolated from decayed wood, collected in Stellenbosch, South Africa, is described and illustrated. From fruiting in culture it differs from previously described species of the genus Phanerochaete in that the basidiospores are smaller and it does not produce many chlamydospores on Malt Extract Agar but only on xylose containing...

  8. Lifelong Learning in South Africa: Dreams and Delusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, John

    2004-01-01

    The new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning' in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of 'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought significant changes to education and training for adults?

  9. Politics and Human Welfare: Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKendrick, B. W.; Leketi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The study found that apartheid impacted the sociopsychological and physical circumstances of 12 African and 11 White people with retinitis pigmentosa in South Africa. Findings are discussed in terms of onset of condition, effects on subjects' lives, knowledge of social services, and needs unmet by existing services. (JDD)

  10. WHERE ARE GENERAL SURGEONS LOCATED IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    PubMed

    Dell, A; Kahn, D

    2017-09-01

    Human resources are the backbone of healthcare delivery systems and the lack of surgical workforce in developing countries is often the greatest challenge to providing surgical care. The workforce availability and composition is an important indicator of the strength of the health system. A descriptive analysis of the general surgical workforce in South Africa was performed. The total number of specialist and non-specialist general surgeons working in the public sector in South Africa was documented between the periods from the st October 2014 until the 31st of December 2014. There were significant disparities in the number and distribution of general surgeons in South Africa. There were 1.78 specialist general surgeons per 100 000, of which 0.69 per 100 000 specialist general surgeons were working in the public sector. There were 2.90 non-specialist general surgeons per 100 000. There were 6 specialist general surgeons per 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US). Urban provinces such as Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu- Natal had the largest number of specialist general surgeons per 100 000. These areas had the largest number of medical aid beneficiaries and nearly 60% of specialist general surgeons were estimated to work exclusively in the private sector. There was a major shortage of surgical providers in South Africa, and in particular the public sector.

  11. The Making of South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social construction of the "Revised National Curriculum Statement (Grades R-9)" in South Africa between 2000-2002. The author, a participant in the process, uses the experience of the insider to tell the story. The paper discusses the relationship of different lobbies, voices, and interests to the curriculum, and…

  12. Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Aspirations of Dentistry Students in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…

  13. To Greener Pastures: Transnational Teacher Migration from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manik, Sadhana

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation of the world economy has intensified migration in the twenty-first century. Professionals are vulnerable to transnational migration and the trend is for professionals from developing countries to fill labour gaps in developed countries. South Africa's (SA) inclusion in the world labour market suggests that she is not immune. She is…

  14. Teaching about Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Dennis; Msibi, Thabo

    2011-01-01

    This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexism and homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who…

  15. First Detection of Human Dirofilariasis in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Krishnee; Govind, Chetna N.; Peer, Abdool K.C.; van der Westhuizen, Marissa; Parbhoo, Dharmesh; Sun, Lisa Ming; du Plessis, Desiree C.; Frean, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are occasionally inadvertently infected with dirofilariae, the zoonotic nematodes. We report two cases of human dirofilariasis in South Africa, an area apparently non-endemic for this infection. Dirofilariasis is frequently misdiagnosed, so increased awareness of this entity in areas that are non-endemic is essential for prevention of inappropriate investigations and invasive therapy. PMID:25874068

  16. Determinants of Smoking Cessation among Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S. Priscilla; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Data is required on the motivational determinants of smoking cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents in South Africa. The I-Change Model was used to explore the determinants of smoking cessation among a sample of 1267 Black African, Colored and White Grade 9-11 monthly smokers and former smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo region.…

  17. Doctoral Production in South Africa: Statistics, Challenges and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed new interest in doctoral production in South Africa. In the first section of the article, it is argued that this new interest has its roots in various higher education policy documents over the past decade. The second part of the article presents some of the most recent statistics on various aspects of doctoral…

  18. Black Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter W.; Boult, Brenda E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa are at threatening levels. Outlines selected consequences based on the assertion that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational. Hypothesizes teenage pregnancy needs reexamination in terms of the pheronomal climate's impact on prepuberial girls; and nature's way of…

  19. Rangeland mismanagement in South Africa: Failure to apply ecological knowledge

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak

    1999-01-01

    Chronic, heavy livestock grazing and concomitant fire suppression have caused the gradual replacement of palatable grass species by less palatable trees and woody shrubs in a rangeland degradation process termed bush encroachment in South Africa. Grazing policymakers and cattle farmers alike have not appreciated the ecological role fire and native browsers play in...

  20. 1994: New Academic Profession for a New South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1994, the eyes of the world have been on South Africa, observing with interest the societal reconstruction project, upon which the country had embarked. In this project, higher education is both the terrain and the perceived instrument of change. In this higher education system and its mission, the academic profession is pivotal--especially,…

  1. Lost Horizons: The Humanities in South Africa (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Politics chartered the development of the Humanities in South Africa. Under the apartheid system three separate traditions--English-speaking, Afrikaner and Homeland--co-existed, albeit uneasily, in separate institutional forms. As apartheid crumbled in the 1980s, the Humanities, by drawing the three traditions together, established a growing voice…

  2. New Spaces for Researching Postgraduate Education Research in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Daisy; Karlsson, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Universities in South Africa during apartheid reflected the racialised politics of the period. This gave rise to divisive descriptors such as "historically white/black"; "English/Afrikaans-speaking" institutions and "Bantustan'' universities. These descriptors signal a hierarchy of social status and state funding. We start…

  3. Politics and Human Welfare: Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKendrick, B. W.; Leketi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The study found that apartheid impacted the sociopsychological and physical circumstances of 12 African and 11 White people with retinitis pigmentosa in South Africa. Findings are discussed in terms of onset of condition, effects on subjects' lives, knowledge of social services, and needs unmet by existing services. (JDD)

  4. South Africa's Vocational Colleges Struggle to Do Their Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    With youth unemployment in South Africa hovering around 50 percent and close to half the population living in poverty, a university degree has come to be seen by many as the only way out. And universities are straining under the burden: This admissions cycle, the University of Johannesburg alone rejected more than 70,000 applicants in filling an…

  5. Schooling Citizens: Policy in Practice in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "student citizen" is implicit in a range of national and provincial policy documents in South Africa, with citizenship promoted as both an expected outcome of schooling and an encouraged practice within schools. This paper provides an account of how policy on student citizenship was translated differently into practice in…

  6. Governmentality and the Study of Education Policy in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Applies Foucault's idea of governmentality to an understanding of education policy in South Africa. Argues that studying policy through the lens of governmentality theory allows for the consideration of the autonomous effects of rationalities of government on shaping the possibilities of policy. Also argues that educational change can be…

  7. Women Principals in Small Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    South Africa presents a distinctive and varied context in which to explore the experience of women principals. The article draws on a larger data set to explore the interplay of gender and school size in seven schools with 200 students or fewer. From this study, we conclude that gender remains a potent influence on the career and experience of…

  8. Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Aspirations of Dentistry Students in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…

  9. Women Principals in Small Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    South Africa presents a distinctive and varied context in which to explore the experience of women principals. The article draws on a larger data set to explore the interplay of gender and school size in seven schools with 200 students or fewer. From this study, we conclude that gender remains a potent influence on the career and experience of…

  10. Women Principals in South Africa: Gender, Mothering and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on qualitative data from a mixed-method study that analysed women's access to the principal role and their leadership experiences. The paper draws on a subset of interviews with 54 female head teachers in the Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Since a mothering style of leadership was self-reported by over half of…

  11. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  12. Doctoral Production in South Africa: Statistics, Challenges and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed new interest in doctoral production in South Africa. In the first section of the article, it is argued that this new interest has its roots in various higher education policy documents over the past decade. The second part of the article presents some of the most recent statistics on various aspects of doctoral…

  13. Teaching about Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Dennis; Msibi, Thabo

    2011-01-01

    This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexism and homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who…

  14. Diverse Perceptions of Cross-Racial Adoption in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanga, Pius T.; Nyasha, Kausi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the perceptions of stakeholders regarding the practice of cross-racial adoption (CRA) in East London, South Africa. Method: A qualitative research design was used. Data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions from 23 participants. The data were analyzed qualitatively, using thematic…

  15. Schooling for All in South Africa: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, Jennifer; Fleisch, Brahm

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that South Africa has achieved universal basic education. Through an analysis of the 2001 census and two national enrolment datasets rather than statistical projections, this study re-examines this assumption and provides new estimates of enrolment levels in primary, basic and secondary education. Using GER, NER, and…

  16. Academic Freedom and Racial Injustice: South Africa's Former "Open Universities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Y.; Taylor, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article critically re-interrogates three high profile cases of white racism at South Africa's former "open universities" to highlight the way in which existing debates around academic freedom fail to come to terms with questions of racial injustice after apartheid. The cases covered are the Makgoba affair at Wits, the Mamdani affair…

  17. The Challenges of Realising Inclusive Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Dana; Bornman, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, up to 70% of children of school-going age with disabilities are out of school. Of those who do attend, most are still in separate, "special" schools for learners with disabilities. This situation prevails despite the push for the educational inclusion of learners with disabilities over twelve years ago by the South…

  18. Children's Learning in the Diverse Sociocultural Context of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda; Muzvidziwa, Irene; Richter, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Children develop in several interlocking systems--in the context of their family, and within the interaction of such settings as home, school, and church (Russell, 2011). In South Africa, children's diverse backgrounds within families, neighborhoods, and sociocultural environments provide them with varied experiences and opportunities to learn.…

  19. School Choice and Inequalities in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of the new policies of school choice in post-apartheid South Africa and the reasons they have largely failed to achieve greater educational equality--their stated purpose. I argue that the dominant reason for this lies in the continuing inadequate resources of many poor schools and the failure to address them.…

  20. The Politics of Education: South Africa's Lost Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Max

    1991-01-01

    Antiapartheid forces' unleashing of the "liberation before education" revolution among school-age children, coupled with the negative effects of years of apartheid education, resulted in a generation of students losing years of schooling. These young people are a daunting challenge to the new South Africa beginning to emerge. (CJS)

  1. Subjective Well-Being and Household Factors in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwalter, Jeffrey T.; Dalenberg, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a household survey from South Africa to estimate a model of subjective well-being based upon poverty and household characteristics including housing, sanitation, and transportation. Following Sen, we allow for factors in addition to income and we begin to incorporate functionings and capabilities as determinants of well-being. This…

  2. The Dilemma of the Historically Black Universities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilorah, R.

    2006-01-01

    The historical black universities (HBUs) in South Africa were established by the apartheid government to serve black students banned from attending segregated white-only universities. These universities were poorly funded compared to the white-only universities. The poor funding affected their output (research and postgraduates) adversely. With…

  3. Lost Horizons: The Humanities in South Africa (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Politics chartered the development of the Humanities in South Africa. Under the apartheid system three separate traditions--English-speaking, Afrikaner and Homeland--co-existed, albeit uneasily, in separate institutional forms. As apartheid crumbled in the 1980s, the Humanities, by drawing the three traditions together, established a growing voice…

  4. Teacher Education from Classroom Broadcasts for the New South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moja, Teboho

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the educational problems facing South Africa focuses on the possible uses of educational technology, particularly radio, for teacher education. The role education plays in a nation's growth and development is discussed; the use of available resources is considered; and the use of interactive radio instruction is described. (five…

  5. Education Policy Studies in South Africa, 1995-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; Osman, Ruksana; Buchler, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings pertaining to scholarship in education policy drawn from a wider study on all education research in South Africa from 1995 to 2006. This study, which defined education research as broadly pertaining to teaching and/or learning, obtained extensive data from a wide range of sources, including universities, public…

  6. Preventing Juvenile Offending in South Africa: Workshop Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Lorraine, Ed.

    An extensive research project to develop a national strategy to prevent juvenile offending was undertaken in South Africa. The following proceedings of a workshop, which involved representatives of relevant organizations, are reported in this book: "Setting Goals" (Lorraine Glanz); "The Prevention of Juvenile Offending: Problems and…

  7. Competition and Cooperation in South Africa's Biotechnology Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerck, Gilton

    2005-01-01

    This article asserts that the normative, institutional and policy framework of an economy moulds the structure and performance of its innovation system. Three case studies of industry?higher education partnerships in South Africa's biotechnology sector challenge both the notion of a simple convergence within and between national innovation systems…

  8. "No Fee" Schools in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen; Sayeed, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    40% of schools in South Africa, namely the poorest two-fifths as determined by poverty indicators, were declared to be no fee schools as of 2007. These schools receive larger state allocations per learner than other schools, as well as a higher allocation for non-personnel, non-capital expenditure. In other schools parents may continue to apply…

  9. To Greener Pastures: Transnational Teacher Migration from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manik, Sadhana

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation of the world economy has intensified migration in the twenty-first century. Professionals are vulnerable to transnational migration and the trend is for professionals from developing countries to fill labour gaps in developed countries. South Africa's (SA) inclusion in the world labour market suggests that she is not immune. She is…

  10. Children's Learning in the Diverse Sociocultural Context of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda; Muzvidziwa, Irene; Richter, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Children develop in several interlocking systems--in the context of their family, and within the interaction of such settings as home, school, and church (Russell, 2011). In South Africa, children's diverse backgrounds within families, neighborhoods, and sociocultural environments provide them with varied experiences and opportunities to learn.…

  11. Social Justice and Rural Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlalele, Dipane

    2012-01-01

    Social justice is undeniably grounded in efforts at circumventing provisions that seek to uphold ostracism and exclusionary practices which have permeated South Africa and many other societies worldwide for extensive periods of time. Vast incongruities and/or inequalities between better resourced urban communities and neglected rural areas impinge…

  12. Raising Children in a Global Village: Lessons from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsopp, Merle

    2011-01-01

    The title of this presentation speaks to the contradictory notion of the "global village" and the great benefits associated with the sharing of knowledge--a key advantage to our shared globalized context. This "Commentary" seeks to articulate some of the lessons being discovered in South Africa related to children, families and…

  13. An Overview of Education and Drama in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Terri Anne

    2016-01-01

    South Africa labours under a bimodal education system in which inequality is deeply entrenched. Approximately 83% of schools are classed as being "dysfunctional" and many learners are not effectively equipped for meaningful futures. Learners who are able to attend the few functional schools are generally able to attain better jobs and…

  14. Africa South of the Sahara: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography has been compiled as an introduction to reference resources for college-level African studies and to suggest useful tools for literature searches. It is a guide to materials in the library of McGill University. Call numbers are included. The titles cited refer to Africa South of the Sahara as a whole or to large…

  15. Desegregation in a Former "Whites Only" School in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grootboom, Nomalanga P.

    2012-01-01

    After decades of racially segregated education under apartheid in South Africa, the process of school desegregation commenced in 1990's with the view equalize education for all, and fostering better relationships and making available equal opportunities for all learners. The process of desegregation not has been without problems as it is apparent…

  16. First detection of human dirofilariasis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Krishnee; Govind, Chetna N; Peer, Abdool K C; van der Westhuizen, Marissa; Parbhoo, Dharmesh; Sun, Lisa Ming; du Plessis, Desiree C; Frean, John A

    2015-02-24

    Humans are occasionally inadvertently infected with dirofilariae, the zoonotic nematodes. We report two cases of human dirofilariasis in South Africa, an area apparently non-endemic for this infection. Dirofilariasis is frequently misdiagnosed, so increased awareness of this entity in areas that are non-endemic is essential for prevention of inappropriate investigations and invasive therapy.

  17. Medunsa and the Training of Black Doctors for South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, M. Alfred; Lee, Arthur B.

    1995-01-01

    The Medical University of South Africa (Medunsa) was founded to address underrepresentation of blacks in health professions and inadequate health care in the homelands. It trains most allied health professionals in the country, emphasizing community service and preventive medicine. Medunsa and American health professions schools can learn from…

  18. South Africa, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Home: Understanding the Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Zala

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the historical, social, cultural, economic, and political connections that make the struggles of the people of South Africa, Nicaragua, and El Salvador relevant to the lives of Black people in the United States. Considers the U.S. government's role with respect to each of these countries. (DMM)

  19. School Libraries in South Africa. EPU Working Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Catherine

    The question of the provision of libraries to support primary and secondary education in South Africa has been overlooked by most education departments and educators and is not a focal point of current education planning. The present provision of library services by the different education authorities is generally poor; school libraries have long…

  20. Schooling for All in South Africa: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, Jennifer; Fleisch, Brahm

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that South Africa has achieved universal basic education. Through an analysis of the 2001 census and two national enrolment datasets rather than statistical projections, this study re-examines this assumption and provides new estimates of enrolment levels in primary, basic and secondary education. Using GER, NER, and…

  1. Subjective Well-Being and Household Factors in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwalter, Jeffrey T.; Dalenberg, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a household survey from South Africa to estimate a model of subjective well-being based upon poverty and household characteristics including housing, sanitation, and transportation. Following Sen, we allow for factors in addition to income and we begin to incorporate functionings and capabilities as determinants of well-being. This…

  2. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  3. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  4. English Teaching in South Africa: Languages, Literacies and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Lesley; Homer, David; Patterson, Annette

    1998-01-01

    Uses three addresses given at a mid-term International Federation for the Teaching of English at the University of Witwatersrand to outline workplace realities for South African teachers. Summarizes the addresses which deal with (1) the role of intellectuals in Africa; (2) the problems of school and social reconstruction; and (3) the political…

  5. 1994: New Academic Profession for a New South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1994, the eyes of the world have been on South Africa, observing with interest the societal reconstruction project, upon which the country had embarked. In this project, higher education is both the terrain and the perceived instrument of change. In this higher education system and its mission, the academic profession is pivotal--especially,…

  6. Challenging Assumptions: Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nicky; Vanska, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the Nokia Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa, which made use of mobile technology to support mathematics learning at 30 public secondary schools. It draws on the evaluation of this project from January to June 2010. The article discusses learner access to mobile devices, learner and teacher uptake and…

  7. The Education Roadmap in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    A response to the precarious state of the public education system in South Africa, the Education Roadmap and its 10 Point Programme is a multi-layered policy intervention intended to galvanise educational policymakers and practitioners into action, get schools the support they need, get teachers teaching and learners learning, and ultimately…

  8. Academic Freedom and Racial Injustice: South Africa's Former "Open Universities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Y.; Taylor, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article critically re-interrogates three high profile cases of white racism at South Africa's former "open universities" to highlight the way in which existing debates around academic freedom fail to come to terms with questions of racial injustice after apartheid. The cases covered are the Makgoba affair at Wits, the Mamdani affair…

  9. English Teaching in South Africa: Languages, Literacies and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Lesley; Homer, David; Patterson, Annette

    1998-01-01

    Uses three addresses given at a mid-term International Federation for the Teaching of English at the University of Witwatersrand to outline workplace realities for South African teachers. Summarizes the addresses which deal with (1) the role of intellectuals in Africa; (2) the problems of school and social reconstruction; and (3) the political…

  10. The Legacy of Deaf President Now in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druchen, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The impact of DPN on South Africa is remarkable particularly the profound transformations in the country since 1988. When citizens find that their civil rights are not being granted, they may form movements to claim equal protection for all citizens. They may also call for new laws to stop current discrimination. In 1988 it was the "Deaf…

  11. Teacher Deprivation in School Based Management in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Mosoge, M. J.

    This study examined the extent of teacher participation in school management. Participants were 260 teachers and 40 principals from random samples of schools in each of three education districts in South Africa. Researchers administered a closed questionnaire that asked the teachers and principals to indicate their actual and desired participation…

  12. The Legacy of Deaf President Now in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druchen, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The impact of DPN on South Africa is remarkable particularly the profound transformations in the country since 1988. When citizens find that their civil rights are not being granted, they may form movements to claim equal protection for all citizens. They may also call for new laws to stop current discrimination. In 1988 it was the "Deaf…

  13. The Dilemma of the Historically Black Universities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilorah, R.

    2006-01-01

    The historical black universities (HBUs) in South Africa were established by the apartheid government to serve black students banned from attending segregated white-only universities. These universities were poorly funded compared to the white-only universities. The poor funding affected their output (research and postgraduates) adversely. With…

  14. Decolonizing Research in Postapartheid South Africa: The Politics of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2012-01-01

    This article emanates from an in-depth qualitative study that examined ideological beliefs among Indigenous parents regarding school desegregation and school "choice" policies in South Africa. The author discusses the politics of qualitative research design and methodology along two primary dimensions: decolonizing research and the…

  15. Enterprise Training in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badroodien, Azeem

    2005-01-01

    Against the backdrop of training provision in the apartheid era and a description of the promulgation of a new skills development regime post-1994, this article considers the status and distribution of enterprise training in contemporary South Africa. It is found that reasonable progress is being made with training in large and medium-sized firms…

  16. Recommended Audio-Visual Materials on South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofts, Marylee

    1984-01-01

    Presents a descriptive list of films, videocassettes, and slide sets available and recommended for teaching about South Africa and Namibia. Organizes cited materials according to the subjects they cover, including resistance to apartheid, the police state, homelands and Bantustans, the struggle of women, labor, the United States role, white rule,…

  17. Black Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter W.; Boult, Brenda E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa are at threatening levels. Outlines selected consequences based on the assertion that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational. Hypothesizes teenage pregnancy needs reexamination in terms of the pheronomal climate's impact on prepuberial girls; and nature's way of…

  18. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  19. Cultural Astronomy in Africa South of the Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    This chapter examines two foci of cultural astronomy found in Africa south of the Sahara: creation myths and celestial art. The examples highlighted are from the Akan, the Bahima, the Boshongo, the Fon, the Igbo, the Mambila, the Yoruba, and the Zulu people.

  20. Elusive Equity in Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the drive to expand the quantity and quality of PhD's in South Africa and the impact this has had on under-represented groups, in particular black graduates. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data, the paper argues that while there has been a significant increase in the number of black students in doctoral education,…

  1. South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

  2. Status of marine pollution research in South Africa (1960-present).

    PubMed

    Wepener, V; Degger, N

    2012-07-01

    The published literature on marine pollution monitoring research in South Africa from 1960 to present was evaluated. There has been a general decline in the number of papers from the 1980s and this can be linked to the absence of a marine pollution monitoring programme in South Africa. General trends observed were that contaminant exposure monitoring of metals predominates the research conducted to date. Monitoring results indicate that there has been a general decrease in metal concentrations in South African coastal waters and concentrations of metals and most organics in mussels are lower than in other industrialised nations. This is reflected in the general pristine nature and high biodiversity of the South African coastline. The establishment of a national marine pollution monitoring framework would stimulate marine pollution research.

  3. Images of Africa: A Report on What American Secondary School Students Know and Believe about Africa South of the Sahara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Barry K.; Hicks, E. Perry

    "Project Africa" surveyed selected seventh- and 12th-grade students in 24 states to determine (1) the specific nature of their images of Africa south of the Sahara, both before and after any formal study of this region, and (2) the types and accuracy of the students' knowledge about the region and its peoples. In one survey, students…

  4. Modelling the healthcare costs of skin cancer in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Louisa G; Elliott, Thomas M; Wright, Caradee Y; Deghaye, Nicola; Visser, Willie

    2016-04-02

    Skin cancer is a growing public health problem in South Africa due to its high ambient ultraviolet radiation environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual health system costs of cutaneous melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in South Africa, incorporating both the public and private sectors. A cost-of-illness study was used to measure the economic burden of skin cancer and a 'bottom-up' micro-costing approach. Clinicians provided data on the patterns of care and treatments while national costing reports and clinician fees provided cost estimates. The mean costs per melanoma and per SCC/BCC were extrapolated to estimate national costs using published incidence data and official population statistics. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address the uncertainty of the parameters used in the model. The estimated total annual cost of treating skin cancers in South Africa were ZAR 92.4 million (2015) (or US$15.7 million). Sensitivity analyses showed that the total costs could vary between ZAR 89.7 to 94.6 million (US$15.2 to $16.1 million) when melanoma-related variables were changed and between ZAR 78.4 to 113.5 million ($13.3 to $19.3 million) when non-melanoma-related variables were changed. The primary drivers of overall costs were the cost of excisions, follow-up care, radical lymph node dissection, cryotherapy and radiation therapy. The cost of managing skin cancer in South Africa is sizable. Since skin cancer is largely preventable through improvements to sun-protection awareness and skin cancer prevention programs, this study highlights these healthcare resources could be used for other pressing public health problems in South Africa.

  5. Cape Province, South Africa as seen from STS-58

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-30

    STS058-77-083 (18 Oct-1 Nov 1993) --- In this scene of the south coast of Africa, Cape Agulhas, the southernmost point on the continent, appears as the leftmost cape. Viewed with the Earth's limb top left, clouds at bottom, the view direction is west and north top right. The Cape of Good Hope, with Cape Town nearby, is the thin spike beyond. The great bay in the foreground is Algoa Bay with the city of Port Elizabeth. This was the first time European voyagers are known to have rounded the Cape of Good Hope in their quest to reach India by sea. The entire fold mountain belt of southern Africa is visible: these mountains appear as green (forested) wavy structures stretching west form the foreground, to the Cape of Good Hope, and then northwards some distance. One theory about their origin is that the Falkland Plateau, now an undersea extension of South America, was jostled up against Africa more than 150 million years ago, in times before the Atlantic Ocean existed, before Africa and South America drifted apart from one another. The jostling caused the evolution of the fold mountain belt.

  6. Combining prevention, treatment and care: lessons from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Achmat, Zackie; Simcock, Julian

    2007-07-01

    Over one million people in sub-Saharan Africa now access HIV treatment, and as the prognosis of life expectancy on antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves, the central question that arises for governments, civil society and the private sector must be: how will we pay for the healthcare costs?This paper critically evaluates the need to provide effective treatment, prevention and care for HIV over the long term. Compelling evidence and moral argument suggest that the right combination of treatment and prevention policies, bolstered by grassroots mobilization and effective treatment literacy campaigns, can prevent new infections, save lives and mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS. South Africa's HIV epidemic and its antiretroviral roll-out provide instructive global templates. The scale of the epidemic, the political responses, the epidemiological evidence and the outcomes data are lessons for countries where there is only a low-level epidemic at present. The investment needed to provide universal ART in South Africa will be substantial, but the economic rationale to act now is compelling. Brazil and to a lesser extent Thailand have responded with increased urgency and foresight. When compared with South Africa, their successes lend further credence to the importance of augmenting HIV prevention efforts with widespread access to treatment and care. Despite the obstacles, important gains have been made in South Africa, with community level health facilities documenting noteworthy treatment and adherence results. Our example suggests that even after tragic mistakes have been made, collective action, evidence-informed programmes, and sustained investment can still save lives and mitigate the epidemic.

  7. [Fever and vesiculopapular exanthema due to infection with Rickettsia africae after a sojourn in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Kager, P A; Dondorp, A M

    2001-01-20

    A 26-year-old woman, who had visited the Krugerpark in South Africa 5 days before, presented with fever, a skin lesion with a black crust (eschar), lymphadenopathy and a vesiculo papular rash. The clinical diagnosis 'Rickettsia africae infection' was confirmed by specific serological tests. A second patient aged 43 years, whose vesicular rash did not respond to flucloxacillin had been in the Krugerpark one week before and on examination was found with 2 eschars. Based on epidemiological and clinical grounds African tick fever can be distinguished from Mediterranean spotted fever (fièvre boutonneuse). In the Netherlands specific diagnostic tests are not available. For treatment the distinction is not necessary; treatment is with tetracycline or doxycycline. Both patients recovered upon this treatment.

  8. Construction on dolomite in south Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Fritz Von M.; Day, Peter W.

    1986-03-01

    Damage to structures and loss of life have been more severe on dolomite than on any other geological formation in southern Africa. The subsidence that occurs on dolomitic terrain following development or during dewatering has given dolomite a notorious reputation and engineers and geologists became reluctant to recommend development on the material. This has led to the pioneering of founding methods for a wide variety of structures aimed at reducing the risk of severity of damage due to subsidence settlement Structures successfully founded on dolomitic terrane include residential and industrial buildings, gold mine reduction works and shaft structures, tailings dams, water retaining structures, and road and rail links. In this article, various methods of construction, some ot which were developed by the authors, are presented. It commences with a classification of a dolomite site in terms of overburden thickness followed by a discussion of the relevant construction methods The methods include mattresses of compacted soil supported by pinnacles or “floating” in residuum, deep foundations such as caissons, the use of specialized piling techniques, and soil improvement by dynamic consolidation

  9. South Africa reels from blood-donation debacle.

    PubMed

    Larkin, M

    2000-05-20

    Negotiations are being held between the Human Rights Commission (HRC) and South Africa's Western Province Blood Transfusion Service (WPBTS) after HRC received a complaint against the WPBTS from a homosexual man who was rejected as a potential blood donor. In South Africa, men who have sex with men and others who are involved in high-risk behaviors are barred from donating blood. Although the gay man who complained to the HRC is in a committed relationship and tested negative for HIV, the head of the South African Blood Transfusion Services, Anthon Heyns, stated that the behavior of specific individuals falling under a group is not taken into account. Moreover, Tygerberg epidemiologist Jo Barnes warned that the current controversy reduces the possibilities of getting a better base of blood supply and will exacerbate the critical shortages the country already faces.

  10. Techno Generation: Social Networking amongst Youth in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, Antoinette; Makhasi, Yoliswa; van Vuuren, Daan

    Internet and cell phones can be considered as new media compared to traditional media types and have become a fundamental part of the lives of many young people across the globe. The exploratory research study investigated the diffusion and adoption of new media innovations among adolescents. It was found that new media have diffused at a high rate among South African adolescents who are not only the innovators in this area, but also changing their life styles to adapt to the new media. Social networking grew to prominence in South Africa especially among the youth. The protection of children from potential harmful exposure and other risks remain a concern and adequate measures need to be initiated and implemented for children to enjoy social networks and other forms of new media. The exploratory research study provided worthwhile and interesting insights into the role of the new media, in the lives of adolescents in South Africa.

  11. Vitamin D Status in South Africa and Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Abhimanyu; Meyer, Vanessa; Jeffery, Tamsyn Jacki; Bornman, Liza

    2015-12-01

    According to the World Health Organisation South Africa has the third highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the world, with an estimated 60 % incident cases having both TB and HIV. The South African National Tuberculosis Association (SANTA) recognized the importance of nutrition in the prevention and management of TB by including feeding schemes in community outreach programs. Vitamin D enhances innate immunity against mycobacterial infection through the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin. We reviewed studies on vitamin D status, its link with TB, and potential use in therapy in multiethnic South Africa with sunlight as primary source of vitamin D. Ethnicity, season, disease state, latitude, and urbanization are critical factors to be considered in vitamin D supplementation for prevention and treatment of TB.

  12. Factors associated with oesophageal cancer in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I.; Reinach, S. G.; de Beer, M.

    1988-01-01

    Cancer of the oesophagus was a rare disease in the South African black population until the last few decades. Increases in incidence have occurred and at present it is the commonest cancer in black men in many parts of South Africa. A case-control study of 200 oesophageal cancer patients and 391 hospital controls has been carried out in order to determine the risk factors in the urban black population of Soweto. The results indicate that the cancer patients were long-term urban residents from a very low socio-economic group. The association between smoking pipe tobacco and oesophageal cancer previously noted in South Africa is confirmed. In addition, consumption of traditional beer was found to be a major risk factor. PMID:3219281

  13. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability.

  14. Guns and gender-based violence in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Mathews, Shanaaz

    2010-09-07

    The criminal use of firearms in South Africa is widespread and a major factor in the country having the third-highest homicide rate in the world. Violence is a common feature of South African society. A firearm in the home is a risk factor in intimate partner violence, but this has not been readily demonstrated in South Africa because of a lack of data. We drew on several South African studies including national homicide studies, intimate partner studies, studies with male participants and studies from the justice sector, to discuss the role of gun ownership on gender-based violence. Guns play a significant role in violence against women in South Africa, most notably in the killing of intimate partners. Although the overall homicide data suggest that death by shooting is decreasing, data for intimate partner violence are not readily available. We have no idea if the overall decrease in gunshot homicides applies to women in relationships, and therefore gun control should remain high on the legislative agenda.

  15. Marine and freshwater microplastic research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Verster, Carina; Minnaar, Karin; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2017-05-01

    South Africa has a vibrant plastics manufacturing industry, but recycling is limited and insufficient with a notable proportion of the unmanaged waste entering the environment. South Africa is a developing country with microplastics research in its inception. Very little is known about freshwater microplastics, and studies on South African marine microplastics are limited but actively being pursued. In a water-scarce country, protection of freshwater resources remains a priority, but in the face of other socioeconomic issues (poverty, unemployment, and HIV/AIDS), it receives insufficiently effective attention. The full impact and risks of microplastics pollution in water is yet to be discovered. The risks may be enhanced in a developing country where many communities remain largely dependent on the land and natural waters. With South Africa being a water-scarce country, the quality of its aquatic resources is at an even greater risk with an assumed increasing background of microplastics, emphasizing the need for further research. A South African Water Research Commission-funded project is being undertaken to derive research priorities, but there is an immediate need for improved recycling and waste management. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:533-535. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  17. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Carol S; Snow, Rachel C; Hosegood, Victoria

    2014-08-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women's increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men's and women's out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa.

  18. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  19. Republic of South Africa: unraveling the population puzzle. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-06-01

    This discussion of the Republic of South Africa focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion of the population, age distribution, housing and households, education, employment, income, and marketing and communication. South Africans, condemmed by the world community for their policy of racial discriminatioon, contend that outsiders fail to understand the system they legalized in 1948. Apartheid calls for developing different political institutions for blacks and whites in preparation for their eventual separation. According to this reasoning, black Africans are not considered permanent residents of South Africa, but rather of the "homelands" to which each tribal group has been assigned by the government. 4 homelands have been made independent, and if the remaining 6 become independent as scheduled, South Africa theoretically will no longer have any black citizens. Under this plan, nearly 90% of the current area of South Africa would go to whites, while the remaining 10% would be divided among the 10 homelands. The UN has condemmed the homelands policy, and no country has recognized their independence. By law South Africa has 4 distinct populations: Africans, whites, coloureds, and asians. Rhe combination of Afrikaners and British makes up the white population. Whites are in the minority and numbered only 4.7 million in 1983, or 15% of the total population. Since whites rule the country, their importance is far disproportionate to their numbers. There were 2.7 million coloureds in 1983, approximately 9% of all South Africans. Black africans, the single largest population group, numbered 22.7 million in 1983, or 73% of the total population. Blacks are divided in 10 subgroups corresponding to the 10 ethnicallyy based homelands. The largest groups are the Zulu (5.9 million in 1981) and the Xhosa (3.1 million). Population growth varies by race. The annual growth rate for the entire country was 2.4% in 1983, but for blacks it was 2.7% and for

  20. Emergent migration policy in a democratic South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kotze, H; Hill, L

    1997-01-01

    This article sets recent debates on migration policy in South Africa against broader historical realities that have shaped patterns of population movement on the subcontinent since the end of the nineteenth century. During the course of the last century, most forms of population movement were the result of disjointed regional economic development which can be traced to two epochal events at the end of the nineteenth century: the creation of the modern African state system and the discovery of mineral wealth in Southern Africa. Although regulation of migrant labor was a fundamental feature of the colonial period, it was only after 1950, when independent states began to define specific migration priorities, that states began to restrict significantly the flow of transnational labor. From this point notions such as internally displaced person, refugee and illegal immigrant become increasingly appropriate to the study of regional migration. Particular attention is given to current debate on the definition of refugee which forms part of a broader international debate. A number of South African writers have argued that, given the structural imbalances contained in the regional economy, the term "refugee" should be redefined to included economic migrants. This position is not shared by the South African Government, and an analysis of current policy and legislation demonstrates a growing tendency to restrict the influx of undocumented migrants. This is due, in part, to the recent political transition and the institutional compromises that it produced as well as the growth of negative sentiment towards illegal immigrants at both mass and elite levels, as demonstrated by two recent research findings. The article concludes with a summation of recent trends in South African migration policy and an evaluation of the ambiguous position that South Africa occupies within Southern Africa.

  1. The quality of doctoral nursing education in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Siedine K; Klopper, Hester C; Kim, Mi J

    2015-07-09

    The number of doctoral programmes in nursing has multiplied rapidly throughout the world. This has led to widespread concern about nursing doctoral education, specifically with regard to the quality of curricula and faculty, as well as to the availability of appropriate institutional resources. In South Africa, no study of these issues has been conducted at a national level. To explore and describe the quality of nursing doctoral education in South Africa from the perspectives of deans, faculty, doctoral graduates and students. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All deans (N = 15; n = 12), faculty (N = 50; n = 26), doctoral graduates (N = 43; n = 26) and students (N = 106; n = 63) at South African nursing schools that offer a nursing doctoral programme (N = 16; n = 15) were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of structured email-mediated Quality of Nursing Doctoral Education surveys. Overall, the graduate participants scored their programme quality most positively of all the groups and faculty scored it most negatively. All of the groups rated the quality of their doctoral programmes as good, but certain problems related to the quality of resources, students and faculty were identified. These evaluations, by the people directly involved in the programmes, demonstrated significant differences amongst the groups and thus provide valuable baseline data for building strategies to improve the quality of doctoral nursing education in South Africa.

  2. South Africa steps up fight against HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sidley, P

    1995-09-09

    As of the end of 1993, 4.3% of the population in South Africa was infected with HIV. The proportion of infected individuals in the country grew to 7.6% by the end of 1994. Estimates based upon department of health statistics indicate that one million people may have been infected with HIV in South Africa by the end of 1994. In South Africa's most populous region, Guateng, which contains Johannesburg, Pretoria, the Witwatersrand, and Vaal Triangle, 6.4% of the population is estimated to be infected with HIV. KwaZulu-Natal is the worst-affected province with 14.4% of the population affected. An estimated 6.5% of teenagers are infected with HIV, 8.9% of 20-24 year olds, 9.6% of 25-29 year olds, and 6.4% of 30-34 year olds. The belief among some men that having sex with a virgin will rid them of HIV is cause for concern. Money has been set aside by South African health authorities for HIV/AIDS prevention and education campaigns, with almost two million condoms already imported for free distribution at clinics. A publicity campaign using celebrities is planned as well as propaganda films on state television and a possible play targeted to urban and rural youth.

  3. Tissue banking in South Africa: a 19-year history.

    PubMed

    Lindeque, B G P; Lindeque, A M; Hausner, H; Le Roux, T L B

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of a Tissue Bank and the science of Tissue Banking in South Africa started in the 1960s and is still developing. This article describes the development and growth of Tissue Banking in South Africa. The current emphasis is to supply viable bone products that have been produced under the best possible quality controlled circumstances; with the collaboration between different Organ Donation Organisations. Through collaboration, a dramatic increase in the number of donors was noted over the years. Concurrently, there was a dramatic increase in the usage of different allograft products and now necessitates the development of new graft materials for expanding patient options. As an ongoing concern, the Tissue Bank in South Africa experienced an ever increase in costs to enhance quality/safety controls: increase in historical patient information, documentation and serological testing in a population struggling to control HIV. To date, the South African Tissue Bank has not experienced any untoward patient incidence since the 1960s and currently is getting over 500 donors per year.

  4. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  5. Coaches' Preferences for Continuing Coaching Education in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kubayi, Alliance; Coopoo, Yoga; Morris-Eyton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coaches' preferences for continuing coaching education. The sample consisted of 122 male and 102 female coaches from the Gauteng Province of South Africa who were purposively recruited to participate in this study. The results of this study showed that the coaches wanted to learn more about motivational techniques, advanced instructional drills, advanced first aid, goal setting, character building and conditioning drills. The results further indicated that sport coaches would be more likely to continue their coaching education if they had a desire to coach at a high level, if topics were relevant and if courses were in line with league requirements and were available online. The practical implications of the findings for the development of coaching education programmes in South Africa were discussed.

  6. Fortress South Africa and the deconstruction of apartheid's migration regime.

    PubMed

    Crush, J

    1999-02-01

    South Africa's new democratic government inherited a system of cross-border migration management rooted in the abusive practices of the past. Under apartheid, employers such as mining companies and White farmers, were exempted from normal immigration legislation. The result was legislation and practices that are in direct conflict with the new government's commitment to transparency, equality, accountability, and fundamental human rights. The practices permitted by this system have continued after 1994. This paper documents the continuities in international migration policy and practice between the old and new South Africa and highlights the dilemmas which the government faces in transforming inherited policy. The paper critically analyzes the regulatory framework of the bilateral labor agreements and the Aliens Control Act. The paper then highlights policy proposals that contravene the discourse of the fortress and assesses, pessimistically, the likelihood of their implementation before the 1999 elections.

  7. Psychology in South Africa and the end of history.

    PubMed

    Long, Wahbie

    2016-08-01

    Shortly before the end of apartheid rule in South Africa, Kurt Danziger (1994) asked whether the history of psychology had a future. In the 21 years that have since elapsed, the question retains its original significance. In this article, the state of the field in postapartheid South Africa is examined. Several key trends are identified, including a declining historical consciousness and a revival of Whig historiography. It is argued that the resulting lack of a critical history of postapartheid psychology is in keeping with the unassailability of the equivalent period in official state discourse. In view of an emerging consensus that the country is on the brink of another political watershed, it is suggested that the revival of the field may yet be possible. This will require a turn to histories of the present with a focus on the growing problem of co-option. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Mapping rehabilitated coal mine soils in South Africa using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, D. G.

    2000-04-01

    Open-cast mining, involving severe disturbance, of shallow coal deposits has taken place in Mpumalanga, South Africa for some time with little control until recently. Current legislation requires soil investigations. The soils are agriculturally productive and merit effective rehabilitation, but several problems in this process can occur, leading to drastically reduced agricultural productivity. GPR investigation of these mine soils can help with the mapping of the depth to spoil after rehabilitation, on a significantly more cost-effective basis than traditional point observations. A field trial was carried out as part of a research project at Kleinkopje Colliery where it was shown that, despite wet conditions due to irrigation, GPR was able to map spoil depth around six times faster than augering. There is substantial scope in South Africa for GPR to make a significant contribution in this field.

  9. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  10. Health effects of amosite mining and milling in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jill; Nelson, Gill

    2008-10-01

    This study focuses on the amosite mining region in South Africa and associated health effects, compared to other mined asbestos fiber types. Historically, dust and fiber levels were high in the amosite mills and mines, and many miners and members of the surrounding communities were exposed to the fibers. Research has shown that amosite produces both benign and malignant disease. Nevertheless, the mesotheliomagenic potential of amosite is several fold lower than crocidolite. The risk of disease associated with amosite exposure is difficult to quantify. Reasons for this include the scarcity of available information, including fiber measurements, and case ascertainment, as well as the juxtaposition of the amosite and crocidolite asbestos seams in South Africa.

  11. The status of fatherhood and fathering in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with estimates of fatherhood in South Africa, in the absence of formal measures of paternity. It highlights several salient features of fatherhood in the country, particularly low rates of marriages and father absence from households, and it traces their roots in colonialism and Apartheid, the political system in South Africa under which Black people were systematically oppressed. We point out that some forms of father absence illustrate the commitment of men to supporting their families by their willingness to seek migrant work far from their homes. Examples are given of government policies to support fathers and some of the major civil society efforts are described. The paper closes with important themes about fatherhood in work with young children. PMID:23864733

  12. Origin of atmospheric lead in Johannesburg, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, F.; Poujol, M.; Losno, R.; Dominik, J.; Annegarn, H.; Coetzee, H.

    The origin of lead in the atmosphere of Johannesburg, South Africa was investigated on the basis of elemental and lead isotopic analyses of coals, mine dumps, gasoline, and about 30 epiphytic lichen samples. Lead predominantly comes from automotive exhausts in urban and suburban areas, as leaded antiknock additives were still in use in South Africa at the time of the study. Although dust emissions from the numerous mine-tailing dumps were expected to contribute significantly to the heavy metal budget, the southern townships that are surrounded by the dumps (such as Soweto and other historically Black residential areas) do not appear to be more than partially influenced by them, and this influence seems to be geographically limited. Domestic coal burning, suspected to account for the total lead content in the air, is also recognised, but only acts as a minor source of lead, even in townships.

  13. "Homophobia hurts": Mourning as resistance to violence in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Julie

    2017-04-03

    Much has been written on the successful lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex movement in South Africa, and the resulting institutionalization of sexual minority rights. Comparatively less has been written about the forms of activism undertaken specifically by Black lesbians that are not oriented toward legal change. In this article, I assert the need to examine public demonstrations of mourning as an act of Black lesbian resistance to violence in South Africa. Based on in-depth interviews with members of Free Gender, a Black lesbian organization, I argue that members' conceptualizations of mourning as providing community support force a reconsideration of what it means to be human. In order to grasp the decolonial potential of Free Gender's activism, I draw on Sylvia Wynter's argument that a singular Western bourgeois conception of human has come to dominate globally.

  14. Information needs in home based healthcare in South Africa.

    PubMed

    de la Harpe, Retha; Barnes, Jay; Korpela, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Home based health care (HBHC) is advocated by the WHO "to ensure better accessibility to effective and efficient health care in community and home-settings to improve health and well-being, and contribute to morbidity and mortality reduction". In South Africa the government and many other role players see an increasingly important role for HBHC. Many researchers believe that the evolution of HBHC will follow the socio-technical network evolution. There can be no doubt that the focus is on using information and communication technologies (ICT) to implement HBHC solutions. The objective of this paper is to provide a rich picture of the current situation and needs for improvement in HBHC in South Africa today through descriptive research in one specific case. The longer-term purpose is to identify pain-points that require socio-technical solutions, including but not exclusively ICT-supported solutions.

  15. The Actuarial Society of South Africa AIDS model.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The AIDS Committee of the Actuarial Society of South Africa has developed a demographic model to allow researchers to project the impact of HIV and AIDS in South Africa. The model is available for use as a projection tool rather than to endorse a given projected scenario as being representative. It is very flexible and can be adapted to suit different purposes by anyone with a working knowledge of Microsoft Excel. The need for a model, calibration of the model, the lack of allowance in the model for racial and cultural heterogeneity in the underlying population, and default scenario projections are discussed. The model is available free of charge via E-mail and on the worldwide web at the following respective addresses: awhitelo@oldmutual.com and http://www.und.ac.za/und/eco/eru/eru.htm.

  16. Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Nicholas; van Walbeek, Corné; Maboshe, Mashekwa; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-05-17

    Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising. Energy drink consumption in South Africa is higher among younger, wealthier males. Spending on energy drink advertising is mostly focused on television. Targeted channels include youth, sports and general interest channels. Viewers of channels targeted by energy drink advertisers have higher odds of any and moderate levels of energy drinks consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Establishing a health promotion and development foundation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Perez, A M; Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Hofman, K; Kalideen, S; Maker, A; Mokonoto, D; Morojele, N; Naidoo, P; Parry, C D H; Rendall-Mkosi, K; Saloojee, Y

    2013-01-14

    South Africa has a 'quadruple burden of disease'. One way to reduce this burden, and address the social determinants of health and social inequity, could be through health promotion interventions driven by an independent Health Promotion and Development Foundation (HPDF). This could provide a framework to integrate health promotion and social development into all government and civil society programmes. On priority issues, the HPDF would mobilise resources, allocate funding, develop capacity, and monitor and evaluate health promotion and development work. Emphasis would be on reducing the effects of poverty, inequity and unequal development on disease rates and wellbeing. The HPDF could also decrease the burden on the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) system. We reflect on such foundations in other countries, and propose a structure for South Africa's HPDF and a dedicated funding stream to support its activities. In particular, an additional 2% levy on alcohol and tobacco products is proposed to be utilised to fund the HPDF.

  18. Population policy in South Africa: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Klugman, B

    1991-02-01

    The argument in this article is that population growth and the concept of balancing resources against population growth is flawed when the context, in this case South Africa, is gross inequalities in resource distribution. The fact is that causes of poverty are located in the social and political structures which give people unequal access to existing resources or international aid. Population trends reflect the mode of production of that society. It is argued that the Malthusian law of population and the theory of demographic transition is ahistorical and inaccurate. The theory does not explain why population growth rates change. In South Africa, fertility reflects lack of control over one's life and poverty. Migrant labor in South Africa undermined normal social institutions and disrupted family life. Government has emphasized a fear of a future population crisis because of resource shortages and a fear of the growing black population. The South African population development program is extracted and discussed. Questions are raised about the theory of demographic transition, the way resource allocation is ascertained, the relationship between resources and population in a specific area, and the relationship between population growth and development in general. The theory of demographic transition is examined and the Western influences which contributed to population growth through requests for changes in sexual mores and the effects of colonization. When demographic transition theory postulates that mortality rates decline with industrialization as a result of access to medical care and an improved diet, it doesn't take into account the discriminatory health care allocation under apartheid, or the displacement of rural people from their land and undermining of the rural peasantry. Separate development has led to inferior schooling and lack of access to skilled employment. In discussing the availability of resources in South Africa, the question is raised as to

  19. Health status and its determinants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1994-03-01

    South Africa's apartheid policies have had direct and indirect effects on morbidity and death that will likely remain for decades. Since 1964, the economy has largely been deteriorating, while the population has grown at 2.8%/year, both of which have hampered economic development and health. South Africa needs to supply water, sanitation, and housing to 75% of the population. Rural development is needed to stem malnutrition, soil erosion, and overgrazing. Urban development design and planning must include health. Schooling needs to improve educators can emphasize school health education. Electricity and better lighting are needed to reduce chest diseases and paraffin poisoning and to improve literacy and learning. Labor migration has contributed to a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in rural areas. In some cases, industry and the public sector have become partners to improve health. The alcohol industry sponsors drive safe campaigns. South Africans need to address inequalities in health status by race, region, and gender, and to follow a holistic development approach. Infant mortality is just 6.4/1000 for Whites, while it is 66.7/1000 for Blacks. It is 1.5 times lower in the best region than it is in the worst region. 2 of every 25 children die before their first birthday among Africans living in the poorest third of South Africa. 42% of Black men who live to 15 years die before their 60th birthday, while just 17.5% of like White women do. Black children less than 5 years old have an almost 9-fold excess in deaths over White children. The tuberculosis rate is among the highest in the world and is likely to increase as HIV/AIDS spreads. Many other preventable diseases occur among South Africans. 5-8% of the population suffer a disability. South Africa has the highest per capita violence mortality rate worldwide (59.2/100,000 vs. 9.6/100,000 in the US). South Africa is likely to face increases in lung cancer, chronic lung disease, heart disease

  20. Black teenage pregnancy in South Africa: some considerations.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, P W; Boult, B E

    1996-01-01

    Black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa have reached a threatening level. Accepting that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational, this article outlines selected consequences. It concludes that teenage pregnancy as a social problem needs reexamination in terms of two hypotheses: that the pheronomal climate has an impact on prepuberal girls; and that teenage pregnancy is nature's way of ensuring the survival of the species.

  1. Against all odds: diagnosing tuberculosis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Douglas; Howell, Victoria; Toppozini, Christina; Dong, Krista; Clark, Michael; Hurtado, Rocio

    2011-11-15

    Clinical and logistic systems to support the timely diagnosis of tuberculosis are currently not preventing large numbers of tuberculosis deaths in South Africa. Context-appropriate systems for the diagnosis of tuberculosis are entirely dependent on effective and responsive management of human resources and an uninterrupted supply of clinical materials. Attention to these components of the tuberculosis program is urgently needed before new diagnostic technologies can be expected to impact on tuberculosis mortality in resource constrained settings.

  2. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-04

    understanding earthquake source mechanisms. Of special interest to the research community associated with Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) activities...burst or natural earthquake . This paper provides background information on previous research in and around the deep mines of South Africa and lays...spectra and source parameters agree well with standard earthquake source  models.” The “explosions typically have higher corner frequencies than

  3. Red meat, processed meat and cancer in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Daniela Cristina

    2015-12-16

    Epidemiological studies around the world were analysed recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, demonstrating a positive correlation between consumption of red meat and processed meat and colorectal cancer. In South Africa (SA) there is a great variation in the incidence of this type of cancer between various ethnic groups, related to diet and other risk factors. Strengthening the SA cancer registry and co-ordinated research on diet and cancer are required to provide specific answers for our population.

  4. Blood-borne infections in healthcare workers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, T M; van Rooyen, M; Louw, J M; Richter, K L

    2014-11-01

    The risks associated with infection of healthcare workers and students with blood-borne pathogens, specifically HIV, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, are often neglected. South Africa (SA) currently has no official policies or guidelines in place for the prevention and management of these infections. This article reviews the available data and international guidelines with regard to infected healthcare practitioners and makes minimum recommendations for the SA setting.

  5. Catchment Management Agencies for poverty eradication in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Barbara; Van Koppen, Barbara

    This paper discusses the changes in water law in South Africa since the new dispensation. The focus is on the poverty dimensions of the early experiences of implementation of one of the components of the National Water Act: the establishment of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs). From a diversity of recent experiences in decentralizing integrated water resources management, key areas emerge where future actions by the government are crucial to establish pro-poor, developmental CMAs.

  6. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  7. The Report of the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility with Respect to South Africa Shareholder Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    Issues pertinent to Harvard University's holdings in companies with operations in South Africa are examined in this report to determine if Harvard should adopt any changes in its investment policy regarding U.S. companies in South Africa. The history of U.S. involvement in the South African economy is reviewed and both U.S. and South African…

  8. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  9. The Report of the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility with Respect to South Africa Shareholder Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    Issues pertinent to Harvard University's holdings in companies with operations in South Africa are examined in this report to determine if Harvard should adopt any changes in its investment policy regarding U.S. companies in South Africa. The history of U.S. involvement in the South African economy is reviewed and both U.S. and South African…

  10. IYA2009 in Africa: A South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In Africa the stars have always been a part of people's everyday lives, be it in the form of folklore, superstition or even agricultural indicators. Modern astronomy, however, has not been very widespread, with only a few African countries having sufficient facilities or academics to support a modern astronomical community. The International Year of Astronomy serves not only as an opportunity to boost these astronomical communities, but also to celebrate the rich history and culture that has existed for thousands of years. On this, the poorest continent, with so many millions living in rural areas, there is one glaring advantage over other continents - people's abundant access to a dark night sky. We would like to see 2009 as the year that everyone in Africa, no matter what their background or lifestyle, turn their heads to the skies in appreciation of the beauty of the Universe, in celebration of their cultural heritage, and in the hope that they are inspired to overcome harsh challenges that this small planet and its occupants may have placed on them. It is an opportunity not just to promote astronomy, but also to spark curiosity and spur on a culture of learning. The perspective will be given from South Africa, home to a number of major astronomical facilities, and a major player in the development of astronomy across Africa. IYA2009 progress to date and plans for the future will be discussed.

  11. The economic environment and employment creation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Der Berg, S; Smit, B

    1990-07-01

    Recently demoted by the World Bank from an upper middle-income to lower middle-income country, on the basis of per capita income, South Africa is failing to tackle the dualism between high-productivity, high-wage modern sectors and low-productivity subsistence sectors. South Africa is an economically less developed country with a weak economy. Unless economic growth increases markedly, poverty, unemployment, and the informal sector should be expected to continue expanding. In support, this paper forecasts employment for the period 1989-2000. Much dualism exists in the country, with a relatively small portion of the labor force fully participating in the modern consumer market. Not only contrary to present national needs, this phenomenon represents deterioration from the early 1970s. The labor force in South Africa grows faster than the creation of formal employment, and is confirmed by forecasts indicating absolute and relative growth in the peripheral labor force contrasting against stagnation in the core labor force.

  12. Rainwater harvesting in South Africa: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Taigbenu, A. E.

    Water paucity remains a major threat to poverty, hunger alleviation as well as sustainable development. Innovative water technologies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH) have the potential to improve rural water supply and contribute to the provision of the first 6 kl of water consumed monthly. RWH can also be the solution to South Africa food security by increasing water productivity of dryland agriculture and enabling homestead gardening. Although used for decades in South Africa, rainwater harvesting (RWH) is still far from being utilised to its full potential as unresolved challenges prevent its wide scale adoption. The paper presents the challenges and opportunities to the upscaling of RWH in South Africa. Key challenges preventing the nationwide expansion of RWH are the current water related legislations, the lack of finances and the absence of a national umbrella body that coordinates. While opportunities lie in the worth of knowledge gathered by research projects, funded over the last two decades, on the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of RWH.

  13. Deadly Fire in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An explosive fire in Kruger National Park in the northern Republic of South Africa has killed at least 21 people and injured several others, perhaps fatally. This true-color image from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the location of that fire and several others in the region indicated in red. Kruger National Park runs along the border of The Republic of South Africa, which takes up most of the western half of the image, and Mozambique, which takes up most of the eastern half. The deadly fire started on Tuesday, September 4, and burned just to the right of the center of this image, near the town of Skukuza. The fire spread rapidly in the winds that blow across South Africa at the end of the region's dry season. This image, made from MODIS data acquired on September 5, shows the perimeter of the fire burning and emitting heavy smoke. An irregularly shaped burn scar stands out in dark brown against the landscape, indicating the extent of the fire. What appears to be another large burn scar can be seen just to the southeast. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. HIV/AIDS and disability organisations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie; Schneider, Marguerite; Groce, Nora; Eide, Arne Henning

    2010-02-01

    Despite the seriousness of the HIV epidemic globally, and in South Africa in particular, little is known about how HIV/AIDS affects disabled people. One important and little explored area is the role that organisations that represent disabled people or that work on behalf of disabled people, are playing in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among the disabled people they represent or serve. This paper presents the findings of a nationwide survey of disability organisations in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of disability organisations in addressing the HIV epidemic among disabled people in South Africa. The findings suggest that while organisations recognise the importance of providing HIV education, and many have taken steps to do so, disabled people are largely excluded from general HIV prevention messages. Disabled people also have significant difficulties in accessing general health care, relevant for HIV testing and treatment. In a country trying to manage serious social problems with limited resources, this paper highlights the need for increased cooperation and collaboration between relevant parties in order to facilitate the changes necessary for disabled people to access needed health information and care.

  15. South Africa offers exploratory potential in variety of basins

    SciTech Connect

    Broad, D.S.; Mills, S.R. )

    1993-12-06

    While the future suspension of the oil embargo against South Africa will no doubt help revitalize the region's most powerful economy, a move away from dependence on coal as the major local energy source is also likely. This could be accomplished through regional cooperation and development were it not for the ongoing conflict in Angola, the only producer of oil and gas in the Southern African Development Community. Even with world oil prices in the doldrums, massive foreign exchange savings would result from a domestic source, and in line with world trends the possibility of harnessing the gas resources of the region is increasingly seen as a possibility. For the present, those resources remain to be defined. But ENH of Mozambique is pursuing an appraisal program for Pande field with World Bank funding, while Shell and its partners are considering possibilities of Kudu field in Namiba. And while South Africa's own national oil company, Soekor, has had limited success with its search for oil during the apartheid years, offshore F-A gas field is in production, and the potential for hydrocarbons-gas in particular--requires a great deal more investigation. The colleagues have prepared a series of articles on basins off South Africa. These articles were prepared in anticipation of the completion of political reform and of the start of a licensing round, possibly during 1994. This article draws together summaries of aspects thought to be most pertinent to petroleum exploration.

  16. Street children in South Africa: findings from interviews on the background of street children in Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, J

    1996-01-01

    In the present study findings from interviews on the background of street children in Pretoria, South Africa are presented, discussed, and compared with research done in the past on South African street children. Findings from the investigation indicate that the average age of South African street children is approximately 13 years, predominantly of male African origin. Most have been on the streets for three years or longer, and they cited family violence, parental alcoholism, abuse, and poverty as the main motivating factors for leaving home. Most of these findings are common among street children all over the world.

  17. Holocene climate variability and oceanographic changes off western South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xueqin; Dupont, Lydie; E Meadows, Michael; Schefuß, Enno; Bouimetarhan, Ilham; Wefer, Gerold

    2017-04-01

    South Africa is located at a critical transition zone between subtropical and warm-temperate climate zones influenced by the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Presently, the seasonal changes of atmospheric and oceanic systems induce a pronounced rainfall seasonality comprised of two different rainfall zones over South Africa. How did this seasonality develop during the Holocene? To obtain a better understanding of how South African climates have evolved during the Holocene, we conduct a comprehensive spatial-temporal approach including pollen and dinoflagellate cyst records from marine sediment samples retrieved from the Namaqualand mudbelt, a Holocene terrigenous mud deposit on the shelf of western South Africa. The representation of different vegetation communities in western South Africa is assessed through pollen analysis of surface sediments. This approach allows for climate reconstructions of the summer rainfall zone (SRZ) using Group 1 (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Phragmites-type and Typha) and winter rainfall zone (WRZ) using Group 2 (Restionaceae, Ericaceae, Anthospermum, Stoebe/Elytropappus-type, Cliffortia, Passerina, Artemisia-type and Pentzia-type) from a single marine archive. The fossil pollen data from gravity core GeoB8331-4 indicate contrasting climate patterns in the SRZ and WRZ especially during the early and middle Holocene. The rainfall amount in the SRZ is dominated by insolation forcing, while in the WRZ it is mainly attributed to the latitudinal position of the southern westerlies. Dinoflagellate cyst data show significantly different oceanographic conditions associated with climate changes on land. High percentages of autotrophic taxa like Operculodinium centrocarpum and Spiniferites spp. indicate warm and stratified conditions during the early Holocene, suggesting reduced upwelling. In contrast, the middle Holocene is characterized by a strong increase in heterotrophic taxa in particular Lejeunecysta paratenella and Echinidinium spp., indicating cool

  18. Women in Physics in South Africa: The Story to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diale, M.; Buchner, S. J.; Buthelezi, Z.; Gledhill, I. M. A.; Grayson, D. J.; Kgabi, N. A.

    2009-04-01

    Overall about 40% of South African researchers in science, engineering, and technology are women, but the percentage of women in the physical sciences is significantly lower. In 2006, it appeared that about 16% of the 500 members of the South African Institute of Physics were women. Many of the issues of women in physics in South Africa parallel those of black physicists, including discrimination, both conscious and unconscious, in hiring and in awarding grants. The situation is slowly improving with the advent of policies aimed at redress and with far-reaching joint projects from the South African Department of Science and Technology and the South African Institute of Physics. Women in Physics in South Africa Project (WiPiSA), launched in 2005, aims to stimulate an increased interest in physics among girls and women, and assist in removing or overcoming obstacles to the study of physics and to work in physics-related careers. WiPiSA conducted a baseline survey of women who graduated with postgraduate degrees in physics between 1995 and 2005, and a surprisingly large database of 188 women has been formed. WiPiSA has also overseen a number of additional projects aimed at students, teachers, physics departments, and graduates.

  19. The social determinants of multimorbidity in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbidity is a growing concern worldwide, with approximately 1 in 4 adults affected. Most of the evidence on multimorbidity, its prevalence and effects, comes from high income countries. Not much is known about multimorbidity in low income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of multimorbidity and examine its association with various social determinants of health in South Africa. Method The data used in this study are taken from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey (SA-NIDS) of 2008. Multimorbidity was defined as the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases in an individual. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed to analyse the relationship between multimorbidity and several indicators including socioeconomic status, area of residence and obesity. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity in South Africa was 4% in the adult population. Over 70% of adults with multimorbidity were females. Factors associated with multimorbidity were social assistance (Odds ratio (OR) 2.35; Confidence Interval (CI) 1.59-3.49), residence (0.65; 0.46-0.93), smoking (0.61; 0.38-0.96); obesity (2.33; 1.60-3.39), depression (1.07; 1.02-1.11) and health facility visits (5.14; 3.75-7.05). Additionally, income was strongly positively associated with multimorbidity. The findings are similar to observations made in studies conducted in developed countries. Conclusion The findings point to a potential difference in the factors associated with single chronic disease and multimorbidity. Income was consistently significantly associated with multimorbidity, but not single chronic diseases. This should be investigated further in future research on the factors affecting multimorbidity. PMID:23962055

  20. Environment and health in South Africa: gains, losses, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2011-01-01

    South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. Since the advent of democracy in the country, government has made considerable progress in improving living conditions and in developing the legal framework to prevent and manage environmental contamination. Considerable, under-exploited potential also exists in South Africa to prevent disease, including infectious and chronic diseases, and to promote health through a more holistic and public health approach. This article summarizes the main environmental health concerns and reflects on mechanisms and opportunities to improve public environmental health.

  1. Women in physics in South Africa: Progress to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diale, M.; Gledhill, I. M. A.; Buchner, S. J.; Tibane, M.; Grayson, D. J.; Maphanga, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the launch of Women in Physics in South Africa in 2005, the number of women in physics has grown. The growth is noted at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with more women attaining qualifications in physics. Most importantly, there has been a significant increase in the number of women who obtain their PhDs in physics. The progress reported in this paper is based on the findings by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and the database of the South African Institute of Physics. The two sources show an increase in the number of women who obtained their PhDs in physics compared with their male counterparts.

  2. Soekor, partners explore possibilities in Bredasdorp basin off South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, P.L.A. Ltd., Parow, )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on the Bredasdorp basin, situated off the south coast of the Republic of South Africa, southeast of Cape Town and west-southwest of Port Elizabeth. Both cities have modern deepwater harbor facilities. Infrastructure along the coast includes well developed road, air, and rail links. A petrochemical plant for the conversion of off-shore gas and condensate to hydrocarbon fuels as well as certain chemical feedstocks has recently been completed at Mossel Bay about 100 km north of the Bredasdorp basin. Refineries are situated at Cape Town and Durban.

  3. Tay-Sachs disease screening and prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T; Lane, A B; Kromberg, J G

    1977-01-22

    Tay-Sachs disease is potentially preventable in Ashkenazi Jewish communities. About 1 out of 25 individuals is a carrier of the gene and can be accurately identified by means of a simple, inexpensive blood test. 'At risk' couples, i.e. couples of whom both partners are carriers, can be enabled, by means of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion, to have only unaffected children. Mass screening programmes have been successfully carried out in the USA, Canada and Israel. A discussion of South African Jewish deomgraphy, attitudes to health, and priorities for public health projects, provide the background to a consideration of Tay-Sachs disease prevention in South Africa.

  4. Increasing Equity in Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RTI International, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The South African government has made significant efforts to overcome the legacy of apartheid education, committing itself to the dual goals of achieving high-quality education with more equitable access for all South Africans. Substantial investments have been made to achieve this vision, however, translating policies into improved school-level…

  5. The application of high dose food irradiation in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruyn, Ingrid Nine

    2000-03-01

    During the 1950s to the end of the 1970s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf-stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive "dried cooked" taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The Biogam group at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is currently producing shelf-stable irradiated meats on a commercial basis. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 45 kGy at a temperature of between -20 and -40°C to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions and can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. Safari operators in remote parts of Africa, mountaineers, yachtsmen, canoeists and geological survey teams currently use shelf-stable irradiated meat products produced in South Africa.

  6. Africa's Geomosaic under Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Blij, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the transformation of Subsaharan Africa during the last 35 years. Contends that the domino effect hastened decolonization and increased polarization within South Africa. Argues that modernization is taking place only in South Africa's core and that the geopolitical framework appears stable but may collapse from within. (NL)

  7. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position.

  8. The Iraqization of Africa? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Esterhuyse.indd 111 2/7/08 8:25:12 AM The Iraqization of Africa ? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective Abel Esterhuyse...Introduction The South African government has openly expressed its opposition towards the creation of the US Africa Command (AFRICOM).1 What’s more...South Africa presents its position on AFRICOM as representative of the country as a whole, but particularly on behalf of a group of African countries

  9. Successful treatment of Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bosch, F J; Badenhorst, L; Le Roux, J A; Louw, V J

    2008-10-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis is extremely rare and usually fatal. A very few cases of C. violaceum infection have been reported from Africa, but never from South Africa. As far as could be ascertained, this infection has never been reported in a patient with leukaemia. We describe what we believe to be the first such case of C. violaceum sepsis, in a 16-year-old female patient with acute biphenotypic leukaemia, which developed during the neutropenic phase after intensive chemotherapy. The infection was due to a non-pigmented strain of C. violaceum and was associated with a co-infection with Candida parapsilosis; both were successfully treated using broad-spectrum antibiotics, antifungals and removal of a Hickman line.

  10. Quantitative Study of Vulnerability / Damage Curves in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pule, Tebogo

    2014-05-01

    Southern Africa is considered a stable continental region in spite of several cases of reported earthquakes, which caused considerable damage and casualties particularly in the mining industry. Most buildings and structures in South Africa are not designed to resist any intensity of earthquake and most architects, engineers and builders in the country do not consider seismic resistance as a design requirement. This is mainly because the region has not experienced any large and serious destructive earthquake in recent years. The most destructive earthquake recorded in South Africa is the Ceres earthquake of 1969. The earthquake with a magnitude of 6.3 occurred on September 29, 1969 in the Ceres-Tulbagh region of the Western Cape Province about 100 km northeast of Cape Town. Serious damage occurred to certain buildings in the area (amounting to a total of U.S. 24 million). The structural damage varied from almost total destruction of old and poorly constructed buildings to large cracks in the better-built ones, twelve people were killed and many more were injured. Another event that caused severe damage to infrastructure occurred on March 9, 2005 at Stilfontein near Klerksdorp. It is known that up to 40 or more tremors are recorded monthly in Southern Africa, the locations are predominantly in the places surrounding the gold mining areas with many events around the Carletonville and Klerksdorp areas. Recent years have seen at least four mining induced tremors causing significant damage (Welkom 1976, Klerksdorp 1977, Welkom 1989 and Carletonville 1992). Such events show that it is very necessary to take seismic events into account in the design of any infrastructure. Assessing and understanding the risk facing the South African cities as a result of major seismic activity has been paid little attention. The main focus of this study is to use results of a deterministic hazard assessment to develop the most suitable damage curves for twelve of the most common building

  11. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research.

  12. Food composition activities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, Petro; Chetty, Joelaine; Danster-Christians, Natasha

    2013-10-01

    Researchers at the South African Medical Research Council used the Bangkok Declaration, Thailand, 2009, as a guideline for their food composition activities. The vision is to build a comprehensive food composition database for the country. Activities are directed at increasing the number of food items with country-specific nutrient information; encouraging research organisations, universities and the food industry to become involved in nutrient data generation and the generation of yield factors for South African dishes. The introduction of the South African Food Data System (SAFOODS) website and a symposium were major food composition activities. Educating users on the correct application of food composition data is an important endeavour. The national South African Food Data Advisory Group (SAFDAG) formed in 2008, advises and supports food composition activities at SAFOODS. In conclusion, with the support of SAFDAG, SAFOODS activities are aimed at compiling a country-specific food composition database and promoting its scientific use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.; Hosegood, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women’s increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men’s and women’s out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa. PMID:25332690

  14. Fish Hoek Middle School: Issues of Education Reform in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Darryn

    Education in South Africa has mirrored the inequality and socio-political upheaval that has marked that country's history since the official establishment of apartheid in 1948. This paper provides a brief summary of some of the main issues impacting education in South Africa, a description of Fish Hoek Middle School just south of Capetown, an…

  15. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  16. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  17. ICT Policies and Strategies in Higher Education in South Africa: National and Institutional Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Adam, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy initiatives and strategies used to promote the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in South Africa. It explores a wider international outlook and current debates in South Africa to map out an emerging South African perspective concerning the integration of ICT in higher…

  18. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  19. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  20. ICT Policies and Strategies in Higher Education in South Africa: National and Institutional Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Adam, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy initiatives and strategies used to promote the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in South Africa. It explores a wider international outlook and current debates in South Africa to map out an emerging South African perspective concerning the integration of ICT in higher…

  1. Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions

  2. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  3. New Numbers in Mathematics in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Harding, Ansie

    2009-01-01

    This article is a follow-up of a study conducted in 2000 by the same authors on trends in numbers of mathematics majors at South African universities. Data from 12 universities for the 2000-2007 period is investigated. The previously observed trend of general and dramatic decrease in numbers of mathematics majors appears to have been reversed and…

  4. Gender and Empowerment in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over-determined discrimination of so-called coloured and black South African women, not just on the basis of gender but racial hierarchies still prevalent as well in the rainbow nation. Design/methodology/approach: The observations grapple with reconciling the…

  5. Gender and Empowerment in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over-determined discrimination of so-called coloured and black South African women, not just on the basis of gender but racial hierarchies still prevalent as well in the rainbow nation. Design/methodology/approach: The observations grapple with reconciling the…

  6. Democratic Nation-Building in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoodie, Nic, Ed.; Liebenberg, Ian, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays by 50 eminent experts/analysts representing a broad range of ideological perspectives and interest groups. Its aim is to contribute to the process of democratic nation-building and the creation of a culture of tolerance by educating South Africans about the intricacies of community reconciliation and…

  7. Portraits of Black Schooling in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suransky-Dekker, Caroline

    This study offers a portrait of the schooling experiences of black South African student teachers. Approximately 1,000 students were involved in the study, which was conducted over 5 years. The project was designed to help the instructor examine curriculum studies courses for their ability to enable student teachers to reflect on their own…

  8. Moving Across Boundaries: Migration in South Africa, 1950–2000

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government’s suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans. PMID:22956415

  9. Moving across boundaries: migration in South Africa, 1950-2000.

    PubMed

    Reed, Holly E

    2013-02-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government's suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans.

  10. Policy analysis of oral health promotion in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shenuka; Myburgh, Neil G; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2010-03-01

    This article reports an analysis of oral health promotion in South African health policy. The central aim of this research was to determine the form and coherence of oral health promotion elements within health policies of post-apartheid South Africa. The study set out to test the hypothesis that oral health promotion elements are fully integrated into health policy and programmatic efforts. A conceptual framework was developed to systematically analyse oral health promotion policy and subsequent decision-making across the country at national and provincial levels. The information was drawn from policy documents, protocols and programme plans, complemented by interviews. The results indicate distinct contradictions between the policy formulation process and its impact on health system decision-making. South African health policy was found to be strong on the rhetoric of equity, health promotion, integration and several other features of the Primary Health Care Approach, but showed little evidence of translating this into action. The development and implementation of oral health promotion appears to be dominated by the influence of dental professionals that perpetuate a curative focus on service delivery. There is an urgent need to re-examine the process and content of oral health policy-making in South Africa. The conceptual framework developed for this study could facilitate further research in this area.

  11. Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria`s nuclear weapons experience. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    The primary focus of this paper is the impact of key South African leaders on the successful developments and subsequent rollbacks of South Africa`s nuclear weapons capability. It highlights the key milestones in the development of South Africa`s nuclear weapon capability. It also relates how different groups within South Africa (scientists, politicians, military and technocrats) interacted to successfully produce South Africa`s nuclear deterrent. It emphasizes the pivotal influence of the senior political leadership to pursue nuclear rollback given the disadvantages of its nuclear means to achieve vital national interests. The conclusions drawn from flu`s effort are the South African nuclear program was an extreme response to its own identity Crisis. Nuclear weapons became a means to achieving a long term end of a closer affiliation with the West. A South Africa yearning to be identified as a Western nation and receive guarantees of its security rationalized the need for a nuclear deterrent. The deterrent was intended to draw in Western support to counter a feared total onslaught by Communist forces in the region. Two decades later, that same South Africa relinquished its nuclear deterrent and reformed its domestic policies to secure improved economic and political integration with the West.

  12. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter

    2015-06-01

    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  13. Learning from HIV: exploring migration and health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vearey, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa is associated with high HIV prevalence and diverse population movements, including temporary, circular movements between rural and urban areas within countries (internal migration), and movements across borders (international migration). Whilst most migration in southern Africa is associated with the search for improved livelihood opportunities in urban areas a small--but significant--number of people are forced to migrate to escape persecution or civil war. This paper utilises recent empirical studies conducted in South Africa to explore linkages between migration into urban areas and health, focusing on HIV. It is shown that the relationship between migration and HIV is complex; that both internal and international migrants move to urban areas for reasons other than healthcare seeking; and that most migratory movements into urban areas involve the positive selection of healthy individuals. Whilst healthy migration has economic benefits for rural sending households, the data uncovers an important process of return migration (internally or across borders) in times of sickness, with the burden of care placed on the rural, sending household. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive response that maintains the health of migrants in urban areas, and provides support to rural areas in times of sickness.

  14. South Africa slashes pebble-bed cash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2010-04-01

    A novel modular technology that promised to make nuclear power cheaper and safer has suffered a serious blow following withdrawal of support from the South African government. It decided not to renew funding for the pebble-bed modular reactor beyond 31 March this year following a lack of interest from other investors and no customers for its product. The company developing the reactor concept - Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Ltd (PBMR) - is to axe three-quarters of its roughly 800 staff and its chief executive has resigned.

  15. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  16. A climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blamey, R. C.; Middleton, C.; Lennard, C.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2017-09-01

    Severe thunderstorms pose a considerable risk to society and the economy of South Africa during the austral summer months (October-March). Yet, the frequency and distribution of such severe storms is poorly understood, which partly stems out of an inadequate observation network. Given the lack of observations, alternative methods have focused on the relationship between severe storms and their associated environments. One such approach is to use a combination of covariant discriminants, derived from gridded datasets, as a probabilistic proxy for the development of severe storms. These covariates describe some key ingredient for severe convective storm development, such as the presence of instability. Using a combination of convective available potential energy and deep-layer vertical shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, this study establishes a climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa for the period 1979-2010. Results indicate that early austral summer months are most likely associated with conditions that are conducive to the development of severe storms over the interior of South Africa. The east coast of the country is a hotspot for potential severe convective environments throughout the summer months. This is likely due to the close proximity of the Agulhas Current, which produces high latent heat fluxes and acts as a key moisture source. No obvious relationship is established between the frequency of potential severe convective environments and the main large-scale modes of variability in the Southern Hemisphere, such as ENSO. This implies that several factors, possibly more localised, may modulate the spatial and temporal frequency of severe thunderstorms across the region.

  17. A climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blamey, R. C.; Middleton, C.; Lennard, C.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Severe thunderstorms pose a considerable risk to society and the economy of South Africa during the austral summer months (October-March). Yet, the frequency and distribution of such severe storms is poorly understood, which partly stems out of an inadequate observation network. Given the lack of observations, alternative methods have focused on the relationship between severe storms and their associated environments. One such approach is to use a combination of covariant discriminants, derived from gridded datasets, as a probabilistic proxy for the development of severe storms. These covariates describe some key ingredient for severe convective storm development, such as the presence of instability. Using a combination of convective available potential energy and deep-layer vertical shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, this study establishes a climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa for the period 1979-2010. Results indicate that early austral summer months are most likely associated with conditions that are conducive to the development of severe storms over the interior of South Africa. The east coast of the country is a hotspot for potential severe convective environments throughout the summer months. This is likely due to the close proximity of the Agulhas Current, which produces high latent heat fluxes and acts as a key moisture source. No obvious relationship is established between the frequency of potential severe convective environments and the main large-scale modes of variability in the Southern Hemisphere, such as ENSO. This implies that several factors, possibly more localised, may modulate the spatial and temporal frequency of severe thunderstorms across the region.

  18. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  19. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352).

  20. Reproductive control in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, C E

    2000-03-01

    Since its inception in 1974, the South African family planning programme has been widely believed to be linked with white fears of growing black numbers. The programme has been repeatedly attacked by detractors as a programme of social and political control. Yet, in spite of the hostile environment, black women's use of services has steadily increased. Using historical and anthropological evidence, this paper delineates the links between the social and political context of racial domination and individual fertility behaviour. It is argued that the quantitative success of the family planning programme is rooted in social and economic shifts conditioning reproductive authority and fertility decision-making. State policies of racial segregation and influx control, ethnic 'homeland' politics, and labour migration of men transformed opportunities and constraints for black women and men, and altered local and household expectations of childbearing. Women came to manage their own fertility as they increasingly found themselves in precarious social and economic circumstances.

  1. A critical appraisal of clinical trials conducted and subsequent drug approvals in India and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Dnyanesh; Langer, Janka Marisa; Rühling, Tjorben; Fortwengel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relation between the number of clinical trials conducted and respective new drug approvals in India and South Africa. Design Construction and analysis of a comprehensive database of completed randomised controlled clinical trials based on clinicaltrials.gov from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 and drug approval data from 2006 until 2013 for India and South Africa. Setting USA, the EU, India and South Africa. Main outcome measures Percentage of completed randomised clinical trials for an Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP) leading to new drug approval in India and South Africa. Results A total of 622 eligible randomised controlled trials were identified as per search criteria for India and South Africa. Clustering them for the same sponsor and the same Investigational New Drug (IND) resulted in 453 eligible trials, that is, 224 for India and 229 for South Africa. The distribution of the market application approvals between the EU/USA as well as India and South Africa revealed that out of clinical trials with the participation of test centres in India and/or South Africa, 39.6% (India) clinical trials and 60.1% (South Africa) clinical trials led to market authorisation in the EU/USA without a New Drug Application (NDA) approval in India or South Africa. Conclusions Despite an increase in clinical trial activities, there is a clear gap between the number of trials conducted and market availability of these new drugs in India and South Africa. Drug regulatory authorities, investigators, institutional review boards and patient groups should direct their efforts to ensuring availability of new drugs in the market that have been tested and researched on their population. PMID:26324720

  2. Report of the 7th African Rotavirus Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 8th November 2012.

    PubMed

    Seheri, L M; Mwenda, J M; Page, N

    2014-11-12

    The 7th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Cape Town, South Africa, on the 8th November 2012 as a Satellite Symposium at the First International African Vaccinology Conference. Over 150 delegates participated in this symposium including scientists, clinicians, health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers from across Africa. Key topics discussed included rotavirus surveillance, rotavirus vaccine introduction, post rotavirus vaccine impact analysis and intussusception data and surveillance in Africa. The symposium provided early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Botswana) an opportunity to share up-to-date information on vaccine introduction, and allowed colleagues to share experiences in establishing routine rotavirus surveillance (Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda). Overall, the symposium highlighted the high burden of rotavirus in Africa, and the need to continue to strengthen efforts in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa.

  3. The unsuspected killer: Liquefied petroleum gas overexposure in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sampson, L W J; van der Schyff, N; Cupido, C

    2014-12-14

    A 21-year-old woman with no past medical history of note was found unconscious together with five of her family members after prolonged exposure to liquefied petroleum gas. She was admitted to the intensive care unit at Victoria Hospital, Wynberg, Cape Town, South Africa, following resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity. On examination the following was found: coma without focal neurology; shock requiring fluid resuscitation and adrenaline; probable pneumonitis or aspiration pneumonia; acute rhabdomyolysis with severe metabolic acidosis; and raised serum K+. A carboxyhaemoglobin test was unable to confirm or exclude carbon monoxide poisoning.

  4. Violence against women in South Africa: policy position and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mogale, Ramadimetja S; Burns, Kathy Kovacs; Richter, Solina

    2012-05-01

    Violence against women (VAW) in South Africa remains rampant, irrespective of human rights- focused laws passed by the government. This article reflects on the position of two acts: the Domestic Violence Act No 116 of 1998 and Criminal Law (Sexual Offense and Related Matters) Act No 32 of 2007. Both are framed to protect women against all forms of violence. The article discusses the prisms of the two laws, an account of the position taken or interpreted by the reviewed literature regarding the acts, and the findings and recommendations regarding the infrastructure and supports needed to appropriately implement the two acts.

  5. Pneumoconiosis in Chromite Miners in South Africa1

    PubMed Central

    Sluis-Cremer, G. K.; Du Toit, R. S. J.

    1968-01-01

    Ten chromite miners in South Africa have been found to show radiological evidence of a fine nodulation; five of these miners had worked only in chromite mines. These cases occurred in a labour force of some 1,500 persons subjected to regular examination. Clinical evidence and the results of intratracheal injection of chromite suspension into rats indicate that the radiological changes are due not to fibrosis but to a benign deposition of chromite (Cr2O3FeO) dust in the lungs. Images PMID:5642648

  6. The social construction of ARVs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sember, R

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 5.5 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa, 4.9 million of them between the ages of 15-49, 18.8% of the total population in that age bracket (Department of Health, Republic of South Africa 2006). The potential medical and social benefits of anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) would be substantial, but South Africa's leaders have faulted in their response to AIDS from the very beginning, particularly President Thabo Mbeki, who, in concert with the Minister of Health, has questioned the basic science of AIDS, and has condemned ARVs as poisonous. President Mbeki has created a false distinction between social causes and disease agents in his analysis that it is poverty, rather than HIV, that causes AIDS. He has made his arguments using post-colonial rhetoric to condemn pharmaceutical imperialism and medical experimentation on African populations. Opponents, most notably the pro-treatment social movement group, Treatment Action Campaign, claim that because poverty increases the risk of infection, illness and death due to HIV access to anti-retroviral medication is a social justice issue - justice demands the medications be available at all government clinics at no cost. In 2003 a government-sponsored treatment programme was launched, and by mid-2006 it was treating 140 000 persons with HIV/AIDS, less than 25% of the number estimated to require treatment. Treatment access, for all who need it in South Africa, is an ambitious but achievable goal. A new president will be elected in 2008, and many hope that this will result in a national treatment programme unshackled from the "AIDS denialism" of the current leaders. Former deputy president, Jacob Zuma, is likely to be the next president. His record on AIDS, and his patriarchal attitudes towards women, are troubling, however. One can only hope that the provincial health systems, which operate with a fair level of autonomy from the national Department of Health, will not be further hampered

  7. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Susan J.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage. Objective This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization's six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants’ perspectives on nursing education in South Africa. Methods Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of the research area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key informants after informed consent had been obtained. The interviews were analysed using template analysis. Results South Africa has strategic plans on human resources for health and nursing education, training, and practice and has a well-established system of regulation and accreditation of nursing education through the South African Nursing Council (SANC). Key informants criticised the following: the lack of national staffing norms; sub-optimal governance by both the SANC and the Department of Health; outdated curricula that are unresponsive to population and health system needs; lack of preparedness of nurse educators; and the unsuitability of the majority of nursing students. These problems are exacerbated by a perceived lack of prioritisation of nursing, resource constraints in both the nursing education institutions and the health training facilities, and general implementation inertia. Conclusion Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection. PMID:25971402

  8. High society lacks knowledge of epidemic. Focus: South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kotze, H; Van Wyk, J A

    1995-10-01

    The attitudes, prejudices, and knowledge of 1500 leaders of South Africa's politics, academia, agriculture, military, bureaucracy, business, media, and churches were assessed through a mail survey between July and September 1994. AIDS is a major public health issue in South Africa and one of the most hotly-debated political problems. The survey found that these opinion leaders have a surprisingly low level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS, which may explain the relatively low position of AIDS issues in public policy. Overall, opinion leaders with right-wing affiliations are intolerant toward people with AIDS, it is commonly felt that people with AIDS should be treated in public hospitals, opinion leaders believe that the entry of illegal aliens is making the AIDS problem worse, it is widely considered that the state cannot afford to fund medical research on AIDS at the cost of primary health care services, it is widely felt that regular AIDS tests for all South Africans should not be compulsory, and most opinion leaders believe that employees who test HIV-positive should inform their employers. The author posits that this level of ignorance of the full implications and dimensions of HIV/AIDS may cause institutions to fail to adapt to the growing crisis.

  9. A geodiversity basis for landscape conservation in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jasper; Grab, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the South African landscape exhibits a palimpsest of different geologic and landform assemblages of different ages, and which record at the surface the effects of climate and environmental changes from the late Cretaceous to present. Previous studies have split the country into geomorphic provinces based on large-scale watersheds, uniformity of slope elements within the watersheds, and valley hypsometry. Geology, landforms and their homogeneity or diversity within a single area have not been considered. The existing network of provincial (Provincial Heritage Sites), national (National Parks/Transfrontier Parks), and international (World Heritage Sites, Ramsar sites) landscape conservation measures in South Africa do not explicitly and routinely include site or features of geoheritage or geodiversity interest. This present paper sets out to develop criteria by which landscapes of high geodiversity value can be identified, and provides examples of how these criteria can be applied. The close connection in South Africa between landscape-scale geology and geomorphology, and archaeology and ecosystems, suggests that geodiversity should and can be a key element of all landscape conservation strategies.

  10. Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Gonzalez, Hector M; Williams, Stacey; Mohammed, Selina A; Moomal, Hashim; Stein, Dan J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the levels of perceived acute and chronic racial and non-racial discrimination in South Africa, their association with health, and the extent to which they contribute to racial differences in physical and mental health, data were used from a national probability sample of adults, the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH). All Black groups in South Africa (African, Coloured and Indian) were two to four times more likely than Whites to report acute and chronic experiences of racial discrimination. Africans and Coloureds report higher levels of ill health than Whites, but acute and chronic racial discrimination were unrelated to ill health and unimportant in accounting for racial differences in self rated health. In contrast, all Black groups had higher levels of psychological distress than Whites, and perceived chronic discrimination, was positively associated with distress. Moreover, these experiences accounted for some of the residual racial differences in distress after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Our main findings indicate that, in a historically racialized society, perceived chronic racial and especially non-racial discrimination acts independently of demographic factors, other stressors, psychological factors (social desirability, self-esteem and personal mastery), and multiple SES indicators to adversely affect mental health. PMID:18486292

  11. Skin lighteners, Black consumers and Jewish entrepreneurs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the rise and decline of South Africa's lucrative and controversial skin-lighteners market through examination of the business history of the largest manufacturers, Abraham and Solomon Krok, and their evolving personas as millionaires and philanthropists. Such examination reveals how the country's skin-lighteners trade emerged as part of the broader growth of a black consumer market after the Second World War and how elements of that market became the target of anti-apartheid protests in subsequent decades. It also demonstrates how the Kroks' experiences as second-generation Jewish immigrants shaped their involvement in the trade and how, later, their self-identification as Jewish philanthropists informed their efforts to rehabilitate their reputations following South Africa's 1990 ban on all skin lighteners. Such efforts include the building of Johannesburg's highly acclaimed Apartheid Museum, modelled after the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This article explores the profound ironies that some South Africans see in the fact that a museum dedicated to commemorating those who suffered under and, ultimately, triumphed against state racism was financed by a family fortune generated through the sale of skin lighteners to black consumers.

  12. A trial model for medical subspecialty training in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    DALMEYER, P; STRUWIG, M; KRUGER, T

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article outlines the trial model in reproductive medicine that was created as a first step in the development of a business model for medical subspecialty training to complement the current academic subspecialty training in South Africa. A two-tiered training model was developed over time. The hurdles that had to be overcome were the development of a curriculum and academic capacity, acquisition of appropriate funding, acceptance and accreditation of the decentralised training facility, and lastly, registration of the fellowship with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The end result of the trial programme was a two-year full-time training with supportive funding, or a four-year programme, where the subspecialists would spend three weeks of the month in their home practice environment, attached to an accredited unit, and the last week in an academic institution. Due to the trial program’s success for the South African context and the potential of such model for the developing world, it was evident that the trial programme had to be tested to determine whether and how it can be implemented on a wider basis. PMID:27822351

  13. Virginity testing in South Africa: re-traditioning the postcolony.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Umhlanga is a ceremony celebrating virginity. In South Africa, it is practiced, among others, by the Zulu ethnic group who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu Natal. After falling into relative disuse in the Zulu community, the practice of virginity testing made a comeback some 10 years ago at around the time of the country's first democratic election and coinciding with the period when the HIV pandemic began to take hold. In July 2005 the South African Parliament passed a new Children's Bill which will prohibit virginity testing of children. The Bill has been met with outrage and public protest on the part of Zulu citizens. Traditional circumcision rites are also addressed in the new bill but are not banned. Instead, male children are given the right to refuse to participate in traditional initiation ceremonies which include circumcision. This paper asks why the practice of virginity testing is regarded as so troubling to the new democratic order that the state has chosen to take the heavy-handed route of banning it. The paper further asks why the state's approach to traditional male circumcision has been so different to its approach to virginity testing. Finally, the paper asks what these two challenging cases in the country's new democracy tell us about the nature of liberal democratic citizenship in South Africa 10 years after apartheid's formal demise.

  14. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Susan J; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2015-01-01

    Background There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage. Objective This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization's six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants' perspectives on nursing education in South Africa. Methods Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of the research area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key informants after informed consent had been obtained. The interviews were analysed using template analysis. Results South Africa has strategic plans on human resources for health and nursing education, training, and practice and has a well-established system of regulation and accreditation of nursing education through the South African Nursing Council (SANC). Key informants criticised the following: the lack of national staffing norms; sub-optimal governance by both the SANC and the Department of Health; outdated curricula that are unresponsive to population and health system needs; lack of preparedness of nurse educators; and the unsuitability of the majority of nursing students. These problems are exacerbated by a perceived lack of prioritisation of nursing, resource constraints in both the nursing education institutions and the health training facilities, and general implementation inertia. Conclusion Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection.

  15. The availability of health information in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, E D

    1995-01-01

    The South African Medical Research Council (MRC) has provided access to on-line health and biomedical information since 1976, when the MRC became an international partner of NLM. This was done to support research and health care when the Institute of Biomedical Communication was established. The institute has since reorganized and is now the Information Systems Division in the Research Systems Support Group MRC. he MRC and medical libraries in South Africa are able to access various automated services via telecommunication. The major systems available are MEDLARS, DIALOG, DATASTAR and BRS, with ECRI being the latest addition; most used are MEDLARS and DIALOG. New technologies (e.g., CD-ROM) have given more people access. This technology is not available to many people working in Primary Health Care (PHC), as they do not have access to computer networks. Beyond on-line is statistical and printed information, called "Gray Literature," not accessible through on-line systems as it is not published in conventional sources used to build databases. With a shift to Essential National Health Research and the focus on PHC and preventative medicine, demand for health information and "gray literature" is growing. The MRC collects and produces this material and has its own database called SAMED, which is to be made available to others as our contribution to health. It is hoped to make this available for inclusion in the proposed African Index Medicus presently investigated by the World Health Organization. Africa as a continent, and South Africa as a country, are experiencing major changes in health care and medical practice, and inevitably, provision of health information services. With South Africa's re-entry into the global village and its acceptance by the rest of Africa, it can be a key player in information provision to the rest of the continent. The MRC, as a major provider of Health information, can play a vital role in the information flow throughout Africa by

  16. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

  17. Adolescent HIV treatment issues in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dawood, H

    2015-11-01

    Following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), our knowledge of HIV infection and management has increased rapidly, but implementation of interventions has been slow in resource-limited settings. In particular, interventions such as antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission were hindered owing to lack of access to antiretroviral drugs. This resulted in ongoing HIV transmission, morbidity and mortality associated with opportunistic infections. Notwithstanding the current progress in HIV prevention and treatment, challenges remain in preventing new infections in adolescents and supporting and treating HIV-infected adolescents. Barriers to successful treatment of infection in adolescents include denial of diagnosis, poor understanding or perception of future benefits of treatment and current-orientated thinking that may contribute to non-adherence to ART. Side-effects that lead to stigmatisation, such as lipoatrophy (stavudine, zidovudine), diarrhoea and flatulence (lopinavir/ritonavir) and gynaecomastia (efavirenz), maybe intolerable and prevent adherence to treatment. This article highlights common treatment issues in HIV adolescent care and provides guidance on their management in the South African setting.

  18. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  19. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  20. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Typhoid Fever in South Africa in an Endemic HIV Setting.

    PubMed

    Keddy, Karen H; Sooka, Arvinda; Smith, Anthony M; Musekiwa, Alfred; Tau, Nomsa P; Klugman, Keith P; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high. Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003-2013. At selected institutions, additional clinical data from patients were collected including age, sex, HIV status, disease severity and outcome. HIV prevalence among typhoid fever patients was compared to national HIV seroprevalence estimates. The national reference laboratory tested Salmonella Typhi isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility and haplotype. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted determining factors associated with typhoid fever mortality. We identified 855 typhoid fever cases: annual incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.39 per 100,000 population. Additional clinical data were available for 369 (46.8%) cases presenting to the selected sites. Among typhoid fever patients with known HIV status, 19.3% (29/150) were HIV-infected. In adult females, HIV prevalence in typhoid fever patients was 43.2% (19/44) versus 15.7% national HIV seroprevalence (P < .001); in adult males, 16.3% (7/43) versus 12.3% national HIV seroprevalence (P = .2). H58 represented 11.9% (22/185) of Salmonella Typhi isolates tested. Increased mortality was associated with HIV infection (AOR 10.7; 95% CI 2.3-50.3) and disease severity (AOR 9.8; 95% CI 1.6-60.0) on multivariate analysis. Typhoid fever incidence in South Africa was largely unchanged from 2003-2013. Typhoid fever mortality was associated disease severity. HIV infection may be a contributing factor. Interventions mandate improved health care access, including to HIV management programmes as well as patient education. Further studies are necessary to clarify

  3. Higher Education Research Expenditure in South Africa: A Review of the New Funding Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M.; Ntenga, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The trends and the trajectory of higher education research expenditure in South Africa since the introduction of the New Funding Formula in 2004 have been analysed. The paper also compares the level of South Africa's total gross expenditure on research and development with those of other selected economies. The findings show that following…

  4. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from South Africa and revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea,...

  5. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...

  6. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate... steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and/or the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel...

  7. Entrepreneurial Education in a Tertiary Context: A Perspective of the University of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadi-Echendu, Anthea P.; Phillips, Magaret; Chodokufa, Kudakwashe; Visser, Thea

    2016-01-01

    South Africa is characterised by high unemployment levels, a low Total Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity rate, and a high small business failure rate. Entrepreneurship and small business development is seen as a solution to end unemployment in South Africa. A study to understand how to improve small business support was conducted at the…

  8. HIV/Aids in South Africa: A Review of Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartell, Cycil George

    2005-01-01

    South Africa has a fast-growing HIV/AIDS rate, with the highest prevalence among young people (15 to 24 years), especially females. This paper is a comprehensive analytical review of available research concerning the sexual behavior of adolescents in South Africa. It offers insight into HIV infection among adolescents and provides an important…

  9. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  10. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  11. South Africa, the Arts and Youth in Conflict with the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Sheila C.; Sloth-Nielsen, Julia; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Diversion into Music Education (DIME) youth intervention programme that originated in South Africa in 2001. DIME offers instruction in African marimba and djembe ensemble performance to juvenile offenders. Conceived as community collaboration among organizations in the cities of Cape Town, South Africa and Tampa, United…

  12. Community Service Learning as Democratic Education in South Africa and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel-Reyes, Meta; Weinstein, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Describes development of the first community service-learning program for democratic education in South Africa, based on the Swarthmore College (Pennsylvania) Democracy Education Project at a black high school near Capetown (South Africa). Notes that successful transposition of the model requires recognition of complex historical and cultural…

  13. Increasing Drug Resistance in Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jessica; Moodley, Prashini; Moodley, Salona; Babaria, Palav; Ramtahal, Melissa; Heysell, Scott K.; Li, Xuan; Moll, Anthony P.; Friedland, Gerald; Sturm, A. Willem; Gandhi, Neel R.

    2011-01-01

    We expanded second-line tuberculosis (TB) drug susceptibility testing for extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from South Africa. Of 19 patients with extensively drug-resistant TB identified during February 2008–April 2009, 13 (68%) had isolates resistant to all 8 drugs tested. This resistance leaves no effective treatment with available drugs in South Africa. PMID:21392446

  14. Subjective Well-Being, Poverty and Ethnicity in South Africa: Insights from an Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest inequality levels in the world. In 1993, nearly half of the population were considered poor. These poverty and inequality levels were and still are a legacy of South Africa's colonial and apartheid past. Since the end of apartheid, there has been a strong governmental effort to combat poverty and in this light a…

  15. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  16. Sharing Ownership in Multicultural Music: A Hands-On Approach in Teacher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    South Africa prides itself in a rich and colorful array of the Arts where music plays a significant role in social regeneration, unity and reconciliation. Little research has been undertaken in teacher education courses in South Africa regarding the inclusion of African music within multicultural music practice. Using the theoretical frameworks of…

  17. Psychological Distress amongst AIDS-Orphaned Children in Urban South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background: South Africa is predicted to have 2.3 million children orphaned by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by 2020 (Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2005). There is little knowledge about impacts of AIDS-related bereavement on children, to aid planning of services. This study aimed to investigate psychological consequences of AIDS…

  18. Building on Experience: A Formative Evaluation of a Peer Education Sexual Health Project in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In South Africa, as elsewhere in the world, the promise of peer education as a means of promoting sexual health has contributed to its increasing popularity. While structural and organisational constraints can compromise the success of peer education, many of those involved in modest local programmes in South Africa are able to address the sexual…

  19. Privatising Public Schooling in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Equity Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen

    2009-01-01

    Through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data on school funding in South Africa, this paper aims to analyse the user fee policy option in public schooling in South Africa. Debate is ongoing about the role of private input into public schooling and whether this practice affects access (and the constitutional right) to basic education,…

  20. Student Involvement and Empowerment in Quality Assurance in Distance Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Anneke

    2006-01-01

    This article attempts to explore why and how student involvement is a necessary, but under-developed and under-utilised strategy for enhancing quality distance education in South Africa. Any critical analysis of education in South Africa needs to consider the historical and current social contexts, and in this case the analysis needs to explain…

  1. Psychological Distress amongst AIDS-Orphaned Children in Urban South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background: South Africa is predicted to have 2.3 million children orphaned by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by 2020 (Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2005). There is little knowledge about impacts of AIDS-related bereavement on children, to aid planning of services. This study aimed to investigate psychological consequences of AIDS…

  2. Perceived Usefulness and Culture as Predictors of Teachers Attitudes towards Educational Technology in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Samantha Anne; Laher, Sumaya

    2015-01-01

    The use of educational technology (ET) worldwide is increasing rapidly, and South Africa is no exception. Grouped amongst the emerging economies of the world, South Africa's information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure is often mentioned as one of the key factors leading to the growth of the country. Integrating ICT into education…

  3. South Africa's Black Universities Struggle To Survive in a New Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnani, Linda

    1999-01-01

    South Africa's black universities face declining interest among black students, who now have more options than under apartheid. The crisis comes as South Africa considers ways to restructure its postsecondary-education system to cut costs and avoid duplication. While black enrollments are rising at other institutions, the numbers of all students…

  4. Who Is out of School? Evidence from the Statistics South Africa Community Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer; Perry, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Schools Act requires every child to "attend school from the first school day of the year in which such learner reaches the age of seven years until the last day of the year in which such learner reaches the age of 15 years or the ninth grade, whichever comes first" (Republic of South Africa, 1996). This paper addresses…

  5. Changing Forms of Teacher Education in South Africa: A Case Study of Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines some aspects of teacher education policy change in South Africa. It contextualises the changes by firstly examining the apartheid teacher education system and then mapping the changes that have occurred in teacher education in South Africa since 1994. Using a case study of the Further Diploma in Educational Management at the…

  6. Optical Astronomy in Post-Apartheid South Africa: 1994 to 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, P. A.

    2004-10-01

    The progress of optical astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the socio-political climate which embraced the idea of a 10-m class telescope as a flagship project that would lead to widespread development in science, technology and education - not only in South Africa, but across the subcontinent.

  7. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook Napier, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

  8. Constitutional Court of South Africa overturns lower court's decision on the right to "sufficient water".

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    On 8 October 2009, the Constitutional Court of South Africa overturned the judgment of the Supreme Court of Appeal, which addressed the proper interpretation of Section 27(1)(b) of the Constitution of South Africa (Constitution)--namely, everyone's right to have access to sufficient water.

  9. Privatising Public Schooling in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Equity Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen

    2009-01-01

    Through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data on school funding in South Africa, this paper aims to analyse the user fee policy option in public schooling in South Africa. Debate is ongoing about the role of private input into public schooling and whether this practice affects access (and the constitutional right) to basic education,…

  10. The Scholarly Impact of Doctoral Research Conducted in the Field of Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the scholarly impact of knowledge generated as part of doctoral studies in the field of education in South Africa. The transition rate of the 97 doctoral theses completed in the various fields of education in South Africa in 2008 into peer-reviewed articles and chapters in scholarly books, as well as the…

  11. Who Is out of School? Evidence from the Statistics South Africa Community Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer; Perry, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Schools Act requires every child to "attend school from the first school day of the year in which such learner reaches the age of seven years until the last day of the year in which such learner reaches the age of 15 years or the ninth grade, whichever comes first" (Republic of South Africa, 1996). This paper addresses…

  12. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  13. Exploring Important Issues through Keypal Connections: South Africa and the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Nick; Lester, Olivia

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on a class at Utah State University on race and communication issues in the United States and the New South Africa, which included an "email pen pal" correspondence. Highlights include: setting the stage; analysis and results; race and communication issues; economic and social conditions in South Africa; white privilege; pride in…

  14. Another Lost Generation? The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Schooling in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the different ways in which the HIV/AIDS pandemic is negatively impacting on affected and infected children's willingness and ability to attend school in South Africa. Within the context of HIV/AIDS, South Africa has the mammoth responsibility of saving the present generation of children from a fate similar to or worse than…

  15. Higher Education Research Expenditure in South Africa: A Review of the New Funding Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M.; Ntenga, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The trends and the trajectory of higher education research expenditure in South Africa since the introduction of the New Funding Formula in 2004 have been analysed. The paper also compares the level of South Africa's total gross expenditure on research and development with those of other selected economies. The findings show that following…

  16. A Survey of Music Education in the Primary Schools of South Africa's Cape Peninsula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Anri; Wet, Jacques de; Rijsdijk, Susan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the state of music education in government primary schools in the Cape Peninsula (Western Cape Province, South Africa) as perceived by the general class teacher. Since the first democratic elections in South Africa (1994), the entire primary and secondary school education system has changed drastically in terms of content, and…

  17. The Role of Religious Education in Building a Nation in Multiethnic South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitshoff, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the role of religious education in the future planning and implementation of South Africa's education system. Reviews the role of religion before 1990, particularly the Dutch Reformed Church. Concludes that the future of religious education in South Africa depends on the future of religion. (CFR)

  18. The African Renaissance and the Transformation of the Higher Education Curriculum in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum is a critical element in the transformation of higher education, and as a result, I argue for the inclusion of what I refer to as an African epistemic in higher education curricula in South Africa. In so doing, attention is directed at the decolonisation of the curriculum in higher education in South Africa, which aims to give…

  19. South Africa, the Arts and Youth in Conflict with the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Sheila C.; Sloth-Nielsen, Julia; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Diversion into Music Education (DIME) youth intervention programme that originated in South Africa in 2001. DIME offers instruction in African marimba and djembe ensemble performance to juvenile offenders. Conceived as community collaboration among organizations in the cities of Cape Town, South Africa and Tampa, United…

  20. Parent Involvement in Public School Governance: The United States and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Colditz, Paul; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This article explores parent involvement in decision making in the United States and in postapartheid South Africa and highlights similarities and differences in how parents in these two countries participate in public school governance and decision making. Parents' role in public school governance in South Africa is significant and entrenched in…

  1. Students' Engagement with Engagement: The Case of Teacher Education Students in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Ruksana; Petersen, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Public engagement is one of the three legs which support and underpin a restructured and transformed post-apartheid higher education system in South Africa (along with teaching and research). This third sector role of higher education is widely implemented in South Africa and is described differently by different institutions and entails a diverse…

  2. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  3. Lessons Learnt from Teachers' Perspectives on Mobile Learning in South Africa with Cultural and Linguistic Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantjies, Mmaki; Joy, Mike

    2016-01-01

    South Africa's classrooms are characterised by a wide variety of cultural and linguistic differences, providing teachers with educational challenges, particularly in mathematics and science subjects. In response, various mobile learning systems have been developed and piloted in the North West and Gauteng Provinces of South Africa. A framework has…

  4. Subjective Well-Being, Poverty and Ethnicity in South Africa: Insights from an Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest inequality levels in the world. In 1993, nearly half of the population were considered poor. These poverty and inequality levels were and still are a legacy of South Africa's colonial and apartheid past. Since the end of apartheid, there has been a strong governmental effort to combat poverty and in this light a…

  5. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  6. Perspectives on Learnerships: A Critique of South Africa's Transformation of Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew J.; Jennings, Ross; Solanki, Geetesh

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a critique of South Africa's attempt to transform apprenticeships using data from the 2004 Baseline Survey of the Learnership Programme in South Africa. The data suggests that Learnerships provide important opportunities for those in work to learn new theoretical and practical capabilities and thus deepen the skills base of…

  7. Improving Schools through Evaluation: The Experience of Catholic Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potterton, Mark; Northmore, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the development of quality assurance approaches in South Africa, with particular reference to Catholic schools. It also addresses questions of why whole school evaluation in general has failed to play any meaningful role in improving the quality of schools in South Africa. Reference is also made to specific school cases. The…

  8. Skills for Inclusive Growth in South Africa: Promising Tides amidst Perilous Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoojee, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Skills development is critical to South Africa's development. It has been argued that South Africa's twin post-Apartheid challenges, poverty and unemployment requires a level of skills development not undertaken before (RSA, 2008a; ANC, 2007). The creation of a separate ministry, the department of higher education and training (DHET), which has…

  9. Developing Talent Potential in Non-School Settings in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, J.

    The paper briefly describes non-school enrichment programs and services for gifted and talented students in South Africa. Preliminary discussion examines the context of non-school interventions, the relevancy of non-formal gifted child education, and categorizing non-school provisions for this population in South Africa. Programs are listed under…

  10. Universities and Adult Literacy in South Africa: An Exploration of Their Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenham, John; French, Edward

    Observations of the relationship between South Africa's universities and adult literacy are offered by a British Council consultant after a visit to South Africa. The purpose was to help university lecturers design and develop an adult literacy course and to give seminars to local literacy groups. Impressions are described on the state of…

  11. South Africa on the Move. A Tool Kit for Education and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUSO Development Education, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This kit provides materials about South Africa for activists and educators and the Canadian public. The materials provide ideas for communicating the information and moving people to action. They include a user's guide with a kit overview and suggestions for its use; an educator's handbook on South Africa, which applies a popular education…

  12. Skills for Inclusive Growth in South Africa: Promising Tides amidst Perilous Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoojee, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Skills development is critical to South Africa's development. It has been argued that South Africa's twin post-Apartheid challenges, poverty and unemployment requires a level of skills development not undertaken before (RSA, 2008a; ANC, 2007). The creation of a separate ministry, the department of higher education and training (DHET), which has…

  13. Education across Generations in South Africa. RAND Reprints. Labor & Population Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Duncan

    This paper examines educational attainment in South Africa. The study concludes that educational attainment of blacks, Asians, and especially Asian women, has risen substantially over the last half-century in South Africa. The least-educated blacks have benefited little from this growth (except among most recent cohorts), although there is some…

  14. Vocational Training and Technical Qualification Systems in Korea and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-Yoon; Tau, Alfred; Pereira, Clarence A.

    A comparison of vocational training and technical qualification systems in Korea and South Africa shows both countries are responding to similar changes in economic and enterprise structures. South Africa's work experience learnership system is more desirable than Korea's more traditional separation between formal education and workplace training,…

  15. The African Renaissance and the Transformation of the Higher Education Curriculum in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum is a critical element in the transformation of higher education, and as a result, I argue for the inclusion of what I refer to as an African epistemic in higher education curricula in South Africa. In so doing, attention is directed at the decolonisation of the curriculum in higher education in South Africa, which aims to give…

  16. What the U.S. Could Learn from South Africa about Education and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue; Ndlalane, Thembi

    2011-01-01

    Educational policy and practice has resided and continues to reside at the vortex of social and political strife in South Africa, as in the United States. Although school poverty and inequities among schools in the U.S. pale in comparison to conditions in South Africa, the two nations have much in common, including histories of state-sanctioned…

  17. The Challenge of the "Second Economy" in South Africa: The Contribution of Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraak, Andre

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the contribution skills development can make in promoting South Africa's wider socio-economic development. It provides a broad overview of the emerging gap between those who are benefiting from South Africa's transition to democracy and those who are not. Overcoming these worsening social conditions has become a major…

  18. Why test for tuberculosis? A qualitative study from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Early testing and treatment initiation are crucial for controlling the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, especially in high-burden countries such as South Africa. Objective: To explore reasons why patients opted to test for TB and the context in which they were tested. Design: This qualitative study was nested in a larger study evaluating patients who did not initiate anti-tuberculosis treatment after diagnosis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 41 patients across five provinces of South Africa. Results: While most patients presented for testing because of their symptoms, unfortunately many waited until their symptoms were severe and thus remained infectious for longer. Outreach campaigns and TB screening at primary health care facilities were perceived favourably, although some respondents were unclear as to the nature of the tests being performed and had concerns about the implications. Positive health care worker attitudes towards presumptive TB patients contributed towards prompt testing and treatment initiation. Conclusion: As patients often delayed presenting for testing, strategies to engage early with presumptive TB patients so that testing and treatment can commence without delay should be a priority for TB programmes. PMID:28123955

  19. The costs of household food waste in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem; Oelofse, Suzan; Godfrey, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting), wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain, and problems associated with the disposal of organic waste to landfill. This paper quantifies the household food waste stream in South Africa, in order to draw attention to the magnitude of the problem. In addition, it estimates the economic (monetary) value of the wasted food, as well as the costs associated with disposing putrescible food waste to landfill, in order to highlight the associated costs to society. Costs associated with the loss of a potentially valuable food source are valued using a weighted average market price of the wasted food. Costs associated with the disposal of food waste to landfill are quantified based on estimates of the financial and external costs associated with landfilling. For household food waste alone, the costs to society associated with these two food-waste related problems are estimated at approximately R21.7 billion (approximately US$2.7 billion) per annum, or 0.82% of South Africa's annual GDP. These costs are therefore significant, particularly considering that household food waste accounts for less than 4% of total food losses across the food supply chain.

  20. Correlates of HIV testing among abused women in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julie L; Hansen, Nathan B; Fox, Ashley M; Taylor, Baishakhi B; van Rensburg, Madri Jansen; Mohlahlane, Rakgadi; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-08-01

    Gender-based violence increases a woman's risk for HIV but little is known about her decision to get tested. We interviewed 97 women seeking abuse-related services from a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Forty-six women (47%) had been tested for HIV. Caring for children (odds ratio [OR] = 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.07, 1.00]) and conversing with partner about HIV (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.85]) decreased odds of testing. Stronger risk-reduction intentions (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = [1.01, 1.60]) and seeking help from police (OR = 5.51, 95% CI = [1.18, 25.76]) increased odds of testing. Providing safe access to integrated services and testing may increase testing in this population. Infection with HIV is highly prevalent in South Africa where an estimated 16.2% of adults between the ages of 15 and 49 have the virus. The necessary first step to stemming the spread of HIV and receiving life-saving treatment is learning one's HIV serostatus through testing. Many factors may contribute to someone's risk of HIV infection and many barriers may prevent testing. One factor that does both is gender-based violence.