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Sample records for africa south asia

  1. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  2. Challenging Educational Injustice: "Grassroots" Privatisation in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of low-cost private schools "mushrooming" in poor areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and elsewhere, is now well-documented. Findings from research by the author's teams and others show that these schools are serving a majority (urban and peri-urban) or significant minority (rural) of the poor, including…

  3. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  4. Monitoring the quality of medicines: results from Africa, Asia, and South America.

    PubMed

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M; Lukulay, Patrick H

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003-2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines.

  5. Monitoring the Quality of Medicines: Results from Africa, Asia, and South America

    PubMed Central

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S.; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M.; Lukulay, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003–2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines. PMID:25897073

  6. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  7. Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Jerry; Hess, Tim; Daccache, Andre; Wheeler, Tim

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a serious threat to crop productivity in regions that are already food insecure. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of eight major crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is - 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of - 17% (wheat), - 5% (maize), - 15% (sorghum) and - 10% (millet) and across South Asia of - 16% (maize) and - 11% (sorghum) were estimated. No mean change in yield was detected for rice. The limited number of studies identified for cassava, sugarcane and yams precluded any opportunity to conduct a meta-analysis for these crops. Variation about the projected mean yield change for all crops was smaller in studies that used an ensemble of > 3 climate (GCM) models. Conversely, complex simulation studies that used biophysical crop models showed the greatest variation in mean yield changes. Evidence of crop yield impact in Africa and South Asia is robust for wheat, maize, sorghum and millet, and either inconclusive, absent or contradictory for rice, cassava and sugarcane.

  8. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    PubMed

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  9. Genetically Engineered Crops and Certified Organic Agriculture for Improving Nutrition Security in Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Pray, Carl; Ledermann, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    In Africa and South Asia, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology. Potential tertiary pathways are improvements in health due to reduced insecticide use. Challenges to the technologies achieving their impact include the politics of GM agriculture and the certification costs of organic agriculture. Given the importance of agricultural production in addressing nutrition security, accentuated by the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the chapter concludes by stressing the importance of private and public sector research in improving the productivity and adoption of both GM and organic crops. In addition, the chapter reminds readers that increased farm income and productivity require complementary investments in health, education, food access and women's empowerment to actually improve nutrition security.

  10. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  11. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  12. United States interests in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    sea lanes running from the Persian Gulf to South East Asia . Therefore the purpose of this study is to analyze the five factors; geography, security...Sri Lanka which is strategically located in the Indian Ocean close to the major sea lanes running from the Persian Gulf to South East Asia . Therefore...Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world after Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It lies South of Asia , between Africa and Australia with

  13. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  14. The Role of Education in Building a Future World Based on Democracy and Development: Regional Perspectives from Africa, Latin America, and South Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolman, David C.

    This paper begins with a comparative regional survey of the current status of democracy and development in Africa, Latin America, and South Asia. Each region shares a legacy of colonial domination by European powers. The comparative study uses criteria from the basic needs approach. Critical social thought and future visions about democracy and…

  15. QTL for yield and associated traits in the Seri/Babax population grown across several environments in Mexico, in the West Asia, North Africa, and South Asia regions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P; McIntyre, C Lynne; Mathews, Ky L; Jalal Kamali, M R; Mossad, Moussa; Feltaous, Yousef; Tahir, Izzat S A; Chatrath, Ravish; Ogbonnaya, Francis; Baum, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Heat and drought adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a spring bread wheat population resulting from the Seri/Babax cross designed to minimize confounding agronomic traits have been identified previously in trials conducted in Mexico. The same population was grown across a wide range of environments where heat and drought stress are naturally experienced including environments in Mexico, West Asia, North Africa (WANA), and South Asia regions. A molecular genetic linkage map including 475 marker loci associated to 29 linkage groups was used for QTL analysis of yield, days to heading (DH) and to maturity (DM), grain number (GM2), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), canopy temperature at the vegetative and grain filling stages (CTvg and CTgf), and early ground cover. A QTL for yield on chromosome 4A was confirmed across several environments, in subsets of lines with uniform allelic expression of a major phenology QTL, but not independently from PH. With terminal stress, TKW QTL was linked or pleiotropic to DH and DM. The link between phenology and TKW suggested that early maturity would favor the post-anthesis grain growth periods resulting in increased grain size and yields under terminal stress. GM2 and TKW were partially associated with markers at different positions suggesting different genetic regulation and room for improvement of both traits. Prediction accuracy of yield was improved by 5 % when using marker scores of component traits (GM2 and DH) together with yield in multiple regression. This procedure may provide accumulation of more favorable alleles during selection.

  16. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P < 0.0001) indicated high genetic variation within regions (81.7%) and low variation across regions (18.3%). A high level of genetic variation was found on early growth traits and on components of the relative growth rate (specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and net assimilation rate) as indicated by significant differences between accessions and by the high heritability values (50–88%). The fatty acid composition of jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as

  17. Terrorism in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-09

    and their supporters in South Asia is identified as a threat to both regional stability and to the attainment of central U.S. policy goals. Al Qaeda...forces that fled from Afghanistan with their Taliban supporters remain active on Pakistani territory, and Al Qaeda is believed to have links with...portion of Pakistan’s ethnic Pashtun population is reported to sympathize with the Taliban and even Al Qaeda. The United States maintains close

  18. Neonatal severe bacterial infection impairment estimates in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America for 2010

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Anna C.; Blencowe, Hannah; Zaidi, Anita; Ganatra, Hammad; Syed, Sana; Engmann, Cyril; Newton, Charles R.; Vergnano, Stefania; Stoll, Barbara J.; Cousens, Simon N.; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Survivors of neonatal infections are at risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), a burden not previously systematically quantified and yet important for program priority setting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were undertaken and applied in a three-step compartmental model to estimate NDI cases after severe neonatal bacterial infection in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America in neonates of >32 wk gestation (or >1,500 g). Methods: We estimated cases of sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, or no severe bacterial infection from among estimated cases of possible severe bacterial infection ((pSBI) step 1). We applied respective case fatality risks ((CFRs) step 2) and the NDI risk among survivors (step 3). For neonatal tetanus, incidence estimates were based on the estimated deaths, CFRs, and risk of subsequent NDI. Results: For 2010, we estimated 1.7 million (uncertainty range: 1.1–2.4 million) cases of neonatal sepsis, 200,000 (21,000–350,000) cases of meningitis, 510,000 cases (150,000–930,000) of pneumonia, and 79,000 cases (70,000–930,000) of tetanus in neonates >32 wk gestation (or >1,500 g). Among the survivors, we estimated moderate to severe NDI after neonatal meningitis in 23% (95% confidence interval: 19–26%) of survivors, 18,000 (2,700–35,000) cases, and after neonatal tetanus in 16% (6–27%), 4,700 cases (1,700–8,900). Conclusion: Data are lacking for impairment after neonatal sepsis and pneumonia, especially among those of >32 wk gestation. Improved recognition and treatment of pSBI will reduce neonatal mortality. Lack of follow-up data for survivors of severe bacterial infections, particularly sepsis, was striking. Given the high incidence of sepsis, even minor NDI would be of major public health importance. Prevention of neonatal infection, improved case management, and support for children with NDI are all important strategies, currently receiving limited policy attention. PMID:24366464

  19. South Asia: Danger Ahead?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    2011 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE South Asia: Danger Ahead? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...its opponent and preclude a devastating retaliatory response. 4 Fundamen­ tally, both countries are restricted to use their nuclear forces to threaten...threaten India’s hold in the Kashmir Valley; to control a part of the Himalayan Range to facili­ tate insurgent movement into the Kashmir Valley and the

  20. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and…

  1. Preliminary Bibliography on South Asia for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Stephen N.; And Others

    This classified bibliography on South Asia and similar bibliographies on Africa south of the Sahara (LI 000 882) and East Asia (LI 000 881) have been compiled under the first phase of a three-year cooperative project to strengthen bibliographical resources for undergraduate libraries on "neglected" foreign areas. The bibliography in its…

  2. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS)

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. Research design and methods In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011–2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3–6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Results Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. Conclusions In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU. PMID:28123754

  3. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  4. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  5. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  6. Emergency nursing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brysiewicz, Petra; Bruce, Judy

    2008-04-01

    The role of the emergency nurse in South Africa is a challenging one due to a variety of reasons. This article describes the healthcare system of South Africa with particular attention to the emergency medical system as well as the reason why most emergency clients present to the emergency departments. The actual experience of working as an emergency nurse in South Africa is highlighted.

  7. Short-term risk of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected patients in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific, and central and South America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective was to examine the short-term risk and predictors of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients from the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration. Methods Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin of < 10 g/dL. Patients were included if they started cART with three or more drugs, had prior haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL, and had one or more follow-up haemoglobin tests. Factors associated with anaemia up to 12 months were examined using Cox proportional hazards models and stratified by IeDEA region. Results Between 1998 and 2008, 19,947 patients initiated cART with baseline and follow-up haemoglobin tests (7358, 7289, 2853, 471, 1550 and 426 in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively). At initiation, anaemia was found in 45% of Western Africa patients, 29% of Eastern Africa patients, 21% of Southern Africa patients, 36% of Central Africa patients, 15% of patients in Asian-Pacific and 14% of patients in Caribbean and Central and South America. Among patients with haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL at baseline (13,445), the risks of anaemia were 18.2, 6.6, 9.7, 22.9, 11.8 and 19.5 per 100 person-years in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively. Factors associated with anaemia were female sex, low baseline haemoglobin level, low baseline CD4 count, more advanced disease stage, and initial cART containing zidovudine. Conclusions In data from 34 cohorts of HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, and Asia, the risk of anaemia within 12 months of initiating cART was moderate. Routine haemoglobin

  8. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  9. Trends Abroad: South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Douglas H.

    1970-01-01

    In South Africa today there is a complex structure of laws and regulations which impose a variety of restrictions on individual liberties including the freedom to publish and read literary material. The successive steps by which this state of affairs has been reached are briefly described. (NH)

  10. [Cluster structure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations at hordein-coding loci in countries of Southwest Asia, North and Northeast Africa, the Middle East, and South Arabia].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2013-10-01

    The cluster population structure of barley landraces with known sampling localities in nine countries of Southwest Asia, the Middle East, North and Northeast Africa, and South Arabia was examined using the allele-frequency data for three hordein-coding loci. A total of 92 populations from Turkey, 56 populations from Syria, 34 from Jordan, 23 populations from Iraq, 6 from Morocco, 16 from Algeria, 34 from Egypt, 100 from Ethiopia, and 71 populations from Yemen with known sampling localities were included in the analysis. It was demonstrated that the cluster population structure in different countries was different and varied from a single cluster in Morocco to five clusters in Ethiopia. Furthermore, populations with sampling sites located at a considerable distance from one another were grouped into one cluster. It is suggested that the existence of several population clusters within a single country can be evidence of repeated population introduction, while the grouping of the populations with sampling sites considerably distant from one another into one cluster can indicate the distribution of once introduced populations of cultivated barley within countries through local farmer migration.

  11. Terrorism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  12. Burden of severe maternal morbidity and association with adverse birth outcomes in sub–Saharan Africa and south Asia: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The AMANHI morbidity study aims to quantify and describe severe maternal morbidities and assess their associations with adverse maternal, fetal and newborn outcomes in predominantly rural areas of nine sites in eight South Asian and sub–Saharan African countries. Methods AMANHI takes advantage of on–going population–based cohort studies covering approximately 2 million women of reproductive age with 1– to 3–monthly pregnancy surveillance to enrol pregnant women. Morbidity information is collected at five follow–up home visits – three during the antenatal period at 24–28 weeks, 32–36 weeks and 37+ weeks of pregnancy and two during the postpartum period at 1–6 days and after 42–60 days after birth. Structured–questionnaires are used to collect self–reported maternal morbidities including hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, infections, difficulty in labor and obstetric fistula, as well as care–seeking for these morbidities and outcomes for mothers and babies. Additionally, structured questionnaires are used to interview birth attendants who attended women’s deliveries. All protocols were harmonised across the sites including training, implementation and operationalising definitions for maternal morbidities. Importance of the AMANHI morbidity study Availability of reliable data to synthesize evidence for policy direction, interventions and programmes, remains a crucial step for prioritization and ensuring equitable delivery of maternal health interventions especially in high burden areas. AMANHI is one of the first large harmonized population–based cohort studies being conducted in several rural centres in South Asia and sub–Saharan Africa, and is expected to make substantial contributions to global knowledge on maternal morbidity burden and its implications. PMID:27648256

  13. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013–2014), Cote d’Ivoire (2011–2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012–2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012–2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12–59 months. The

  14. Redirecting Student Interests: Africa and Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Lincoln C.

    Suggestions for students preparing for foreign study in Asia and Africa are presented. It is noted that cooperation and peace may be linked to developing successful programs in the non-Western world. The brief time that students spend in the host country enables the student to describe what the foreign values seem to be, but probably without…

  15. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  16. Heart Failure in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297

  17. Burden, timing and causes of maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths in sub–Saharan Africa and South Asia: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The AMANHI mortality study aims to use harmonized methods, across eleven sites in eight countries in South Asia and sub–Saharan Africa, to estimate the burden, timing and causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal deaths. It will generate data to help advance the science of cause of death (COD) assignment in developing country settings. Methods This population–based, cohort study is being conducted in the eleven sites where approximately 2 million women of reproductive age are under surveillance to identify and follow–up pregnancies through to six weeks postpartum. All sites are implementing uniform protocols. Verbal autopsies (VAs) are conducted for deaths of pregnant women, newborns or stillbirths to confirm deaths, ascertain timing and collect data on the circumstances around the death to help assign causes. Physicians from the sites are selected and trained to use International Classification of Diseases (ICD) principles to assign CODs from a limited list of programmatically–relevant causes. Where the cause cannot be determined from the VA, physicians assign that option. Every physician who is trained to assign causes of deaths from any of the study countries is tested and accredited before they start COD assignment in AMANHI. Importance of the AMANHI mortality study It is one of the first to generate improved estimates of burden, timing and causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal deaths from empirical data systematically collected in a large prospective cohort of women of reproductive age. AMANHI makes a substantial contribution to global knowledge to inform policies, interventions and investment decisions to reduce these deaths. PMID:27648257

  18. Guayule rubber for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-17

    It is reported that Agtec together with South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, is investigating the possibility of large-scale production of guayule. The rubber-yielding shrub grows in semi-arid climates and may be the source of a $35-million natural rubber industry in South Africa.

  19. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  20. Lightning medicine in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Ryan; Trengrove, Estelle; Jandrell, Ian R; Saayman, Gert

    2012-06-06

    South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a concerted and co-ordinated attempt be made to report and collate data regarding lightning strike victims in South Africa.

  1. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  2. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  3. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  4. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  5. Neuropsychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-21

    This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  6. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  7. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  8. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1998-12-18

    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  9. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Morocco

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-NEA-92-030 19 MARCH 1992 SFOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -:PRS Report "Near East & South Asia MOROCCO 19980113 275 REPRODUCED BY U.S...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 Near East & South Asia MOROCCO JPRS-NEA-92-030 CONTENTS 19 March 1992...NEA-92-030 19 March 1992 POLITICAL 1 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS "Fish should not poison relations between the EEC and Morocco . It is up to the competent

  10. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  11. Preliminary Bibliography on Africa South of the Sahara for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Edith; Morehouse, Ward

    This classified bibliography on Africa south of the Sahara and similar bibliographies on South Asia (LI 000 061) and East Asia (LI 000 881) have been compiled under the first phase of a three-year cooperative project to strengthen bibliographical resources for undergraduate libraries on "neglected" foreign areas. The bibliography in its…

  12. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  13. Monitoring Optimism in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mari

    2007-01-01

    An article with exactly this same title was published in Social Indicators Research (41:279-304, 1997). The purpose of the current article is to update the findings discussed in that first article. Therefore the abstract published previously is still relevant: The last few decades have been the most crucial and eventful ones in South Africa's…

  14. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  15. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…

  16. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Nigeria in Egypt’s capacity as current head of the Organization of African Egypt Lobbies for African Replacement for Perez Unity, urging the African... leather goods dealer, who said: [Editorial by Muhammad Sayyid Ahmad] "As for the mechanics of the work of the offices with us, [Text] To uncover the...South Africa. Nigeria led this currently go along with the African consensus, as repre- trend. [passage omitted] sented in the position on South Africa

  17. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.

  18. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Road to Democracy in South Africa," Peace Review 15, no. 3 (09 2003): 268. 32 Lowenberg, 64. 33 Wood, 143. 34 Ibid, 175. 35 Peter Gastrow...Winter 1997): 11. Frankel, Philip. Soldiers in a Storm. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2000. Gastrow, Peter . Bargaining for Peace South Africa...132. Louw, Antoinette . "Citizen Perceptions of Crime and Policing in South Africa." Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies. Johannesburg, South

  20. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections…

  1. South Africa: defiance campaign continues.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) has continued its "defiance campaign against patent abuse and AIDS profiteering." In partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), and with the support of Oxfam and the Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), on 28 January 2002 three TAC members returned to South Africa from Brazil carrying generic versions of the antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP). Some of the imported capsules contain a combination of AZT and 3TC.

  2. Marketing Development Information in South Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geethananda, Hemamalee

    1993-01-01

    Discusses adapting traditional marketing strategies for the nonprofit sector, including libraries and information centers, and describes experiences of the Development Information Network for South Asia in Sri Lanka. Topics addressed include librarians' value systems, including free access to information; the need for information marketing;…

  3. Nuclear nonproliferation strategies for South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Z.S.

    1994-05-03

    Continued expansion of the nuclear weapons capabilities of India and Pakistan, coupled with ongoing conflict between them, raises the probability of nuclear war in South Asia. A nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan could also harm efforts to discourage other nations from acquiring nuclear weapons. United States policy opposes the spread of nuclear weapons because proliferation increases threats to U.S. national security and to world peace and stability. However, there is debate on the dangers of an escalating arms race in South Asia. Steps taken by the United States and other countries to persuade India and Pakistan to end their nuclear weapons programs have had limited success, at most slowing down their pace. A complicating factor is that India maintains a nuclear capability in part to deter China, whereas Pakistan`s nuclear weapons capability is aimed at deterring India`s superior conventional and nuclear capabilities. Analysts and policy officials are divided on how to avoid an arms race in South Asia. The Clinton Administration has renewed efforts to break the deadlock over nonproliferation, but longstanding obstacles have blocked progress. Pakistan favors a regional approach to nonproliferation, while India insists on a global approach that treats the nuclear powers on an equal basis with non nuclear weapon countries. This report analyzes the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan and reviews several options for U.S. nonproliferation policy in South Asia.

  4. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  5. The silent struggle. South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shiner, C

    1994-01-01

    South Africa's new Constitution will include a women's rights charter that addresses issues such as domestic violence. The Women's National Coalition, which drafted the charter, united South African women across political, racial, ethnic, and social class boundaries. Despite vastly different priorities, the women were able to agree on the centrality of the domestic violence issue. One in six South African women is battered by her husband and one out of two is raped. The charter mandates the state to provide education to police and the courts about violence against women and to offer counseling and shelters. A problem faced by the group is the inability of federal law to override customary laws that give village chiefs the right to control the lives of Black women. Similarly, the charter's call for gender equality in development funding is not binding on international agencies. Nonetheless, the charter is expected to create a political climate of greater awareness of and respect for women's rights.

  6. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  7. Strengthening mental health system governance in six low- and middle-income countries in Africa and South Asia: challenges, needs and potential strategies.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Inge; Marais, Debbie; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Chisholm, Dan; Egbe, Catherine; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Mugisha, James; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-02-27

    Poor governance has been identified as a barrier to effective integration of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. Governance includes providing the necessary policy and legislative framework to promote and protect the mental health of a population, as well as health system design and quality assurance to ensure optimal policy implementation. The aim of this study was to identify key governance challenges, needs and potential strategies that could facilitate adequate integration of mental health into primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries. Key informant qualitative interviews were held with 141 participants across six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries (Emerald) research program: Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesized at a cross-country level. While all the countries fared well with respect to strategic vision in the form of the development of national mental health policies, key governance strategies identified to address challenges included: strengthening capacity of managers at sub-national levels to develop and implement integrated plans; strengthening key aspects of the essential health system building blocks to promote responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness; developing workable mechanisms for inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as community and service user engagement; and developing innovative approaches to improving mental health literacy and stigma reduction. Inadequate financing emerged as the biggest challenge for good governance. In addition to the need for overall good governance of a health care system, this study identifies a number of specific strategies to improve governance for integrated mental health care in low- and middle-income countries.

  8. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  9. Private Observatories in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  10. Conscientious Objectives: Campuses Respond to South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexter, Holly

    1985-01-01

    In the wake of political pressures and deteriorating conditions in South Africa, many campuses are reviewing their investment policies and considering other contributions. The rising interest in educational initiatives is discussed including establishment of scholarships for South African students. (MLW)

  11. Multicentre studies of insecticide-treated durable wall lining in Africa and South-East Asia: entomological efficacy and household acceptability during one year of field use

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a primary method of malaria vector control, but its potential impact is constrained by several inherent limitations: spraying must be repeated when insecticide residues decay, householders can tire of the annual imposition and campaign costs are recurrent. Durable lining (DL) can be considered an advanced form of long-lasting IRS where insecticide is gradually released from an aesthetically attractive wall lining material to provide vector control for several years. A multicentre trial was carried out in Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Mali, South Africa and Vietnam to assess the feasibility, durability, bioefficacy and household acceptability of DL, compared to conventional IRS or insecticide-treated curtains (LLITCs), in a variety of operational settings. Methods This study was conducted in 220 households in traditional rural villages over 12-15 months. In all sites, rolls of DL were cut to fit house dimensions and fixed to interior wall surfaces (usually with nails and caps) by trained teams. Acceptability was assessed using a standardized questionnaire covering such topics as installation, exposure reactions, entomology, indoor environment, aesthetics and durability. Bioefficacy of interventions was evaluated using WHO cone bioassay tests at regular intervals throughout the year. Results The deltamethrin DL demonstrated little to no decline in bioefficacy over 12-15 months, supported by minimal loss of insecticide content. By contrast, IRS displayed a significant decrease in bioactivity by 6 months and full loss after 12 months. The majority of participants in DL households perceived reductions in mosquito density (93%) and biting (82%), but no changes in indoor temperature (83%). Among those households that wanted to retain the DL, 73% cited protective reasons, 20% expressed a desire to keep theirs for decoration and 7% valued both qualities equally. In Equatorial Guinea, when offered a choice of vector control product at

  12. Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia.

    PubMed

    Shah, N M

    1995-01-01

    This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future.

  13. Rabies in South Asia: fighting for elimination.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Fazle-Rabbi; Basher, Ariful; Amin, Mohammad R; Hassan, Nazia; Patwary, Mohammad I

    2015-01-01

    South Asia is regarded as the hot spot for the tourist and travelers. Unfortunately, three big countries (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) of this region belong to top five rabies endemic countries of the world. Around 55,000 people die of rabies every year globally and 45% of them belong to South and South East Asia. Countries are now working on the elimination of rabies by the year 2020. Elimination of animal rabies is the pivotal of controlling human rabies. Dog (primary source) registration, population control and mass vaccination are the different ways of eliminating animal rabies. Pre (for risk groups including travelers) and post-exposure vaccine is the core for controlling human rabies. Post-exposure vaccine consists of nerve tissue vaccine and tissue culture vaccine. Due to low antigenicity and post-vaccine neurological complications all countries of South Asia except Pakistan have phased out the production and use of nerve tissue vaccine. To reduce the cost intramuscular regimen is now largely replaced by intradermal regimen and equine rabies immunoglobulin will probably replace human immunoglobulin in future for category III animal bite. 'SAARC' took initiatives for rabies elimination through 'SAARC development fund' which would hopefully play a vital role in regional collaboration to make the region rabies free.

  14. South Africa, Namibia Diamond Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image covers a portion of the Richtersveld National Park and Orange River (top of image) in the Northern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa. The Orange River marks the boundary between South Africa to the south and Namibia to the north. This is an area of active mining for diamonds, which were washed downstream from the famous Kimberley Diamond Area, millions of years ago when the river was much larger. The mining is focused on ancient drainages of the Orange River which are currently buried by think layers of sand and gravel. Scientists are investigating whether these ancient drainages can be seen with the radar's ability to penetrate sand cover in extremely dry regions. A mine, shown in yellow, is on the southern bank of the river in an abandoned bend which is known as an 'oxbow.' The small bright circular areas (left edge of image) west of the mine circles are fields of a large ostrich farm that are being watered with pivot irrigation. The large dark area in the center of the image is the Kubus Pluton, a body of granite rock that broke through the surrounding rocks about 550 million years ago. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is about 55 by 60 kilometers (34 by 37 miles) centered at 28.4 degrees south latitude, 16.8 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired on April 18, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AL-SIYASAH 19 Jan] 45 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Iran-EEC Dispute May Affect Dubayy Trading [GULF NEWS 22 Fcb] 46 SOUTH ASIA INDIA Gandhi Meets...Newsmen, Discusses Election Plans [THE STATESMAN 23 Fcb] 48 Gandhi Addresses Scheduled Tribes Meeting [THE TIMES OF INDIA 26 Fcb] 48 Congress Seeks...Developments in Indian Relations With Iraq 50 Iraqi Special Envoy [THE TIMES OF INDIA 28 Fcb] 50 Gandhi Visit Planned [THE TIMES OF INDIA 25

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-23

    East & South Asia JPRS-NEA-88-021 CONTENTS 23 MARCH 1988 NEAR EAST REGIONAL Egyptian Foreign Policy Advisor Offers Views on Uprising 1 PALESTINIAN...Calls For Clear, Honest Party Policies 13 LIBYA Libya Detains Crew of Tunisian Fishing Vessel [AL-DUSTUR, 7 Mar 88] 14 MOROCCO World Bank...88] il JPRS-NEA-88-021 23 March 1988 NEAR EAST REGIONAL Egyptian Foreign Policy Advisor Offers Views on Uprising 44040123a Jerusalem AL-QUDS 18

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Garment Industries Look for Quota-Free Bases in Gulf [GULF NEWS 1 May] 36 SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH Students Riot Over Expulsions [AFP] 38...4,500 Chakma Tribes People Flee Bangladesh Violence [AFP] 52 Editorial Examines Obstacles in Indo-Pak Relations [ANANDA BAZAR PATRIKA 10 Feb] 52...initiated dealing with the engineer- ing geology requirements for building a road across terrain with many sinkholes and solution cavities, for an

  18. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  19. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  20. Researching Postgraduate Educational Research in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…

  1. Are Community Colleges Right for South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, James L.; Gibson-Benninger, Barbara

    Post-apartheid South Africa has been struggling with the question of how to restructure its institutions of higher education to both foster an equitable society and contribute to economic and technological development. Proponents of community colleges in the United States suggest that these institutions may best meet South Africa's needs.…

  2. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  3. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  4. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  5. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  6. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear Energy Set to Increase,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 9, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 38 David...Foresees Massive Expansion,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 5, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 41 Sven Lunsche

  7. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Michael B; Mosites, Emily M; Tian, Mu; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Mokhdad, Ali H; Meller, Margaret; Ochiai, Rion L; Walson, Judd L

    2014-06-01

    Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of

  8. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  9. Writing the Pentecostal History of Africa, Asia and Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the writing of Pentecostal history and in particular, the biases and presuppositions associated with it. The problem of sources and the neglect of the important role of indigenous ("native") workers in the historiography of Pentecostalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America is the main focus. It refutes the idea of an…

  10. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  11. Soil and groundwater remediation: Asia, Oceania, and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P.M.; Islandar, I.K.

    1999-11-01

    This book covers information on metals, radionuclides, other inorganics, pesticides, and other anthropogenic organic compounds in soil environments in Asia, Oceania, and Africa. It addresses the current status and future prospects on soil and groundwater pollution and the remediation strategies for years to come.

  12. Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

  13. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Kuwait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-13

    Fu’ad Mursi presents four views of the concept of the Arab nation: Crippled Iraq C One view denies the existence of an original Arab [Khamis] Do you...and their depiction of the Arabs as for commercial activity. The merchants acquired them " tribes under national flags"! for themselves and then for...of other kinds of weapons. It should be tries’ acquisition of weapons of mass destruction is unac- noted now that Israel and South Africa are countries

  14. Strengthening pharmacovigilance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mehta, U; Dheda, M; Steel, G; Blockman, M; Ntilivamunda, A; Maartens, G; Pillay, Y; Cohen, K

    2014-02-01

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a national pharmacovigilance workshop held in August 2012 in South Africa (SA). A survey of current pharmacovigilance activities, conducted in preparation for the meeting, identified multiple programmes collecting drug safety data in SA, with limited co-ordination at national level. The meeting resolved that existing pharmacovigilance programmes need to be strengthened and consolidated to ensure that important local safety issues are addressed, data can be pooled and compared and outputs shared more widely. Pharmacovigilance activities should inform treatment guidelines with the goal of improving patient care. A variety of pharmaco-epidemiological approaches should be employed, including nesting drug safety studies within existing sentinel cohorts and the creation of a pregnancy exposure registry. The attendees agreed on key principles that will inform a national pharmacovigilance plan and compiled a list of priority pharmacovigilance issues facing public health programmes in SA.

  15. Perspectives from Fragile Crescent: A South Asia Crisis Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-24

    World War II. Instability in Afghanistan and Pakistan has propelled South Asia to the top of a U.S. national security agenda already crowded with a...a South Asia crisis simulation exercise. The exercise posed a number of hypothetical scenarios intend- ed to stimulate thinking about current and...future challenges in South Asia . The Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS) Center for Applied Strategic Learning at NDU devel- oped the

  16. Migration in south Asia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1983-01-01

    Past studies on migration patterns and flows in south Asia have been based on limited data. The present overview is based on a detailed study of census and survey data reaching back to the early 1950's. The study incorporates the thinking of several research scholars who have dealt with specialized areas of migration in individual countries, and in the region as a whole. The interrelationships between migration and development are considered in a final chapter, with special mention of future trends, associated with traditional practices and historical circumstances. Migration will be of great importance in the coming decades. The activities of "sons of soil" anti-migrant movements and anti-migrant legislation have had little, if any, effect on migration flows. As the population increases in villages and towns and jobs become scarce, migration is likely to become even more of a political issue. Less politically volatile is circulation between village and town or between villages, whereby the migrants can have access to resources in 2 or more places. This option may play a critical role in the continued survival of much of the population in the future. This has been perhaps the most important factor in explaining the relatively slow rate of urbanization in south Asia as it allowed the rural people to take advantage of the towns without causing a massive and permanent transfer of population. The numbers who practice this "bilocality" are therefore likely to increase and migrants will continue to make up more significant proportions of the urban populations than their contribution to urban growth would suggest owing to the importance of "turnover migration." However, this circulation is not a new phenomenon: India and the other countries of south Asia have been characterized by tremendous mobility of population through circulation for considerable time but both its volume, and the distances over which it occurs are likely to increase as these countries develop.

  17. IFLA General Conference 1988. Division of Regional Activities. Sections on: Asia and Oceania; Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The eight papers in this collection focus on library activities in various geographical regions, e.g., Asia, Oceania, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Western Australia: (1) "Future Approaches and Prospects of Computerised Information Network among the Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)" (Abdullah…

  18. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-22

    secretary in place of Mr. Rath. The present director-general of tourism, Mr. B. K. Goswami, has been posted as secretary, civil supplies, in place of...special secretary, commerce, becomes secretary, ministry of textiles, in place of Mr. R. K. Dhar. Mr. Dhar’s new posting is yet to be announced, an...the 40 SOUTH ASIA JPRS-NEA-91-014 22 February 1991 Food Corporation of India [FCI]. He will have the rank of secretary. The post of FCI chairman

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Textile Trade Predicted To Peak [GULF NEWS 19 Nov] 66 Study Provides Work Force Statistics [AL-KHALU 9 Nov] 67 SOUTH ASIA AFGHANISTAN Fall in...year. "In the data-bank," said al-Khalil, "we will be going into other fields of study to find out what are the problems and potential dangers...a statistical study released by the Arab League today. The study reached the conclusion by comparing the Arab world with the advanced nations in

  20. The carbon budget of South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, P. K.; Canadell, J. G.; Houghton, R. A.; Piao, S. L.; Oh, N.-H.; Ciais, P.; Manjunath, K. R.; Chhabra, A.; Wang, T.; Bhattacharya, T.; Bousquet, P.; Hartman, J.; Ito, A.; Mayorga, E.; Niwa, Y.; Raymond, P.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Lasco, R.

    2012-10-01

    The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP) was a sink, estimated at -104 ± 150 Tg C yr-1 during 2007-2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be -191 ± 193 Tg C yr-1 during the period of 2000-2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1) the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration) of -220 ± 186 Tg C yr-1 (2) the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of -14 ± 50 Tg C yr-1, which resulted from a sink of -16 Tg C yr-1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr-1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3) the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr-1; and (4) the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr-1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr-1 for the decades of 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land-to-atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr-1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C-CH4 yr-1 were released to atmosphere from South Asia during the 2000s. Taking all CO2 and CH4 fluxes together, our best estimate of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2-equivalent flux is a net source of 334 Tg C yr-1 for the South Asia region during the 2000s. If

  1. Using borehole hydrographs to constrain groundwater storage variations indicated by remote sensing: lessons from South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. G.; Shamsudduha, M.

    2013-12-01

    value of 0.06×0.04 derived from pumping-test data. We show further that the application of GRACE data to weathered crystalline rock aquifer systems that underlie ~40% of Sub-Saharan Africa, is particularly challenging due to extreme variability in hydraulic diffusivity and discontinuous nature of aquifers in this terrain. Nevertheless, the demand for improved monitoring of groundwater storage variations in this region is expected to increase as the projected use of groundwater rises substantially to improve and secure access to drinking water and food. A limited number of borehole hydrographs from East Africa reveals substantial temporal variations in groundwater storage that currently result from abstraction and extreme climate events related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  2. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  3. Social Determinants of Infectious Diseases in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ide, Seydou; Ghosh, Sharmistha

    2014-01-01

    South Asian countries have developed infectious disease control programs such as routine immunization, vaccination, and the provision of essential drugs which are operating nationwide in cooperation with many local and foreign NGOs. Most South Asian countries have a relatively low prevalence of HIV/AIDS until now, but issues like poverty, food insecurity, illiteracy, poor sanitation, and social stigma around AIDS are widespread and are creating formidable challenges to prevention of further spread of this epidemic. Besides that, resurgence of tuberculosis along with the emergence of the drug resistant (MDR-TB and XDRTB) strains and the coepidemic of TB and HIV are posing ever-growing threats to the underdeveloped healthcare infrastructure. The countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition where the disease burden is gradually shifting to noncommunicable diseases, but the infectious diseases still account for almost half of the total disease burden. Despite this huge burden of infectious diseases in South Asia, which is second only to Africa, there is yet any study on the social determinants of infectious diseases in a local context. This paper examines various issues surrounding the social determinants of infectious diseases in South Asian countries with a special reference to HIV and tuberculosis. And, by doing so, it attempts to provide a framework for formulating more efficient prevention and intervention strategies for the future. PMID:27350969

  4. HIV-1 variants in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsuchie, H; Saraswathy, T S; Sinniah, M; Vijayamalar, B; Maniar, J K; Monzon, O T; Santana, R T; Paladin, F J; Wasi, C; Thongcharoen, P

    1995-01-01

    HIV spread in South and South-East Asia is most alarming, and genetic variability of HIV-1 is an important consideration in vaccine development. In this study, we examined the third variable (V3) region of env gene of HIV-1 variants prevalent in Thailand, Malaysia, India, and the Philippines. By phylogenetic tree analyses, an HIV-1 variant from an injecting drug user (IDU) in Thailand belonged to subtype B, and HIV-1 variants from 2 IDUs in Malaysia were classified into 2 subtypes, B and E. One HIV-1 variant from a male homosexual in the Philippines belonged to subtype B. Out of 8 HIV-1 variants from sexually transmitted disease patients in India, 7 belonged to subtype C, and one to subtype A. Although the total number of individuals examined in this study was limited, 4 HIV-1 subtypes were found in South and South-East Asia and large international movements of HIV-1-infected individuals in this region could induce global dissemination of these HIV-1 variants.

  5. On the fog variability over south Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, F. S.; Körnich, H.; Tjernström, M.

    2012-04-01

    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and must therefore be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant trends were found in the fog frequencies and this increase is not gradual, as seen in the humidity, but shows two distinct regimes shifts in 1990 and 1998 with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of "cross-over temperature" combined with boundary layer stability. This detected fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to detect fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from north Atlantic in the upper atmosphere that causes higher pressure over the region,resulting in increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards.

  6. On the fog variability over south Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, F. S.; Körnich, H.; Tjernström, M.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of "cross-over temperature" combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards.

  7. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  8. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  9. The future of nuclear weapons: Proliferation in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, N.

    1992-12-31

    The signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in December 1987, followed by the dramatic changes in East-West relations since 1989 and the more recent Soviet-American strategic arms limitation agreement, have greatly eased public concerns about the danger of nuclear war. The context has also changed for the Nonaligned Movement, which had made nuclear disarmament and condemnation of the concept of nuclear deterrence the primary themes of its multilateral disarmament diplomacy. More important would be the interrelationship among the states possessing nuclear weapons (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan). In any case, there is little risk of a revival of nuclear competition. Both France and China have decided to sign the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); they are the only two nuclear-weapon states that have stayed outside the regime. Meanwhile, Brazil and Argentina have moved further down the nonproliferation road by engaging in confidence-building measures and moving closer to joining the Latin American nuclear-weapons-free zone established under the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1967. South Africa has also agreed to embrace the NPT as well as a nuclear-weapons-free zone regime for the entire African continent, while North Korea has agreed to sign a safeguard agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), thereby allowing in principle international inspection of its nuclear facilities. In the third world regions, the dangers of nuclear proliferation and competitive nuclear buildup are most pronounced in South Asia, a region where a variety of complicating problems exist: acute threat perceptions, historical emity, religious and sectarian animosity, ethnic antagonism, territorial disputes, ambitions for regional dominance, and domestic political instability. This chapter will focus primarily on South Asia, although references will also be made to other regions, where relevant. 17 refs.

  10. The carbon budget of South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, P. K.; Canadell, J. G.; Houghton, R. A.; Piao, S. L.; Oh, N.-H.; Ciais, P.; Manjunath, K. R.; Chhabra, A.; Wang, T.; Bhattacharya, T.; Bousquet, P.; Hartman, J.; Ito, A.; Mayorga, E.; Niwa, Y.; Raymond, P. A.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Lasco, R.

    2013-01-01

    The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP) was a sink, estimated at -104 ± 150 Tg C yr-1 during 2007-2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be -191 ± 193 Tg C yr-1 during the period of 2000-2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1) the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration) of -220 ± 186 Tg C yr-1 (2) the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of -14 ± 50 Tg C yr-1, which resulted from a sink of -16 Tg C yr-1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr-1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3) the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr-1; and (4) the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr-1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr-1 for the 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land-atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr-1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C yr-1 were released to atmosphere from South Asia during the 2000s. Taking all CO2 and CH4 fluxes together, our best estimate of the net land-atmosphere CO2-equivalent flux is a net source of 334 Tg C yr-1 for the South Asian region during the 2000s. If CH4 emissions are

  11. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  12. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  13. International trends in health science librarianship part 12: South Asia (India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Medha; Ali Anwar, Mumtaz; Ullah, Midrar; Kuruppu, Chandrani

    2014-12-01

    This is the 12th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. This issue describes developments in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century in South Asia. The three contributors report on challenges facing health science librarians in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. There is consensus as to the need for education, training and professional development. Starting in the next issue, the focus will turn to Africa, starting with countries in southern Africa. JM.

  14. Security Implications of ISAF Exit from Afghanistan on South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    became *** U.K, France, Canada, Germany, New Zealand , Romania, Bulgaria and Mongolia. 29 primary...The GWOT and Unipolar world brought new changes in the political atmosphere of the South Asia . Russia, India, and Iran exerted their influence...global politics and supported a more active role of India inside Afghanistan.59 New Delhi has long viewed South Asia as India’s exclusive sphere of

  15. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and

  16. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  17. Will Democracy Come to South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, N. Brian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses prospects for democracy in South Africa. Explores the complexities and contradictions endemic to the process of overcoming 300 years of racist laws and practices. Considers the risks of concessions for both Black and White leaders; problems resulting from enduring political and economic inequalities; and constitutional alternatives.…

  18. Preschool Educare in South Africa. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    This fact sheet presents information about the educare situation in South Africa to illustrate the glaring disparities between the races, until recently officially classified as White, Indian, Colored, and Black. These statistics delineate: (1) the under-6 population by race, geographic, and economic background; (2) costs, fees, and…

  19. Variable Star Observing in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hers, Jan

    1986-12-01

    Variable star observing by amateurs in South Africa has a long history, dating back to the previous century. Amateurs all over the world still play an important role in the study of variable stars contributing important observations to the professional community.

  20. Standards-Based Accountability in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of standards-based accountability (SBA) interventions aimed at improving school performance often focuses on the testing component, at the expense of capacity building. This was the case in South Africa when a SBA programme was instituted by government in 2000, which was accompanied by substantial rises in senior certificate…

  1. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  2. Tele-Education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. Method: A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Conclusion: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained

  3. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  4. Bilharziasis survey in south-western Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Azim, M.; Gismann, Anne

    1956-01-01

    This paper describes a limited survey of bilharziasis and its vectors carried out during 1950 and 1951 in some countries of south-western Asia. Lack of time and of full facilities prevented the survey from being as comprehensive and systematic as would have been wished, but enough data were obtained to provide a general estimate of the situation. Information already available from the literature was supplemented by collecting unpublished records, questioning the inhabitants, examining random samples of stools and urine, and investigating rivers, wells, and springs. Bilharziasis haematobia is already heavily endemic in the irrigated areas of Iraq and is also present, in comparatively smaller foci, in northern Syria, Israel, and Sa'udi Arabia. In the opinion of the senior author (M. A. A.), the envisaged extension of irrigation is likely to create a serious health problem in Mesopotamia and to introduce the disease into the Jordan region unless the spread of the molluscan vector, Bulinus sp., is checked. Intensification of infection and further spread are possible in Israel and in the Syrian Jezire, while the remainder of Syria and Lebanon are not considered to be endangered. Bilharziasis mansoni is widespread in the fertile areas of Sa'udi Arabia and also occurs in one minor focus in Israel. The industrialization of Sa'udi Arabia which is planned to exploit its oil resources, with its inevitable concentration of population, equally presents a danger in the intensification of bilharziasis. It is considered that, unless prompt measures are undertaken to break the link between the agricultural and industrial expansion and the spread of the disease, the debilitation of large groups of the population and the economic loss which may well result over most of the inhabited parts of the area discussed will be significant. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13342925

  5. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  6. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  7. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.

  8. Comparative genomics of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, Asia, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Aleisha R; Van Domselaar, Gary; Stroika, Steven; Walker, Matthew; Kent, Heather; Tarr, Cheryl; Talkington, Deborah; Rowe, Lori; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Dahourou, Georges Anicet; Boncy, Jacques; Smith, Anthony M; Mabon, Philip; Petkau, Aaron; Graham, Morag; Gilmour, Matthew W; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clinical isolates from the Haiti outbreak and recent global travelers returning to the United States showed indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints. To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenies for whole-genome sequences and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the Haiti outbreak strain is genetically related to strains originating in India and Cameroon. However, because no identical genetic match was found among sequenced contemporary isolates, a definitive genetic origin for the outbreak in Haiti remains speculative.

  9. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  10. Stress-Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of One of Africa’s Stable States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    A RESEARCH PAPER FROM THE AFRICA CENTER FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES by Assis Malaquias July 2011 Stress- Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of...control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress- Testing South Africa...articulating African perspectives to U.S. policymakers. Washington, D.C. Stress- Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of One of Africa’s

  11. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  12. Pfizer donates drug to South Africa's poor.

    PubMed

    This article reports on Pfizer's AIDS drug donation to South Africa. The donated drug, Diflucan, treats cryptococcal meningitis, a lethal brain infection that occurs in one out of 10 HIV patients. Its daily dose in South Africa costs about US$15, far more than poor people can afford. The HIV and AIDS Treatment Action Campaign, an advocacy group, had lobbied New York-based Pfizer for a year to reduce the drug's price. The donation offered hope among activists that other pharmaceutical companies would follow suit and offer HIV- and AIDS-related drugs at a discount or for free. After the announcement of the donation, the group is now lobbying Glaxo Wellcome, maker of Zidovudine. The group is asking to make the drug available for free to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Glaxo Wellcome, however, has no plans of offering Zidovudine for free, although the drug was offered 75% cheaper in developing nations.

  13. [Immigration and immigrants in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Bouillon, A

    1998-01-01

    "The reversal of [South Africa's] pro-active (white) immigration policy in 1990 has been supplemented by an unprecedented level of repression of ¿illegal' immigration. Although they have never been recognised as such, black immigrants are the most numerous component of the South African immigrant population. After giving an account of this situation, this article endeavours to take stock of the immigrant population as a whole, by covering the whole range of permanent, temporary, refugee and ¿illegal' immigrant status and populations." (EXCERPT)

  14. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  15. Carbon reduction emissions in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Temchin, Jerome

    2002-02-28

    This project is a feasibility study for a control system for existing backup generators in South Africa. The strategy is to install a system to enable backup generators (BGs) to be dispatched only when a large generator fails. Using BGs to provide ''ten minute reserve'' will save energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by an estimated nearly 500,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year.

  16. Exploring Our Cosmic Dawn from South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Aaron; PAPER; Kilimetre Array South Africa, Square

    2014-01-01

    The Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) is a dedicated experiment for using radio emission from neutral hydrogen to access one of the last major phase transitions in our Universe --- the epoch when the first luminous objects ionized the bulk of the hydrogen in the universe. PAPER has been deployed in the Karoo desert of South Africa since 2009, and has been co-developed with the help of Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKASA), students and researchers at the University of Cape Town, and many interns from local technical colleges. Shared efforts between SKASA and UC Berkeley developing digital signal processing hardware for PAPER helped begin the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), which now includes hundreds of organizations around the world who use CASPER technology in a wide range of astronomy applications. We discuss the history and current status of collaboration between PAPER and organizations in South Africa, its numerous synergistic benefits, and the prospects for broadening and enriching this collaboration as part of a next-generation instrument to succeed PAPER: the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA).

  17. The Rising Powers and Collective Security in South East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-22

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t THE RISING POWERS AND COLLECTIVE SECURITY IN SOUTH EAST ASIA BY COLONEL MICHAEL MAHY Australian...U.S. Army War College CARLISLE BARRACKS, PENNSYLVANIA 17013 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel Michael Mahy TITLE: The Rising Powers and...Asia has proved that she can do the economics. Can she also do the politics that come with power? 1 -Shivshankar Menon, India‘s National

  18. The tectonic development of south-central Asia and the paleogeographic setting of its hydrocarbon resources

    SciTech Connect

    Scotese, C.R. ); Tyrell, W.W. Jr. ); Maher, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The countries of south-central Asia (Afghanistan to Thailand) are made up of fragments of Gondwana that collided with the southern margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Cimmerian terranes (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Qiang Tang, and Burma-Malaya) rifted away from Gondwana beginning in the Late Carboniferous and were accreted to Asia during the Late Triassic-Jurassic. The Lhasa terrane, presumably also derived from Gondwana, was accreted during the Late Jurassic. By the Early Cretaceous, India-Madagascar had separated from Africa and from Australia-Antarctica. In the middle Cretaceous, India rapidly rifted away from Madagascar, and during the early Eocene collided with Asia giving rise to the Tibetam Plateau and the mountain belts from Afghanistan through Burma. The sedimentary basins and petroleum provinces adjacent to and south of these collision zones are best understood when viewed in the context of their tectonic history and paleogeographic setting. About 7 billion bbl of oil and 50 tcf of gas have been discovered in south-central Asia, mostly in Cenozoic deltaic sandstones or marine carbonate reservoirs in rift (Cambay), passive margin (Bombay shelf), and foreland basins (Assam, Indux, Potwar, Bengal) in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and in a fore-arc setting in Burma. Source rocks are mostly Paleogene shale, but some Paleozoic and Mesozoic sources be present in Pakistan. New exploration is underway or will begin soon in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma.

  19. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…

  20. Socioeconomic differentials and availability of domestic water in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungumaro, Esther W.

    The past few decades has seen massive efforts to increasing provision of domestic water. However, water is still unavailable to many people most of them located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia. Furthermore, availability of water varies greatly both spatially and temporary. While other people pay so dearly for domestic water others have an easy access to adequate clean water and sanitation. Accessibility and affordability of domestic water and sanitation is determined by a great variety of factors including socioeconomic status of households. The main objective of the paper is to inform on factors which need to be taken into account when coming up with projects to provide domestic water. It is more critical when the issue of water pricing comes into the equation. Water pricing has many facets, including equity, willingness to pay and affordability. In this premise, it is deemed important to understand the socioeconomic characteristics of the people before deciding on the amount of money they will have to pay for water consumption. It is argued that understanding people’s socioeconomic situation will greatly help to ensure that principles of sustainability and equity in water allocation and pricing are achieved. To do so, the paper utilized 2002 South Africa General Household Survey (GHS), to analyze socioeconomic variables and availability of domestic water. Analysis was mainly descriptive. However, logistic regression analysis was also utilized to determine the likelihood of living in a household that obtain water from a safe source. The study found that there is a strong relationship between availability of domestic water and socioeconomic conditions. Economic status, household size and to a lesser extent gender of head of household were found to be strong predictors of living in a household which obtained water from a safe source. The paper recommends that needs and priorities for interventions in water provision should take into account

  1. Urbanisation and women's health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pick, W; Cooper, D

    1997-03-01

    For many decades the migrant labor system and the influx control legislation in South Africa exacerbated male-dominant patterns of migration typical of Africa. In recent years, however, and especially following the easing of influx control legislation in 1986, migration in South Africa has increasingly involved women. This paper reports on a study conducted in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, which explored the relationship between urbanisation and the health of women. The objectives were to relate age, migration, length of stay in urban areas, employment status, and occupation to the health, including reproductive health, of women living in Khayelitsha. Interviews with 659 women (61 households had no senior woman) revealed that women enjoyed considerable social support through their neighbours, church organisations, and women's organisations. Women who lived in the most deprived section of Khayelitsha enjoyed more support from their neighbours but reported less satisfaction with the area in which they lived. Child-care support was poor and a considerable proportion of the women were disempowered by their male partners. More than 90 percent of the women had access to antenatal care. Recent immigrants had more pregnancies, were less aware of screening for cervical cancer, less likely to have had a Pap smear, less knowledgeable about where to have a Pap smear done, and less likely to have heard AIDS. More women were aware of AIDS (86%) than Pap smears (45%). More than half of those of childbearing age used contraception, mainly intramuscular hormones (76%). A significant proportion (53%) of the women reported that they had had their first pregnancy as teenagers and younger, less educated women were more likely to have had adolescent pregnancies. Policy makers are confronted by a compelling need to redress well-known urban-rural inequalities in health care in South Africa. Policy attention must also be given to the increasing urbanisation of women and the growing health care

  2. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  3. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Quits CWC"] [Text] New Delhi, May 8: The veteran Congress(I) leader, Mr Uma Shankar Dikshit, has quit the Congress Working Committee [CWC...expressed by the developing member countries regarding reduction of the quantum of aid to Asia following the developments in Eastern Europe. Prof

  4. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  5. Fires in South Africa, snow in Lesotho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation that brought snow fall to the Drakensberg Mountains in Lesotho in southern Africa was not enough to quench the numerous fires (marked with red dots) burning throughout the Republic of South Africa. These Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 18, 2002, and July 2, 2002, show the snowfall in landlocked Lesotho contrasting sharply with the country's brown, mountainous terrain. (In the false-color image, vegetation is bright green, bare soil is brown, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In northeast Republic of South Africa, right along the border with Mozambique, the smooth, gray-brown terrain shows the boundaries of Kruger National Park. The Park was established in the late 1800s to protect game species, such as elephants, antelope, and bison, which were being hunted in great numbers. In this image, dark brown patches reveal the location of previous fires. The vegetation has yet to come back, and the landscape is virtually bare. NASA scientists study fire behavior in Kruger as part of the SAFARI field campaign. Running southward through Mozambique and into the Indian Ocean is the muddy Limpopo River--known to many through Rudyard Kipling's 'Just-so' story about how the elephant got its trunk. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Education - An Obstacle to Development? Reflections on the Political Function of Education in Asia and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanf, Theodor; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Article attempted to summarize criticisms, supplemented them on the basis of empirical research, and lay the foundation for this general thesis: Formal education in Africa and Asia tends to impede economic growth and promote political instability. (Author/RK)

  7. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  8. Assessing the trend of HIV/AIDS mortality rate in Asia and North Africa: an application of latent growth models.

    PubMed

    Zayeri, F; Talebi Ghane, E; Borumandnia, N

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major global health challenge. This study evaluates the change of HIV/AIDS mortality rates in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010 using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. HIV/AIDS mortality rates were derived from the GBD database from 1990 to 2010, for 52 countries in Asia and North Africa. First, a Latent Growth Model was employed to assess the change in AIDS mortality rate over time in six different regions of Asia, and also the change in AIDS mortality rate over time for males and females in Asia and North Africa. Finally, Latent Growth Mixture Models (LGMMs) were applied to identify distinct groups in which countries within each group have similar trends over time. Our results showed that increase in mortality rate over time for males is about three times greater than for females. The highest and lowest trend of AIDS mortality rates were observed in South-East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions, respectively. The LGMM allocated most countries in the South and South-East region into two classes with the highest trend of AIDS mortality rates. Although the HIV/AIDS mortality rates are decreasing in some countries and clusters, the general trend in the Asian continent is upwards. Therefore, it is necessary to provide programmes to achieve the goal of access to HIV prevention measures, treatment, care, and support for high-risk groups, especially in countries with a higher trend of AIDS mortality rates.

  9. Apocalypse when? Population growth and food supply in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A

    1994-12-01

    Food demands for staple grains are expected to almost double over the next 25 years in South Asia, due to population growth and increased standards of living. Trends in the mid-1990s suggest that neither pessimism nor optimism prevails in the region. There is wide diversity among and within countries. Trends suggest that population densities are already the highest in the world, and the amount of arable land is declining. Urban growth has moved onto farm land and farmers have been pushed onto more marginal lands or have become landless. Land intensification has produced mixed results. Cereal production per capita has increased since the 1950s in India, with about 75% of the region's population, but Pakistan's increases were not sustained into the 1980s. Average daily caloric intake per person in the region of 2214 is below the level in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Bangladesh, levels are particularly worrisome at 2037. The environmental impact has not been easily quantified, but experts have suggested that pressure on farm land has contributed to loss of soil fertility and water resource loss. Further intensification of farming is feasible, but difficult and more expensive than in the past. Regardless of production problems and solutions, there is also the very real problem of poor food distribution and lack of purchasing power. Farm management skills must be utilized, if environmental degradation is to be avoided. There is the added unknown of what climate changes will occur and how agricultural production will be affected. The policy implications are that increased food production must be made a political priority. Policies must support agricultural research into improved technologies and support distribution of technological advances to a wider number of farmers. Rural infrastructures such as roads, market outlets, and credit agencies must be established. Policies must be removed that disadvantage farmers, such as inappropriate subsidies for irrigation water

  10. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    proposal, which was made three years ago, remains without a response. The area between the houses of Niqula and the ancient flour mills in Tzalmon Valley...result. We are bidding farewell to 1990, in which unemployment rates will prove to have flour - ished and developed. As long as the options continue...assignments worth US$1.46 million for the Abu Dhabi National Oil Corporation and Petronas, Malaysia were also completed. On the R&D front, Asia’s first

  11. Islam in South and Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-08

    dynamics of Islam in Asia should help inform United States’ policy to develop respect between America and Muslim peoples, to foster economic policies to...encourage development of open societies, to support education in Muslim states, and to identify and prioritize terrorist sanctuaries in order to...history of Islam see Karen Armstrong, Islam: A Short History (New York: The Modern Library , 2002). 2 Vartan Gregorian, Islam: A Mosaic Not a Monolith

  12. Telerehabilitation in South Africa - is there a way forward?

    PubMed

    Mars, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa. Future actions are outlined.

  13. Language and Society in South Asia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Michael C.; Schiffman, Harold F.

    This work attempts to provide an overview of linguistic diversity in South Asia and to place this diversity in a cultural context. The work tries to describe the current state of knowledge concerning socially conditioned language variation in the subcontinent. Each of five major language families contains numerous mutually intelligible and…

  14. Family, Community, and Educational Outcomes in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…

  15. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to…

  16. Geo-Strategic Context: South Asia, A National Security Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-27

    ARCHIVE COPY NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE GEO-STRATEGIC CONTEXT SOUTH ASIA, A NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY MS Youngeun ... Anderson and Captain D Craig Wellmg/Class of 1998 Course 5604 Seminar I FACULTY SEMINAR LEADER CAPT J Kelso 27 February 1998 78-E-54 c-. I Report

  17. 65. ICT-Based Distance Education in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Sally D.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an update about innovative uses of information and communication technology (ICT) for distance education and training in South Asia. Particular focus is given to ICT initiatives in India, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan, at university level, and in non-formal interventions. Lessons learned from these countries are of value to any…

  18. South Asia in the Global Electronic Village: Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jagtar

    This paper discusses issues related to developments in computer and communication technologies in south Asia. The first section considers the Internet and its impact. Paradigm shifts and globalization are addressed in the second section, including the shifts away from stand alone libraries to library and information networks, ownership to access,…

  19. International Consultation and Training on Group Work in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a consultation and training for faculty and graduate students in South Asia under the auspices of the United Nations' Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. It describes the development of a consultation relationship and training on group work. Needs assessments focusing on both cultural…

  20. Rights of the Child in South Africa: Violence against Girls in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninger-Budel, Carin

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of South Africa. Noting that the Convention is the only "mainstream" human rights instrument that…

  1. South Africa: a legacy of family disruption.

    PubMed

    Budlender, Debbie; Lund, Francie

    2011-01-01

    This article draws together unusual characteristics of the legacy of apartheid in South Africa: the state-orchestrated destruction of family life, high rates of unemployment and a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The disruption of family life has resulted in a situation in which many women have to fulfil the role of both breadwinner and care giver in a context of high unemployment and very limited economic opportunities. The question that follows is: given this crisis of care, to what extent can or will social protection and employment-related social policies provide the support women and children need?

  2. Hypertension: detection and management in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    High blood pressure in South Africa is estimated to have caused 46,888 deaths and 390,860 disability-adjusted life years in 2000. Detection and management of hypertension remains suboptimal due to inadequate public health care facilities. Mass migration of rural blacks to urban areas and rapid changes in lifestyle and risk factors account for the rising prevalence of hypertension, but genetic factors may also play an important contributory role. Black South Africans also appear to be more prone to complications of hypertension, particularly stroke, heart failure, and hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and respond poorly to ACE inhibitors as monotherapy. Proactive public health interventions at a population level need to be introduced to control this growing epidemic.

  3. High Resolution Projection of Future Air Quality in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Lamarque, J. F.; Walters, S.; Naja, M. K.; Ghude, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    About one seventh of the world's population living in South Asia faces the risk of severe air pollution due to high anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants. Recent studies have shown that exposure to present day air pollution in South Asia is sufficient enough to reduce the lifespan of about 660 million people by about 3 years, destroy food that can feed about 94 million poor people and cause economic loss of several billion dollars. This problem may worsen in the future as anthropogenic emissions are expected to increase due to rapid economic growth in South Asia, and climate change is expected to lead to atmospheric conditions conducive for the production and accumulation of air pollutants. In order to predict how air quality will change in South Asia in future (2050), we are conducting high resolution air quality simulations for the present day (2005-2014) and future (2046-2055) time periods using the Nested Regional Climate Model coupled with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem). The model domain covers entire South Asia at a horizontal grid spacing of 60 km with a nested domain over the densely populated and polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain region at a horizontal grid spacing of 12 km. The model results are being evaluated with available in situ and satellite based observations and the evaluation results show that NRCM-Chem model is able to capture several important features of the observed spatial and temporal distribution of key meteorological parameters and air pollutants. Initial model results show that annual average surface ozone and PM2.5 concentrations may increase by up to 15 ppbv and 25 μg m-3, respectively with highest increase in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

  4. Non-communicable diseases in South Asia: contemporary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karen R.; Patel, Shivani A.; Ali, Mohammed K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as metabolic, cardiovascular, cancers, injuries and mental health disorders are increasingly contributing to the disease burden in South Asia, in light of demographic and epidemiologic transitions in the region. Home to one-quarter of the world's population, the region is also an important priority area for meeting global health targets. In this review, we describe the current burden of and trends in four common NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in South Asia. Sources of data The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study supplemented with the peer-reviewed literature and reports by international agencies and national governments. Areas of agreement The burden of NCDs in South Asia is rising at a rate that exceeds global increases in these conditions. Shifts in leading risk factors—particularly dietary habits, tobacco use and high blood pressure—are thought to underlie the mounting burden of death and disability due to NCDs. Improvements in life expectancy, increasing socioeconomic development and urbanization in South Asia are expected to lead to further escalation of NCDs. Areas of controversy Although NCD burdens are currently largest among affluent groups in South Asia, many adverse risk factors are concentrated among the poor, portending a future increase in disease burden among lower income individuals. Growing points There continues to be a notable lack of national surveillance data to document the distribution and trends in NCDs in the region. Similarly, economic studies and policy initiatives addressing NCD burdens are still in their infancy. Areas timely for developing research Opportunities for innovative structural and behavioral interventions that promote maintenance of healthy lifestyles—such as moderate caloric intake, adequate physical activity and avoidance of tobacco—in the context of socioeconomic development are abundant. Testing of health

  5. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    billion. The Arab countries’ imports of wheat and flour was 65.7 percent of the total world imports. A Way Out of the Predicament The problem is...Is there any chance that we will manage to break into Muslim countries in Southeast Asia, Malaysia , or Indonesia, for example? [Merhav] "I don’t...think so. Almost in every place where the religious element and Pan-Islamic solidarity are strong, we are on the outside. This goes for Malaysia and

  6. History of Newcastle disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Abolnik, Celia

    2017-02-24

    Poultry production in South Africa, a so-called developing country, may be seen as a gradient between two extremes with highly integrated commercial enterprises with world-class facilities on one hand and unimproved rural chickens kept by households and subsistence farmers on the other. Although vaccination against Newcastle disease is widely applied to control this devastating infection, epizootics continue to occur. Since the first official diagnosis in 1945, through the sporadic outbreaks of the 1950s and early 1960s, to serious epizootics caused by genotype VIII (late 1960s-2000), genotype VIIb (1993-1999), genotype VIId (2003-2012) and most recently genotype VIIh (2013 to present), South Africa's encounters with exotic Newcastle disease follow global trends. Importation - probably illegal - of infected poultry, poultry products or exotic birds and illegal swill dumping are likely routes of entry. Once the commercial sector is affected, the disease spreads rapidly within the region via transportation routes. Each outbreak genotype persisted for about a decade and displaced its predecessor.

  7. Regulation of Biobanks in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Andanda, Pamela; Govender, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The availability of biological samples and data is critical for the establishment of biobanks for health research purposes. Such availability should be ensured in accordance with relevant national legislation and ethical principles. In this article, we consider the extent to which the current legal and ethical regulatory frameworks in South Africa are capable of governing the use of stored biological samples in a manner that facilitates health research while at the same time protecting the interests of sample donors. These two attributes are essential for establishing biobanks in the country. Our evaluation of the frameworks is based on desk review of the current literature with a special focus on oversight mechanisms in place that ensure compliance with national legislation and ethical review processes to facilitate future and secondary uses of data, the extent to which informed consent policies foster sharing of research samples, data and protocols as well as mechanisms for safeguarding confidentiality. We established that there is an urgent need to streamline South Africa's legal and ethical frameworks because they are currently ambiguous and disjointed. There is equally a need to bring the frameworks in line with the current developments at the national and international levels.

  8. The HIV-1 epidemic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Puren, A J

    2002-01-01

    The first reported cases of HIV-1 infection in South Africa occurred in 1982. Two distinct HIV-1 epidemic patterns were recognized. Initially the infection was prevalent in white males who had sex with males. The HIV-1 clade B was associated with this group. By 1989, the second epidemic was recognized primarily in the black population. Infections in this case were mainly heterosexual in origin. The HIV-1 clade involved was mainly C. The national HIV-1 sero-prevalence in antenatal attendees was less than 1% in 1990 and by 1994 this figure had risen to 7.5%. The most recent antenatal surveillance for HIV-1 sero-prevalence in 1999 revealed the following. The national prevalence rate for 1999 was 22.4% compared with the 1998 rate of 22.8%. The data highlighted the profound effect the epidemic had and will have on the disease burden in South Africa and by extension on the social and economic fronts. This view was emphasised by the impact HIV-1 infection had on tuberculosis. For example, sentinel surveys have attributed 44% of tuberculosis cases to HIV-1 infection. Moreover, the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections will certainly exacerbate the HIV-1 epidemic.

  9. Roles of genetic counselors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié; Krause, Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Genetic counseling is a growing health profession in South Africa. Training (set up in 1988) and registration are in place, but job creation remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles played by genetic counselors in the provision of genetic services, in South Africa. A questionnaire comprising items on the types of roles they performed was constructed and counselors were asked to make the log-books, in which they recorded their daily counseling activities, available. A check list was drawn up so that relevant information could be collected systematically from these log-books. Then departmental statistics were accessed from the two universities providing genetic services and genetic counselor training. Structured interviews were conducted with the genetic counselors (16 of 23 participated), and data were collected from their completed questionnaires, log-books and the departmental statistics, for the years 2007 and 2008. These data were analyzed and the findings showed that the counselors counseled about one third (39 %) of all the cases seen at genetic clinics per annum, and the total numbers were increasing. They counseled for 57 different genetic disorders, and their clients represented the range of local ethnic groups. They also had educational, research, marketing and administrative roles. They expected to expand these roles and advance the profession in future. Genetic counselors are versatile, playing several significant roles. As these become better recognized, demand for their services should increase, jobs should be created and the service expanded.

  10. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44–0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while

  11. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44-0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥ 0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while designing

  12. Worker Education in South Africa: Lessons and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vally, Salim; Bofelo, Mphutlane Wa; Treat, John

    2013-01-01

    Worker education played a crucial role in the development of the trade union movement in South Africa and in the broader struggle for social transformation. This article reviews key moments and dynamics in the trajectory of worker education in South Africa. We argue that international developments, the rise of neoliberalism, and the negotiated…

  13. Education Rights, Education Policies and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore education policy changes in South Africa through a rights-based framework. We situate our analysis in the context of deepening poverty and inequality arguing that progress (or the lack thereof) in schools cannot be divorced from poverty and its consequences. We show that education reform in South Africa has been situated…

  14. Contexts of Educational Policy Change in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Chilisa, Bagele

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how different histories and contexts of political and educational change in Botswana and South Africa have shaped the more regular classroom practice observed in Botswana. It does this through an interpretive synthesis and comparison of four key moments of educational change in Botswana and South Africa during the twentieth…

  15. "Affordable" Private Schools in South Africa. Affordable for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languille, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The paper sets out to challenge the notions of "affordable" private schools in the context of South Africa. It is guided by one main question: "affordable private schools for whom?" It argues that, contrary to claims by its public and private proponents, affordable private schools in South Africa do not cater for poor children.…

  16. Student Mobility and Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility elsewhere, which are…

  17. Researching LGB Youth in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric M.

    2006-01-01

    Very few large-scale research projects involving lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have taken place in South Africa. However, there have been several important small-scale studies. One of the major obstacles that researchers of LGB youth encounter in South Africa is the lack of access to these adolescents. There are no national networks for social…

  18. Investigating Preschool Education and Care in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg, Owen C.; Vergnani, Tania

    Recognizing the complexities of apartheid with its implications for conducting systems-related research within the vortex of South Africa, a study investigated the implementation of a national system of preschool provision for South Africa. The investigation began by studying two earlier reports: the Reilly-Hofmeyr report of 1983 and the report of…

  19. Obstacles to Success--Doctoral Student Attrition in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…

  20. Expanding Doctoral Education in South Africa: Pipeline or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the status of the PhD in South Africa and the feasibility of the country's aspiration to increase by fivefold the production of PhDs by 2025. Based on the first empirical studies on doctoral education in South Africa, it argues that in order to move towards this target, an expanded and coordinated…

  1. Educational Access in South Africa. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, S.; Dieltens, V.; Carrim, N.; Kgobe, P.; Moyo, G.; Rembe, S.

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in South Africa. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides a statistical analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Review on Educational Access in South Africa (Motala et al, 2007) [ED508808]…

  2. On the transferability of RegCM4: Europe, Africa and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Simulations driven by ERA-interim reanalysis for CORDEX domains covering Europe, Africa and Asia have been performed using RegCM4 at 50 km resolution. The same settings are used in basic simulations and preliminary evaluation of model performance for individual regions will be presented. Several settings of different options is tested and sensitivity of selected ones will be shown in individual regions. Secant Mercator projection is introduced for Africa providing more efficient model geometry setting, the impact of proper emissivity inclusion is compared especially for Africa and Asia desserts. CRU data are used for the validation.

  3. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Creates Storage Problems by Moroccan flour mills. If it were possible to read that 91AA0422B Rabat AL-’ALAM in Arabic 21 May 91 reference, starting...Indonesia, Malaysia , Singapore, Thailand, Brunei. misunderstandings in our relations with the United Hong Kong and South Korea are also very important

  4. JPRS Report: Near East & South Asia - Pakistan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    countries, developing countries offer an attractive avenue of investment. Thai- land, Malaysia , Taiwan, and South Korea have taken full advantage of...useful purpose would be achieved through half measures. Simi- larly announcing subsidy for poor in the price of wheat flour is going to cause serious

  5. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia Pakistan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    2.50 per kg for flour . Now the government has announced that food stamps will be issued to the poor to buy flour at a discount of Rs.l per kg. No...South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong and now Malaysia are more than revealing in this respect. None of them made any headway towards prosperity

  6. Summer 2015 Extremes over South Asia within the Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, D.; Ashfaq, M.

    2015-12-01

    South Asian summer in 2015 has been marked by weather events of extremely different nature, including hot extremes over India and Pakistan, and wet extremes over northern, western and eastern states of India. Interestingly, these extremes are happening against the backdrop of warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, which has historically reduced the strength of summer monsoon over South Asia. Given the occurrence of the contrasting anomalies at large and regional scales, in this study, we analyze 2015 extremes over South Asia within the historical perspective. We study the anomalies in the land, atmospheric and oceanic processes that potentially led to the regional heat waves and wet extremes throughout the summer and their connection to the large-scale anomalies in the monsoon dynamic. Additionally, we analyze historical simulations of the CMIP5 GCMs to investigate the likelihood of these anomalies with respect to the pre-industrial time period. Our analysis suggests evolving changes in the monsoon dynamics over South Asia where the lesser-known regional and local drivers have influence on the historical tele-connections.

  7. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  8. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Chan-Yeung, M; Aït-Khaled, N; White, N; Tsang, K W; Tan, W C

    2004-02-01

    This review examines whether the comprehensive programme recommended by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), developed mostly by physicians in industrialised countries, can be applied in developing countries. In developing countries, there are several major limitations to the implementation of the programme. First, management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is not a priority in competing for health care resources. Second, only major medical centres in developing countries have spirometers; the reliance on spirometric testing for diagnosis, staging and treatment options, as recommended by the GOLD guidelines, makes it almost impossible for the programme to be implemented. Third, in many Asian and African countries, regular monitoring is often restricted to patients with severe COPD who have frequent hospitalisations or clinic visits for exacerbations and complications. Fourth, the choice of therapy usually depends on the availability and cost of drugs. Finally, given the aetiological role of sequelae of lung infections, including tuberculosis, the appropriateness and safety of using intermittent courses of oral steroids during acute exacerbations and of long-term, high-dose inhaled corticosteroids for moderate to severe COPD in developing countries has not been evaluated. Developing countries in Asia and Africa may need to adapt the GOLD guidelines according to varying aetiology, local health care resources, socio-economic and cultural factors and development of health services. Prevention programmes, especially for tobacco control, are of paramount importance. National and international efforts must be directed towards controlling the tobacco epidemic in developing countries to reduce the burden of COPD and other tobacco-induced diseases.

  9. The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, Dilruba; Blackwelder, William C.; Wu, Yukun; Farag, Tamer H.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Saha, Debasish; Adegbola, Richard; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; Bassat, Quique; Tamboura, Boubou; Sanogo, Doh; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Manna, Byomkesh; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kanungo, Suman; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Qureshi, Shahida; Quadri, Farheen; Hossain, Anowar; Das, Sumon K.; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mandomando, Inacio; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Acácio, Sozinho; Omore, Richard; Oundo, Joseph O.; Ochieng, John B.; Mintz, Eric D.; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Berkeley, Lynette Y.; Livio, Sofie; Tennant, Sharon M.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Nataro, James P.; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Mishcherkin, Vladimir; Zhang, Jixian; Liu, Jie; Houpt, Eric R.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized. Methods Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD]) were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and 3,174 LSD cases among children aged <60 months and from 21,527 randomly-selected controls matched by age, sex and community were immunoassay-tested for Cryptosporidium. Species of a subset of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were identified by PCR; GP60 sequencing identified anthroponotic C. parvum. Combined annual Cryptosporidium-attributable diarrhea incidences among children aged <24 months for African and Asian GEMS sites were extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian regions to estimate region-wide MSD and LSD burdens. Attributable and excess mortality due to Cryptosporidium diarrhea were estimated. Findings Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with MSD and LSD below age 24 months. Among Cryptosporidium-positive MSD cases, C. hominis was detected in 77.8% (95% CI, 73.0%-81.9%) and C. parvum in 9.9% (95% CI, 7.1%-13.6%); 92% of C. parvum tested were anthroponotic genotypes. Annual Cryptosporidium-attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27–4.67) and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85–4.52) per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73–2.08) and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66–2.05) per 100 child-years in toddlers. Corresponding Cryptosporidium-attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33–5.01) and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82–8.92) in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56–7.51) and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24–9.18) in toddlers. We estimate 2.9 and 4.7 million Cryptosporidium-attributable cases annually in children aged <24 months in the sub-Saharan Africa and India/Pakistan/Bangladesh/Nepal/Afghanistan regions, respectively, and ~202,000 Cryptosporidium

  10. Near East/South Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the model of science cities and technology parks in South Korea (Dae Duk), Taiwan (Hsinchu), Singapore (Jurong), Malaysia (Petaling Java), besides...increased the prices of sugar and flour . The government did not explain how these fresh increases in prices would be absorbed by the wage earners. When...the prices of sugar and flour were raised, we commented that these items are basic necessities for all. One cannot stop or reduce their use of

  11. New US Policy Options for South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-25

    Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 SUMMARY Since Pakistan and india gained independence in the iate i940s, US policies toward South Asla...or nuclear proliferation, For most of the postwar period, the US favored Pakistan over India . Changing international circumstances--the demise of the...Cold War, Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, alleviation of superpower rivalry in much of the Third World, and new democratic governments in India

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Interna- tional Development Agency, provides assistance through political risk insurance , direct loans, and loan-guarantees to qualified US private...in South 8 LIBYA Tripoli Real Estate Chief Calls For Adherence to Property Laws [AL-SHATT, 22 Dec 87] 10 Status of Social Insurance Fund Reviewed...imperil those who deposit their money with these companies in search of a big profit higher than the banks’ interest rates. The biggest risk is that the

  13. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    July, Khaled Jabarin writes: "in the name of God the merciful and compas- sionate, praise be to the Lord, prayer and peace be upon Mohammed the...1,176 km in the country’s "Tajjal" area. The second phase was to begin in August 1988 with the first well scheduled for drilling this year. South Yemen... drilling location will be chosen this year. JPRS-NEA-89-055 10 AUGUST 1989 54 NEAR EAST China—KUFPEC continued its negotiations with the Chinese

  14. Free Tropospheric Aerosols Over South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elina, Giannakaki; Pfüller, Anne; Korhonen, Kimmo; Mielonen, Tero; Laakso, Lauri; Vakkari, Ville; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Beukes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Tiitta, Petri; Chiloane, Kgaugelo; Piketh, Stuart; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lehtinen, Kari

    2016-06-01

    Raman lidar data of one year was been analyzed to obtain information relating aerosol layers in the free troposphere over South Africa, Elandsfontein. In total, 375 layers were observed above the boundary layer during the period 30th January 2010 - 31st January 2011. The seasonal behavior of aerosol layer geometrical characteristics as well as intensive and extensive optical properties were studied. In general, layers were observed at higher altitudes during spring (2520 ± 970 m) while the geometrical layer depth did not show any significant seasonal dependence. The variations of most of the intensive and extensive optical properties analyzed were high during all seasons. Layers were observed at mean altitude of 2100 m ± 1000 m with lidar ratio at 355 nm of 67 ± 25 and extinction-related Ångström exponent between 355 and 532 nm of 1.9 ± 0.8.

  15. Improving PMTCT Uptake in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S. M.; Peltzer, K.; Villar-Loubet, O.; Shikwane, M. E.; Cook, R.; Jones, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the widespread availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs, many women in sub-Saharan Africa do not participate in PMTCT. This pilot study aimed to utilize partner participation in an intervention to support PMTCT uptake. Methods Couples (n = 239) were randomized to receive either a comprehensive couples-based PMTCT intervention or the standard of care. Results Compared to the standard of care, participants receiving the intervention increased HIV- and PMTCT-related knowledge (F1,474 = 13.94, p = .004) and uptake of PMTCT, as defined by infant medication dosing (74% vs. 46%, χ2 = 4.69, p = .03). Discussion Results indicate that increasing male attendance at antenatal clinic visits may be “necessary but not sufficient” to increase PMTCT uptake. Increasing HIV knowledge of both partners and encouraging active male participation in the PMTCT process through psychoeducational interventions may be a strategy to increase the uptake of PMTCT in South Africa. PMID:23778240

  16. Exploring Options to Address Chinas Strategy in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    political legitimacy. (Exports thrive on low-wage unskilled labour; later, value added industries need higher wages, which increases inflation, but...Project power Expand export S Reach by sea, air, land S S 2B. Economics S Secure energy supply S Legend Manage dissent 6. Internal security Apply soft...South Asia Legend : very high (VH), high (H), medium (M), low (L) and very low (VL) Second Order Consequences Its positive effects are that 1

  17. Hepatitis E virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Richie G; Wallace, Sebastian; Sonderup, Mark; Korsman, Stephen; Chivese, Tawanda; Gavine, Bronwyn; Edem, Aniefiok; Govender, Roxy; English, Nathan; Kaiyamo, Christy; Lutchman, Odelia; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Pas, Suzan D; Webb, Glynn W; Palmer, Joanne; Goddard, Elizabeth; Wasserman, Sean; Dalton, Harry R; Spearman, C Wendy

    2016-01-01

    AIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Children’s Hospital and their affiliated teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, were sampled. Healthy adults attending blood donor clinics were also recruited. Patients with known liver disease were excluded and all major ethnic/race groups were included to broadly represent local demographics. Relevant demographic data was captured at the time of sampling using an interviewer-administered confidential questionnaire. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was self-disclosed. HEV IgG testing was performed using the Wantai® assay. RESULTS HEV is endemic in the region with a seroprevalence of 27.9% (n = 324/1161) 95%CI: 25.3%-30.5% (21.9% when age-adjusted) with no significant differences between ethnic groups or HIV status. Seroprevalence in children is low but rapidly increases in early adulthood. With univariate analysis, age ≥ 30 years old, pork and bacon/ham consumption suggested risk. In the multivariate analysis, the highest risk factor for HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 7.679, 95%CI: 5.38-10.96, P < 0.001) was being 30 years or older followed by pork consumption (OR = 2.052, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001). A recent clinical case demonstrates that HEV genotype 3 may be currently circulating in the Western Cape. CONCLUSION Hepatitis E seroprevalence was considerably higher than previously thought suggesting that hepatitis E warrants consideration in any patient presenting with an unexplained hepatitis in the Western Cape, irrespective of travel history, age or ethnicity. PMID:27956810

  18. Near East/South Asia Report, No. 2777

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    244082 JPRS 83814 I July 1983 Near East/South Asia Report No. 2777 Approved lor public reikis^"" I >&stribtjtJoia Unlimited 19980716...171 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE 3?XXC $u JIXIS1 1H0P1CT1B 8 lx: "t’/ i 4: /" NOTE JPRS publications contain information...be addressed to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS 83814 I July 1983 Near East/South

  19. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  20. Undisciplining Knowledge Production: Development Driven Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2006-01-01

    South African higher education institutions are increasingly under scrutiny to produce knowledge that is more relevant to South Africa's social and economic needs, more representative of the diversity of its knowledge producers, and more inclusive of the variety of the sites where knowledge is produced. Only a small percentage of South Africans…

  1. Behavior therapy in South Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, T

    1982-12-01

    Behavior therapy in South Africa has, after strong beginnings, undergone a slump which seems largely due to the drain of leading behavior therapists from this country. During the last decade there has been evidence of a revival of this approach, due largely to the increasing place of behavior therapy in clinical training curricula. Questionnaire and interview data from universities and hospitals indicated that therapy training was "eclectic" in the sense that interns and registrars were expected to master the basics of several approaches; and this was reflected in clinical practice in that most therapists used behavior therapy in conjunction with other approaches. It was noted that relatively little research in behavior therapy was published by South Africans, but that this appeared to be increasing in the last few years. Cross-cultural issues were assuming increasing importance as psychotherapeutic services were increasingly extended to the indigenous African population of this country, and it was suggested that behavior therapy was an effective approach in this context when due consideration was given to the cultural beliefs and patterns of the particular patient.

  2. Malnutrition in South Asia-A Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-10-25

    Malnutrition continues to be a major public health challenge especially in South Asian developing countries. The aim of the present review is to spotlight the magnitude of the prevalence of malnutrition and its dynamics in South Asian region and to suggest potential approaches for the prevention and control of this issue of public health significance. An extensive review of literature, covering malnutrition and its determinants, health and economic consequences and pragmatic preventive strategies was performed on computer based bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline and Sciencedirect.com ) to retrieve abstracts and full texts for India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal. All relevant titles and abstracts were examined and evaluated for malnutrition and its prevalence in South Asia. The results revealed malnutrition to be a major public health problem and a potential cause of high disease burden and mortality in South Asia. Compelling evidence suggests malnutrition to be the leading cause of stunting, wasting and underweight with drastic economic consequences among vulnerable populations. Reduced cognitive performance and low productivity have also been associated with micronutrients malnutrition. Suboptimal breastfeeding, inadequate food supply, micronutrient deficiencies, low household income, poor health care system, increased healthcare costs, illiteracy, unhygienic and substandard living, inappropriate child's care and the caregiver, food insecurity and on top of that vicious cycle of poverty, have been recognized as principal indicators for growing malnutrition prevalence in South Asia. Global organizations, local governments, program managers, NGOs, academia, industry in particular and the society at large need to take up the challenge to completely confiscate malnutrition from the region for economic prosperity and a healthier future.

  3. Enabling Energy Efficiency in South Africa's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    South Africa is leading a number of efforts to support a thriving economy while also reducing energy use. Increasing energy demand coupled with a highly energy intensive economy and energy inefficient industries provide the backdrop for strong government action underway in South Africa. This brochure details how the Clean Energy Solutions Center supported development of the Regulations on Allowance for the Energy Efficiency Savings legislation designed to provide a framework for effective energy efficiency regulation, incentives and energy reduction targets for South Africa's commercial buildings sector.

  4. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in 2012…

  5. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  6. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy.

  7. Expansion of student activities in Africa: from south to north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Rim; Ben Salem, Amine; Gueddana, Amor; Zghal, Mourad; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Heidt, Alexander M.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2014-07-01

    Optics and photonics research in Africa has gradually grown in the past ten years with a very active optical community involved in state-of-the-art research. Despite relatively low resources, optics research in the continent is competitive with many international benchmarks and has had a significant impact within the African continent. In the past five years, a group of dynamic students have developed the student chapter network from Tunisia to South Africa. The first student chapters of the optical society of America (OSA) and the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE) were established in South Africa (in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and in the University of Stellenbosch), followed by a chapter in Tunisia (Engineering school of communications of Tunis, Sup'Com). In this paper, we will present the major activities of the student chapters of Tunisia and South Africa, and how they are promoting optics and photonics in Africa.

  8. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification of

  9. Safe motherhood South Asia: challenge for the nineties.

    PubMed

    1990-06-01

    In South Asia, 300,000 women die every year while giving birth. The region accounts for more than one-half of the world's maternal deaths even though only 27% of all births occur in South Asia. Many countries of the region have for years ignored or passively accepted the premature deaths of women. The high maternal death rate is reflective of social inequities which gave preferential treatment to males. Women also have little or no access to the family planning and medical services they need. The authors wholeheartedly support the safe motherhood initiative's goal of halving the maternal mortality rate by the year 2000. Because South Asia is so diverse, the programs and principals that will achieve the goal and improve women's health must be tailored to the realities of each area. However, the following are important strategies for action: mobilizing political will and commitment, involving community members, integrating the activities of non- governmental organizations into safe motherhood programs, sharing information within and among countries, involving the media, and sensitizing men about the issues. Long-term efforts are needed to change fundamental problems in women's education, status, opportunities, work burden and specific needs in employment and economic development. Short and medium term programs are also useful since they have an immediate impact on reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. The programs should emphasize making services available to those in need, launching community information campaigns that are directly linked to services offered, and assuring that the training and deployment of medical personnel be structured to meet existing needs. The direct cost of implementing these programs is low in comparison with the benefits that will accrue to South Asian society with their success. Immediate action is called for to ensure solutions to these problems.

  10. Gymnanthemum koekemoerae (Compositae, Vernonieae), a new species from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Gymnanthemum (Compositae, Vernonieae) from South Africa is described. It can be distinguished from other species in the genus by the five-flowered capitula and widely obtuse leaf blades.

  11. Gymnanthemum koekemoerae (Compositae, Vernonieae), a new species from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Gymnanthemum (Compositae, Vernonieae) from South Africa is described. It can be distinguished from other species in the genus by the five-flowered capitula and widely obtuse leaf blades. PMID:24843294

  12. Methodology of Leaving America for Asia: Reading South Korea's Social Studies Textbooks through Chen Kuan-Hsing's Asia as Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    This project began as a content analysis of five South Korean high school Social Studies textbooks. Yet, it has evolved into an epistemological experiment to pursue the question of "what does it mean to leave America for Asia, at least methodologically, for the researcher who left Asia for America?" Using the textbooks as a mediating…

  13. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia.

    PubMed

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R Mani; Qamer, Faisal M; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2015-01-15

    Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions of the biosphere. Mangroves are under threat from both natural and anthropogenic stressors; however the current status and dynamics of the region's mangroves are poorly understood. We mapped the current extent of mangrove forests in South Asia and identified mangrove forest cover change (gain and loss) from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat satellite data. We also conducted three case studies in Indus Delta (Pakistan), Goa (India), and Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India) to identify rates, patterns, and causes of change in greater spatial and thematic details compared to regional assessment of mangrove forests. Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ∼7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and

  14. Economics of health in South Africa: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1989-01-01

    Some of the background to the present structure of medicine in South Africa, an outline of some economic aspects of our current (inadequate) health care service and tentative suggestions regarding the directions in which our health services should be moving to facilitate the legitimization (political) and accumulation (economic) processes required to meet the needs and demands of all the people of an internationally recognized, just and free South Africa are presented.

  15. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R. Mani; Qamer, Faisal M.; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2014-01-01

    Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ∼7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem.

  16. Astronomy at the University of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, D. P.

    2000-12-01

    Unisa is the largest correspondence university in Africa and the only South African university currently offering a BSc in Astronomy. The astronomy modules can be included in any standard BSc Physics programme. Besides using the radio and optical telescopes at HartRAO and SAAO, Unisa also has its own Observatory on the main campus equipped with modern instrumentation for training students and doing niche research projects. Unisa est la plus importante université d'enseignement par correspondance en Afrique et la seule université d'Afrique du Sud qui forme des licenciés ès sciences (BSc) en Astronomie. Les modules d'astronomie peuvent être inclus dans tout programme standard de Physique pour BSc. En plus d'utiliser les télescopes radio et optiques à HartRAO et SAAO, Unisa a aussi sur le campus principal son propre Observatoire équipé d'une instrumentation moderne pour la formation des étudiants et pour mener à bien des projets de recherche dans des niches scientifiques modernes.

  17. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  18. Global GIS database; digital atlas of South Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Hare, T.M.; Schruben, P.; Sherrill, D.; LaMar, C.; Tsushima, P.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a digital atlas of the countries of South Asia. This atlas is part of a global database compiled from USGS and other data sources at a nominal scale 1:1 million and is intended to be used as a regional-scale reference and analytical tool by government officials, researchers, the private sector, and the general public. The atlas includes free GIS software or may be used with ESRI's ArcView software. Customized ArcView tools, specifically designed to make the atlas easier to use, are also included.

  19. Health consequences of cricket – view from South Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although cricket has origins in the British Empire, it is followed as a religion in South Asia, probably due to the influence of the former during their rule. The sport is equally popular among all groups of the society, and is not subject to gender or age constraints. It marks the epitome of reverence and is considered a battle for self-esteem, not only for those playing, but for those watching as well. The intensity of emotional attachment with this sport renders certain public health benefits as well as drawbacks to the general masses. PMID:23890090

  20. Doctrine of Preemption: Analysis and Implications for South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    for World Domination: Mahathir”, The News, 25 February 2003; quoted in Agha Shahi , The Emerging World Order; available from <http:/www.issi.org.pk...Strikes”, Dawn, 5 April 2003; quoted in Agha Shahi . 26 “No Parallel between Iraq and Kashmir”, Dawn, 6 April 2003; quoted in Agha Shahi . 27 Jim Lobe...U.S. Hawks Pushing for India-Israel Ties”, Dawn, 25 May 2003; quoted in Agha Shahi . 28 Council of Foreign Relations, New Priorities in South Asia: U.S

  1. Perceived Professional Development Needs of English-Speaking Evangelical Academic Deans in Africa and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study identified the perceived professional development needs of English-speaking evangelical theological school deans in Africa and Asia, as a basis for evaluating or creating professional development programs for these regions. It answered the question: What are the perceptions of the need for professional development prior to and after…

  2. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. October 1973 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  3. Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Illness: Views from Africa, India, Asia and Australia. Monograph Series, Number 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, William A., Ed.; Wolkon, George H., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This special journal "Theme" issue presents a collection of papers reflecting the psychiatric practices and community treatment for persons with severe psychiatric disabilities in Asia, Africa, Australia, and India. Some of the papers were presented at the 1988 meeting of the World Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation (WAPR) in…

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  5. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  6. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  7. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  8. The journey: Women in physics in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diale, M.; Maphanga, R. R.; Tibane, M. M.; Thaoge, M. L.; Gledhill, I.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts by the group Women in Physics in South Africa are described, ranging from informal networking in departmental lunches, to programs to increase the visibility and entrepreneurial skills of women physicists, to outreach and community engagement. The current president of the South African Institute of Physics is female, and the arrival of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project should open many doors for women.

  9. An Overview of Education Management in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloi, Kholeka; Bush, Tony

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine three main issues, which are directly linked to school management developments in South Africa since 1994: (1) school leadership and management; (2) professionalization of principalship through the South African Standard for Principalship (SASP); and (3) leading and managing the learning school. In exploring these…

  10. Professional Counseling in South Africa: A Landscape under Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus G.; van der Westhuizen, Carol N.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the history, status, and trends of the counseling profession in South Africa and on the similarities with the development of the counseling profession in the United States. A need exists for South African professional counselors to refocus their research efforts to reflect the realities of the 21st century and link…

  11. Ethical Issues in Using Interactive Radio in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Gordon; Potter, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Equal access to quality education forms a central principle in the South African Constitution. After South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994, the prevailing situation in many under-resourced schools was a lack of access to quality education. We outline six ethical issues in the decision to use radio to advance access and educational…

  12. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  13. Stress Patterns Across South Africa: Something Amiss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, Marco; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Delvaux De Fenffe, Damien; Durrheim, Ray; Fagereng, Ake; Heidbach, Oliver; Van Der Merwe, Nielen; Saalmann, Kerstin; Saunders, Ian; Hodge, Matthew; Logue, Andrew; Malephane, Hlompho; Muaka, Joseph J.

    2013-04-01

    To mitigate the uncertainties in assessing the geohazards and rock conditions that affect the nuclear, mining (including hydrocarbon extraction) and civil engineering activities in South Africa, the authors are working to improve the data coverage concerning the present day stress field. In principle, this implies constraining the principal compressive stresses (σ1>σ2>σ3) or at least the maximum horizontal compressive stress (σH) because knowledge of these parameters may determine the reactivation potential of known faults, or the behaviour of large excavations and wells. By contrast, much of the subcontinent is under-represented in the World Stress Map database. For this reason we have taken a number of steps, firstly by installing a compact Trillium seismic sensor at Stofkloof (Namaqualand; adjacent to the Vaalputs low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility) and 1-sec sensors at Aggeneys and Koffiemeul (Bushmanland). All stations are equipped with Reftek data loggers and powered by solar panels. The data from these stations will be integrated with data from the national network to obtain focal mechanism solutions for seismic events in the Northern Cape - southernmost Namibia region (also known as the Grootvloer cluster). These neotectonic stress tensors are then combined with σH parameters obtained from calliper logs of off-shore wells and from the geometry of joints, faults and sheared fractures in palaeosols (Bushmanland), soils and calcrete (NW Free State) and aeolianites (southern Cape). We also include underground rock engineering phenomenological observations and measurements, and data in the public domain. Our data consistently indicate a NNW-SSE oriented σH (Wegener Stress Anomaly or WSA) that prevails across most of central, southern and western South Africa, Namibia up to the Ruacana hydroelectric power plant at the Angola border. However, in the Congo basin, a few earthquake focal mechanisms suggest rotation of the regional

  14. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  15. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-04-12

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions.

  16. Understanding the Hydrology of Cholera in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2007-12-01

    Cholera is an acute waterborne illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease remains a major public health issue in several regions of the developing world, mainly in coastal areas around the tropics. Cholera incidences have been historically linked to climate variables and more recently with El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The occurrence of cholera shows bi-annual seasonal peaks and strong inter-annual variability in the Ganges basin region of South Asia. However, the role of hydrologic variables in the seasonal patterns of cholera epidemics is less understood. Preliminary results suggest that a unique combination of increasing water temperature and higher salinity in the coastal zone during the low flow season provide the situation amenable to the first outbreak of cholera in the spring season. Other major factors contributing to the subsequent spread of the disease are sea surface height, monsoon precipitation, and coastal phytoplankton concentration. We will further examine the lag periods between the dominant environmental variables and cholera incidences to understand the seasonal dynamics of cholera in South Asia.

  17. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, Daniel W

    2012-11-13

    In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS) in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892), the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT) was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV) was demonstrated in 1900 by M'Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV) in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production.

  18. Education and Skills for Development in South Africa: Reflections on the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, S.; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    In July 2005, President Mbeki announced the launch of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA), a new development strategy designed to help the South African state meet the ANC's 2004 election pledges, namely: (1) halve unemployment; (2) halve poverty; (3) accelerate employment equity; and (4) improve broad-based…

  19. Psychiatric genetics in South Africa: cutting a rough diamond.

    PubMed

    Wright, G E; Niehaus, D J; Koen, L; Drögemöller, B I; Warnich, L

    2011-11-01

    Psychiatric disorders place a considerable healthcare burden on South African society. Incorporating genetic technologies into future treatment plans offers a potential mechanism to reduce this burden. This review focuses on psychiatric genetic research that has been performed in South African populations with regards to obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Preliminary findings from these studies suggest that data obtained in developed countries cannot necessarily be extrapolated to South African population groups. Psychiatric genetic studies in South Africa seem to involve relatively low-cost methodologies and only a limited number of large national collaborative studies. Future research in South Africa should therefore aim to incorporate high-throughput technologies into large scale psychiatric studies through the development of collaborations. On a global level, the vast majority of psychiatric genetic studies have been performed in non-African populations. South Africa, as the leading contributor to scientific research in Africa, may provide a foundation for addressing this disparity and strengthening psychiatric genetic research on the continent. Although the elucidation of the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders has proved challenging, examining the unique genetic profiles found in South African populations could provide valuable insight into the genetics of psychiatric disorders.

  20. Characterizing hydrological hazards and trends with the NASA South Asia Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Limaye, A. S.; Searby, N. D.; Doorn, B.; Bolten, J. D.; Toll, D. L.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Narula, K.; Nischal, S.; Iceland, C.; Bajracharya, B.; Kumar, S.; Shrestha, B. R.; Murthy, M.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    South Asia faces severe challenges to meet the need of water for agricultural, domestic and industrial purposes while coping with the threats posed by climate and land use/cover changes on regional hydrology. South Asia is also characterized by extreme climate contrasts, remote and poorly-monitored headwaters regions, and large uncertainties in estimates of consumptive water withdrawals. Here, we present results from the South Asia Land Data Assimilation System (South Asia LDAS) that apply multiple simulations involving different combination of forcing datasets, land surface models, and satellite-derived parameter datasets to characterize the distributed water balance of the subcontinent. The South Asia LDAS ensemble of simulations provides a range of uncertainty associated with model products. The system includes customized irrigation schemes to capture water use and HYMAP streamflow routing for application to floods. This presentation focuses on two key application areas for South Asia LDAS: the representation of extreme floods in transboundary rivers, and the estimate of water use in irrigated agriculture. We show that South Asia LDAS captures important features of both phenomena, address opportunities and barriers for the use of South Asia LDAS in decision support, and review uncertainties and limitations.This work is being performed by an interdisciplinary team of scientists and decision makers, to ensure that the modeling system meets the needs of decision makers at national and regional levels.

  1. A Comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, A. K. Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions" by Katherine Hay. Hay raises a number of extremely relevant issues relating to evaluation field building in South Asia. In this paper, the author aims to underscore the importance of three priorities for initiating…

  2. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Insights from the Rear View Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    The author enjoyed reading Katharine Hay's ambitious and humbling visions for evaluation field building in South Asia. She has successfully positioned herself on a high mountain with a wonderful set of binoculars that enable her to see the entire evaluation landscape of South Asia. She magically sees and describes significant historical forces and…

  3. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  4. New Insights into Samango Monkey Speciation in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré L.; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M. Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study. PMID:25798604

  5. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research.

  6. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  7. Geomorphology and Geodynamics at Crustal Boundaries within Asia and Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The release of SRTM images by NASA over the past two years year has been greeted by foreign Earth scientist's as "NASA's gift to the World". The goodwill that this has engendered in parts of Africa. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, as scientists in those countries contemplated what many of them considered an unprovoked and unjustifiable US invasion of Iraq, cannot be underestimated. We have used SRTM images from Africa and India and elsewhere to examine aspects of tectonism, geodynamics and tsunami and earthquake hazards. Highlights of this research are itemized in this final report. One difficulty that has arisen is , of course, that the funding for the science lead the availability of the data by more than a year. and as a result many of the findings are as yet unpublished.

  8. The specialist physician's approach to rheumatoid arthritis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bester, Frederik C J; Bosch, Fredricka J; van Rensburg, Barend J Jansen

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is expected to increase in Africa and South Africa. Due to the low numbers of rheumatologists in South Africa, specialist physicians also have to care for patients with RA. Furthermore several new developments have taken place in recent years which improved the management and outcome of RA. Classification criteria were updated, assessment follow-up tools were refined and above all, several new biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were developed. Therefore it is imperative for specialist physicians to update themselves with the newest developments in the management of RA. This article provides an overview of the newest developments in the management of RA in the South African context. This approach may well apply to countries with similar specialist to patient ratios and disease profiles.

  9. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  10. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oelofse, Suzan Hh; Nahman, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between a third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted globally are constrained by limited data, particularly from developing countries. This article attempts to quantify total food waste generation (including both pre-consumer food losses, as well as post-consumer food waste) in South Africa. The estimates are based on available food supply data for South Africa and on estimates of average food waste generation at each step of the food supply chain for sub-Saharan Africa. The preliminary estimate of the magnitude of food waste generation in South Africa is in the order of 9.04 million tonnes per annum. On a per capita basis, overall food waste in South Africa in 2007 is estimated at 177 kg/capita/annum and consumption waste at 7 kg/capita/annum. However, these preliminary figures should be used with caution and are subject to verification through ongoing research.

  11. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, M; Bhattacharya, S K; Narain, J P

    2012-04-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia.

  12. Local breeds, livelihoods and livestock keepers' rights in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse; Rathore, H S; Mathias, E

    2009-10-01

    In South Asia, and throughout the developing world, the predominant official approach to livestock development has been improvement of production by means of upgrading local breeds via cross-breeding with exotic animals. This strategy has led to the replacement and dilution of locally adapted breeds with non-native ones. This has resulted in an alarming loss that has been estimated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to amount to one breed every two weeks. Based on selected case studies this paper argues that development strategies using locally adapted breeds and species are much more likely to benefit livestock keepers whilst also maintaining domestic animal diversity and bearing a smaller ecological footprint. It also analyses the rationale for "Livestock Keepers' Rights", a principle that grew out of the struggle of traditional livestock keepers to retain control over their production resources, such as grazing areas and breeding stock, in the face of unfavourable policy environments.

  13. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  14. Malaria evolution in South Asia: knowledge for control and elimination.

    PubMed

    Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Chery, Laura; Basu, Analabha; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Escalante, Ananias; Fowble, Joseph; Guler, Jennifer L; Herricks, Thurston; Kumar, Ashwani; Majumder, Partha; Maki, Jennifer; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Rodrigues, Janneth; Roy, Bikram; Sen, Somdutta; Shastri, Jayanthi; Smith, Joseph; Valecha, Neena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2012-03-01

    The study of malaria parasites on the Indian subcontinent should help us understand unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. The Malaria Evolution in South Asia (MESA) research program is one of ten International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. In this second of two reviews, we describe why population structures of Plasmodia in India will be characterized and how we will determine their consequences on disease presentation, outcome and patterns. Specific projects will determine if genetic diversity, possibly driven by parasites with higher genetic plasticity, plays a role in changing epidemiology, pathogenesis, vector competence of parasite populations and whether innate human genetic traits protect Indians from malaria today. Deep local clinical knowledge of malaria in India will be supplemented by basic scientists who bring new research tools. Such tools will include whole genome sequencing and analysis methods; in vitro assays to measure genome plasticity, RBC cytoadhesion, invasion, and deformability; mosquito infectivity assays to evaluate changing parasite-vector compatibilities; and host genetics to understand protective traits in Indian populations. The MESA-ICEMR study sites span diagonally across India and include a mixture of very urban and rural hospitals, each with very different disease patterns and patient populations. Research partnerships include government-associated research institutes, private medical schools, city and state government hospitals, and hospitals with industry ties. Between 2012 and 2017, in addition to developing clinical research and basic science infrastructure at new clinical sites, our training workshops will engage new scientists and clinicians throughout South Asia in the malaria research field.

  15. Malaria Evolution in South Asia: Knowledge for Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Chery, Laura; Basu, Analabha; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Escalante, Ananias; Fowble, Joseph; Guler, Jennifer L.; Herricks, Thurston; Kumar, Ashwani; Majumder, Partha; Maki, Jennifer; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Rodrigues, Janneth; Roy, Bikram; Sen, Somdutta; Shastri, Jayanthi; Smith, Joseph; Valecha, Neena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.

    2013-01-01

    The study of malaria parasites on the Indian subcontinent should help us understand unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and from Plasmodium vivax infections. The Malaria Evolution in South Asia (MESA) research program is one of ten International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institute of Health. In this second of two reviews, we describe why population structures of Plasmodia in India will be characterized and how we will determine their consequences on disease presentation, outcome and patterns. Specific projects will determine if genetic diversity, possibly driven by parasites with higher genetic plasticity, plays a role in changing epidemiology, pathogenesis, vector competence of parasite populations, and whether innate human genetic traits protect Indians from malaria today. Deep local clinical knowledge of malaria in India will be supplemented by basic scientists who bring new research tools. Such tools will include whole genome sequencing and analysis methods; in vitro assays to measure genome plasticity, RBC cytoadhesion, invasion, and deformability; mosquito infectivity assays to evaluate changing parasite-vector compatibilities; and host genetics to understand protective traits in Indian populations. The MESA-ICEMR study sites span diagonally across India, including a mixture of very urban and rural hospitals, each with very different disease patterns and patient populations. Research partnerships include government-associated research institutes, private medical schools, city and state government hospitals, and hospitals with industry ties. Between 2012-2017, in addition to developing clinical research and basic science infrastructure at new clinical sites, our training workshops will engage new scientists and clinicians throughout South Asia in the malaria research field. PMID:22266213

  16. Lifelong Learning Within Higher Education in South Africa: Emancipatory Potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Shirley

    1999-11-01

    In South Africa under apartheid higher education was inaccessible to the majority. This article argues that in the new South Africa there is an opportunity to redress this situation and promote equity though lifelong learning. This would involve greatly widening access and providing programmes to develop broadly applicable abilities such as computer literacy and problem-solving skills, which would increase the economic competitiveness and personal empowerment of learners. At the same time, the author argues, new educational approaches are needed to promote active citizenship.

  17. Bangkok 2004. Sex workers and law reform in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Jayne

    2004-12-01

    The Sisonke movement in South Africa aims to galvanize sex workers to fight for equal rights and for improvements in their living and working conditions. This article, based on Jayne Arnott's presentation to a plenary session at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok on 14 July 2004, outlines the legislation that governs the sex trade in South Africa; reviews related legal and policy developments since the end of apartheid in 1994; describes the present environment; and outlines the contribution that sex workers themselves are making to the fight for reform.

  18. Middle and later Pleistocene hominins in Africa and Southwest Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rightmire, G. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 700,000 years ago, Homo erectus in Africa was giving way to populations with larger brains accompanied by structural adjustments to the vault, cranial base, and face. Such early Middle Pleistocene hominins were not anatomically modern. Their skulls display strong supraorbital tori above projecting faces, flattened frontals, and less parietal expansion than is the case for Homo sapiens. Postcranial remains seem also to have archaic features. Subsequently, some groups evolved advanced skeletal morphology, and by ca. 200,000 years ago, individuals more similar to recent humans are present in the African record. These fossils are associated with Middle Stone Age lithic assemblages and, in some cases, Acheulean tools. Crania from Herto in Ethiopia carry defleshing cutmarks and superficial scoring that may be indicative of mortuary practices. Despite these signs of behavioral innovation, neither the Herto hominins, nor others from Late Pleistocene sites such as Klasies River in southern Africa and Skhūl/Qafzeh in Israel, can be matched in living populations. Skulls are quite robust, and it is only after ≈35,000 years ago that people with more gracile, fully modern morphology make their appearance. Not surprisingly, many questions concerning this evolutionary history have been raised. Attention has centered on systematics of the mid-Pleistocene hominins, their paleobiology, and the timing of dispersals that spread H. sapiens out of Africa and across the Old World. In this report, I discuss structural changes characterizing the skulls from different time periods, possible regional differences in morphology, and the bearing of this evidence on recognizing distinct species. PMID:19581595

  19. Media Performance in South Africa: A Shift from Vertical to Horizontal Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, John; Kantor, Lara

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Media Monitoring Project (MMP) of South Africa, an organization that monitored the media ahead of and during South Africa's first democratic elections. Describes the MMP's roots and its activities and impact before, during, and after the election. (SR)

  20. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S. A. Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  1. The terrestrial carbon budget of South and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervarich, Matthew; Shu, Shijie; Jain, Atul K.; Arneth, Almut; Canadell, Josep; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Houghton, Richard A.; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charles; Patra, Prabir; Poulter, Ben; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Beni; Viovy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zeng, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Accomplishing the objective of the current climate policies will require establishing carbon budget and flux estimates in each region and county of the globe by comparing and reconciling multiple estimates including the observations and the results of top-down atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) inversions and bottom-up dynamic global vegetation models. With this in view, this study synthesizes the carbon source/sink due to net ecosystem productivity (NEP), land cover land use change (E LUC), fires and fossil burning (E FIRE) for the South Asia (SA), Southeast Asia (SEA) and South and Southeast Asia (SSEA = SA + SEA) and each country in these regions using the multiple top-down and bottom-up modeling results. The terrestrial net biome productivity (NBP = NEP - E LUC - E FIRE) calculated based on bottom-up models in combination with E FIRE based on GFED4s data show net carbon sinks of 217 ± 147, 10 ± 55, and 227 ± 279 TgC yr-1 for SA, SEA, and SSEA. The top-down models estimated NBP net carbon sinks were 20 ± 170, 4 ± 90 and 24 ± 180 TgC yr-1. In comparison, regional emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels were 495, 275, and 770 TgC yr-1, which are many times higher than the NBP sink estimates, suggesting that the contribution of the fossil fuel emissions to the carbon budget of SSEA results in a significant net carbon source during the 2000s. When considering both NBP and fossil fuel emissions for the individual countries within the regions, Bhutan and Laos were net carbon sinks and rest of the countries were net carbon source during the 2000s. The relative contributions of each of the fluxes (NBP, NEP, E LUC, and E FIRE, fossil fuel emissions) to a nation’s net carbon flux varied greatly from country to country, suggesting a heterogeneous dominant carbon fluxes on the country-level throughout SSEA.

  2. Geoscience in Developing Countries of South Asia and International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K.

    2007-12-01

    Earth Science community in developing countries of South Asia is actively engaged in interdisciplinary investigations of the Earth and its envelopes through geological, geophysical and geochemical processes, for these processes are interconnected. Interdisciplinary interaction will continue to grow since problems pertaining to the solid earth, with its core-mantle-crust, and fluid envelops can be solved only with contributions from different Science disciplines. The expanding population and revolution in data handling-and-computing have now become a necessity to tackle the geoscientific problems with modern techniques and methodologies to meet these new challenges. As a future strategy, geo-data generation and handling need to be speedier and easier and hence demands a well- knit coordiantion and understanding amongst Governments, Industries and Academic organizations. Such coordination will prove valuable for better understanding of the Earth's processes, especially mitigating natural hazards with more accurate and speedy prdictions, besides sustaining Earth's resources. South Asian geoscience must, therefore, seek new directions by way of strategies, policies, and actions to move forward in this century. Environmental and resource problems affecting the world population have become international issues, since global environmental changes demand international cooperation and planning. The Earth is continually modified by the interplay of internal and external processes. Hence we need to apply modern geophysical techniques and interpret the results with the help of available geological, geochronological and gechemical informations It is through such integrated approach that we could greatly refine our understanding of the deep structure and evolution of the Indian shield. However, the inputs into multi-disciplinary studies necessary to know the crustal structure and tectonics in the adjoining regions (Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc.) still remain

  3. Status of marine pollution research in South Africa (1960-present).

    PubMed

    Wepener, V; Degger, N

    2012-07-01

    The published literature on marine pollution monitoring research in South Africa from 1960 to present was evaluated. There has been a general decline in the number of papers from the 1980s and this can be linked to the absence of a marine pollution monitoring programme in South Africa. General trends observed were that contaminant exposure monitoring of metals predominates the research conducted to date. Monitoring results indicate that there has been a general decrease in metal concentrations in South African coastal waters and concentrations of metals and most organics in mussels are lower than in other industrialised nations. This is reflected in the general pristine nature and high biodiversity of the South African coastline. The establishment of a national marine pollution monitoring framework would stimulate marine pollution research.

  4. [The campaign against AIDS in Africa: the potential role of South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Der Ryst, E

    1996-01-01

    The political transformation of South Africa in 1992 and its enthusiastic reception by the international community have created possibilities for a new role in the struggle against HIV and AIDS in Africa. South Africa is probably the most developed African country, with enormous potential for economic growth. The country should take the lead in coordinating cooperative African programs to study and prevent AIDS. The HIV epidemic is spreading rapidly in the country. A 1995 study in prenatal clinics showed over 12% of pregnant women to be seropositive. The epidemic has especially affected the most impoverished sectors of the population. Political instability in the country and its northern neighbors over the past 15-20 years, distrust by the non-White population of programs backed by White government officials, the large number of uneducated young people, the great cultural diversity, and the influx of refugees from the north are probably all factors in the spread of AIDS. The excellent medical facilities in South Africa, including seven well-equipped medical schools, offer a unique opportunity for study of HIV. Means should be found to promote HIV research, including collaborative projects with neighboring countries, phase 3 vaccine trials, and clinical trials of new antiretroviral and antitubercular products. Large industrial concerns and international donors should be encouraged to support research on HIV control in South Africa and elsewhere on the continent, emphasizing studies of potential benefit to Africa. Support for HIV research in Africa might contribute to retaining medical school graduates in the country who currently seek research opportunities abroad. A medical scholarship program and the South African AIDS control program should be extended to other African countries.

  5. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  6. ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

  7. Design Thinking: A Methodology towards Sustainable Problem Solving in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munyai, Keneilwe

    2016-01-01

    This short paper explores the potential contribution of design thinking methodology to the education and training system in South Africa. Design thinking is slowly gaining traction in South Africa. Design Thinking is gaining traction in South Africa. There is offered by the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design Thinking at the University of Cape Town…

  8. State of Transition: Post-Apartheid Educational Reform in South Africa. Monographs in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    This book reviews the major dimensions of post-apartheid educational change and continuity in South Africa since 1994. It sets educational reform in the context of the nature of the anti-apartheid struggle inside South Africa and in the global economic environment in which South Africa re-entered the world stage as a legitimate actor. Recognizing…

  9. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  10. Research at Private Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; van Vuuren, Rex; Augustyn, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about whether and what kinds of research are being undertaken at private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in South Africa. This article draws on a recent survey of all registered PHEIs undertaken by a group of interested private higher education providers. This survey was facilitated by the Council on Higher Education…

  11. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  12. South Africa's Vocational Colleges Struggle to Do Their Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    With youth unemployment in South Africa hovering around 50 percent and close to half the population living in poverty, a university degree has come to be seen by many as the only way out. And universities are straining under the burden: This admissions cycle, the University of Johannesburg alone rejected more than 70,000 applicants in filling an…

  13. Raising Children in a Global Village: Lessons from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsopp, Merle

    2011-01-01

    The title of this presentation speaks to the contradictory notion of the "global village" and the great benefits associated with the sharing of knowledge--a key advantage to our shared globalized context. This "Commentary" seeks to articulate some of the lessons being discovered in South Africa related to children, families and…

  14. Decolonizing Research in Postapartheid South Africa: The Politics of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2012-01-01

    This article emanates from an in-depth qualitative study that examined ideological beliefs among Indigenous parents regarding school desegregation and school "choice" policies in South Africa. The author discusses the politics of qualitative research design and methodology along two primary dimensions: decolonizing research and the…

  15. Education Policy Studies in South Africa, 1995-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; Osman, Ruksana; Buchler, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings pertaining to scholarship in education policy drawn from a wider study on all education research in South Africa from 1995 to 2006. This study, which defined education research as broadly pertaining to teaching and/or learning, obtained extensive data from a wide range of sources, including universities, public…

  16. Preventing Juvenile Offending in South Africa: Workshop Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Lorraine, Ed.

    An extensive research project to develop a national strategy to prevent juvenile offending was undertaken in South Africa. The following proceedings of a workshop, which involved representatives of relevant organizations, are reported in this book: "Setting Goals" (Lorraine Glanz); "The Prevention of Juvenile Offending: Problems and…

  17. Women Principals in Small Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    South Africa presents a distinctive and varied context in which to explore the experience of women principals. The article draws on a larger data set to explore the interplay of gender and school size in seven schools with 200 students or fewer. From this study, we conclude that gender remains a potent influence on the career and experience of…

  18. Women Principals in South Africa: Gender, Mothering and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on qualitative data from a mixed-method study that analysed women's access to the principal role and their leadership experiences. The paper draws on a subset of interviews with 54 female head teachers in the Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Since a mothering style of leadership was self-reported by over half of…

  19. School Choice and Inequalities in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of the new policies of school choice in post-apartheid South Africa and the reasons they have largely failed to achieve greater educational equality--their stated purpose. I argue that the dominant reason for this lies in the continuing inadequate resources of many poor schools and the failure to address them.…

  20. The Dilemma of the Historically Black Universities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilorah, R.

    2006-01-01

    The historical black universities (HBUs) in South Africa were established by the apartheid government to serve black students banned from attending segregated white-only universities. These universities were poorly funded compared to the white-only universities. The poor funding affected their output (research and postgraduates) adversely. With…

  1. Lost Horizons: The Humanities in South Africa (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Politics chartered the development of the Humanities in South Africa. Under the apartheid system three separate traditions--English-speaking, Afrikaner and Homeland--co-existed, albeit uneasily, in separate institutional forms. As apartheid crumbled in the 1980s, the Humanities, by drawing the three traditions together, established a growing voice…

  2. Subjective Well-Being and Household Factors in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwalter, Jeffrey T.; Dalenberg, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a household survey from South Africa to estimate a model of subjective well-being based upon poverty and household characteristics including housing, sanitation, and transportation. Following Sen, we allow for factors in addition to income and we begin to incorporate functionings and capabilities as determinants of well-being. This…

  3. Schooling for All in South Africa: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, Jennifer; Fleisch, Brahm

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that South Africa has achieved universal basic education. Through an analysis of the 2001 census and two national enrolment datasets rather than statistical projections, this study re-examines this assumption and provides new estimates of enrolment levels in primary, basic and secondary education. Using GER, NER, and…

  4. School Libraries in South Africa. EPU Working Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Catherine

    The question of the provision of libraries to support primary and secondary education in South Africa has been overlooked by most education departments and educators and is not a focal point of current education planning. The present provision of library services by the different education authorities is generally poor; school libraries have long…

  5. Cultural Astronomy in Africa South of the Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    This chapter examines two foci of cultural astronomy found in Africa south of the Sahara: creation myths and celestial art. The examples highlighted are from the Akan, the Bahima, the Boshongo, the Fon, the Igbo, the Mambila, the Yoruba, and the Zulu people.

  6. Doctoral Production in South Africa: Statistics, Challenges and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed new interest in doctoral production in South Africa. In the first section of the article, it is argued that this new interest has its roots in various higher education policy documents over the past decade. The second part of the article presents some of the most recent statistics on various aspects of doctoral…

  7. Schooling Citizens: Policy in Practice in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "student citizen" is implicit in a range of national and provincial policy documents in South Africa, with citizenship promoted as both an expected outcome of schooling and an encouraged practice within schools. This paper provides an account of how policy on student citizenship was translated differently into practice in…

  8. Governmentality and the Study of Education Policy in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Applies Foucault's idea of governmentality to an understanding of education policy in South Africa. Argues that studying policy through the lens of governmentality theory allows for the consideration of the autonomous effects of rationalities of government on shaping the possibilities of policy. Also argues that educational change can be…

  9. 1994: New Academic Profession for a New South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1994, the eyes of the world have been on South Africa, observing with interest the societal reconstruction project, upon which the country had embarked. In this project, higher education is both the terrain and the perceived instrument of change. In this higher education system and its mission, the academic profession is pivotal--especially,…

  10. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  11. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  12. Academic Freedom and Racial Injustice: South Africa's Former "Open Universities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Y.; Taylor, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article critically re-interrogates three high profile cases of white racism at South Africa's former "open universities" to highlight the way in which existing debates around academic freedom fail to come to terms with questions of racial injustice after apartheid. The cases covered are the Makgoba affair at Wits, the Mamdani affair…

  13. English Teaching in South Africa: Languages, Literacies and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Lesley; Homer, David; Patterson, Annette

    1998-01-01

    Uses three addresses given at a mid-term International Federation for the Teaching of English at the University of Witwatersrand to outline workplace realities for South African teachers. Summarizes the addresses which deal with (1) the role of intellectuals in Africa; (2) the problems of school and social reconstruction; and (3) the political…

  14. To Greener Pastures: Transnational Teacher Migration from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manik, Sadhana

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation of the world economy has intensified migration in the twenty-first century. Professionals are vulnerable to transnational migration and the trend is for professionals from developing countries to fill labour gaps in developed countries. South Africa's (SA) inclusion in the world labour market suggests that she is not immune. She is…

  15. Teaching about Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Dennis; Msibi, Thabo

    2011-01-01

    This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexism and homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who…

  16. Lifelong Learning in South Africa: Dreams and Delusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, John

    2004-01-01

    The new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning' in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of 'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought significant changes to education and training for adults?

  17. "No Fee" Schools in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen; Sayeed, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    40% of schools in South Africa, namely the poorest two-fifths as determined by poverty indicators, were declared to be no fee schools as of 2007. These schools receive larger state allocations per learner than other schools, as well as a higher allocation for non-personnel, non-capital expenditure. In other schools parents may continue to apply…

  18. Challenging Assumptions: Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nicky; Vanska, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the Nokia Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa, which made use of mobile technology to support mathematics learning at 30 public secondary schools. It draws on the evaluation of this project from January to June 2010. The article discusses learner access to mobile devices, learner and teacher uptake and…

  19. Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

  20. First Detection of Human Dirofilariasis in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Krishnee; Govind, Chetna N.; Peer, Abdool K.C.; van der Westhuizen, Marissa; Parbhoo, Dharmesh; Sun, Lisa Ming; du Plessis, Desiree C.; Frean, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are occasionally inadvertently infected with dirofilariae, the zoonotic nematodes. We report two cases of human dirofilariasis in South Africa, an area apparently non-endemic for this infection. Dirofilariasis is frequently misdiagnosed, so increased awareness of this entity in areas that are non-endemic is essential for prevention of inappropriate investigations and invasive therapy. PMID:25874068

  1. Politics and Human Welfare: Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKendrick, B. W.; Leketi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The study found that apartheid impacted the sociopsychological and physical circumstances of 12 African and 11 White people with retinitis pigmentosa in South Africa. Findings are discussed in terms of onset of condition, effects on subjects' lives, knowledge of social services, and needs unmet by existing services. (JDD)

  2. Determinants of Smoking Cessation among Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S. Priscilla; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Data is required on the motivational determinants of smoking cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents in South Africa. The I-Change Model was used to explore the determinants of smoking cessation among a sample of 1267 Black African, Colored and White Grade 9-11 monthly smokers and former smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo region.…

  3. Networking for School Leadership in South Africa: Perceptions and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Moorosi, Pontso

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings from the evaluation of the pilot of a new entry qualification for school principals in South Africa. The programme, Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) School Leadership, had networking as a distinctive feature, and this article examines candidates' perceptions and experiences of networking as a leadership…

  4. Competition and Cooperation in South Africa's Biotechnology Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerck, Gilton

    2005-01-01

    This article asserts that the normative, institutional and policy framework of an economy moulds the structure and performance of its innovation system. Three case studies of industry?higher education partnerships in South Africa's biotechnology sector challenge both the notion of a simple convergence within and between national innovation systems…

  5. The Status of Teaching as a Profession in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Corene

    2016-01-01

    Using ten universally accepted criteria for a profession and following the Structural-Functional Model of professionalism, this study evaluates the status of teaching as a profession in South Africa. The study found that policies and structures have been put in place since the beginning of the new millennium to enhance the professional status of…

  6. Africa South of the Sahara: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography has been compiled as an introduction to reference resources for college-level African studies and to suggest useful tools for literature searches. It is a guide to materials in the library of McGill University. Call numbers are included. The titles cited refer to Africa South of the Sahara as a whole or to large…

  7. Children's Learning in the Diverse Sociocultural Context of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda; Muzvidziwa, Irene; Richter, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Children develop in several interlocking systems--in the context of their family, and within the interaction of such settings as home, school, and church (Russell, 2011). In South Africa, children's diverse backgrounds within families, neighborhoods, and sociocultural environments provide them with varied experiences and opportunities to learn.…

  8. Social Justice and Rural Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlalele, Dipane

    2012-01-01

    Social justice is undeniably grounded in efforts at circumventing provisions that seek to uphold ostracism and exclusionary practices which have permeated South Africa and many other societies worldwide for extensive periods of time. Vast incongruities and/or inequalities between better resourced urban communities and neglected rural areas impinge…

  9. Coping with Rapid Change: Special Focus on South Africa's Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Stephen, Ed.; Herman, Harold, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The research described by contributors to this special theme issue deals with the core issues of education in the context of South Africa. These issues include teacher control over the process of educational reform and balancing the need for reform with the maintenance of standards in an industrializing society. These essays demonstrate the highly…

  10. Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Aspirations of Dentistry Students in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…

  11. The Legacy of Deaf President Now in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druchen, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The impact of DPN on South Africa is remarkable particularly the profound transformations in the country since 1988. When citizens find that their civil rights are not being granted, they may form movements to claim equal protection for all citizens. They may also call for new laws to stop current discrimination. In 1988 it was the "Deaf…

  12. Mathematics Registers in Indigenous Languages: Experiences from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Through reporting on an initiative in South Africa that aimed to provide epistemological access to teachers and learners of mathematics (and science) through translating mathematical concepts into two indigenous languages, this paper argues for the urgent development of mathematical registers in indigenous languages for mathematics and …

  13. An Overview of Education and Drama in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Terri Anne

    2016-01-01

    South Africa labours under a bimodal education system in which inequality is deeply entrenched. Approximately 83% of schools are classed as being "dysfunctional" and many learners are not effectively equipped for meaningful futures. Learners who are able to attend the few functional schools are generally able to attain better jobs and…

  14. The Making of South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social construction of the "Revised National Curriculum Statement (Grades R-9)" in South Africa between 2000-2002. The author, a participant in the process, uses the experience of the insider to tell the story. The paper discusses the relationship of different lobbies, voices, and interests to the curriculum, and…

  15. Scholarship in Teacher Education in South Africa, 1995-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; Osman, Ruksana; Buchler, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings pertaining to scholarship in teacher education drawn from a wider study on all education research in South Africa from 1995 to 2006. The study, which defined education research as broadly pertaining to teaching and/or learning, obtained extensive data from a wide range of sources: universities, non-government…

  16. Sirens, Knuckles and Boots! Apartheid in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goheen, Diane; Printz, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Describes a high school's Ethnic Week study on South Africa and the global issue of apartheid. Discusses the role of the school's library media center in planning and implementing the program. Notes that the impact of the week-long study carried on throughout the school year. (RS)

  17. Black Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter W.; Boult, Brenda E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa are at threatening levels. Outlines selected consequences based on the assertion that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational. Hypothesizes teenage pregnancy needs reexamination in terms of the pheronomal climate's impact on prepuberial girls; and nature's way of…

  18. Diverse Perceptions of Cross-Racial Adoption in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanga, Pius T.; Nyasha, Kausi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the perceptions of stakeholders regarding the practice of cross-racial adoption (CRA) in East London, South Africa. Method: A qualitative research design was used. Data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions from 23 participants. The data were analyzed qualitatively, using thematic…

  19. Teacher Deprivation in School Based Management in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Mosoge, M. J.

    This study examined the extent of teacher participation in school management. Participants were 260 teachers and 40 principals from random samples of schools in each of three education districts in South Africa. Researchers administered a closed questionnaire that asked the teachers and principals to indicate their actual and desired participation…

  20. Institutionalising Teacher Clusters in South Africa: Dilemmas and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jita, Loyiso C.; Mokhele, Matseliso L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher clusters are being used as a substitute for the more traditional approaches to the professional development of teachers. With this goal in mind, many provincial education departments in South Africa have sought to institutionalise and encourage the formation of teacher clusters as vehicles for the continuing professional…

  1. Elusive Equity in Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the drive to expand the quantity and quality of PhD's in South Africa and the impact this has had on under-represented groups, in particular black graduates. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data, the paper argues that while there has been a significant increase in the number of black students in doctoral education,…

  2. South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

  3. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-17

    aqua EAST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST £ SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA pink WEST EUROPE ivory AFRICA (SUB...established with a view to improving technical knowledge. Then unified accounting was set up, particularly on behalf of the cadres who go out to...has reduced their number from 23 to 11, etc. In terms of management, through accounting and financial planning, it is possible to ascertain the

  4. Training opportunities for public health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shisana, O

    1994-03-01

    South Africa has 4 public health training institutions: the Transvaal School of Public Health, the Public Health Programme of the University of the Western Cape, the Natal Institute of Community Health Education, and the Eastern Cape School of Public Health. They are interinstitutional (universities, polytechnic schools, health service providers, statutory research councils, and nongovernmental organizations). A steering committee heads up each institution. One person leads the committee, managing all activities and making sure that all activities fulfill the requirements of the steering committee. The Epidemiological Society of Southern Africa also contributes to public health training through its annual forum for public health researchers and meetings of public health personnel, where they talk about public health training needs. Interest in public health training reemerged in the late 1980s, mainly due to the dismantling of apartheid, which called for a restructuring of the public health service. Primary health care is the focus of all South Africa's public health institutions. Courses convey community-oriented approaches in the design of health programs and research. They use a multidisciplinary approach to education. They examine socioeconomic conditions affecting health as well as the biomedical aspects of public health. The Transvaal School of Public Health targets post-basic and post-graduate health staff at the middle or senior level positions. On the other hand, the Eastern Cape School of Public Health targets field workers, primary health care workers, and public health professionals. Currently, the programs only provide a Master of Public Health. As South Africa makes its way to democracy and with adequate funding, public health training in South Africa will result in positive efforts helping all of Africa.

  5. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  6. Food composition activities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, Petro; Chetty, Joelaine; Danster-Christians, Natasha

    2013-10-01

    Researchers at the South African Medical Research Council used the Bangkok Declaration, Thailand, 2009, as a guideline for their food composition activities. The vision is to build a comprehensive food composition database for the country. Activities are directed at increasing the number of food items with country-specific nutrient information; encouraging research organisations, universities and the food industry to become involved in nutrient data generation and the generation of yield factors for South African dishes. The introduction of the South African Food Data System (SAFOODS) website and a symposium were major food composition activities. Educating users on the correct application of food composition data is an important endeavour. The national South African Food Data Advisory Group (SAFDAG) formed in 2008, advises and supports food composition activities at SAFOODS. In conclusion, with the support of SAFDAG, SAFOODS activities are aimed at compiling a country-specific food composition database and promoting its scientific use.

  7. South Africa. Weather and Climate. Section 23

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    iIghlands. ILowest vlsi lIIehs tire Ilimsever, evvm ii it best’e sect ionsi skies inrt’ frets tn tI y only I motstlIy cmiiifi i d to t lie inorni ig hour1...go 73 68 52 612 67 74 ?A 40 A4 74 ,� Wlllowmorp ....................... 87 NO At 74 6? 62 61 6f ?0 785 g10 A4 ?5 40 41 Routh-Weat Africa

  8. Factors associated with oesophageal cancer in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I.; Reinach, S. G.; de Beer, M.

    1988-01-01

    Cancer of the oesophagus was a rare disease in the South African black population until the last few decades. Increases in incidence have occurred and at present it is the commonest cancer in black men in many parts of South Africa. A case-control study of 200 oesophageal cancer patients and 391 hospital controls has been carried out in order to determine the risk factors in the urban black population of Soweto. The results indicate that the cancer patients were long-term urban residents from a very low socio-economic group. The association between smoking pipe tobacco and oesophageal cancer previously noted in South Africa is confirmed. In addition, consumption of traditional beer was found to be a major risk factor. PMID:3219281

  9. Techno Generation: Social Networking amongst Youth in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, Antoinette; Makhasi, Yoliswa; van Vuuren, Daan

    Internet and cell phones can be considered as new media compared to traditional media types and have become a fundamental part of the lives of many young people across the globe. The exploratory research study investigated the diffusion and adoption of new media innovations among adolescents. It was found that new media have diffused at a high rate among South African adolescents who are not only the innovators in this area, but also changing their life styles to adapt to the new media. Social networking grew to prominence in South Africa especially among the youth. The protection of children from potential harmful exposure and other risks remain a concern and adequate measures need to be initiated and implemented for children to enjoy social networks and other forms of new media. The exploratory research study provided worthwhile and interesting insights into the role of the new media, in the lives of adolescents in South Africa.

  10. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability.

  11. Vitamin D Status in South Africa and Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Abhimanyu; Meyer, Vanessa; Jeffery, Tamsyn Jacki; Bornman, Liza

    2015-12-01

    According to the World Health Organisation South Africa has the third highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the world, with an estimated 60 % incident cases having both TB and HIV. The South African National Tuberculosis Association (SANTA) recognized the importance of nutrition in the prevention and management of TB by including feeding schemes in community outreach programs. Vitamin D enhances innate immunity against mycobacterial infection through the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin. We reviewed studies on vitamin D status, its link with TB, and potential use in therapy in multiethnic South Africa with sunlight as primary source of vitamin D. Ethnicity, season, disease state, latitude, and urbanization are critical factors to be considered in vitamin D supplementation for prevention and treatment of TB.

  12. South Africa reels from blood-donation debacle.

    PubMed

    Larkin, M

    2000-05-20

    Negotiations are being held between the Human Rights Commission (HRC) and South Africa's Western Province Blood Transfusion Service (WPBTS) after HRC received a complaint against the WPBTS from a homosexual man who was rejected as a potential blood donor. In South Africa, men who have sex with men and others who are involved in high-risk behaviors are barred from donating blood. Although the gay man who complained to the HRC is in a committed relationship and tested negative for HIV, the head of the South African Blood Transfusion Services, Anthon Heyns, stated that the behavior of specific individuals falling under a group is not taken into account. Moreover, Tygerberg epidemiologist Jo Barnes warned that the current controversy reduces the possibilities of getting a better base of blood supply and will exacerbate the critical shortages the country already faces.

  13. Cold season Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern and its relation to the Atlantic multidecadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Ding, Ruiqiang; Jin, Ze

    2016-08-01

    A prominent teleconnection pattern of multidecadal variability of cold season (November to April) upper-level atmospheric circulation over North Africa and Eurasia (NA-EA) is revealed by empirical orthogonal function analysis of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis data. This teleconnection pattern is characterized by an eastward propagating wave train with a zonal wavenumber of 5-6 between 20° and 40°N, extending from the northwest coast of Africa to East Asia, and thus is referred to as the Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern (AAMT). One-point correlation maps show that the teleconnectivity of AAMT is strong and further demonstrate the existence of the AAMT. The AAMT shapes the spatial structure of multidecadal change in atmospheric circulation over the NA-EA region, and in particular the AAMT pattern and associated fields show similar structures to the change occurring around the early 1960s. A strong in-phase relationship is observed between the AAMT and Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) and this connection is mainly due to Rossby wave dynamics. Barotropic modeling results suggest that the upper-level Rossby wave source generated by the AMV can excite the AAMT wave train, and Rossby wave ray tracing analysis further highlights the role of the Asian jet stream in guiding the wave train to East Asia. The AAMT acts as an atmospheric bridge conveying the influence of AMV onto the downstream multidecadal climate variability. The AMV is closely related to the coordinated change in surface and tropospheric air temperatures over Northwest Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Central China, which may result from the adiabatic expansion/compression of air associated with the AAMT.

  14. Overseas Educational Developments, 1981: Mexico, South America, Southeast Asia. A World Higher Education Communique Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Educational developments in Mexico, South America, and Southeast Asia are covered in five seminar papers. In addition, country educational profiles are presented on Mexico, Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. In "International Students from Southeast Asia," John F. Brohm considers the following…

  15. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  16. Street children in South Africa: findings from interviews on the background of street children in Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, J

    1996-01-01

    In the present study findings from interviews on the background of street children in Pretoria, South Africa are presented, discussed, and compared with research done in the past on South African street children. Findings from the investigation indicate that the average age of South African street children is approximately 13 years, predominantly of male African origin. Most have been on the streets for three years or longer, and they cited family violence, parental alcoholism, abuse, and poverty as the main motivating factors for leaving home. Most of these findings are common among street children all over the world.

  17. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  18. The Report of the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility with Respect to South Africa Shareholder Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    Issues pertinent to Harvard University's holdings in companies with operations in South Africa are examined in this report to determine if Harvard should adopt any changes in its investment policy regarding U.S. companies in South Africa. The history of U.S. involvement in the South African economy is reviewed and both U.S. and South African…

  19. Ticks (Ixodoidea) on birds migrating from Africa to Europe and Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Gaber, Sobhy; Guindy, Ezzat

    1961-01-01

    Hyalomma marginatum marginatum of Europe and Asia and H. marginatum rufipes of Africa, both reservoirs and vectors of organisms pathogenic to humans and animals, have not infrequently been found as incidental specimens or established populations far from their normal endemic geographical boundaries. Owing to ticks' unique ability to transmit or harbour for long periods a variety of pathogens of man and animals, their potential epidemiological role is suspected wherever they occur. Evidence that birds, in themselves hosts of several viruses causing human disease, actually transport the African H. marginatum rufipes northwards was obtained in Egypt by capture of infested migrants during spring passage from East Africa to Europe and Asia. Between 1956 and 1960, 340 birds representing 22 forms (species and subspecies) were found infested by 1025 immature ticks, all but seven of which were or appear to be H. marginatum rufipes. The period of attachment of immature stages of rufipes to their host is sufficient to suggest that many of these ticks are carried some distance into Europe and Asia. PMID:13715709

  20. Marriage Institutions and Sibling Competition: Evidence from South Asia*

    PubMed

    Vogl, Tom S

    2013-08-01

    Using data from South Asia, this article examines how arranged marriage cultivates rivalry among sisters. During marriage search, parents with multiple daughters reduce the reservation quality for an older daughter's groom, rushing her marriage to allow sufficient time to marry off her younger sisters. Relative to younger brothers, younger sisters increase a girl's marriage risk; relative to younger singleton sisters, younger twin sisters have the same effect. These effects intensify in marriage markets with lower sex ratios or greater parental involvement in marriage arrangements. In contrast, older sisters delay a girl's marriage. Because girls leave school when they marry and face limited earning opportunities when they reach adulthood, the number of sisters has well-being consequences over the life cycle. Younger sisters cause earlier school-leaving, lower literacy, a match to a husband with less education and a less skilled occupation, and (marginally) lower adult economic status. Data from a broader set of countries indicate that these cross-sister pressures on marriage age are common throughout the developing world, although the schooling costs vary by setting. JEL Codes: J1, I25, O15.

  1. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  2. Marriage Institutions and Sibling Competition: Evidence from South Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from South Asia, this article examines how arranged marriage cultivates rivalry among sisters. During marriage search, parents with multiple daughters reduce the reservation quality for an older daughter’s groom, rushing her marriage to allow sufficient time to marry off her younger sisters. Relative to younger brothers, younger sisters increase a girl’s marriage risk; relative to younger singleton sisters, younger twin sisters have the same effect. These effects intensify in marriage markets with lower sex ratios or greater parental involvement in marriage arrangements. In contrast, older sisters delay a girl’s marriage. Because girls leave school when they marry and face limited earning opportunities when they reach adulthood, the number of sisters has well-being consequences over the life cycle. Younger sisters cause earlier school-leaving, lower literacy, a match to a husband with less education and a less skilled occupation, and (marginally) lower adult economic status. Data from a broader set of countries indicate that these cross-sister pressures on marriage age are common throughout the developing world, although the schooling costs vary by setting. JEL Codes: J1, I25, O15. PMID:23966752

  3. China’s Strategy Toward South and Central Asia: An Empty Fortress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Panda , “India’s Approach to Central Asia: Strategic Intent and Geo-political Calculus,” China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2009, pp...calculus must include not just these countries but also India—the sprawling giant of South Asia. Western China, which includes not just Xinjiang but...according to a United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs report, the South Asian giant is poised to surpass the Middle Kingdom as the

  4. Portraits of Black Schooling in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suransky-Dekker, Caroline

    This study offers a portrait of the schooling experiences of black South African student teachers. Approximately 1,000 students were involved in the study, which was conducted over 5 years. The project was designed to help the instructor examine curriculum studies courses for their ability to enable student teachers to reflect on their own…

  5. Gender and Empowerment in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over-determined discrimination of so-called coloured and black South African women, not just on the basis of gender but racial hierarchies still prevalent as well in the rainbow nation. Design/methodology/approach: The observations grapple with reconciling the…

  6. Women in Physics in South Africa: The Story to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diale, M.; Buchner, S. J.; Buthelezi, Z.; Gledhill, I. M. A.; Grayson, D. J.; Kgabi, N. A.

    2009-04-01

    Overall about 40% of South African researchers in science, engineering, and technology are women, but the percentage of women in the physical sciences is significantly lower. In 2006, it appeared that about 16% of the 500 members of the South African Institute of Physics were women. Many of the issues of women in physics in South Africa parallel those of black physicists, including discrimination, both conscious and unconscious, in hiring and in awarding grants. The situation is slowly improving with the advent of policies aimed at redress and with far-reaching joint projects from the South African Department of Science and Technology and the South African Institute of Physics. Women in Physics in South Africa Project (WiPiSA), launched in 2005, aims to stimulate an increased interest in physics among girls and women, and assist in removing or overcoming obstacles to the study of physics and to work in physics-related careers. WiPiSA conducted a baseline survey of women who graduated with postgraduate degrees in physics between 1995 and 2005, and a surprisingly large database of 188 women has been formed. WiPiSA has also overseen a number of additional projects aimed at students, teachers, physics departments, and graduates.

  7. Tissue banking in South Africa: a 19-year history.

    PubMed

    Lindeque, B G P; Lindeque, A M; Hausner, H; Le Roux, T L B

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of a Tissue Bank and the science of Tissue Banking in South Africa started in the 1960s and is still developing. This article describes the development and growth of Tissue Banking in South Africa. The current emphasis is to supply viable bone products that have been produced under the best possible quality controlled circumstances; with the collaboration between different Organ Donation Organisations. Through collaboration, a dramatic increase in the number of donors was noted over the years. Concurrently, there was a dramatic increase in the usage of different allograft products and now necessitates the development of new graft materials for expanding patient options. As an ongoing concern, the Tissue Bank in South Africa experienced an ever increase in costs to enhance quality/safety controls: increase in historical patient information, documentation and serological testing in a population struggling to control HIV. To date, the South African Tissue Bank has not experienced any untoward patient incidence since the 1960s and currently is getting over 500 donors per year.

  8. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  9. Emergent migration policy in a democratic South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kotze, H; Hill, L

    1997-01-01

    This article sets recent debates on migration policy in South Africa against broader historical realities that have shaped patterns of population movement on the subcontinent since the end of the nineteenth century. During the course of the last century, most forms of population movement were the result of disjointed regional economic development which can be traced to two epochal events at the end of the nineteenth century: the creation of the modern African state system and the discovery of mineral wealth in Southern Africa. Although regulation of migrant labor was a fundamental feature of the colonial period, it was only after 1950, when independent states began to define specific migration priorities, that states began to restrict significantly the flow of transnational labor. From this point notions such as internally displaced person, refugee and illegal immigrant become increasingly appropriate to the study of regional migration. Particular attention is given to current debate on the definition of refugee which forms part of a broader international debate. A number of South African writers have argued that, given the structural imbalances contained in the regional economy, the term "refugee" should be redefined to included economic migrants. This position is not shared by the South African Government, and an analysis of current policy and legislation demonstrates a growing tendency to restrict the influx of undocumented migrants. This is due, in part, to the recent political transition and the institutional compromises that it produced as well as the growth of negative sentiment towards illegal immigrants at both mass and elite levels, as demonstrated by two recent research findings. The article concludes with a summation of recent trends in South African migration policy and an evaluation of the ambiguous position that South Africa occupies within Southern Africa.

  10. Population policy in South Africa: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Klugman, B

    1991-02-01

    The argument in this article is that population growth and the concept of balancing resources against population growth is flawed when the context, in this case South Africa, is gross inequalities in resource distribution. The fact is that causes of poverty are located in the social and political structures which give people unequal access to existing resources or international aid. Population trends reflect the mode of production of that society. It is argued that the Malthusian law of population and the theory of demographic transition is ahistorical and inaccurate. The theory does not explain why population growth rates change. In South Africa, fertility reflects lack of control over one's life and poverty. Migrant labor in South Africa undermined normal social institutions and disrupted family life. Government has emphasized a fear of a future population crisis because of resource shortages and a fear of the growing black population. The South African population development program is extracted and discussed. Questions are raised about the theory of demographic transition, the way resource allocation is ascertained, the relationship between resources and population in a specific area, and the relationship between population growth and development in general. The theory of demographic transition is examined and the Western influences which contributed to population growth through requests for changes in sexual mores and the effects of colonization. When demographic transition theory postulates that mortality rates decline with industrialization as a result of access to medical care and an improved diet, it doesn't take into account the discriminatory health care allocation under apartheid, or the displacement of rural people from their land and undermining of the rural peasantry. Separate development has led to inferior schooling and lack of access to skilled employment. In discussing the availability of resources in South Africa, the question is raised as to

  11. Health status and its determinants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1994-03-01

    South Africa's apartheid policies have had direct and indirect effects on morbidity and death that will likely remain for decades. Since 1964, the economy has largely been deteriorating, while the population has grown at 2.8%/year, both of which have hampered economic development and health. South Africa needs to supply water, sanitation, and housing to 75% of the population. Rural development is needed to stem malnutrition, soil erosion, and overgrazing. Urban development design and planning must include health. Schooling needs to improve educators can emphasize school health education. Electricity and better lighting are needed to reduce chest diseases and paraffin poisoning and to improve literacy and learning. Labor migration has contributed to a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in rural areas. In some cases, industry and the public sector have become partners to improve health. The alcohol industry sponsors drive safe campaigns. South Africans need to address inequalities in health status by race, region, and gender, and to follow a holistic development approach. Infant mortality is just 6.4/1000 for Whites, while it is 66.7/1000 for Blacks. It is 1.5 times lower in the best region than it is in the worst region. 2 of every 25 children die before their first birthday among Africans living in the poorest third of South Africa. 42% of Black men who live to 15 years die before their 60th birthday, while just 17.5% of like White women do. Black children less than 5 years old have an almost 9-fold excess in deaths over White children. The tuberculosis rate is among the highest in the world and is likely to increase as HIV/AIDS spreads. Many other preventable diseases occur among South Africans. 5-8% of the population suffer a disability. South Africa has the highest per capita violence mortality rate worldwide (59.2/100,000 vs. 9.6/100,000 in the US). South Africa is likely to face increases in lung cancer, chronic lung disease, heart disease

  12. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, Peoples of Asia and Africa, No. 2, Mar - Apr 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mongolian, Vietnamese, and other peoples of the South and Southeast Asia. A certain group of chauvinistically- minded Chinese historicans of today...English ECONOMIST wrote, not without sarcasm , that "the West, 16 for example, can fully permit Itself to open markets for importing computers...is simply impossible when the interests of the consumers of raw materials are ignored. 19 It must also be borne in mind that the developing

  13. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  14. "Homophobia hurts": Mourning as resistance to violence in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Julie

    2017-04-03

    Much has been written on the successful lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex movement in South Africa, and the resulting institutionalization of sexual minority rights. Comparatively less has been written about the forms of activism undertaken specifically by Black lesbians that are not oriented toward legal change. In this article, I assert the need to examine public demonstrations of mourning as an act of Black lesbian resistance to violence in South Africa. Based on in-depth interviews with members of Free Gender, a Black lesbian organization, I argue that members' conceptualizations of mourning as providing community support force a reconsideration of what it means to be human. In order to grasp the decolonial potential of Free Gender's activism, I draw on Sylvia Wynter's argument that a singular Western bourgeois conception of human has come to dominate globally.

  15. Origin of atmospheric lead in Johannesburg, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, F.; Poujol, M.; Losno, R.; Dominik, J.; Annegarn, H.; Coetzee, H.

    The origin of lead in the atmosphere of Johannesburg, South Africa was investigated on the basis of elemental and lead isotopic analyses of coals, mine dumps, gasoline, and about 30 epiphytic lichen samples. Lead predominantly comes from automotive exhausts in urban and suburban areas, as leaded antiknock additives were still in use in South Africa at the time of the study. Although dust emissions from the numerous mine-tailing dumps were expected to contribute significantly to the heavy metal budget, the southern townships that are surrounded by the dumps (such as Soweto and other historically Black residential areas) do not appear to be more than partially influenced by them, and this influence seems to be geographically limited. Domestic coal burning, suspected to account for the total lead content in the air, is also recognised, but only acts as a minor source of lead, even in townships.

  16. Establishing a health promotion and development foundation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Perez, A M; Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Hofman, K; Kalideen, S; Maker, A; Mokonoto, D; Morojele, N; Naidoo, P; Parry, C D H; Rendall-Mkosi, K; Saloojee, Y

    2013-01-14

    South Africa has a 'quadruple burden of disease'. One way to reduce this burden, and address the social determinants of health and social inequity, could be through health promotion interventions driven by an independent Health Promotion and Development Foundation (HPDF). This could provide a framework to integrate health promotion and social development into all government and civil society programmes. On priority issues, the HPDF would mobilise resources, allocate funding, develop capacity, and monitor and evaluate health promotion and development work. Emphasis would be on reducing the effects of poverty, inequity and unequal development on disease rates and wellbeing. The HPDF could also decrease the burden on the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) system. We reflect on such foundations in other countries, and propose a structure for South Africa's HPDF and a dedicated funding stream to support its activities. In particular, an additional 2% levy on alcohol and tobacco products is proposed to be utilised to fund the HPDF.

  17. Coaches' Preferences for Continuing Coaching Education in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kubayi, Alliance; Coopoo, Yoga; Morris-Eyton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coaches' preferences for continuing coaching education. The sample consisted of 122 male and 102 female coaches from the Gauteng Province of South Africa who were purposively recruited to participate in this study. The results of this study showed that the coaches wanted to learn more about motivational techniques, advanced instructional drills, advanced first aid, goal setting, character building and conditioning drills. The results further indicated that sport coaches would be more likely to continue their coaching education if they had a desire to coach at a high level, if topics were relevant and if courses were in line with league requirements and were available online. The practical implications of the findings for the development of coaching education programmes in South Africa were discussed.

  18. The Actuarial Society of South Africa AIDS model.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The AIDS Committee of the Actuarial Society of South Africa has developed a demographic model to allow researchers to project the impact of HIV and AIDS in South Africa. The model is available for use as a projection tool rather than to endorse a given projected scenario as being representative. It is very flexible and can be adapted to suit different purposes by anyone with a working knowledge of Microsoft Excel. The need for a model, calibration of the model, the lack of allowance in the model for racial and cultural heterogeneity in the underlying population, and default scenario projections are discussed. The model is available free of charge via E-mail and on the worldwide web at the following respective addresses: awhitelo@oldmutual.com and http://www.und.ac.za/und/eco/eru/eru.htm.

  19. Information needs in home based healthcare in South Africa.

    PubMed

    de la Harpe, Retha; Barnes, Jay; Korpela, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Home based health care (HBHC) is advocated by the WHO "to ensure better accessibility to effective and efficient health care in community and home-settings to improve health and well-being, and contribute to morbidity and mortality reduction". In South Africa the government and many other role players see an increasingly important role for HBHC. Many researchers believe that the evolution of HBHC will follow the socio-technical network evolution. There can be no doubt that the focus is on using information and communication technologies (ICT) to implement HBHC solutions. The objective of this paper is to provide a rich picture of the current situation and needs for improvement in HBHC in South Africa today through descriptive research in one specific case. The longer-term purpose is to identify pain-points that require socio-technical solutions, including but not exclusively ICT-supported solutions.

  20. The status of fatherhood and fathering in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with estimates of fatherhood in South Africa, in the absence of formal measures of paternity. It highlights several salient features of fatherhood in the country, particularly low rates of marriages and father absence from households, and it traces their roots in colonialism and Apartheid, the political system in South Africa under which Black people were systematically oppressed. We point out that some forms of father absence illustrate the commitment of men to supporting their families by their willingness to seek migrant work far from their homes. Examples are given of government policies to support fathers and some of the major civil society efforts are described. The paper closes with important themes about fatherhood in work with young children. PMID:23864733

  1. Dominant discourses, debates and silences on child labour in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Tatek; Bessell, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the relevant literature, this article explores key debates and controversies on child labour in the context of Africa and Asia. It first identifies and analyses three dominant discourses on child labour: 1) the work-free childhoods perspective; 2) the socio-cultural perspective; and 3) the political economy perspective. Against the backdrop of these discourses, the article goes on to critically examine aspects of child labour that are underrepresented in the literature and in international policy circles. It concludes by highlighting the importance of grounding children's gendered work within the complex material social practices of interconnected histories and geographies in which their livelihoods unfold.

  2. Soekor, partners explore possibilities in Bredasdorp basin off South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, P.L.A. Ltd., Parow, )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on the Bredasdorp basin, situated off the south coast of the Republic of South Africa, southeast of Cape Town and west-southwest of Port Elizabeth. Both cities have modern deepwater harbor facilities. Infrastructure along the coast includes well developed road, air, and rail links. A petrochemical plant for the conversion of off-shore gas and condensate to hydrocarbon fuels as well as certain chemical feedstocks has recently been completed at Mossel Bay about 100 km north of the Bredasdorp basin. Refineries are situated at Cape Town and Durban.

  3. Environment and health in South Africa: gains, losses, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2011-01-01

    South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. Since the advent of democracy in the country, government has made considerable progress in improving living conditions and in developing the legal framework to prevent and manage environmental contamination. Considerable, under-exploited potential also exists in South Africa to prevent disease, including infectious and chronic diseases, and to promote health through a more holistic and public health approach. This article summarizes the main environmental health concerns and reflects on mechanisms and opportunities to improve public environmental health.

  4. Women in physics in South Africa: Progress to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diale, M.; Gledhill, I. M. A.; Buchner, S. J.; Tibane, M.; Grayson, D. J.; Maphanga, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the launch of Women in Physics in South Africa in 2005, the number of women in physics has grown. The growth is noted at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with more women attaining qualifications in physics. Most importantly, there has been a significant increase in the number of women who obtain their PhDs in physics. The progress reported in this paper is based on the findings by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and the database of the South African Institute of Physics. The two sources show an increase in the number of women who obtained their PhDs in physics compared with their male counterparts.

  5. Tay-Sachs disease screening and prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T; Lane, A B; Kromberg, J G

    1977-01-22

    Tay-Sachs disease is potentially preventable in Ashkenazi Jewish communities. About 1 out of 25 individuals is a carrier of the gene and can be accurately identified by means of a simple, inexpensive blood test. 'At risk' couples, i.e. couples of whom both partners are carriers, can be enabled, by means of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion, to have only unaffected children. Mass screening programmes have been successfully carried out in the USA, Canada and Israel. A discussion of South African Jewish deomgraphy, attitudes to health, and priorities for public health projects, provide the background to a consideration of Tay-Sachs disease prevention in South Africa.

  6. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Carol S; Snow, Rachel C; Hosegood, Victoria

    2014-08-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women's increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men's and women's out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa.

  7. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-04

    understanding earthquake source mechanisms. Of special interest to the research community associated with Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) activities...burst or natural earthquake . This paper provides background information on previous research in and around the deep mines of South Africa and lays...spectra and source parameters agree well with standard earthquake source  models.” The “explosions typically have higher corner frequencies than

  8. Red meat, processed meat and cancer in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Daniela Cristina

    2015-12-16

    Epidemiological studies around the world were analysed recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, demonstrating a positive correlation between consumption of red meat and processed meat and colorectal cancer. In South Africa (SA) there is a great variation in the incidence of this type of cancer between various ethnic groups, related to diet and other risk factors. Strengthening the SA cancer registry and co-ordinated research on diet and cancer are required to provide specific answers for our population.

  9. Against all odds: diagnosing tuberculosis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Douglas; Howell, Victoria; Toppozini, Christina; Dong, Krista; Clark, Michael; Hurtado, Rocio

    2011-11-15

    Clinical and logistic systems to support the timely diagnosis of tuberculosis are currently not preventing large numbers of tuberculosis deaths in South Africa. Context-appropriate systems for the diagnosis of tuberculosis are entirely dependent on effective and responsive management of human resources and an uninterrupted supply of clinical materials. Attention to these components of the tuberculosis program is urgently needed before new diagnostic technologies can be expected to impact on tuberculosis mortality in resource constrained settings.

  10. Black teenage pregnancy in South Africa: some considerations.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, P W; Boult, B E

    1996-01-01

    Black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa have reached a threatening level. Accepting that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational, this article outlines selected consequences. It concludes that teenage pregnancy as a social problem needs reexamination in terms of two hypotheses: that the pheronomal climate has an impact on prepuberal girls; and that teenage pregnancy is nature's way of ensuring the survival of the species.

  11. South Africa slashes pebble-bed cash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2010-04-01

    A novel modular technology that promised to make nuclear power cheaper and safer has suffered a serious blow following withdrawal of support from the South African government. It decided not to renew funding for the pebble-bed modular reactor beyond 31 March this year following a lack of interest from other investors and no customers for its product. The company developing the reactor concept - Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Ltd (PBMR) - is to axe three-quarters of its roughly 800 staff and its chief executive has resigned.

  12. South Africa offers exploratory potential in variety of basins

    SciTech Connect

    Broad, D.S.; Mills, S.R. )

    1993-12-06

    While the future suspension of the oil embargo against South Africa will no doubt help revitalize the region's most powerful economy, a move away from dependence on coal as the major local energy source is also likely. This could be accomplished through regional cooperation and development were it not for the ongoing conflict in Angola, the only producer of oil and gas in the Southern African Development Community. Even with world oil prices in the doldrums, massive foreign exchange savings would result from a domestic source, and in line with world trends the possibility of harnessing the gas resources of the region is increasingly seen as a possibility. For the present, those resources remain to be defined. But ENH of Mozambique is pursuing an appraisal program for Pande field with World Bank funding, while Shell and its partners are considering possibilities of Kudu field in Namiba. And while South Africa's own national oil company, Soekor, has had limited success with its search for oil during the apartheid years, offshore F-A gas field is in production, and the potential for hydrocarbons-gas in particular--requires a great deal more investigation. The colleagues have prepared a series of articles on basins off South Africa. These articles were prepared in anticipation of the completion of political reform and of the start of a licensing round, possibly during 1994. This article draws together summaries of aspects thought to be most pertinent to petroleum exploration.

  13. Rainwater harvesting in South Africa: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Taigbenu, A. E.

    Water paucity remains a major threat to poverty, hunger alleviation as well as sustainable development. Innovative water technologies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH) have the potential to improve rural water supply and contribute to the provision of the first 6 kl of water consumed monthly. RWH can also be the solution to South Africa food security by increasing water productivity of dryland agriculture and enabling homestead gardening. Although used for decades in South Africa, rainwater harvesting (RWH) is still far from being utilised to its full potential as unresolved challenges prevent its wide scale adoption. The paper presents the challenges and opportunities to the upscaling of RWH in South Africa. Key challenges preventing the nationwide expansion of RWH are the current water related legislations, the lack of finances and the absence of a national umbrella body that coordinates. While opportunities lie in the worth of knowledge gathered by research projects, funded over the last two decades, on the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of RWH.

  14. HIV/AIDS and disability organisations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie; Schneider, Marguerite; Groce, Nora; Eide, Arne Henning

    2010-02-01

    Despite the seriousness of the HIV epidemic globally, and in South Africa in particular, little is known about how HIV/AIDS affects disabled people. One important and little explored area is the role that organisations that represent disabled people or that work on behalf of disabled people, are playing in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among the disabled people they represent or serve. This paper presents the findings of a nationwide survey of disability organisations in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of disability organisations in addressing the HIV epidemic among disabled people in South Africa. The findings suggest that while organisations recognise the importance of providing HIV education, and many have taken steps to do so, disabled people are largely excluded from general HIV prevention messages. Disabled people also have significant difficulties in accessing general health care, relevant for HIV testing and treatment. In a country trying to manage serious social problems with limited resources, this paper highlights the need for increased cooperation and collaboration between relevant parties in order to facilitate the changes necessary for disabled people to access needed health information and care.

  15. Deadly Fire in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An explosive fire in Kruger National Park in the northern Republic of South Africa has killed at least 21 people and injured several others, perhaps fatally. This true-color image from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the location of that fire and several others in the region indicated in red. Kruger National Park runs along the border of The Republic of South Africa, which takes up most of the western half of the image, and Mozambique, which takes up most of the eastern half. The deadly fire started on Tuesday, September 4, and burned just to the right of the center of this image, near the town of Skukuza. The fire spread rapidly in the winds that blow across South Africa at the end of the region's dry season. This image, made from MODIS data acquired on September 5, shows the perimeter of the fire burning and emitting heavy smoke. An irregularly shaped burn scar stands out in dark brown against the landscape, indicating the extent of the fire. What appears to be another large burn scar can be seen just to the southeast. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. The economic environment and employment creation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Der Berg, S; Smit, B

    1990-07-01

    Recently demoted by the World Bank from an upper middle-income to lower middle-income country, on the basis of per capita income, South Africa is failing to tackle the dualism between high-productivity, high-wage modern sectors and low-productivity subsistence sectors. South Africa is an economically less developed country with a weak economy. Unless economic growth increases markedly, poverty, unemployment, and the informal sector should be expected to continue expanding. In support, this paper forecasts employment for the period 1989-2000. Much dualism exists in the country, with a relatively small portion of the labor force fully participating in the modern consumer market. Not only contrary to present national needs, this phenomenon represents deterioration from the early 1970s. The labor force in South Africa grows faster than the creation of formal employment, and is confirmed by forecasts indicating absolute and relative growth in the peripheral labor force contrasting against stagnation in the core labor force.

  17. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  18. Evaluation of climatic changes in South-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellstrom, Erik; Rana, Arun; Grigory, Nikulin; Renate, Wilcke; Hansson, Ulf; Kolax, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Literature has sufficient evidences of climate change impact all over the world and its impact on various sectors. In light of new advancements made in climate modeling, availability of several climate downscaling approaches, the more robust bias correction methods with varying complexities and strengths, in the present study we performed a systematic evaluation of climate change impact over South-Asia region. We have used different Regional Climate Models (RCMs) (from CORDEX domain), (Global Climate Models GCMs) and gridded observations for the study area to evaluate the models in historical/control period (1980-2010) and changes in future period (2010-2099). Firstly, GCMs and RCMs are evaluated against the Gridded observational datasets in the area using precipitation and temperature as indicative variables. Observational dataset are also evaluated against the reliable set of observational dataset, as pointed in literature. Bias, Correlation, and changes (among other statistical measures) are calculated for the entire region and both the variables. Eventually, the region was sub-divided into various smaller domains based on homogenous precipitation zones to evaluate the average changes over time period. Spatial and temporal changes for the region are then finally calculated to evaluate the future changes in the region. Future changes are calculated for 2 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), the middle emission (RCP4.5) and high emission (RCP8.5) and for both climatic variables, precipitation and temperature. Lastly, Evaluation of Extremes is performed based on precipitation and temperature based indices for whole region in future dataset. Results have indicated that the whole study region is under extreme stress in future climate scenarios for both climatic variables i.e. precipitation and temperature. Precipitation variability is dependent on the location in the area leading to droughts and floods in various regions in future. Temperature is hinting

  19. Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T.

    1998-12-31

    Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with

  20. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Singh, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  1. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Nelson, Andrew; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Singh, Amrendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  2. The distribution and origin of PAHs over the Asian marginal seas, the Indian, and the Pacific Oceans: Implications for outflows from Asia and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwen; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Tian, Chongguo; Chaemfa, Chakra; Zhang, Gan

    2014-02-01

    Aerosol samples were collected aboard the R/V Dayang Yihao from 8 January to 7 August 2007 to investigate the geographical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) over oceans and to assess their continental origins. The highest concentrations were found over the marginal seas in Asia, especially the East and South China Seas, indicating that China is a top source of emissions into the marine atmosphere in the areas monitored on this cruise. PAH concentrations over the west oceanic region in the South Indian Ocean were noticeably higher than in other areas of the Indian Ocean, most likely because air masses from Africa, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal exert a negative impact on those regions through long-range atmospheric transport. The PAH isomer ratio values varied over the oceans that were impacted by continental sources but remained relatively uniform over most of the remote oceans. Using diagnostic ratio analysis, we found PAHs emitted from China were mainly associated with biomass/coal burning. The measurements of levoglucosan were consistent with the results mentioned above. The western part of the South Indian Ocean atmosphere was likely affected by wildfire emissions from Africa, while the northern part was by petroleum combustion, biofuel, and wildfire burning, because the winter monsoon most likely carries aerosol from the Arabian Peninsula and India across the equator. Using the monthly images of fire activity and aerosol optical depth, it can be confirmed biomass burning from Africa can significantly influence the aerosol over the Indian Ocean.

  3. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position.

  4. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  5. Reproductive control in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, C E

    2000-03-01

    Since its inception in 1974, the South African family planning programme has been widely believed to be linked with white fears of growing black numbers. The programme has been repeatedly attacked by detractors as a programme of social and political control. Yet, in spite of the hostile environment, black women's use of services has steadily increased. Using historical and anthropological evidence, this paper delineates the links between the social and political context of racial domination and individual fertility behaviour. It is argued that the quantitative success of the family planning programme is rooted in social and economic shifts conditioning reproductive authority and fertility decision-making. State policies of racial segregation and influx control, ethnic 'homeland' politics, and labour migration of men transformed opportunities and constraints for black women and men, and altered local and household expectations of childbearing. Women came to manage their own fertility as they increasingly found themselves in precarious social and economic circumstances.

  6. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association.

  7. ICT Policies and Strategies in Higher Education in South Africa: National and Institutional Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Adam, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy initiatives and strategies used to promote the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in South Africa. It explores a wider international outlook and current debates in South Africa to map out an emerging South African perspective concerning the integration of ICT in higher…

  8. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  9. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  10. Fish Hoek Middle School: Issues of Education Reform in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Darryn

    Education in South Africa has mirrored the inequality and socio-political upheaval that has marked that country's history since the official establishment of apartheid in 1948. This paper provides a brief summary of some of the main issues impacting education in South Africa, a description of Fish Hoek Middle School just south of Capetown, an…

  11. Policy analysis of oral health promotion in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shenuka; Myburgh, Neil G; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2010-03-01

    This article reports an analysis of oral health promotion in South African health policy. The central aim of this research was to determine the form and coherence of oral health promotion elements within health policies of post-apartheid South Africa. The study set out to test the hypothesis that oral health promotion elements are fully integrated into health policy and programmatic efforts. A conceptual framework was developed to systematically analyse oral health promotion policy and subsequent decision-making across the country at national and provincial levels. The information was drawn from policy documents, protocols and programme plans, complemented by interviews. The results indicate distinct contradictions between the policy formulation process and its impact on health system decision-making. South African health policy was found to be strong on the rhetoric of equity, health promotion, integration and several other features of the Primary Health Care Approach, but showed little evidence of translating this into action. The development and implementation of oral health promotion appears to be dominated by the influence of dental professionals that perpetuate a curative focus on service delivery. There is an urgent need to re-examine the process and content of oral health policy-making in South Africa. The conceptual framework developed for this study could facilitate further research in this area.

  12. Moving Across Boundaries: Migration in South Africa, 1950–2000

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government’s suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans. PMID:22956415

  13. Moving across boundaries: migration in South Africa, 1950-2000.

    PubMed

    Reed, Holly E

    2013-02-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government's suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans.

  14. The social determinants of multimorbidity in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbidity is a growing concern worldwide, with approximately 1 in 4 adults affected. Most of the evidence on multimorbidity, its prevalence and effects, comes from high income countries. Not much is known about multimorbidity in low income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of multimorbidity and examine its association with various social determinants of health in South Africa. Method The data used in this study are taken from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey (SA-NIDS) of 2008. Multimorbidity was defined as the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases in an individual. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed to analyse the relationship between multimorbidity and several indicators including socioeconomic status, area of residence and obesity. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity in South Africa was 4% in the adult population. Over 70% of adults with multimorbidity were females. Factors associated with multimorbidity were social assistance (Odds ratio (OR) 2.35; Confidence Interval (CI) 1.59-3.49), residence (0.65; 0.46-0.93), smoking (0.61; 0.38-0.96); obesity (2.33; 1.60-3.39), depression (1.07; 1.02-1.11) and health facility visits (5.14; 3.75-7.05). Additionally, income was strongly positively associated with multimorbidity. The findings are similar to observations made in studies conducted in developed countries. Conclusion The findings point to a potential difference in the factors associated with single chronic disease and multimorbidity. Income was consistently significantly associated with multimorbidity, but not single chronic diseases. This should be investigated further in future research on the factors affecting multimorbidity. PMID:23962055

  15. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

  16. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  17. Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions

  18. Foreign Mission Funding in South Africa. South African Information Exchange Working Paper Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micou, Ann McKinstry

    This volume is an update of a 1990 report that described the guidelines of various foreign governments for internal funding programs for their missions in South Africa. Of the 18 participants, 16 were the embassies of Australia, Austria, Great Britain, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands,…

  19. Transforming Education in South Africa: Comparative Perceptions of a South African Social Work Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen; Millard, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The state of tertiary education in South Africa is not adequately meeting the needs of its populace. The system in place does not effectively nor appropriately target the racial group of students which forms the democratic majority. This paper portrays the reasons why these students are not succeeding on the basis of a mismatch between their…

  20. Quantitative Study of Vulnerability / Damage Curves in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pule, Tebogo

    2014-05-01

    Southern Africa is considered a stable continental region in spite of several cases of reported earthquakes, which caused considerable damage and casualties particularly in the mining industry. Most buildings and structures in South Africa are not designed to resist any intensity of earthquake and most architects, engineers and builders in the country do not consider seismic resistance as a design requirement. This is mainly because the region has not experienced any large and serious destructive earthquake in recent years. The most destructive earthquake recorded in South Africa is the Ceres earthquake of 1969. The earthquake with a magnitude of 6.3 occurred on September 29, 1969 in the Ceres-Tulbagh region of the Western Cape Province about 100 km northeast of Cape Town. Serious damage occurred to certain buildings in the area (amounting to a total of U.S. 24 million). The structural damage varied from almost total destruction of old and poorly constructed buildings to large cracks in the better-built ones, twelve people were killed and many more were injured. Another event that caused severe damage to infrastructure occurred on March 9, 2005 at Stilfontein near Klerksdorp. It is known that up to 40 or more tremors are recorded monthly in Southern Africa, the locations are predominantly in the places surrounding the gold mining areas with many events around the Carletonville and Klerksdorp areas. Recent years have seen at least four mining induced tremors causing significant damage (Welkom 1976, Klerksdorp 1977, Welkom 1989 and Carletonville 1992). Such events show that it is very necessary to take seismic events into account in the design of any infrastructure. Assessing and understanding the risk facing the South African cities as a result of major seismic activity has been paid little attention. The main focus of this study is to use results of a deterministic hazard assessment to develop the most suitable damage curves for twelve of the most common building

  1. The application of high dose food irradiation in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruyn, Ingrid Nine

    2000-03-01

    During the 1950s to the end of the 1970s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf-stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive "dried cooked" taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The Biogam group at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is currently producing shelf-stable irradiated meats on a commercial basis. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 45 kGy at a temperature of between -20 and -40°C to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions and can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. Safari operators in remote parts of Africa, mountaineers, yachtsmen, canoeists and geological survey teams currently use shelf-stable irradiated meat products produced in South Africa.

  2. The Iraqization of Africa? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Esterhuyse.indd 111 2/7/08 8:25:12 AM The Iraqization of Africa ? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective Abel Esterhuyse...Introduction The South African government has openly expressed its opposition towards the creation of the US Africa Command (AFRICOM).1 What’s more...South Africa presents its position on AFRICOM as representative of the country as a whole, but particularly on behalf of a group of African countries

  3. Measuring and Understanding the Well-Being of South Africans: Everyday Quality of Life in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Neil T.

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has a Gini co-efficient of 62, one of the world's highest (Finmark: Project FinScope 2004 and 2005, FinMark Trust, Johannesburg). Hence, measures of wealth are ubiquitous social indicators in South Africa. However, a growing emphasis in government towards measurable service delivery targets and remedial action to redress the…

  4. IYA2009 in Africa: A South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In Africa the stars have always been a part of people's everyday lives, be it in the form of folklore, superstition or even agricultural indicators. Modern astronomy, however, has not been very widespread, with only a few African countries having sufficient facilities or academics to support a modern astronomical community. The International Year of Astronomy serves not only as an opportunity to boost these astronomical communities, but also to celebrate the rich history and culture that has existed for thousands of years. On this, the poorest continent, with so many millions living in rural areas, there is one glaring advantage over other continents - people's abundant access to a dark night sky. We would like to see 2009 as the year that everyone in Africa, no matter what their background or lifestyle, turn their heads to the skies in appreciation of the beauty of the Universe, in celebration of their cultural heritage, and in the hope that they are inspired to overcome harsh challenges that this small planet and its occupants may have placed on them. It is an opportunity not just to promote astronomy, but also to spark curiosity and spur on a culture of learning. The perspective will be given from South Africa, home to a number of major astronomical facilities, and a major player in the development of astronomy across Africa. IYA2009 progress to date and plans for the future will be discussed.

  5. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter

    2015-06-01

    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  6. Preliminary Bibliography on East Asia for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Edith; Morehouse, Ward

    This classified bibliography on East Asia and similar bibliographies on Africa south of the Sahara (LI 000 882) and South Asia (LI 000 061) have been compiled under the first phase of a three-year cooperative project to strengthen bibliographical resources for undergraduate libraries on "neglected" foreign areas. The bibliography in its…

  7. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  8. Successful treatment of Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bosch, F J; Badenhorst, L; Le Roux, J A; Louw, V J

    2008-10-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis is extremely rare and usually fatal. A very few cases of C. violaceum infection have been reported from Africa, but never from South Africa. As far as could be ascertained, this infection has never been reported in a patient with leukaemia. We describe what we believe to be the first such case of C. violaceum sepsis, in a 16-year-old female patient with acute biphenotypic leukaemia, which developed during the neutropenic phase after intensive chemotherapy. The infection was due to a non-pigmented strain of C. violaceum and was associated with a co-infection with Candida parapsilosis; both were successfully treated using broad-spectrum antibiotics, antifungals and removal of a Hickman line.

  9. A trial model for medical subspecialty training in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    DALMEYER, P; STRUWIG, M; KRUGER, T

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article outlines the trial model in reproductive medicine that was created as a first step in the development of a business model for medical subspecialty training to complement the current academic subspecialty training in South Africa. A two-tiered training model was developed over time. The hurdles that had to be overcome were the development of a curriculum and academic capacity, acquisition of appropriate funding, acceptance and accreditation of the decentralised training facility, and lastly, registration of the fellowship with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The end result of the trial programme was a two-year full-time training with supportive funding, or a four-year programme, where the subspecialists would spend three weeks of the month in their home practice environment, attached to an accredited unit, and the last week in an academic institution. Due to the trial program’s success for the South African context and the potential of such model for the developing world, it was evident that the trial programme had to be tested to determine whether and how it can be implemented on a wider basis. PMID:27822351

  10. Virginity testing in South Africa: re-traditioning the postcolony.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Umhlanga is a ceremony celebrating virginity. In South Africa, it is practiced, among others, by the Zulu ethnic group who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu Natal. After falling into relative disuse in the Zulu community, the practice of virginity testing made a comeback some 10 years ago at around the time of the country's first democratic election and coinciding with the period when the HIV pandemic began to take hold. In July 2005 the South African Parliament passed a new Children's Bill which will prohibit virginity testing of children. The Bill has been met with outrage and public protest on the part of Zulu citizens. Traditional circumcision rites are also addressed in the new bill but are not banned. Instead, male children are given the right to refuse to participate in traditional initiation ceremonies which include circumcision. This paper asks why the practice of virginity testing is regarded as so troubling to the new democratic order that the state has chosen to take the heavy-handed route of banning it. The paper further asks why the state's approach to traditional male circumcision has been so different to its approach to virginity testing. Finally, the paper asks what these two challenging cases in the country's new democracy tell us about the nature of liberal democratic citizenship in South Africa 10 years after apartheid's formal demise.

  11. Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Gonzalez, Hector M; Williams, Stacey; Mohammed, Selina A; Moomal, Hashim; Stein, Dan J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the levels of perceived acute and chronic racial and non-racial discrimination in South Africa, their association with health, and the extent to which they contribute to racial differences in physical and mental health, data were used from a national probability sample of adults, the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH). All Black groups in South Africa (African, Coloured and Indian) were two to four times more likely than Whites to report acute and chronic experiences of racial discrimination. Africans and Coloureds report higher levels of ill health than Whites, but acute and chronic racial discrimination were unrelated to ill health and unimportant in accounting for racial differences in self rated health. In contrast, all Black groups had higher levels of psychological distress than Whites, and perceived chronic discrimination, was positively associated with distress. Moreover, these experiences accounted for some of the residual racial differences in distress after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Our main findings indicate that, in a historically racialized society, perceived chronic racial and especially non-racial discrimination acts independently of demographic factors, other stressors, psychological factors (social desirability, self-esteem and personal mastery), and multiple SES indicators to adversely affect mental health. PMID:18486292

  12. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Susan J.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage. Objective This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization's six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants’ perspectives on nursing education in South Africa. Methods Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of the research area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key informants after informed consent had been obtained. The interviews were analysed using template analysis. Results South Africa has strategic plans on human resources for health and nursing education, training, and practice and has a well-established system of regulation and accreditation of nursing education through the South African Nursing Council (SANC). Key informants criticised the following: the lack of national staffing norms; sub-optimal governance by both the SANC and the Department of Health; outdated curricula that are unresponsive to population and health system needs; lack of preparedness of nurse educators; and the unsuitability of the majority of nursing students. These problems are exacerbated by a perceived lack of prioritisation of nursing, resource constraints in both the nursing education institutions and the health training facilities, and general implementation inertia. Conclusion Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection. PMID:25971402

  13. Skin lighteners, Black consumers and Jewish entrepreneurs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the rise and decline of South Africa's lucrative and controversial skin-lighteners market through examination of the business history of the largest manufacturers, Abraham and Solomon Krok, and their evolving personas as millionaires and philanthropists. Such examination reveals how the country's skin-lighteners trade emerged as part of the broader growth of a black consumer market after the Second World War and how elements of that market became the target of anti-apartheid protests in subsequent decades. It also demonstrates how the Kroks' experiences as second-generation Jewish immigrants shaped their involvement in the trade and how, later, their self-identification as Jewish philanthropists informed their efforts to rehabilitate their reputations following South Africa's 1990 ban on all skin lighteners. Such efforts include the building of Johannesburg's highly acclaimed Apartheid Museum, modelled after the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This article explores the profound ironies that some South Africans see in the fact that a museum dedicated to commemorating those who suffered under and, ultimately, triumphed against state racism was financed by a family fortune generated through the sale of skin lighteners to black consumers.

  14. High society lacks knowledge of epidemic. Focus: South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kotze, H; Van Wyk, J A

    1995-10-01

    The attitudes, prejudices, and knowledge of 1500 leaders of South Africa's politics, academia, agriculture, military, bureaucracy, business, media, and churches were assessed through a mail survey between July and September 1994. AIDS is a major public health issue in South Africa and one of the most hotly-debated political problems. The survey found that these opinion leaders have a surprisingly low level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS, which may explain the relatively low position of AIDS issues in public policy. Overall, opinion leaders with right-wing affiliations are intolerant toward people with AIDS, it is commonly felt that people with AIDS should be treated in public hospitals, opinion leaders believe that the entry of illegal aliens is making the AIDS problem worse, it is widely considered that the state cannot afford to fund medical research on AIDS at the cost of primary health care services, it is widely felt that regular AIDS tests for all South Africans should not be compulsory, and most opinion leaders believe that employees who test HIV-positive should inform their employers. The author posits that this level of ignorance of the full implications and dimensions of HIV/AIDS may cause institutions to fail to adapt to the growing crisis.

  15. A geodiversity basis for landscape conservation in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jasper; Grab, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the South African landscape exhibits a palimpsest of different geologic and landform assemblages of different ages, and which record at the surface the effects of climate and environmental changes from the late Cretaceous to present. Previous studies have split the country into geomorphic provinces based on large-scale watersheds, uniformity of slope elements within the watersheds, and valley hypsometry. Geology, landforms and their homogeneity or diversity within a single area have not been considered. The existing network of provincial (Provincial Heritage Sites), national (National Parks/Transfrontier Parks), and international (World Heritage Sites, Ramsar sites) landscape conservation measures in South Africa do not explicitly and routinely include site or features of geoheritage or geodiversity interest. This present paper sets out to develop criteria by which landscapes of high geodiversity value can be identified, and provides examples of how these criteria can be applied. The close connection in South Africa between landscape-scale geology and geomorphology, and archaeology and ecosystems, suggests that geodiversity should and can be a key element of all landscape conservation strategies.

  16. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Susan J; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2015-01-01

    Background There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage. Objective This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization's six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants' perspectives on nursing education in South Africa. Methods Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of the research area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key informants after informed consent had been obtained. The interviews were analysed using template analysis. Results South Africa has strategic plans on human resources for health and nursing education, training, and practice and has a well-established system of regulation and accreditation of nursing education through the South African Nursing Council (SANC). Key informants criticised the following: the lack of national staffing norms; sub-optimal governance by both the SANC and the Department of Health; outdated curricula that are unresponsive to population and health system needs; lack of preparedness of nurse educators; and the unsuitability of the majority of nursing students. These problems are exacerbated by a perceived lack of prioritisation of nursing, resource constraints in both the nursing education institutions and the health training facilities, and general implementation inertia. Conclusion Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection.

  17. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.; Hosegood, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women’s increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men’s and women’s out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa. PMID:25332690

  18. Reflections on Apartheid in South Africa: Perspectives and an Outlook for the Future. A Curriculum Unit. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (South Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnsley, Johnnye R.

    This curriculum unit is designed for students to achieve a better understanding of the South African society and the numerous changes that have recently occurred. The four-week unit can be modified to fit existing classroom needs. The nine lessons include: (1) "A Profile of South Africa"; (2) "South African Society"; (3)…

  19. A climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blamey, R. C.; Middleton, C.; Lennard, C.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Severe thunderstorms pose a considerable risk to society and the economy of South Africa during the austral summer months (October-March). Yet, the frequency and distribution of such severe storms is poorly understood, which partly stems out of an inadequate observation network. Given the lack of observations, alternative methods have focused on the relationship between severe storms and their associated environments. One such approach is to use a combination of covariant discriminants, derived from gridded datasets, as a probabilistic proxy for the development of severe storms. These covariates describe some key ingredient for severe convective storm development, such as the presence of instability. Using a combination of convective available potential energy and deep-layer vertical shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, this study establishes a climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa for the period 1979-2010. Results indicate that early austral summer months are most likely associated with conditions that are conducive to the development of severe storms over the interior of South Africa. The east coast of the country is a hotspot for potential severe convective environments throughout the summer months. This is likely due to the close proximity of the Agulhas Current, which produces high latent heat fluxes and acts as a key moisture source. No obvious relationship is established between the frequency of potential severe convective environments and the main large-scale modes of variability in the Southern Hemisphere, such as ENSO. This implies that several factors, possibly more localised, may modulate the spatial and temporal frequency of severe thunderstorms across the region.

  20. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  1. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  2. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352).

  3. Orientalism(s), World Geography Textbooks, and Temporal Paradox: Questioning Representations of Southwest Asia and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagumny, Lisa; Richey, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this critical discourse analysis of six high-school world geography textbooks, we explore how constructions and representations of North Africa and Southwest Asia have served to reinforce Orientalist discourse in formal curriculum. Visual and written representations in these textbooks were overwhelmingly confounded by a traditional/modern…

  4. Estimating the burden of road traffic injuries among children and adolescents in urban South Asia.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan Ali; Amach, Omar Hussein; Garg, Nitin; Labinjo, Mariam Temitope

    2006-07-01

    Over a million people died from road traffic injuries (RTI) globally in the year 2000 and as many as 50 million were injured. Yet there has been little work focused on the South Asia region, let alone the vulnerable segments of population such as children and adolescents. This study aims at measuring the burden of disease caused by urban road traffic injuries among children and adolescents in South Asia. This study selected 26 studies for review and data extraction out of 1505 published articles. Data from the studies were pooled to calculate the proportion and characteristics of child and adolescent RTI, regional RTI incidence and mortality rates, and an estimate of the burden of disease caused by these injuries through the use of the healthy life years lost (HeaLY) composite measure. Our findings showed that the majority of injuries occurred in males (67-80%) and the most frequent age group injured was between ages 0 and 9 representing 40% of cases. Children and adolescents represent an average of 22% of all those with RTI whom seek care. Children and adolescents represented an average of 13% of all RTI deaths. Regional RTI incidence rate was calculated at 880 per 100,000 urban persons aged 0-19. Mortality due to RTI was at 17 deaths per 100,000 urban persons aged 0-19 in South Asia. Burden of disease was calculated 16 HeaLYs per 1000 general population from road traffic mortality alone. With disability data added, then 27.7 HeaLYs per 1000 general population are lost from road traffic injuries in South Asia. The increasing burden of RTI in young persons in South Asia is a call for considering appropriate research and effective interventions. This relatively high loss of healthy life from RTI needs to be addressed by public health systems in South Asia.

  5. Comparisons of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia at initiation of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa, Asia, and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Firnhaber, Cynthia; Smeaton, Laura; Saukila, Nasinuku; Flanigan, Timothy; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Kumwenda, Johnstone; La Rosa, Alberto; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; De Gruttola, Victor; Hakim, James Gita; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Hematological abnormalities are common manifestations of advanced HIV-1 infection that could affect the outcomes of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Although most HIV-1-infected individuals live in resource-constrained countries, there is little information about the frequency of hematological abnormalities such as anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia among individuals with advanced HIV-1 disease. Methods This study compared the prevalence of pre-antiretroviral therapy hematological abnormalities among 1571 participants in a randomized trial of antiretroviral efficacy in Africa, Asia, South America, the Caribbean, and the USA. Potential covariates for anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were identified in univariate analyses and evaluated in separate multivariable models for each hematological condition. Results The frequencies of neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≤ 1.3 × 109/l), anemia (hemoglobin ≤ 10 g/dl), and thrombocytopenia (platelets ≤ 125 × 109/l) at initiation of antiretroviral therapy were 14%, 12%, and 7%, respectively, and varied by country (p < 0.0001 for each). In multivariable models, anemia was associated with gender, platelet count, and country; neutropenia was associated with CD4+ lymphocyte and platelet counts; and thrombocytopenia was associated with country, gender, and chronic hepatitis B infection. Conclusions Differences in the frequency of pretreatment hematological abnormalities could have important implications for the choice of antiretroviral regimen in resource-constrained settings. PMID:20961784

  6. Images of Africa: A Report on What American Secondary School Students Know and Believe about Africa South of the Sahara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Barry K.; Hicks, E. Perry

    "Project Africa" surveyed selected seventh- and 12th-grade students in 24 states to determine (1) the specific nature of their images of Africa south of the Sahara, both before and after any formal study of this region, and (2) the types and accuracy of the students' knowledge about the region and its peoples. In one survey, students…

  7. Pneumoconiosis in Chromite Miners in South Africa1

    PubMed Central

    Sluis-Cremer, G. K.; Du Toit, R. S. J.

    1968-01-01

    Ten chromite miners in South Africa have been found to show radiological evidence of a fine nodulation; five of these miners had worked only in chromite mines. These cases occurred in a labour force of some 1,500 persons subjected to regular examination. Clinical evidence and the results of intratracheal injection of chromite suspension into rats indicate that the radiological changes are due not to fibrosis but to a benign deposition of chromite (Cr2O3FeO) dust in the lungs. Images PMID:5642648

  8. Violence against women in South Africa: policy position and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mogale, Ramadimetja S; Burns, Kathy Kovacs; Richter, Solina

    2012-05-01

    Violence against women (VAW) in South Africa remains rampant, irrespective of human rights- focused laws passed by the government. This article reflects on the position of two acts: the Domestic Violence Act No 116 of 1998 and Criminal Law (Sexual Offense and Related Matters) Act No 32 of 2007. Both are framed to protect women against all forms of violence. The article discusses the prisms of the two laws, an account of the position taken or interpreted by the reviewed literature regarding the acts, and the findings and recommendations regarding the infrastructure and supports needed to appropriately implement the two acts.

  9. The unsuspected killer: Liquefied petroleum gas overexposure in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sampson, L W J; van der Schyff, N; Cupido, C

    2014-12-14

    A 21-year-old woman with no past medical history of note was found unconscious together with five of her family members after prolonged exposure to liquefied petroleum gas. She was admitted to the intensive care unit at Victoria Hospital, Wynberg, Cape Town, South Africa, following resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity. On examination the following was found: coma without focal neurology; shock requiring fluid resuscitation and adrenaline; probable pneumonitis or aspiration pneumonia; acute rhabdomyolysis with severe metabolic acidosis; and raised serum K+. A carboxyhaemoglobin test was unable to confirm or exclude carbon monoxide poisoning.

  10. Mission, Science, and Race in South Africa; AW Roberts of Lovedale 1883-1938

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I.S.

    2016-02-01

    Book Review: Biography of Alexander William Roberts. Noted educator, variable star observer and politician who represented South African "natives" in the parliament of the Union of South Africa at a time when they had no other representation.

  11. Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria`s nuclear weapons experience. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    The primary focus of this paper is the impact of key South African leaders on the successful developments and subsequent rollbacks of South Africa`s nuclear weapons capability. It highlights the key milestones in the development of South Africa`s nuclear weapon capability. It also relates how different groups within South Africa (scientists, politicians, military and technocrats) interacted to successfully produce South Africa`s nuclear deterrent. It emphasizes the pivotal influence of the senior political leadership to pursue nuclear rollback given the disadvantages of its nuclear means to achieve vital national interests. The conclusions drawn from flu`s effort are the South African nuclear program was an extreme response to its own identity Crisis. Nuclear weapons became a means to achieving a long term end of a closer affiliation with the West. A South Africa yearning to be identified as a Western nation and receive guarantees of its security rationalized the need for a nuclear deterrent. The deterrent was intended to draw in Western support to counter a feared total onslaught by Communist forces in the region. Two decades later, that same South Africa relinquished its nuclear deterrent and reformed its domestic policies to secure improved economic and political integration with the West.

  12. A(H5N1) Virus Evolution in South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Naughtin, Monica Jane; Horm, Srey Viseth; San, Sorn; Buchy, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is an ongoing public health and socio-economic challenge, particularly in South East Asia. H5N1 is now endemic in poultry in many countries, and represents a major pandemic threat. Here, we describe the evolution of H5N1 virus in South East Asia, the reassortment events leading to high genetic diversity in the region, and factors responsible for virus spread. The virus has evolved with genetic variations affecting virulence, drug-resistance, and adaptation to new host species. The constant surveillance of these changes is of primary importance in the global efforts of the scientific community. PMID:21994553

  13. A critical appraisal of clinical trials conducted and subsequent drug approvals in India and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Dnyanesh; Langer, Janka Marisa; Rühling, Tjorben; Fortwengel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relation between the number of clinical trials conducted and respective new drug approvals in India and South Africa. Design Construction and analysis of a comprehensive database of completed randomised controlled clinical trials based on clinicaltrials.gov from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 and drug approval data from 2006 until 2013 for India and South Africa. Setting USA, the EU, India and South Africa. Main outcome measures Percentage of completed randomised clinical trials for an Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP) leading to new drug approval in India and South Africa. Results A total of 622 eligible randomised controlled trials were identified as per search criteria for India and South Africa. Clustering them for the same sponsor and the same Investigational New Drug (IND) resulted in 453 eligible trials, that is, 224 for India and 229 for South Africa. The distribution of the market application approvals between the EU/USA as well as India and South Africa revealed that out of clinical trials with the participation of test centres in India and/or South Africa, 39.6% (India) clinical trials and 60.1% (South Africa) clinical trials led to market authorisation in the EU/USA without a New Drug Application (NDA) approval in India or South Africa. Conclusions Despite an increase in clinical trial activities, there is a clear gap between the number of trials conducted and market availability of these new drugs in India and South Africa. Drug regulatory authorities, investigators, institutional review boards and patient groups should direct their efforts to ensuring availability of new drugs in the market that have been tested and researched on their population. PMID:26324720

  14. Language-based social preferences among children in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kinzler, Katherine D; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2012-07-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African children preferred speakers of their first language (Xhosa) to speakers of a foreign language (French). Thus, social preferences based on language are observed not only among children with limited exposure to cultural and linguistic variation but also among children living in a diverse linguistic environment. Moreover, Xhosa children attending school in English expressed social preferences for speakers of English over speakers of Xhosa, even when tested by a Xhosa-speaking experimenter. Thus, children's language-based social preferences do not depend exclusively on preferences for more familiar or intelligible speech but also extend to preferences for speech that may convey higher status in the child's society.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed.

  16. Distinguishing Between Legally and Illegally Produced Gold in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard J; Dixon, Roger D; Merkle, Roland K W

    2016-01-01

    The identification of gold-bearing material is essential for combating the theft of gold in South Africa. Material seized in police operations is generally a mixture of gold from different mines, and as such cannot be traced back to a single location. ICP-OES analysis of material dissolved by acid dissolution provided a database of gold compositions comprising gold from South African mines, illegal gold stolen from the mines, and commercial gold alloys and jewelery. Discrimination between legal and illegal gold was possible due to the presence of Pb, As, Sb, Sn, Se, and Te in the stolen material, elements which are not present in legally produced gold. The presence of these elements is a quick and simple way to distinguish between gold alloys based on refined gold, such as in commercially manufactured jewelery, and gold alloys containing a proportion of unrefined and therefore illegally obtained gold.

  17. Triple dividends of water consumption charges in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsoalo, Anthony; Blignaut, James; de Wet, Theuns; de Wit, Martin; Hess, Sebastiaan; Tol, Richard S. J.; van Heerden, Jan

    2007-05-01

    The South African government is exploring ways to address water scarcity problems by introducing a water resource management charge on the quantity of water used in sectors such as irrigated agriculture, mining, and forestry. It is expected that a more efficient water allocation, lower use, and a positive impact on poverty can be achieved. This paper reports on the validity of these claims by applying a computable general equilibrium model to analyze the triple dividend of water consumption charges in South Africa: reduced water use, more rapid economic growth, and a more equal income distribution. It is shown that an appropriate budget-neutral combination of water charges, particularly on irrigated agriculture and coal mining, and reduced indirect taxes, particularly on food, would yield triple dividends, that is, less water use, more growth, and less poverty.

  18. Heat pulse observations of Eucalyptus grandis transpiration in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, P.J.; Olbrich, B.W.

    1992-12-31

    Forest plantations in South Africa are currently limited to areas experiencing a minimum mean annual rainfall of 800 mm, and cover approximately 1.18 million ha. Of this total area, 37% is planted to Eucalyptus spp., of which 76% comprise E. grandis Hill ex Maiden. Micrometeorological methods of measuring evapotranspiration are impractical in many areas of South African forestry owing to the rugged topography and heterogeneous canopy and boundary layer conditions. The heat pulse velocity (HPV) technique shows great promise as a suitable method of measuring sap flow in even-aged forest plantations. This paper describes the method in detail, as well as the results of comparisons between HPV sap flow estimates and cut-tree uptake rates for two size classes of E. grandis.

  19. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  20. Survival from digestive cancer in emerging countries in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Lambert, René; Saito, Hiroshi; Lucas, Eric; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of digestive cancer, including cancer of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and liver, is analyzed in developing and less developed countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America. The analysis is based on cancer registries for observed values, on a recent monograph published at International Agency for Research on Cancer and on the GLOBOCAN 2008 database for estimations. For all tumor sites analyzed, the incidence is lower in these countries than in developed countries of Europe, North America, and Japan. The 5-year relative survival from digestive cancer is also lower. In developing countries, there is room for prevention of cancer burden through lifestyle interventions and through improved early detection of cancer.

  1. Quality of vaccination services and social demand for vaccinations in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Streefland, P. H.; Chowdhury, A. M.; Ramos-Jimenez, P.

    1999-01-01

    For immunization to be effective in the long run as a major global disease control intervention it is important to provide good quality vaccination services. Studies carried out in three countries in Asia (Bangladesh, India, and the Philippines) and two countries in Africa (Ethiopia and Malawi), and reported on in this article, document the fact that parents are willing to invest considerable effort in having their children vaccinated; however, there are a number of serious shortcomings in the quality of the routine vaccination services and strains are apparent at the interface between the vaccination providers and the users. These shortcomings are detracting from the sustainability of routine vaccination programmes and are promoting the growth of pools of nonimmunized and partially immunized children. To safeguard the continued operation and to enhance the coverage of routine vaccination programmes it is crucial that these difficulties be addressed. PMID:10534895

  2. One Health research and training and government support for One Health in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Joanna S.; Dahal, Rojan; Kakkar, Manish; Debnath, Nitish; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dorjee, Sithar; Naeem, Khalid; Wijayathilaka, Tikiri; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Maidanwal, Nasir; Halimi, Asmatullah; Kim, Eunmi; Chatterjee, Pranab; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps. Materials and methods A landscape analysis of OH research, training, and government support in South Asia was generated by searching peer-reviewed and grey literature for OH research publications and reports, a questionnaire survey of people potentially engaged in OH research in South Asia and the authors’ professional networks. Results Only a small proportion of zoonotic disease research conducted in South Asia can be described as truly OH, with a significant lack of OH policy-relevant research. A small number of multisectoral OH research and OH capacity building programmes were conducted in the region. The governments of Bangladesh and Bhutan have established operational OH strategies, with variable progress institutionalising OH in other countries. Identified gaps were a lack of useful scientific information and of a collaborative culture for formulating and implementing integrated zoonotic disease control policies and the need for ongoing support for transdisciplinary OH research and policy-relevant capacity building programmes. Discussion Overall we found a very small number of truly OH research and capacity building programmes in South Asia. Even though significant progress has been made in institutionalising OH in some South Asian countries, further behavioural, attitudinal, and institutional changes are required to strengthen OH research

  3. Education for Women's Empowerment in Asia and South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruzada, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue contains an editorial, "Empowering Women through Education" (Elizabeth Cruzada), and eight articles. "Women and Education" (Swarna Jayaweera) presents the status of women and girls' education in Asia vis-a-vis the goals set in the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies. "Education Reforms and Development of Chinese…

  4. Perilous Human Security in South Asia: Are There Ways Out?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-21

    threats directed against women and child . Most people derive security from their membership in a group – a family, a community, an organization, a...Strategic Environment, 10-11. 84 Aun Porn Moniroth, “Economic Integration in East Asia – Cambodia’s Experience” in East Asian Visions, ed. Indermit Gil

  5. A review of Clarias gariepinus invasions in Brazil and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Weyl, O L F; Daga, V S; Ellender, B R; Vitule, J R S

    2016-07-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus is native to most of Africa and small parts of Asia, but has been introduced to 37 countries mainly for aquaculture. This review of introductions, establishment, spread and impact of C. gariepinus in Brazil and outside of its native range in South Africa provides evidence that the species has been able to overcome all barriers to invasion in both countries. Following initial introductions across geographical barriers, containment seems to have been impossible and escape from aquaculture facilities and spread by illegal introductions is an invasion pathway in both countries. There is evidence of individuals dispersing rapidly following escape, and surviving and reproducing at multiple sites in a wide spectrum of habitats in both countries. There is a severe paucity of research on impacts, many of which are inferred from field and laboratory observations, but have not been demonstrated at population or community level. Such impact studies are urgently required to better understand the consequences of these invasions and to develop appropriate strategies to mitigate impacts and spread.

  6. Human mandibular incisors from the late Middle Pleistocene locality of Hoedjiespunt 1, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stynder, D D; Moggi-Cecchi, J; Berger, L R; Parkington, J E

    2001-11-01

    The Hoedjiespunt 1 locality is an archaeological and palaeontological site located on the Hoedjiespunt Peninsula at Saldanha Bay, South Africa. In 1996 two human teeth, a left central mandibular incisor and a left lateral mandibular incisor, were discovered during excavations in the late Middle Pleistocene palaeontological layers. These teeth are described and are found to belong to a single subadult individual. Despite their developmental stage, these incisors already display early signs of wear. Their crown diameters are larger than modern and archaeological African comparative material and are most closely comparable with crown diameters of an early Middle Pleistocene and late Middle Pleistocene dental sample from Africa, Europe and Asia. In the light of this metrical evidence, data on two previously excavated maxillary molars, most probably belonging to the same individual, were re-examined. It was found that the Hoedjiespunt 1 hominid possessed dental metrical features (large anterior teeth and small molars) comparable with other African and European hominids referred to the Middle Pleistocene.

  7. Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy

    1963-01-01

    The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

  8. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context.

  9. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable.

  10. A new malaria vector mosquito in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Ashley; Dandalo, Leonard; Munhenga, Givemore; Dahan-Moss, Yael; Mbokazi, Frans; Ngxongo, Sifiso; Coetzee, Maureen; Koekemoer, Lizette; Brooke, Basil

    2017-01-01

    South Africa aims to eliminate malaria within its borders by 2018. Despite well-coordinated provincial vector control programmes that are based on indoor residual insecticide spraying, low-level residual malaria transmission continues in the low-altitude border regions of the north-eastern sector of the country. In order to identify the underlying causes of residual transmission, an enhanced vector surveillance system has been implemented at selected sites in the Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) provinces. The collection periods for the data presented are March 2015 to April 2016 for Mpumalanga and January 2014 to December 2015 for KZN. The mosquito collection methods used included indoor and outdoor traps based on the use of traditional ceramic pots, modified plastic buckets and exit window traps (KZN only). All Anopheles funestus species group mosquitoes collected were identified to species and all females were screened for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Two An. vaneedeni females, one from each surveillance site, tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. These are the first records of natural populations of An. vaneedeni being infective with P. falciparum. As both specimens were collected from outdoor-placed ceramic pots, these data show that An. vaneedeni likely contributes to residual malaria transmission in South Africa. PMID:28262811

  11. Correlates of HIV testing among abused women in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julie L; Hansen, Nathan B; Fox, Ashley M; Taylor, Baishakhi B; van Rensburg, Madri Jansen; Mohlahlane, Rakgadi; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-08-01

    Gender-based violence increases a woman's risk for HIV but little is known about her decision to get tested. We interviewed 97 women seeking abuse-related services from a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Forty-six women (47%) had been tested for HIV. Caring for children (odds ratio [OR] = 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.07, 1.00]) and conversing with partner about HIV (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.85]) decreased odds of testing. Stronger risk-reduction intentions (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = [1.01, 1.60]) and seeking help from police (OR = 5.51, 95% CI = [1.18, 25.76]) increased odds of testing. Providing safe access to integrated services and testing may increase testing in this population. Infection with HIV is highly prevalent in South Africa where an estimated 16.2% of adults between the ages of 15 and 49 have the virus. The necessary first step to stemming the spread of HIV and receiving life-saving treatment is learning one's HIV serostatus through testing. Many factors may contribute to someone's risk of HIV infection and many barriers may prevent testing. One factor that does both is gender-based violence.

  12. Why test for tuberculosis? A qualitative study from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Skinner, D; Claassens, M

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Early testing and treatment initiation are crucial for controlling the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, especially in high-burden countries such as South Africa. Objective: To explore reasons why patients opted to test for TB and the context in which they were tested. Design: This qualitative study was nested in a larger study evaluating patients who did not initiate anti-tuberculosis treatment after diagnosis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 41 patients across five provinces of South Africa. Results: While most patients presented for testing because of their symptoms, unfortunately many waited until their symptoms were severe and thus remained infectious for longer. Outreach campaigns and TB screening at primary health care facilities were perceived favourably, although some respondents were unclear as to the nature of the tests being performed and had concerns about the implications. Positive health care worker attitudes towards presumptive TB patients contributed towards prompt testing and treatment initiation. Conclusion: As patients often delayed presenting for testing, strategies to engage early with presumptive TB patients so that testing and treatment can commence without delay should be a priority for TB programmes.

  13. Why test for tuberculosis? A qualitative study from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Early testing and treatment initiation are crucial for controlling the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, especially in high-burden countries such as South Africa. Objective: To explore reasons why patients opted to test for TB and the context in which they were tested. Design: This qualitative study was nested in a larger study evaluating patients who did not initiate anti-tuberculosis treatment after diagnosis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 41 patients across five provinces of South Africa. Results: While most patients presented for testing because of their symptoms, unfortunately many waited until their symptoms were severe and thus remained infectious for longer. Outreach campaigns and TB screening at primary health care facilities were perceived favourably, although some respondents were unclear as to the nature of the tests being performed and had concerns about the implications. Positive health care worker attitudes towards presumptive TB patients contributed towards prompt testing and treatment initiation. Conclusion: As patients often delayed presenting for testing, strategies to engage early with presumptive TB patients so that testing and treatment can commence without delay should be a priority for TB programmes. PMID:28123955

  14. The costs of household food waste in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem; Oelofse, Suzan; Godfrey, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting), wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain, and problems associated with the disposal of organic waste to landfill. This paper quantifies the household food waste stream in South Africa, in order to draw attention to the magnitude of the problem. In addition, it estimates the economic (monetary) value of the wasted food, as well as the costs associated with disposing putrescible food waste to landfill, in order to highlight the associated costs to society. Costs associated with the loss of a potentially valuable food source are valued using a weighted average market price of the wasted food. Costs associated with the disposal of food waste to landfill are quantified based on estimates of the financial and external costs associated with landfilling. For household food waste alone, the costs to society associated with these two food-waste related problems are estimated at approximately R21.7 billion (approximately US$2.7 billion) per annum, or 0.82% of South Africa's annual GDP. These costs are therefore significant, particularly considering that household food waste accounts for less than 4% of total food losses across the food supply chain.

  15. Policy trade-offs between climate mitigation and clean cook-stove access in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Colin; Pachauri, Shonali; Rao, Narasimha D.; McCollum, David; Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from traditional cook stoves presents a greater health hazard than any other environmental factor. Despite government efforts to support clean-burning cooking fuels, over 700 million people in South Asia could still rely on traditional stoves in 2030. This number could rise if climate change mitigation efforts increase energy costs. Here we quantify the costs of support policies to make clean cooking affordable to all South Asians under four increasingly stringent climate policy scenarios. Our most stringent mitigation scenario increases clean fuel costs 38% in 2030 relative to the baseline, keeping 21% more South Asians on traditional stoves or increasing the minimum support policy cost to achieve universal clean cooking by up to 44%. The extent of this increase depends on how policymakers allocate subsidies between clean fuels and stoves. These additional costs are within the range of financial transfers to South Asia estimated in efforts-sharing scenarios of international climate agreements.

  16. Constitutional Court of South Africa overturns lower court's decision on the right to "sufficient water".

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    On 8 October 2009, the Constitutional Court of South Africa overturned the judgment of the Supreme Court of Appeal, which addressed the proper interpretation of Section 27(1)(b) of the Constitution of South Africa (Constitution)--namely, everyone's right to have access to sufficient water.

  17. Optical Astronomy in Post-Apartheid South Africa: 1994 to 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, P. A.

    2004-10-01

    The progress of optical astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the socio-political climate which embraced the idea of a 10-m class telescope as a flagship project that would lead to widespread development in science, technology and education - not only in South Africa, but across the subcontinent.

  18. Entrepreneurial Education in a Tertiary Context: A Perspective of the University of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadi-Echendu, Anthea P.; Phillips, Magaret; Chodokufa, Kudakwashe; Visser, Thea

    2016-01-01

    South Africa is characterised by high unemployment levels, a low Total Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity rate, and a high small business failure rate. Entrepreneurship and small business development is seen as a solution to end unemployment in South Africa. A study to understand how to improve small business support was conducted at the…

  19. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  20. Vocational Training and Technical Qualification Systems in Korea and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-Yoon; Tau, Alfred; Pereira, Clarence A.

    A comparison of vocational training and technical qualification systems in Korea and South Africa shows both countries are responding to similar changes in economic and enterprise structures. South Africa's work experience learnership system is more desirable than Korea's more traditional separation between formal education and workplace training,…

  1. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  2. The African Renaissance and the Transformation of the Higher Education Curriculum in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum is a critical element in the transformation of higher education, and as a result, I argue for the inclusion of what I refer to as an African epistemic in higher education curricula in South Africa. In so doing, attention is directed at the decolonisation of the curriculum in higher education in South Africa, which aims to give…

  3. Another Lost Generation? The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Schooling in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the different ways in which the HIV/AIDS pandemic is negatively impacting on affected and infected children's willingness and ability to attend school in South Africa. Within the context of HIV/AIDS, South Africa has the mammoth responsibility of saving the present generation of children from a fate similar to or worse than…

  4. Higher Education Research Expenditure in South Africa: A Review of the New Funding Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M.; Ntenga, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The trends and the trajectory of higher education research expenditure in South Africa since the introduction of the New Funding Formula in 2004 have been analysed. The paper also compares the level of South Africa's total gross expenditure on research and development with those of other selected economies. The findings show that following…

  5. A Survey of Music Education in the Primary Schools of South Africa's Cape Peninsula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Anri; Wet, Jacques de; Rijsdijk, Susan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the state of music education in government primary schools in the Cape Peninsula (Western Cape Province, South Africa) as perceived by the general class teacher. Since the first democratic elections in South Africa (1994), the entire primary and secondary school education system has changed drastically in terms of content, and…

  6. The Role of Religious Education in Building a Nation in Multiethnic South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitshoff, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the role of religious education in the future planning and implementation of South Africa's education system. Reviews the role of religion before 1990, particularly the Dutch Reformed Church. Concludes that the future of religious education in South Africa depends on the future of religion. (CFR)

  7. Universities and Adult Literacy in South Africa: An Exploration of Their Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenham, John; French, Edward

    Observations of the relationship between South Africa's universities and adult literacy are offered by a British Council consultant after a visit to South Africa. The purpose was to help university lecturers design and develop an adult literacy course and to give seminars to local literacy groups. Impressions are described on the state of…

  8. Developing Talent Potential in Non-School Settings in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, J.

    The paper briefly describes non-school enrichment programs and services for gifted and talented students in South Africa. Preliminary discussion examines the context of non-school interventions, the relevancy of non-formal gifted child education, and categorizing non-school provisions for this population in South Africa. Programs are listed under…

  9. Building on Experience: A Formative Evaluation of a Peer Education Sexual Health Project in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In South Africa, as elsewhere in the world, the promise of peer education as a means of promoting sexual health has contributed to its increasing popularity. While structural and organisational constraints can compromise the success of peer education, many of those involved in modest local programmes in South Africa are able to address the sexual…

  10. Sharing Ownership in Multicultural Music: A Hands-On Approach in Teacher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    South Africa prides itself in a rich and colorful array of the Arts where music plays a significant role in social regeneration, unity and reconciliation. Little research has been undertaken in teacher education courses in South Africa regarding the inclusion of African music within multicultural music practice. Using the theoretical frameworks of…

  11. Subjective Well-Being, Poverty and Ethnicity in South Africa: Insights from an Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest inequality levels in the world. In 1993, nearly half of the population were considered poor. These poverty and inequality levels were and still are a legacy of South Africa's colonial and apartheid past. Since the end of apartheid, there has been a strong governmental effort to combat poverty and in this light a…

  12. Privatising Public Schooling in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Equity Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen

    2009-01-01

    Through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data on school funding in South Africa, this paper aims to analyse the user fee policy option in public schooling in South Africa. Debate is ongoing about the role of private input into public schooling and whether this practice affects access (and the constitutional right) to basic education,…

  13. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from South Africa and revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea,...

  14. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...

  15. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate... steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and/or the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel...

  16. Psychological Distress amongst AIDS-Orphaned Children in Urban South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background: South Africa is predicted to have 2.3 million children orphaned by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by 2020 (Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2005). There is little knowledge about impacts of AIDS-related bereavement on children, to aid planning of services. This study aimed to investigate psychological consequences of AIDS…

  17. Historical Amnesia? The Politics of Textbooks in Post-Apartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polakow-Suransky, Sasha S.

    The issue of history, specifically history textbooks, has been at the center of South Africa's educational reform debates for years. One of the consequences of South Africa's delayed curricular reform is the continued use of apartheid-era history textbooks, which, among other things, deny European colonization and conquest and claim that whites…

  18. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  19. Parent Involvement in Public School Governance: The United States and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Colditz, Paul; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This article explores parent involvement in decision making in the United States and in postapartheid South Africa and highlights similarities and differences in how parents in these two countries participate in public school governance and decision making. Parents' role in public school governance in South Africa is significant and entrenched in…

  20. Students' Engagement with Engagement: The Case of Teacher Education Students in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Ruksana; Petersen, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Public engagement is one of the three legs which support and underpin a restructured and transformed post-apartheid higher education system in South Africa (along with teaching and research). This third sector role of higher education is widely implemented in South Africa and is described differently by different institutions and entails a diverse…

  1. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook Napier, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

  2. Who Is out of School? Evidence from the Statistics South Africa Community Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer; Perry, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Schools Act requires every child to "attend school from the first school day of the year in which such learner reaches the age of seven years until the last day of the year in which such learner reaches the age of 15 years or the ninth grade, whichever comes first" (Republic of South Africa, 1996). This paper addresses…

  3. Community Service Learning as Democratic Education in South Africa and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel-Reyes, Meta; Weinstein, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Describes development of the first community service-learning program for democratic education in South Africa, based on the Swarthmore College (Pennsylvania) Democracy Education Project at a black high school near Capetown (South Africa). Notes that successful transposition of the model requires recognition of complex historical and cultural…

  4. Changing Forms of Teacher Education in South Africa: A Case Study of Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines some aspects of teacher education policy change in South Africa. It contextualises the changes by firstly examining the apartheid teacher education system and then mapping the changes that have occurred in teacher education in South Africa since 1994. Using a case study of the Further Diploma in Educational Management at the…

  5. South Africa's Black Universities Struggle To Survive in a New Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnani, Linda

    1999-01-01

    South Africa's black universities face declining interest among black students, who now have more options than under apartheid. The crisis comes as South Africa considers ways to restructure its postsecondary-education system to cut costs and avoid duplication. While black enrollments are rising at other institutions, the numbers of all students…

  6. HIV/Aids in South Africa: A Review of Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartell, Cycil George

    2005-01-01

    South Africa has a fast-growing HIV/AIDS rate, with the highest prevalence among young people (15 to 24 years), especially females. This paper is a comprehensive analytical review of available research concerning the sexual behavior of adolescents in South Africa. It offers insight into HIV infection among adolescents and provides an important…

  7. Skills for Inclusive Growth in South Africa: Promising Tides amidst Perilous Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoojee, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Skills development is critical to South Africa's development. It has been argued that South Africa's twin post-Apartheid challenges, poverty and unemployment requires a level of skills development not undertaken before (RSA, 2008a; ANC, 2007). The creation of a separate ministry, the department of higher education and training (DHET), which has…

  8. South Africa, the Arts and Youth in Conflict with the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Sheila C.; Sloth-Nielsen, Julia; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Diversion into Music Education (DIME) youth intervention programme that originated in South Africa in 2001. DIME offers instruction in African marimba and djembe ensemble performance to juvenile offenders. Conceived as community collaboration among organizations in the cities of Cape Town, South Africa and Tampa, United…

  9. What the U.S. Could Learn from South Africa about Education and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue; Ndlalane, Thembi

    2011-01-01

    Educational policy and practice has resided and continues to reside at the vortex of social and political strife in South Africa, as in the United States. Although school poverty and inequities among schools in the U.S. pale in comparison to conditions in South Africa, the two nations have much in common, including histories of state-sanctioned…

  10. The Challenge of the "Second Economy" in South Africa: The Contribution of Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraak, Andre

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the contribution skills development can make in promoting South Africa's wider socio-economic development. It provides a broad overview of the emerging gap between those who are benefiting from South Africa's transition to democracy and those who are not. Overcoming these worsening social conditions has become a major…

  11. The Plasmodium vivax in China: decreased in local cases but increased imported cases from Southeast Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Xiao, Huihui; Zhang, Li; Yan, He; Feng, Xinyu; Fang, Wen; Xia, Zhigui

    2015-03-05

    Currently the local P. vivax was sharply decreased while the imported vivax malaria increased in China. Despite Southeast Asia was still the main import source of vivax malaria, the trend of Africa become serious, especially for west and central Africa. Herein we have clarified the trend of P. vivax in China from 2004-2012, and made some analysis for the differences of imported vivax back from different regions. There are significantly different of P. vivax between Southeast Asia and Africa, also the difference was observed for different regions in Africa. Additionally, we have explored the possibility for the difference of the P. vivax between migrant workers back from west and central Africa and the prevalence of local population. This reminds us that surveillance and training should be strengthened by medical staffs on the imported P. vivax cases reported especially from west and central Africa, in order to reduce the risk of malaria reintroduction and, specific tools should be developed, as well as the epidemiological study to avoid the misdiagnosis such as P. ovale and P. vivax.

  12. Towards a South Asia Land Data Assimilation System: first results for transboundary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Ghatak, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.; Limaye, A. S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Bajracharya, B.; Shrestha, B. R.; Iceland, C.; Narula, K.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Doorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia faces a remarkably complex and diverse set of hydrologic stresses, including melting glaciers, variable snowpack, intensively utilized transboundary rivers, rapid groundwater depletion due to irrigation, flood and drought hazard, and rapidly changing land use/cover and climate conditions. The management and prediction challenges posed by these conditions are compounded by the sparseness of in situ monitoring sites, particularly in headwaters regions, and a lack of open sharing of hydrometeorological data across national boundaries. As a result, uncertainties in availability in a situation of rising demands are leading to increasing competing and exploitive use of a limited resource, being experienced at various scales. An open water information system for decision support is an absolute necessity. In order to provide an open and spatially complete water information system for decision support across the region, we are implementing a customized Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) designed to provide best-available estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes across South Asia, both retrospectively and in near-real time. The LDAS merges advanced land surface models with satellite-derived and in situ observations. In the case of South Asia, multiple satellite-derived hydrological fields are relevant to complete water balance analysis, including precipitation from multiple sources (e.g., TRMM, CHIRPS, GPM), water storage anomalies from GRACE, thermal infrared evapotranspiration estimates, and snowpack characteristics from visible and microwave sensors. Each of these observation types can either be ingested to South Asia LDAS or used as an independent observation for comparison. Here we present the first results of this South Asian Land Data Assimilation System, with a focus on complete water balance analysis for selected river basins in South Asia.

  13. A review of mercury pollution in South Africa: current status.

    PubMed

    Walters, Chavon R; Somerset, Vernon S; Leaner, Joy J; Nel, Jaco M

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is a review on the status of mercury (Hg) as a pollutant in South African aquatic ecosystems. Spatial patterns of Hg distribution and bioaccumulation in water resources were investigated by collecting and analyzing multimedia samples for physiochemical and Hg-species determination from 62 sampling sites. The data presented showed a wide range in concentrations, which was expected given the array of environmental parameters, water chemistry and sources of Hg. Generally, higher Hg concentrations were measured in environmental compartments impacted by the major anthropogenic Hg sources which, in South Africa, are largely represented by emissions from coal-fired power stations (i.e. Olifants and Upper Vaal WMAs) and artisanal gold mining (i.e., Inkomati WMA). Ancillary water quality parameters (e.g. pH, temperature, DOC, EC and nutrients) were measured and regressed with the measured Hg concentrations to determine which environmental parameters most influenced regional Hg concentrations. The TotHg (sed) and DOC concentrations were identified as important factors controlling TotHg (aq), while TotHg(sed) were correlated to TotHg (aq). This result is indicative of the combined effects of sediment settling and resuspension in the aquatic environment. In contrast, MeHg (aq) was not correlated to DOC. MeHginvert were correlated to MeHg (sed), while MeHg (fish) were correlated to MeHg (aq) and water quality variables (chlorides--Cl(-) and electrical conductivity--EC). A steady progress has been made in Hg research in South Africa. However, despite the substantial knowledge about Hg toxicity, there are still considerable knowledge gaps on the fate and transport of Hg. Hence, further environmental and human health studies are proposed.

  14. Water market transfers in South Africa: Two case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwoudt, W. L.; Armitage, R. M.

    2004-09-01

    Statistical analyses (discriminant, logit, and principal components) of water transfers in the Lower Orange River showed that water rights were transferred to farmers with the highest return per unit of water applied, those producing table grapes, and with high-potential arable "outer land" without water rights. Only unused water (sleeper right) was transferred, while water saved (through adoption of conservation practices) was retained possibly for security purposes. A second study in the Nkwaleni Valley in northern KwaZulu-Natal found that no water market had emerged despite the scarcity of water in the area. No willing sellers of water rights existed. Demand for institutional change to establish tradable water rights may take more time in the second area since crop profitability in this area is similar for potential buyers and nonbuyers. Transaction costs appear larger than benefits from market transactions. Farmers generally use all their water rights in the second area and retain surplus water rights as security against drought because of unreliable river flow. This study indicates that these irrigation farmers are highly risk averse (downside risk). Government policies that increase the level of risk and reduce security of licenses are estimated to have a significant effect on future investment in irrigation. In an investment model the following variables explain future investment: expected profits, liquidity, risk aversion (Arrow-Pratt), and security of water use rights. The study is seen in the light of the New South African Water Act of 1998. According to this act, the ownership of water in South Africa has changed from private to public. This reform may not impede the development of water markets in South Africa since in the well-developed water markets of the United States, western states claim ownership of water within their boundaries. All states in the western United States allow private rights in the use of water to be established and sold.

  15. ART in South Africa: The price to pay

    PubMed Central

    Huyser, C.; Boyd, L.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection together with limited resources adds to the hindrances in becoming a parent. Although the South African’s Bill of Rights proclaim that South Africans can “make decisions concerning reproduction”; access to and the use of Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) are viewed in general as excessively expensive, accessible only to the privileged few. A dissection of cost-drivers within an ART laboratory, such as procedures; sperm preparations; laboratory supplies including embryo culture media and cryopreservation are discussed in the current overview. Subject to the nature of an ART practice, i.e. private vs. public/tertiary, the structure of a unit will vary with regards to patient demographics, costs and services offered. The average fees per procedure for 20 practices in the private sector in South Africa are: (i) IUI: € 542 ± €159, (ii) IVF: € 3,255 ± € 576 and (iii) ICSI: €3,302 ± € 625. Laboratory costs can contribute between 35 and 48% of ART fees payable in the private sector. Low-cost public ART services are available to citizens of the country at a few tertiary academic units. Some private practices also cater specifically for middle-income citizens. ART procedures need not be propelled towards the must-have and cannot-do without approach, but providers should also reflect on the validity of the techniques and equipment, without compromising treatment virtue. PMID:24753934

  16. Languages of South Asia. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of South Asia. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). The emphasis is on materials for the adult learner whose native…

  17. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  18. Relevant and Effective Theological Education in the Context of Twenty-First Century South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Joshva; Rajkumar, Peniel Jesudason Rufus

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers Christian theological education in South Asia highlighting pertinent issues in pedagogical content, form, method, and praxis. Debunking the notion of students as "empty bottles" to be filled, and criticizing the top-down model of education, the paper argues that theological education is an ongoing and interactive…

  19. Secular and Koranic Literacies in South Asia: From Colonisation to Contemporary Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between "secular" and "Koranic" schooling and literacy in South Asia. It begins by tracing an archaeology of the distinction between secular "literacy" and religious "illiteracy". It locates the emergence of the distinction in the colonial census of the 19th century, in…

  20. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…