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  1. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  2. Challenging Educational Injustice: "Grassroots" Privatisation in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of low-cost private schools "mushrooming" in poor areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and elsewhere, is now well-documented. Findings from research by the author's teams and others show that these schools are serving a majority (urban and peri-urban) or significant minority (rural) of the poor, including…

  3. Monitoring the quality of medicines: results from Africa, Asia, and South America.

    PubMed

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M; Lukulay, Patrick H

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003-2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines.

  4. Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Jerry; Hess, Tim; Daccache, Andre; Wheeler, Tim

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a serious threat to crop productivity in regions that are already food insecure. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of eight major crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is - 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of - 17% (wheat), - 5% (maize), - 15% (sorghum) and - 10% (millet) and across South Asia of - 16% (maize) and - 11% (sorghum) were estimated. No mean change in yield was detected for rice. The limited number of studies identified for cassava, sugarcane and yams precluded any opportunity to conduct a meta-analysis for these crops. Variation about the projected mean yield change for all crops was smaller in studies that used an ensemble of > 3 climate (GCM) models. Conversely, complex simulation studies that used biophysical crop models showed the greatest variation in mean yield changes. Evidence of crop yield impact in Africa and South Asia is robust for wheat, maize, sorghum and millet, and either inconclusive, absent or contradictory for rice, cassava and sugarcane.

  5. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  6. Evaluation of GOCE satellite gravimetry using BGI ground gravity observations over Africa, Asia and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexer, M. J.; Hirt, C.; Bonvalot, S.; Bruinsma, S.; Pail, R.; Kuhn, M.

    2013-12-01

    Launched in 2009, GOCE ('Gravity and Steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer') satellite's gravity gradiometer gathered gravity observations which resulted in unprecedented global models of the Earth's gravity field at spatial scales up to 80 km. In remote regions and countries with sparsely distributed ground gravity observations the largest benefit through homogeneous GOCE observations is to be expected. This study deals with the evaluation of GOCE satellite data in those rather poorly surveyed areas with ground gravity data sets provided by the Bureau Gravimétrique International (BGI). We evaluate up-to-date GOCE gravity models at over 60,000 stations over parts of Africa, South America, Central and South-East Asia, and are able to give absolute accuracy estimates for GOCE models in respective areas and quantify the improvement due to GOCE with respect to current global gravity models containing terrestrial information (e.g. EGM2008). Our analysis is based on the spectral enhancement method (Hirt et al, 2011) where satellite data is augmented with terrestrial and forward-modelled gravity from topography prior to the comparisons with observed ground gravity.

  7. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters     ... and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ...

  8. Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Scott; Rampal, Krishna G; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Roda, Sandy M; Succop, Paul; Menrath, William; Chen, Chin K; Adebamowo, Eugenious O; Agbede, Oluwole A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Shinde, Rana M; Yu, Jiefei

    2009-10-01

    In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure.

  9. Genetically Engineered Crops and Certified Organic Agriculture for Improving Nutrition Security in Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Pray, Carl; Ledermann, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    In Africa and South Asia, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology. Potential tertiary pathways are improvements in health due to reduced insecticide use. Challenges to the technologies achieving their impact include the politics of GM agriculture and the certification costs of organic agriculture. Given the importance of agricultural production in addressing nutrition security, accentuated by the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the chapter concludes by stressing the importance of private and public sector research in improving the productivity and adoption of both GM and organic crops. In addition, the chapter reminds readers that increased farm income and productivity require complementary investments in health, education, food access and women's empowerment to actually improve nutrition security.

  10. Genetically Engineered Crops and Certified Organic Agriculture for Improving Nutrition Security in Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Pray, Carl; Ledermann, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    In Africa and South Asia, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology. Potential tertiary pathways are improvements in health due to reduced insecticide use. Challenges to the technologies achieving their impact include the politics of GM agriculture and the certification costs of organic agriculture. Given the importance of agricultural production in addressing nutrition security, accentuated by the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the chapter concludes by stressing the importance of private and public sector research in improving the productivity and adoption of both GM and organic crops. In addition, the chapter reminds readers that increased farm income and productivity require complementary investments in health, education, food access and women's empowerment to actually improve nutrition security. PMID:27197837

  11. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  12. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  13. A GCM Investigation of Dust Aerosol Impact on the Regional Climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between dust and other physical processes have been found to play an important role in the dust-induced climate change. However, there are large uncertainties regarding whether, where, and how the dust enhances or suppresses precipitation. The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will induce a subsidence to its south and

  14. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P < 0.0001) indicated high genetic variation within regions (81.7%) and low variation across regions (18.3%). A high level of genetic variation was found on early growth traits and on components of the relative growth rate (specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and net assimilation rate) as indicated by significant differences between accessions and by the high heritability values (50–88%). The fatty acid composition of jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as

  15. QTL for yield and associated traits in the Seri/Babax population grown across several environments in Mexico, in the West Asia, North Africa, and South Asia regions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P; McIntyre, C Lynne; Mathews, Ky L; Jalal Kamali, M R; Mossad, Moussa; Feltaous, Yousef; Tahir, Izzat S A; Chatrath, Ravish; Ogbonnaya, Francis; Baum, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Heat and drought adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a spring bread wheat population resulting from the Seri/Babax cross designed to minimize confounding agronomic traits have been identified previously in trials conducted in Mexico. The same population was grown across a wide range of environments where heat and drought stress are naturally experienced including environments in Mexico, West Asia, North Africa (WANA), and South Asia regions. A molecular genetic linkage map including 475 marker loci associated to 29 linkage groups was used for QTL analysis of yield, days to heading (DH) and to maturity (DM), grain number (GM2), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), canopy temperature at the vegetative and grain filling stages (CTvg and CTgf), and early ground cover. A QTL for yield on chromosome 4A was confirmed across several environments, in subsets of lines with uniform allelic expression of a major phenology QTL, but not independently from PH. With terminal stress, TKW QTL was linked or pleiotropic to DH and DM. The link between phenology and TKW suggested that early maturity would favor the post-anthesis grain growth periods resulting in increased grain size and yields under terminal stress. GM2 and TKW were partially associated with markers at different positions suggesting different genetic regulation and room for improvement of both traits. Prediction accuracy of yield was improved by 5 % when using marker scores of component traits (GM2 and DH) together with yield in multiple regression. This procedure may provide accumulation of more favorable alleles during selection. PMID:23269228

  16. Correlates of and Barriers to the Utilization of Health Services for Delivery in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Nai-Peng; Lai, Siow-li

    2013-01-01

    The high maternal and neonatal mortality rates in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa can be attributed to the lack of access and utilization of health services for delivery. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Kenya, Nigeria, and Tanzania show that more than half of the births in these countries were delivered outside a health facility. Institutional delivery was closely associated with educational level, family wealth, place of residence, and women's media exposure status, but it was not influenced by women's work status and their roles in decision-making (with the exception of Nigeria). Controlling for other variables, higher parity and younger women were less likely to use a health facility for delivery. Within each country, the poorer, less educated and rural women had higher unmet need for maternal care services. Service related factors (accessibility in terms of cost and distance) and sociocultural factors (e.g., did not perceive the need for the services and objections from husband and family) also posed as barriers to institutional delivery. The paper concludes with some suggestions to increase institutional delivery. PMID:24288482

  17. Literacy in South Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the various facets and dimensions of literacy programs in South Asia indicates that literacy is viewed as a means of human resource development geared toward meaningful participation of all sectors in society, with individual programs varying according to the magnitude of illiteracy, national goals, linguistic setting, and regional…

  18. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  19. Historical Capsule: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Briefly traces the history of South Africa from British acquisition in 1815 through the creation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Presents a chronicle of the year 1900 to show part of the European achievement in close-up. Lists accomplishments in literature, fine arts, science, technology, music, theater, and dance. (GEA)

  20. Strategies to improve follow-up of children after surgery for cataract: findings from Child Eye Health Tertiary Facilities in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Kishiki, E; van Dijk, K; Courtright, P

    2016-09-01

    PurposeWe sought to conduct a systematic literature review on follow-up of children with ocular surgical management (primarily childhood cataract) in developing countries. Second, we sought to determine the current practices regarding follow-up for clinical, optical, low vision, rehabilitation, and educational placement among children receiving surgical services at Child Eye Health Tertiary Facilities (CEHTF) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia.MethodsA systematic literature review was conducted. Separately, we conducted a cross-sectional study among CEHTF in SSA and South Asia (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) to assess current capacities and practices related to follow-up and educational placement.ResultsThe articles that met the systematic review eligibility criteria could be grouped into two areas: factors and strategies to improve post-operative follow-up and educational placement of children after surgery. Among the 106 CEHTF in SSA and South Asia, responses were provided by 75 CEHTF. Only 59% of CEHTF reported having a Childhood Blindness and Low Vision Coordinator; having a coordinator was associated with having appropriate follow-up mechanisms in place. Educational referral practices were associated with having a low-vision technician, having low-vision devices, and having donor support for these services.ConclusionsThe systematic literature review revealed evidence of poor follow-up after surgical interventions for cataract and other conditions, but also showed that follow-up could be improved significantly if specific strategies were adopted. Approaches to follow-up are generally inadequate at most facilities and there is little external support for follow-up. Findings suggest that funding and supporting a coordinator would assist in ensuring that good practices for follow-up (cell phone reminders, patient tracking, and reimbursement of transport) were followed. PMID:27472213

  1. Strategies to improve follow-up of children after surgery for cataract: findings from Child Eye Health Tertiary Facilities in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Kishiki, E; van Dijk, K; Courtright, P

    2016-09-01

    PurposeWe sought to conduct a systematic literature review on follow-up of children with ocular surgical management (primarily childhood cataract) in developing countries. Second, we sought to determine the current practices regarding follow-up for clinical, optical, low vision, rehabilitation, and educational placement among children receiving surgical services at Child Eye Health Tertiary Facilities (CEHTF) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia.MethodsA systematic literature review was conducted. Separately, we conducted a cross-sectional study among CEHTF in SSA and South Asia (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) to assess current capacities and practices related to follow-up and educational placement.ResultsThe articles that met the systematic review eligibility criteria could be grouped into two areas: factors and strategies to improve post-operative follow-up and educational placement of children after surgery. Among the 106 CEHTF in SSA and South Asia, responses were provided by 75 CEHTF. Only 59% of CEHTF reported having a Childhood Blindness and Low Vision Coordinator; having a coordinator was associated with having appropriate follow-up mechanisms in place. Educational referral practices were associated with having a low-vision technician, having low-vision devices, and having donor support for these services.ConclusionsThe systematic literature review revealed evidence of poor follow-up after surgical interventions for cataract and other conditions, but also showed that follow-up could be improved significantly if specific strategies were adopted. Approaches to follow-up are generally inadequate at most facilities and there is little external support for follow-up. Findings suggest that funding and supporting a coordinator would assist in ensuring that good practices for follow-up (cell phone reminders, patient tracking, and reimbursement of transport) were followed.

  2. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  3. Short-term risk of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected patients in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific, and central and South America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective was to examine the short-term risk and predictors of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients from the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration. Methods Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin of < 10 g/dL. Patients were included if they started cART with three or more drugs, had prior haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL, and had one or more follow-up haemoglobin tests. Factors associated with anaemia up to 12 months were examined using Cox proportional hazards models and stratified by IeDEA region. Results Between 1998 and 2008, 19,947 patients initiated cART with baseline and follow-up haemoglobin tests (7358, 7289, 2853, 471, 1550 and 426 in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively). At initiation, anaemia was found in 45% of Western Africa patients, 29% of Eastern Africa patients, 21% of Southern Africa patients, 36% of Central Africa patients, 15% of patients in Asian-Pacific and 14% of patients in Caribbean and Central and South America. Among patients with haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL at baseline (13,445), the risks of anaemia were 18.2, 6.6, 9.7, 22.9, 11.8 and 19.5 per 100 person-years in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively. Factors associated with anaemia were female sex, low baseline haemoglobin level, low baseline CD4 count, more advanced disease stage, and initial cART containing zidovudine. Conclusions In data from 34 cohorts of HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, and Asia, the risk of anaemia within 12 months of initiating cART was moderate. Routine haemoglobin

  4. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  5. Phytosanitary irradiation in south Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation has the potential to solve phytosanitary problems related to trade in south Asia. In general, it is the phytosanitary treatment most tolerated by fresh agricultural commodities. Irradiation technology is available in some countries of the region but is only used for phytosanitary purpos...

  6. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  7. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has, in…

  8. Trends Abroad: South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Douglas H.

    1970-01-01

    In South Africa today there is a complex structure of laws and regulations which impose a variety of restrictions on individual liberties including the freedom to publish and read literary material. The successive steps by which this state of affairs has been reached are briefly described. (NH)

  9. Burden of severe maternal morbidity and association with adverse birth outcomes in sub–Saharan Africa and south Asia: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The AMANHI morbidity study aims to quantify and describe severe maternal morbidities and assess their associations with adverse maternal, fetal and newborn outcomes in predominantly rural areas of nine sites in eight South Asian and sub–Saharan African countries. Methods AMANHI takes advantage of on–going population–based cohort studies covering approximately 2 million women of reproductive age with 1– to 3–monthly pregnancy surveillance to enrol pregnant women. Morbidity information is collected at five follow–up home visits – three during the antenatal period at 24–28 weeks, 32–36 weeks and 37+ weeks of pregnancy and two during the postpartum period at 1–6 days and after 42–60 days after birth. Structured–questionnaires are used to collect self–reported maternal morbidities including hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, infections, difficulty in labor and obstetric fistula, as well as care–seeking for these morbidities and outcomes for mothers and babies. Additionally, structured questionnaires are used to interview birth attendants who attended women’s deliveries. All protocols were harmonised across the sites including training, implementation and operationalising definitions for maternal morbidities. Importance of the AMANHI morbidity study Availability of reliable data to synthesize evidence for policy direction, interventions and programmes, remains a crucial step for prioritization and ensuring equitable delivery of maternal health interventions especially in high burden areas. AMANHI is one of the first large harmonized population–based cohort studies being conducted in several rural centres in South Asia and sub–Saharan Africa, and is expected to make substantial contributions to global knowledge on maternal morbidity burden and its implications. PMID:27648256

  10. Burden of severe maternal morbidity and association with adverse birth outcomes in sub–Saharan Africa and south Asia: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The AMANHI morbidity study aims to quantify and describe severe maternal morbidities and assess their associations with adverse maternal, fetal and newborn outcomes in predominantly rural areas of nine sites in eight South Asian and sub–Saharan African countries. Methods AMANHI takes advantage of on–going population–based cohort studies covering approximately 2 million women of reproductive age with 1– to 3–monthly pregnancy surveillance to enrol pregnant women. Morbidity information is collected at five follow–up home visits – three during the antenatal period at 24–28 weeks, 32–36 weeks and 37+ weeks of pregnancy and two during the postpartum period at 1–6 days and after 42–60 days after birth. Structured–questionnaires are used to collect self–reported maternal morbidities including hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, infections, difficulty in labor and obstetric fistula, as well as care–seeking for these morbidities and outcomes for mothers and babies. Additionally, structured questionnaires are used to interview birth attendants who attended women’s deliveries. All protocols were harmonised across the sites including training, implementation and operationalising definitions for maternal morbidities. Importance of the AMANHI morbidity study Availability of reliable data to synthesize evidence for policy direction, interventions and programmes, remains a crucial step for prioritization and ensuring equitable delivery of maternal health interventions especially in high burden areas. AMANHI is one of the first large harmonized population–based cohort studies being conducted in several rural centres in South Asia and sub–Saharan Africa, and is expected to make substantial contributions to global knowledge on maternal morbidity burden and its implications.

  11. Redirecting Student Interests: Africa and Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Lincoln C.

    Suggestions for students preparing for foreign study in Asia and Africa are presented. It is noted that cooperation and peace may be linked to developing successful programs in the non-Western world. The brief time that students spend in the host country enables the student to describe what the foreign values seem to be, but probably without…

  12. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  13. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  14. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013–2014), Cote d’Ivoire (2011–2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012–2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012–2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12–59 months. The

  15. Terrorism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  16. Burden, timing and causes of maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths in sub–Saharan Africa and South Asia: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The AMANHI mortality study aims to use harmonized methods, across eleven sites in eight countries in South Asia and sub–Saharan Africa, to estimate the burden, timing and causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal deaths. It will generate data to help advance the science of cause of death (COD) assignment in developing country settings. Methods This population–based, cohort study is being conducted in the eleven sites where approximately 2 million women of reproductive age are under surveillance to identify and follow–up pregnancies through to six weeks postpartum. All sites are implementing uniform protocols. Verbal autopsies (VAs) are conducted for deaths of pregnant women, newborns or stillbirths to confirm deaths, ascertain timing and collect data on the circumstances around the death to help assign causes. Physicians from the sites are selected and trained to use International Classification of Diseases (ICD) principles to assign CODs from a limited list of programmatically–relevant causes. Where the cause cannot be determined from the VA, physicians assign that option. Every physician who is trained to assign causes of deaths from any of the study countries is tested and accredited before they start COD assignment in AMANHI. Importance of the AMANHI mortality study It is one of the first to generate improved estimates of burden, timing and causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal deaths from empirical data systematically collected in a large prospective cohort of women of reproductive age. AMANHI makes a substantial contribution to global knowledge to inform policies, interventions and investment decisions to reduce these deaths.

  17. Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat road traffic injuries in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Naci, Huseyin; Hyder, Adnan Ali; Tran, Nhan T; Peden, Margie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify and estimate the population costs and effects of a selected set of enforcement strategies for reducing the burden of road traffic injuries in developing countries. Design Cost effectiveness analysis based on an epidemiological model. Setting Two epidemiologically defined World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE); and countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality (SearD). Interventions Enforcement of speed limits via mobile speed cameras; drink-drive legislation and enforcement via breath testing campaigns; legislation and primary enforcement of seatbelt use in cars; legislation and enforcement of helmet use by motorcyclists; legislation and enforcement of helmet use by bicyclists. Main outcome measures Patterns of injury were fitted to a state transition model to determine the expected population level effects of intervention over a 10 year period, which were expressed in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. Results The single most cost effective strategy varies by sub-region, but a combined intervention strategy that simultaneously enforces multiple road safety laws produces the most health gain for a given amount of investment. For example, the combined enforcement of speed limits, drink-driving laws, and motorcycle helmet use saves one DALY for a cost of $Int1000–3000 in the two sub-regions considered. Conclusions The potential impact of available road safety measures is inextricably bound by the underlying distribution of road traffic injuries across different road user groups and risk factors. Combined enforcement strategies are expected to represent the most efficient way to reduce the burden of road traffic injuries, because they benefit from considerable synergies on the cost side while generating greater overall health gains. PMID

  18. Burden, timing and causes of maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths in sub–Saharan Africa and South Asia: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The AMANHI mortality study aims to use harmonized methods, across eleven sites in eight countries in South Asia and sub–Saharan Africa, to estimate the burden, timing and causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal deaths. It will generate data to help advance the science of cause of death (COD) assignment in developing country settings. Methods This population–based, cohort study is being conducted in the eleven sites where approximately 2 million women of reproductive age are under surveillance to identify and follow–up pregnancies through to six weeks postpartum. All sites are implementing uniform protocols. Verbal autopsies (VAs) are conducted for deaths of pregnant women, newborns or stillbirths to confirm deaths, ascertain timing and collect data on the circumstances around the death to help assign causes. Physicians from the sites are selected and trained to use International Classification of Diseases (ICD) principles to assign CODs from a limited list of programmatically–relevant causes. Where the cause cannot be determined from the VA, physicians assign that option. Every physician who is trained to assign causes of deaths from any of the study countries is tested and accredited before they start COD assignment in AMANHI. Importance of the AMANHI mortality study It is one of the first to generate improved estimates of burden, timing and causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal deaths from empirical data systematically collected in a large prospective cohort of women of reproductive age. AMANHI makes a substantial contribution to global knowledge to inform policies, interventions and investment decisions to reduce these deaths. PMID:27648257

  19. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  20. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  1. The human genetic history of South Asia.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Partha P

    2010-02-23

    South Asia--comprising India, Pakistan, countries in the sub-Himalayan region and Myanmar--was one of the first geographical regions to have been peopled by modern humans. This region has served as a major route of dispersal to other geographical regions, including southeast Asia. The Indian society comprises tribal, ranked caste, and other populations that are largely endogamous. As a result of evolutionary antiquity and endogamy, populations of India show high genetic differentiation and extensive structuring. Linguistic differences of populations provide the best explanation of genetic differences observed in this region of the world. Within India, consistent with social history, extant populations inhabiting northern regions show closer affinities with Indo-European speaking populations of central Asia that those inhabiting southern regions. Extant southern Indian populations may have been derived from early colonizers arriving from Africa along the southern exit route. The higher-ranked caste populations, who were the torch-bearers of Hindu rituals, show closer affinities with central Asian, Indo-European speaking, populations.

  2. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  3. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  4. Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Jeremy A; Zelle, Sten; Baeten, Steef; Baltussen, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the costs and health effects of interventions to combat breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers in order to guide resource allocation decisions in developing countries. Setting Two World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE); and countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality (SearD). Design Cost effectiveness analysis of prevention and treatment strategies for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer, using mathematical modelling based on a lifetime population model. Data sources Demographic and epidemiological data were taken from the WHO mortality and global burden of disease databases. Estimates of intervention coverage, effectiveness, and resource needs were based on clinical trials, treatment guidelines, and expert opinion. Unit costs were taken from the WHO-CHOICE price database. Main outcome measures Cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. Results In both regions certain interventions in cervical cancer control (screening through cervical smear tests or visual inspection with acetic acid in combination with treatment) and colorectal cancer control (increasing the coverage of treatment interventions) cost <$Int2000 per DALY averted and can be considered highly cost effective. In the sub-Saharan African region screening for colorectal cancer (by colonoscopy at age 50 in combination with treatment) costs $Int2000–6000 per DALY averted and can be considered cost effective. In both regions certain interventions in breast cancer control (treatment of all cancer stages in combination with mammography screening) cost $Int2000–6000 per DALY averted and can also be considered cost effective. Other interventions, such as campaigns to eat more fruit and vegetable or subsidies in colorectal cancer control, are not cost effective according to the criteria

  5. Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and tobacco use in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephen; Chisholm, Dan; Mendis, Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative costs and health effects of interventions to combat cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and tobacco related disease in order to guide the allocation of resources in developing countries. Design Cost effectiveness analysis of 123 single or combined prevention and treatment strategies for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and smoking by means of a lifetime population model. Setting Two World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE) and countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality (SearD). Data sources Demographic and epidemiological data were taken from the WHO databases of mortality and global burden of disease. Estimates of intervention coverage, effectiveness, and resource needs were drawn from clinical trials, observational studies, and treatment guidelines. Unit costs were taken from the WHO-CHOICE (Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective) price database. Main outcome measures Cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. Results Most of the interventions studied were considered highly cost effective, meaning they generate one healthy year of life at a cost of <$Int2000 (which is the gross domestic product per capita of the two regions considered here). Interventions that offer particularly good monetary value, and which could be considered for prioritised implementation or scale up, include demand reduction strategies of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (<$Int950 and <$Int200 per DALY averted in AfrE and SearD respectively); combination drug therapy for people with a >25% chance of experiencing a cardiovascular event over the next decade, either alone or together with specific multidrug regimens for the secondary prevention of post-acute ischaemic heart disease and stroke (<$Int150 and <$Int230 per DALY averted in AfrE and Sear

  6. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  7. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region. PMID:18372876

  8. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1998-12-18

    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  9. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  10. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  11. Theme: Education with Production in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ben; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes " A Bridge Too Far: Democracy, Development and Education in Rural South Africa (Parker); "Khuphuka: A Skills Training and Employment Programme in Durban, South Africa" (Comninos); "Reconstruction and Development Programme and Tertiary Institutions in South Africa"; and "Report on the First Session of the Seminar: Mafeking, September…

  12. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…

  13. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  14. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  15. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  16. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  17. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  19. PPP insights in South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals.

  20. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections provides…

  1. Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia.

    PubMed

    Shah, N M

    1995-01-01

    This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future.

  2. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children.

  3. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  4. Multicentre studies of insecticide-treated durable wall lining in Africa and South-East Asia: entomological efficacy and household acceptability during one year of field use

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a primary method of malaria vector control, but its potential impact is constrained by several inherent limitations: spraying must be repeated when insecticide residues decay, householders can tire of the annual imposition and campaign costs are recurrent. Durable lining (DL) can be considered an advanced form of long-lasting IRS where insecticide is gradually released from an aesthetically attractive wall lining material to provide vector control for several years. A multicentre trial was carried out in Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Mali, South Africa and Vietnam to assess the feasibility, durability, bioefficacy and household acceptability of DL, compared to conventional IRS or insecticide-treated curtains (LLITCs), in a variety of operational settings. Methods This study was conducted in 220 households in traditional rural villages over 12-15 months. In all sites, rolls of DL were cut to fit house dimensions and fixed to interior wall surfaces (usually with nails and caps) by trained teams. Acceptability was assessed using a standardized questionnaire covering such topics as installation, exposure reactions, entomology, indoor environment, aesthetics and durability. Bioefficacy of interventions was evaluated using WHO cone bioassay tests at regular intervals throughout the year. Results The deltamethrin DL demonstrated little to no decline in bioefficacy over 12-15 months, supported by minimal loss of insecticide content. By contrast, IRS displayed a significant decrease in bioactivity by 6 months and full loss after 12 months. The majority of participants in DL households perceived reductions in mosquito density (93%) and biting (82%), but no changes in indoor temperature (83%). Among those households that wanted to retain the DL, 73% cited protective reasons, 20% expressed a desire to keep theirs for decoration and 7% valued both qualities equally. In Equatorial Guinea, when offered a choice of vector control product at

  5. South Africa: a toxicologist's goldmine.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    The emerging nation of South Africa, in common with some other countries, notably Eastern Europe, is heir to decades of neglect with regards to the exposure of the majority of its population to toxic materials. In this short review, the major toxic health hazards are described. For most of these risks there are now programs in place to improve the situation, but co-ordination and financial constraints, along with the fact that the majority of the population neither live, nor work, in a controlled environment, mean that much remains to be done. The recent formation of a South African Toxicology society, which strives to bring together environmental, industrial, forensic and clinical toxicology should assist in an improvement, both in the epidemiology of toxicity in South Africa and in improved measures to reduce the incidence of preventable noncommunicable diseases related to both acute and chronic exposure to toxins. The South African scene also provides a "window' of opportunity to study the more fundamental aspects of exposure in human subjects and to couple these to animal and in vitro studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms where these are unknown. PMID:11805740

  6. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  7. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  8. Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

  9. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  10. Directory of Engineering Education Institutions: Africa, Asia, Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This directory presents data on 458 degree-awarding engineering education institutions in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Data include the general educational pattern of the country and specific institutional information such as: structure, staff, enrollment, research, specializations offered, address, academic period, admissions…

  11. Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2010-09-01

    Undernutrition remains a major public health problem among children living in Asia. Although the burden is maximal among poorer, rural and Indigenous communities, the problem affects the majority in many Asian countries, especially in South Asia. In order to prevent the pervasive consequences of undernutrition, strategies that address this burden are required. Successful implementation of strategies may be limited by the complex aetiology of undernutrition, including the political setting. Rising food insecurity because of climate change, land use for biofuel production and the recent global financial crisis threaten to exacerbate childhood malnutrition. In this review, we describe the burden of undernutrition among Asian children and discuss contributing factors and potential solutions. PMID:20854320

  12. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  13. Deep aquifers detected in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artesian aquifers below river basins in South Asia may be able to remedy water shortages in the region, according to a study conducted by the World Bank in Washington, D.C. Logs that record electrical resistance in wells drilled for petroleum were used to identify the aquifers and determine that they appear to hold fresh water.While electric logging of wells is a routine procedure in oil and gas exploration, it is less often applied in fresh water exploration. The logs record electrical resistance, or resistivity, of subsurface formations, permitting identification of aquifers and calculation of the salinity of the water in them without obtaining water samples.

  14. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  15. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  16. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  17. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  18. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  19. Gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asia: Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Fatema; Ejaz, Kiran

    2016-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus, is defined by the American Diabetes Association as "diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes". WHO has further classified the period of diagnosis as Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. The former term is applicable in the early period of gestation and GDM is detected after 24 weeks. Irrespective of the guidelines followed, the presence of Diabetes Mellitus during pregnancy, has to be taken seriously as it is an important metabolic derangement and can prove to be harmful for the mother and dangerous for the foetus. The rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the world along with obesity, is a major contributing factor for GDM. The trend of this rise is more steep in the low and middle income countries thus proportionately increasing the risk for GDM. South Asia falls in this bracket and the responsible factors have to be identified and corrected. Management should begin from primordial prevention for which education is a key factor. Every woman should be taught the way to follow a healthy life style. Identification of the contributing factors and universal screening facilities for all pregnant women living in both rural and urban areas, should be given prime importance. On detecting Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy or GDM, monitoring and health care facilities should be provided. This review provides some available figures of GDM in South Asia, the risk factors in this population and the steps for prevention.

  20. Gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asia: Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Fatema; Ejaz, Kiran

    2016-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus, is defined by the American Diabetes Association as "diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes". WHO has further classified the period of diagnosis as Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. The former term is applicable in the early period of gestation and GDM is detected after 24 weeks. Irrespective of the guidelines followed, the presence of Diabetes Mellitus during pregnancy, has to be taken seriously as it is an important metabolic derangement and can prove to be harmful for the mother and dangerous for the foetus. The rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the world along with obesity, is a major contributing factor for GDM. The trend of this rise is more steep in the low and middle income countries thus proportionately increasing the risk for GDM. South Asia falls in this bracket and the responsible factors have to be identified and corrected. Management should begin from primordial prevention for which education is a key factor. Every woman should be taught the way to follow a healthy life style. Identification of the contributing factors and universal screening facilities for all pregnant women living in both rural and urban areas, should be given prime importance. On detecting Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy or GDM, monitoring and health care facilities should be provided. This review provides some available figures of GDM in South Asia, the risk factors in this population and the steps for prevention. PMID:27582153

  1. Snake Bite in South Asia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alirol, Emilie; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Kuch, Ulrich; Chappuis, François

    2010-01-01

    Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities living in the tropics. Because of serious misreporting, the true worldwide burden of snake bite is not known. South Asia is the world's most heavily affected region, due to its high population density, widespread agricultural activities, numerous venomous snake species and lack of functional snake bite control programs. Despite increasing knowledge of snake venoms' composition and mode of action, good understanding of clinical features of envenoming and sufficient production of antivenom by Indian manufacturers, snake bite management remains unsatisfactory in this region. Field diagnostic tests for snake species identification do not exist and treatment mainly relies on the administration of antivenoms that do not cover all of the important venomous snakes of the region. Care-givers need better training and supervision, and national guidelines should be fed by evidence-based data generated by well-designed research studies. Poorly informed rural populations often apply inappropriate first-aid measures and vital time is lost before the victim is transported to a treatment centre, where cost of treatment can constitute an additional hurdle. The deficiency of snake bite management in South Asia is multi-causal and requires joint collaborative efforts from researchers, antivenom manufacturers, policy makers, public health authorities and international funders. PMID:20126271

  2. IFLA General Conference 1988. Division of Regional Activities. Sections on: Asia and Oceania; Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The eight papers in this collection focus on library activities in various geographical regions, e.g., Asia, Oceania, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Western Australia: (1) "Future Approaches and Prospects of Computerised Information Network among the Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)" (Abdullah…

  3. Using borehole hydrographs to constrain groundwater storage variations indicated by remote sensing: lessons from South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. G.; Shamsudduha, M.

    2013-12-01

    value of 0.06×0.04 derived from pumping-test data. We show further that the application of GRACE data to weathered crystalline rock aquifer systems that underlie ~40% of Sub-Saharan Africa, is particularly challenging due to extreme variability in hydraulic diffusivity and discontinuous nature of aquifers in this terrain. Nevertheless, the demand for improved monitoring of groundwater storage variations in this region is expected to increase as the projected use of groundwater rises substantially to improve and secure access to drinking water and food. A limited number of borehole hydrographs from East Africa reveals substantial temporal variations in groundwater storage that currently result from abstraction and extreme climate events related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  4. On the fog variability over south Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, F. S.; Körnich, H.; Tjernström, M.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of "cross-over temperature" combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards.

  5. On the fog variability over south Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, F. S.; Körnich, H.; Tjernström, M.

    2012-04-01

    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and must therefore be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant trends were found in the fog frequencies and this increase is not gradual, as seen in the humidity, but shows two distinct regimes shifts in 1990 and 1998 with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of "cross-over temperature" combined with boundary layer stability. This detected fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to detect fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from north Atlantic in the upper atmosphere that causes higher pressure over the region,resulting in increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards.

  6. The future of nuclear weapons: Proliferation in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, N.

    1992-12-31

    The signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in December 1987, followed by the dramatic changes in East-West relations since 1989 and the more recent Soviet-American strategic arms limitation agreement, have greatly eased public concerns about the danger of nuclear war. The context has also changed for the Nonaligned Movement, which had made nuclear disarmament and condemnation of the concept of nuclear deterrence the primary themes of its multilateral disarmament diplomacy. More important would be the interrelationship among the states possessing nuclear weapons (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan). In any case, there is little risk of a revival of nuclear competition. Both France and China have decided to sign the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); they are the only two nuclear-weapon states that have stayed outside the regime. Meanwhile, Brazil and Argentina have moved further down the nonproliferation road by engaging in confidence-building measures and moving closer to joining the Latin American nuclear-weapons-free zone established under the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1967. South Africa has also agreed to embrace the NPT as well as a nuclear-weapons-free zone regime for the entire African continent, while North Korea has agreed to sign a safeguard agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), thereby allowing in principle international inspection of its nuclear facilities. In the third world regions, the dangers of nuclear proliferation and competitive nuclear buildup are most pronounced in South Asia, a region where a variety of complicating problems exist: acute threat perceptions, historical emity, religious and sectarian animosity, ethnic antagonism, territorial disputes, ambitions for regional dominance, and domestic political instability. This chapter will focus primarily on South Asia, although references will also be made to other regions, where relevant. 17 refs.

  7. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  8. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Helden, P D; Parsons, S D C; Gey van Pittius, N C

    2009-12-01

    Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus), the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis) the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta), a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly. PMID:20458859

  9. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  10. South Africa: Challenge and Hope. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Lyle, Ed.

    In South Africa, racial identification determines all facets of a person's life--political, economic, and social. Divided into ten chapters, this book was prepared to increase public awareness of black South Africans' struggle for freedom. Chapter one discusses how the system of apartheid is built on the official identification of all citizens by…

  11. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  12. Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general. Systems set up by an international collaboration predicted these Bangladesh floods with an operational system at the 10 and 15-day horizon. These forecasts determined the risk of flooding and allowed the Bangladeshis in peril to prepare, harvesting crops and storing of household and agricultural assets. Savings in increments of annual income resulted form the forecasts. In July and August 2010, severe flooding occurred in Pakistan causing horrendous damage and loss of life. But these floods were also predictable at the 10-day time scale if the same forecasting system developed for Bangladesh had been implemented. Similar systems could be implemented in India but would require local cooperation. We describe the manner in which quantified probabilistic precipitation forecasts, coupled with hydrological models can provide useful and timely extended warnings of flooding.

  13. New focus on advocacy in South Asia. Advocacy for reproductive health: South Asia.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, I

    1996-01-01

    Initiatives like Vision 2000, the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing have focused attention on the activities of regional family planning associations (FPAs) in South Asia. These activities include male acceptance of the responsibility for family life, youth involvement in program design and implementation, the promotion of gender equality, and increased public awareness about the value of the female child. The Beijing conference also directed attention to the problem of not allocating resources to problems recognized by governments. In the South Asia region funding levels have been falling, which impacts the maintenance of current programs. The South Asia Regional Bureau began to coordinate an information, education, and communication (IEC) and Advocacy Working Group in the region with the participation of IEC officers from all regional FPAs. The group will be planning IEC and advocacy activities based on the regional FPAs' goals and aspirations. The IEC and advocacy activities will be examined to identify existing skills and experiences of group participants. The group will also try to identify the activities of each FPA. The information gathered will point out the similarities in IEC and advocacy activities serving as a common ground for the region. Problems of IEC and advocacy comprise their subordinate structure and the failure to evaluate to show the impact of the activities. Better planning and organization and more holistic evaluation of program components should be achieved. The group will be self-directed responding to the IEC and advocacy needs, while also developing the professional and personal capacity of FPA staff to meet these needs.

  14. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and

  15. [Geographic inequality of death in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia].

    PubMed

    Veron, J

    1993-05-01

    The geography of mortality in South, Southeast and East Asia presents considerable disparities. The range is particularly large between Japan, where life expectancy is one of the highest in the world and Afghanistan or Cambodia, where it reaches only 40 years approximately. Male overmortality varies extensively from one country to another. Male undermortality still occurs in Bhutan (1.5 years); male overmortality reaches 6.4 years in the two Koreas. As elsewhere, the difference between male and female life expectancy increases with life spans. Various levels of development of the countries under consideration (examined through three variables: income per capita, urbanization and education) do not explain spatial inequality of mortality very well. In order to understand the disparities better, the macro-approach should be supplemented by a micro-approach.

  16. International trends in health science librarianship part 12: South Asia (India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Medha; Ali Anwar, Mumtaz; Ullah, Midrar; Kuruppu, Chandrani

    2014-12-01

    This is the 12th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. This issue describes developments in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century in South Asia. The three contributors report on challenges facing health science librarians in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. There is consensus as to the need for education, training and professional development. Starting in the next issue, the focus will turn to Africa, starting with countries in southern Africa. JM.

  17. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  18. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  19. Asbestos-Related Disease in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered—and continue to suffer—from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

  20. Malaria in South Asia: prevalence and control.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajan, Satish N; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2012-03-01

    The "Malaria Evolution in South Asia" (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US-India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public-private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012.

  1. Undiscovered petroleum resources of south Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J.

    1986-05-01

    Sedimentary basins of south Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Burma) evolved from two tectonic events: (1) separation of India from Gondwana, and (2) northward movement of the India block, shouldering past and obliquely subducting under margins of previously arrived blocks (Afghan on the west and Sunda - Burma - on the east) before colliding with the Asian continental mass. The first event resulted in a rifted continental-margin basinal trend along the west coast of India and a similar trend along the east coast. The second event caused three trenches, Indus basin on the west, Bengal-Assam basins on the east, and sub-Himalayan basins to the north. Burma is the fore-arc basins of the eastern oblique subduction. Taking into account various geologic factors (reservoirs, traps, source, seal, and migration-timing), the authors estimated six most likely occurrences of undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources. (1) The western rifted margin, the richest trend probably because of its relatively high geothermal gradient, is assessed at 1.3 billion bbl of oil and 13.2 tcf of gas; (2) the eastern rifted margin at 0.82 billion bbl of oil and 10.2 tcf of gas; (3) the western trench (gas-prone) at 0.11 billion bbl of oil and 8.1 tcf of gas; (4) the eastern trench (gas-prone), assessed higher than the western trench because of more favorable reservoir properties, at 0.10 billion bbl of oil and 17.5 tcf of gas; (5) the northern trench, the poorest trend mostly because of the absence of properly matured source rocks, at 0.10 billion bbl of oil and 0.91 tcf of gas; and (6) the Burma basin, which received a relatively high assessment for a fore-arc basin because of the very thick stratigraphic section, at 0.56 billion bbl of oil and 1.78 tcf of gas.

  2. Bilharziasis survey in south-western Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Azim, M.; Gismann, Anne

    1956-01-01

    This paper describes a limited survey of bilharziasis and its vectors carried out during 1950 and 1951 in some countries of south-western Asia. Lack of time and of full facilities prevented the survey from being as comprehensive and systematic as would have been wished, but enough data were obtained to provide a general estimate of the situation. Information already available from the literature was supplemented by collecting unpublished records, questioning the inhabitants, examining random samples of stools and urine, and investigating rivers, wells, and springs. Bilharziasis haematobia is already heavily endemic in the irrigated areas of Iraq and is also present, in comparatively smaller foci, in northern Syria, Israel, and Sa'udi Arabia. In the opinion of the senior author (M. A. A.), the envisaged extension of irrigation is likely to create a serious health problem in Mesopotamia and to introduce the disease into the Jordan region unless the spread of the molluscan vector, Bulinus sp., is checked. Intensification of infection and further spread are possible in Israel and in the Syrian Jezire, while the remainder of Syria and Lebanon are not considered to be endangered. Bilharziasis mansoni is widespread in the fertile areas of Sa'udi Arabia and also occurs in one minor focus in Israel. The industrialization of Sa'udi Arabia which is planned to exploit its oil resources, with its inevitable concentration of population, equally presents a danger in the intensification of bilharziasis. It is considered that, unless prompt measures are undertaken to break the link between the agricultural and industrial expansion and the spread of the disease, the debilitation of large groups of the population and the economic loss which may well result over most of the inhabited parts of the area discussed will be significant. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13342925

  3. Primary health care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Buch, E

    1989-01-01

    Even though most countries have committed to primary health care (PHC), South Africa, a middle-income country, has an inadequate PHC system. The poor system has roots in the colonial period and apartheid reinforces this system. Race, class, and place of residence determine the type of health care individuals receive. South Africa falls far short of all 5 principles of PHC. Just 12% of the health budget goes to 40% of the population who live in the homelands which shows the inequitable distribution of health care resources and inadequate quality health care for all. Similarly, South Africa has not altered its communication and education techniques to improve preventive and promotive health services. It has not implemented any successful national campaigns such as a campaign against diarrhea deaths. South Africa does not make good use of available appropriate technology such as breast feeding, oral rehydration, refrigeration, and the ventilated improved pit latrine which lead to health for all. People in South Africa discuss community participation but it is not likely to occur without general political democracy. Some people have made local attempts at community participation but they tend to use inflexible means and request either cash or contributions in kind from people who have little. The elite in South Africa has not recognized the need to correct socioeconomic inequalities. The Population Development Plan Programme among white farmer-owners has showed some support for a multisectoral approach to improve health care, however. For example, it acknowledges that non-health-care interventions such as better salaries, literacy, and living conditions, lead to better health. The Department of National Health has discussed improved coordination of the budget to allow priority determination of national PHD and manpower plans. Nongovernmental organizations are beginning to use the PHC approach instead of the charitable approach.

  4. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  5. The People of South Asia [Grades 6-8].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, George; And Others

    A resource book for grades 6-8 contains materials to enrich a unit on South Asia. Material is divided into 13 sections. Sections 1-4 outline the rationale, goals, and objectives of the unit. Emphasis is placed on providing background for the understanding of South Asian cultural groups in the United States. Ten objectives are listed, including the…

  6. Analysis of human infectious avian influenza virus: hemagglutinin genetic characteristics in Asia and Africa from 2004 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jirong; Lei, Fumin

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, we used nucleotide and protein sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1, which were obtained in Asia and Africa, analyzed HA proteins using ClustalX1.83 and MEGA4.0, and built a genetic evolutionary tree of HA nucleotides. The analysis revealed that the receptor specificity amino acid of A/HK/213/2003, A/Turkey/65596/2006 and etc mutated into QNG, which could bind with á-2, 3 galactose and á-2, 6 galactose. A mutation might thus take place and lead to an outbreak of human infections of avian influenza virus. The mutations of HA protein amino acids from 2004 to 2009 coincided with human infections provided by the World Health Organization, indicating a "low-high-highest-high-low" pattern. We also found out that virus strains in Asia are from different origins: strains from Southeast Asia and East Asia are of the same origin, whereas those from West Asia, South Asia and Africa descend from one ancestor. The composition of the phylogenetic tree and mutations of key site amino acids in HA proteins reflected the fact that the majority of strains are regional and long term, and virus diffusions exist between China, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iraq. We would advise that pertinent vaccines be developed and due attention be paid to the spread of viruses between neighboring countries and the dangers of virus mutation and evolution. PMID:21392344

  7. Comparative genomics of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, Asia, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Aleisha R; Van Domselaar, Gary; Stroika, Steven; Walker, Matthew; Kent, Heather; Tarr, Cheryl; Talkington, Deborah; Rowe, Lori; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Dahourou, Georges Anicet; Boncy, Jacques; Smith, Anthony M; Mabon, Philip; Petkau, Aaron; Graham, Morag; Gilmour, Matthew W; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clinical isolates from the Haiti outbreak and recent global travelers returning to the United States showed indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints. To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenies for whole-genome sequences and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the Haiti outbreak strain is genetically related to strains originating in India and Cameroon. However, because no identical genetic match was found among sequenced contemporary isolates, a definitive genetic origin for the outbreak in Haiti remains speculative.

  8. South Africa, 2004: Power, Passion, Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Although the education system in post-apartheid South Africa has its share of serious challenges, the accompanying reforms carried out are inspiring as the ASCD Board of Directors and staff discovered when they visited the country in October 2004. The visit was organized around the theme of the 2005 ASCD Annual Conference: "Voices of Education:…

  9. Will Democracy Come to South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, N. Brian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses prospects for democracy in South Africa. Explores the complexities and contradictions endemic to the process of overcoming 300 years of racist laws and practices. Considers the risks of concessions for both Black and White leaders; problems resulting from enduring political and economic inequalities; and constitutional alternatives.…

  10. Science Education as South Africa's Trojan Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…

  11. School Governance in the New South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Heystek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses early experiences of school governing bodies in South Africa. Examines governing bodies' powers to set fees, resulting impact on resources for different types of schools, and implications for equity and equality. Explores governing bodies' admission policies and how this led to school populations differentiated by class and race. (CAJ)

  12. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  13. The Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    The text is provided of a policy statement on discrimination drawn up by members of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa at their annual meeting on 31 January 1985. The statement "recognizes and deplores the potentially harmful psychological effects" of discrimination, declares opposition to disparities in psychiatric services, and insists that Society members practice in compliance with internationally accepted ethical codes.

  14. Republic of South Africa: unraveling the population puzzle. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-06-01

    whites it was only 1.5%. The birthrate among whites in 1980 was 16.5 births/1000 whites compared with 40 births/1000 blacks. Immigration has played an important role in South Africa's white population growth. Net migration in 1981 was 33,000; 55% of new arrivals were from Europe and 40% were from other African countries. In 1980, just over half the population (53%) lived in urban areas. Approximately 90% of whites and Asians lived in urban areas, while 3/4 of coloureds and 38% of blacks were classified as urban. understanding South Africa's racial and ethnic divisions is the key to understanding the country. Political and social interaction across racial lines is forbidden. Economic relationships are strictly controlled by the passbrook system. The passbook, which must be carried by every black aged 16 and olfder, establishes a black's right to be in a particular area of the country. South Africa's population is fairly young due to a history of high fertility and high mortality among blacks, coloureds, and Asias. For the population as a whole, 38% were under age 15 in 1980 and 4% were aged 65 and older. Whites accounted for 22% and blacks 64% of the labor force in 1980. The government has tried to narrow the wage gap between white and black workers. In 1972 blacks earned only 15% of whites salaries; by 1981 black wages were 24% of white wages. PMID:12313172

  15. Republic of South Africa: unraveling the population puzzle. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-06-01

    whites it was only 1.5%. The birthrate among whites in 1980 was 16.5 births/1000 whites compared with 40 births/1000 blacks. Immigration has played an important role in South Africa's white population growth. Net migration in 1981 was 33,000; 55% of new arrivals were from Europe and 40% were from other African countries. In 1980, just over half the population (53%) lived in urban areas. Approximately 90% of whites and Asians lived in urban areas, while 3/4 of coloureds and 38% of blacks were classified as urban. understanding South Africa's racial and ethnic divisions is the key to understanding the country. Political and social interaction across racial lines is forbidden. Economic relationships are strictly controlled by the passbrook system. The passbook, which must be carried by every black aged 16 and olfder, establishes a black's right to be in a particular area of the country. South Africa's population is fairly young due to a history of high fertility and high mortality among blacks, coloureds, and Asias. For the population as a whole, 38% were under age 15 in 1980 and 4% were aged 65 and older. Whites accounted for 22% and blacks 64% of the labor force in 1980. The government has tried to narrow the wage gap between white and black workers. In 1972 blacks earned only 15% of whites salaries; by 1981 black wages were 24% of white wages.

  16. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  17. Tele-Education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. Method: A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Conclusion: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained

  18. South Asia urged to act to fight spread of HIV.

    PubMed

    1997-07-21

    UNAIDS' data indicate that there are 5.3 million people infected with HIV in South Asia and Southeast Asia, approximately 20% of the world's estimated number of adults infected with HIV. South Asia was home to 6% of the world's AIDS cases in 1994, up from 1% in 1993. In the context of this major increase in the number of AIDS cases in the region, UNAIDS, together with the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the European Commission, cosponsored a 2-day meeting in Kathmandu, Nepal, with regional health experts and officials to coordinate efforts with the international community to fight HIV/AIDS. Conference participants developed a plan of action against AIDS in the region. SAARC groups Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The level of literacy is very low in the region where many people, who do not know how HIV is transmitted, take no preventive measures.

  19. Peopling of South Asia: investigating the caste-tribe continuum in India.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, mtDNA and Y chromosome studies involving human populations from South Asia and the rest of the world have revealed new insights about the peopling of the world by anatomically modern humans during the late Pleistocene, some 40,000-60,000 years ago, over the southern coastal route from Africa. Molecular studies and archaeological record are both largely consistent with autochthonous differentiation of the genetic structure of the caste and tribal populations in South Asia. High level of endogamy created by numerous social boundaries within and between castes and tribes, along with the influence of several evolutionary forces such as genetic drift, fragmentation and long-term isolation, has kept the Indian populations diverse and distant from each other as well as from other continental populations. This review attempts to summarize recent genetic studies on Indian caste and tribal populations with the focus on the information embedded in the socially defined structure of Indian populations. PMID:17187379

  20. The tectonic development of south-central Asia and the paleogeographic setting of its hydrocarbon resources

    SciTech Connect

    Scotese, C.R. ); Tyrell, W.W. Jr. ); Maher, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The countries of south-central Asia (Afghanistan to Thailand) are made up of fragments of Gondwana that collided with the southern margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Cimmerian terranes (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Qiang Tang, and Burma-Malaya) rifted away from Gondwana beginning in the Late Carboniferous and were accreted to Asia during the Late Triassic-Jurassic. The Lhasa terrane, presumably also derived from Gondwana, was accreted during the Late Jurassic. By the Early Cretaceous, India-Madagascar had separated from Africa and from Australia-Antarctica. In the middle Cretaceous, India rapidly rifted away from Madagascar, and during the early Eocene collided with Asia giving rise to the Tibetam Plateau and the mountain belts from Afghanistan through Burma. The sedimentary basins and petroleum provinces adjacent to and south of these collision zones are best understood when viewed in the context of their tectonic history and paleogeographic setting. About 7 billion bbl of oil and 50 tcf of gas have been discovered in south-central Asia, mostly in Cenozoic deltaic sandstones or marine carbonate reservoirs in rift (Cambay), passive margin (Bombay shelf), and foreland basins (Assam, Indux, Potwar, Bengal) in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and in a fore-arc setting in Burma. Source rocks are mostly Paleogene shale, but some Paleozoic and Mesozoic sources be present in Pakistan. New exploration is underway or will begin soon in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma.

  1. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  2. Moral Education in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Pieter C.

    1980-01-01

    This overview notes that moral education permeates all school curriculum, especially social studies and religion, since South African law mandates that education for Whites have a Christian character. The code of conduct for White teachers is quoted. Different provisions for Blacks are described and segregated schooling discussed in this context.…

  3. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  4. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  5. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  6. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  7. Apocalypse when? Population growth and food supply in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A

    1994-12-01

    Food demands for staple grains are expected to almost double over the next 25 years in South Asia, due to population growth and increased standards of living. Trends in the mid-1990s suggest that neither pessimism nor optimism prevails in the region. There is wide diversity among and within countries. Trends suggest that population densities are already the highest in the world, and the amount of arable land is declining. Urban growth has moved onto farm land and farmers have been pushed onto more marginal lands or have become landless. Land intensification has produced mixed results. Cereal production per capita has increased since the 1950s in India, with about 75% of the region's population, but Pakistan's increases were not sustained into the 1980s. Average daily caloric intake per person in the region of 2214 is below the level in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Bangladesh, levels are particularly worrisome at 2037. The environmental impact has not been easily quantified, but experts have suggested that pressure on farm land has contributed to loss of soil fertility and water resource loss. Further intensification of farming is feasible, but difficult and more expensive than in the past. Regardless of production problems and solutions, there is also the very real problem of poor food distribution and lack of purchasing power. Farm management skills must be utilized, if environmental degradation is to be avoided. There is the added unknown of what climate changes will occur and how agricultural production will be affected. The policy implications are that increased food production must be made a political priority. Policies must support agricultural research into improved technologies and support distribution of technological advances to a wider number of farmers. Rural infrastructures such as roads, market outlets, and credit agencies must be established. Policies must be removed that disadvantage farmers, such as inappropriate subsidies for irrigation water

  8. Apocalypse when? Population growth and food supply in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A

    1994-12-01

    Food demands for staple grains are expected to almost double over the next 25 years in South Asia, due to population growth and increased standards of living. Trends in the mid-1990s suggest that neither pessimism nor optimism prevails in the region. There is wide diversity among and within countries. Trends suggest that population densities are already the highest in the world, and the amount of arable land is declining. Urban growth has moved onto farm land and farmers have been pushed onto more marginal lands or have become landless. Land intensification has produced mixed results. Cereal production per capita has increased since the 1950s in India, with about 75% of the region's population, but Pakistan's increases were not sustained into the 1980s. Average daily caloric intake per person in the region of 2214 is below the level in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Bangladesh, levels are particularly worrisome at 2037. The environmental impact has not been easily quantified, but experts have suggested that pressure on farm land has contributed to loss of soil fertility and water resource loss. Further intensification of farming is feasible, but difficult and more expensive than in the past. Regardless of production problems and solutions, there is also the very real problem of poor food distribution and lack of purchasing power. Farm management skills must be utilized, if environmental degradation is to be avoided. There is the added unknown of what climate changes will occur and how agricultural production will be affected. The policy implications are that increased food production must be made a political priority. Policies must support agricultural research into improved technologies and support distribution of technological advances to a wider number of farmers. Rural infrastructures such as roads, market outlets, and credit agencies must be established. Policies must be removed that disadvantage farmers, such as inappropriate subsidies for irrigation water

  9. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  10. Carbon reduction emissions in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Temchin, Jerome

    2002-02-28

    This project is a feasibility study for a control system for existing backup generators in South Africa. The strategy is to install a system to enable backup generators (BGs) to be dispatched only when a large generator fails. Using BGs to provide ''ten minute reserve'' will save energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by an estimated nearly 500,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year.

  11. [Dengue and other arboviral diseases in South-East Asia].

    PubMed

    Duong, V; Vong, S; Buchy, P

    2009-08-01

    The most medically significant arboviruses causing human illness in south-east Asia belong to the genera Flavivirus (dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Kunjin, Zika, etc.) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya, Sindbis, Getah, etc.). All of these arboviral diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue virus is the most prevalent arbovirus in south-east Asia and constitutes a major public health problem. Japanese encephalitis virus is also widespread in the region and symptomatic infection is associated with high mortality and severe neurological morbidity. Chikungunya virus causes mild but extremely painful illness. The number of Chikungunya cases has been increasing since early 2009. Epidemiological data show a steady, sometimes exponential, increase in the number of arbovirus infections in Asia. The spread of these viral infections can be linked to a number of complex factors.

  12. International Consultation and Training on Group Work in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a consultation and training for faculty and graduate students in South Asia under the auspices of the United Nations' Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. It describes the development of a consultation relationship and training on group work. Needs assessments focusing on both cultural…

  13. Family, Community, and Educational Outcomes in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…

  14. South Asia in the Global Electronic Village: Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jagtar

    This paper discusses issues related to developments in computer and communication technologies in south Asia. The first section considers the Internet and its impact. Paradigm shifts and globalization are addressed in the second section, including the shifts away from stand alone libraries to library and information networks, ownership to access,…

  15. Non-communicable diseases in South Asia: contemporary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karen R.; Patel, Shivani A.; Ali, Mohammed K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as metabolic, cardiovascular, cancers, injuries and mental health disorders are increasingly contributing to the disease burden in South Asia, in light of demographic and epidemiologic transitions in the region. Home to one-quarter of the world's population, the region is also an important priority area for meeting global health targets. In this review, we describe the current burden of and trends in four common NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in South Asia. Sources of data The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study supplemented with the peer-reviewed literature and reports by international agencies and national governments. Areas of agreement The burden of NCDs in South Asia is rising at a rate that exceeds global increases in these conditions. Shifts in leading risk factors—particularly dietary habits, tobacco use and high blood pressure—are thought to underlie the mounting burden of death and disability due to NCDs. Improvements in life expectancy, increasing socioeconomic development and urbanization in South Asia are expected to lead to further escalation of NCDs. Areas of controversy Although NCD burdens are currently largest among affluent groups in South Asia, many adverse risk factors are concentrated among the poor, portending a future increase in disease burden among lower income individuals. Growing points There continues to be a notable lack of national surveillance data to document the distribution and trends in NCDs in the region. Similarly, economic studies and policy initiatives addressing NCD burdens are still in their infancy. Areas timely for developing research Opportunities for innovative structural and behavioral interventions that promote maintenance of healthy lifestyles—such as moderate caloric intake, adequate physical activity and avoidance of tobacco—in the context of socioeconomic development are abundant. Testing of health

  16. Separate Schools and Separate People of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1972-01-01

    After reviewing the historical and legal background of race relations in South Africa, the author reviews his experiences at a recent conference on Accelerated Development in Southern Africa,'' held in Johannesburg. (JM)

  17. Socioeconomic differentials and availability of domestic water in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungumaro, Esther W.

    The past few decades has seen massive efforts to increasing provision of domestic water. However, water is still unavailable to many people most of them located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia. Furthermore, availability of water varies greatly both spatially and temporary. While other people pay so dearly for domestic water others have an easy access to adequate clean water and sanitation. Accessibility and affordability of domestic water and sanitation is determined by a great variety of factors including socioeconomic status of households. The main objective of the paper is to inform on factors which need to be taken into account when coming up with projects to provide domestic water. It is more critical when the issue of water pricing comes into the equation. Water pricing has many facets, including equity, willingness to pay and affordability. In this premise, it is deemed important to understand the socioeconomic characteristics of the people before deciding on the amount of money they will have to pay for water consumption. It is argued that understanding people’s socioeconomic situation will greatly help to ensure that principles of sustainability and equity in water allocation and pricing are achieved. To do so, the paper utilized 2002 South Africa General Household Survey (GHS), to analyze socioeconomic variables and availability of domestic water. Analysis was mainly descriptive. However, logistic regression analysis was also utilized to determine the likelihood of living in a household that obtain water from a safe source. The study found that there is a strong relationship between availability of domestic water and socioeconomic conditions. Economic status, household size and to a lesser extent gender of head of household were found to be strong predictors of living in a household which obtained water from a safe source. The paper recommends that needs and priorities for interventions in water provision should take into account

  18. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…

  19. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  20. Fires in South Africa, snow in Lesotho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation that brought snow fall to the Drakensberg Mountains in Lesotho in southern Africa was not enough to quench the numerous fires (marked with red dots) burning throughout the Republic of South Africa. These Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 18, 2002, and July 2, 2002, show the snowfall in landlocked Lesotho contrasting sharply with the country's brown, mountainous terrain. (In the false-color image, vegetation is bright green, bare soil is brown, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In northeast Republic of South Africa, right along the border with Mozambique, the smooth, gray-brown terrain shows the boundaries of Kruger National Park. The Park was established in the late 1800s to protect game species, such as elephants, antelope, and bison, which were being hunted in great numbers. In this image, dark brown patches reveal the location of previous fires. The vegetation has yet to come back, and the landscape is virtually bare. NASA scientists study fire behavior in Kruger as part of the SAFARI field campaign. Running southward through Mozambique and into the Indian Ocean is the muddy Limpopo River--known to many through Rudyard Kipling's 'Just-so' story about how the elephant got its trunk. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngoepe, Ernest; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Wandeler, Alex; Sabeta, Claude

    2014-01-01

    There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5%) and Mokola virus (0.5%). Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones. PMID:25685866

  2. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  3. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  4. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44-0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥ 0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while designing

  5. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44–0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while

  6. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44-0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥ 0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while designing

  7. Summer 2015 Extremes over South Asia within the Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, D.; Ashfaq, M.

    2015-12-01

    South Asian summer in 2015 has been marked by weather events of extremely different nature, including hot extremes over India and Pakistan, and wet extremes over northern, western and eastern states of India. Interestingly, these extremes are happening against the backdrop of warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, which has historically reduced the strength of summer monsoon over South Asia. Given the occurrence of the contrasting anomalies at large and regional scales, in this study, we analyze 2015 extremes over South Asia within the historical perspective. We study the anomalies in the land, atmospheric and oceanic processes that potentially led to the regional heat waves and wet extremes throughout the summer and their connection to the large-scale anomalies in the monsoon dynamic. Additionally, we analyze historical simulations of the CMIP5 GCMs to investigate the likelihood of these anomalies with respect to the pre-industrial time period. Our analysis suggests evolving changes in the monsoon dynamics over South Asia where the lesser-known regional and local drivers have influence on the historical tele-connections.

  8. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described.

  9. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

  10. Telerehabilitation In South Africa – Is There A Way Forward?

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa. Future actions are outlined. PMID:25945178

  11. Rights of the Child in South Africa: Violence against Girls in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninger-Budel, Carin

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of South Africa. Noting that the Convention is the only "mainstream" human rights instrument that explicitly states…

  12. South Africa: a legacy of family disruption.

    PubMed

    Budlender, Debbie; Lund, Francie

    2011-01-01

    This article draws together unusual characteristics of the legacy of apartheid in South Africa: the state-orchestrated destruction of family life, high rates of unemployment and a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The disruption of family life has resulted in a situation in which many women have to fulfil the role of both breadwinner and care giver in a context of high unemployment and very limited economic opportunities. The question that follows is: given this crisis of care, to what extent can or will social protection and employment-related social policies provide the support women and children need?

  13. The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, Dilruba; Blackwelder, William C.; Wu, Yukun; Farag, Tamer H.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Saha, Debasish; Adegbola, Richard; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; Bassat, Quique; Tamboura, Boubou; Sanogo, Doh; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Manna, Byomkesh; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kanungo, Suman; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Qureshi, Shahida; Quadri, Farheen; Hossain, Anowar; Das, Sumon K.; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mandomando, Inacio; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Acácio, Sozinho; Omore, Richard; Oundo, Joseph O.; Ochieng, John B.; Mintz, Eric D.; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Berkeley, Lynette Y.; Livio, Sofie; Tennant, Sharon M.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Nataro, James P.; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Mishcherkin, Vladimir; Zhang, Jixian; Liu, Jie; Houpt, Eric R.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized. Methods Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD]) were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and 3,174 LSD cases among children aged <60 months and from 21,527 randomly-selected controls matched by age, sex and community were immunoassay-tested for Cryptosporidium. Species of a subset of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were identified by PCR; GP60 sequencing identified anthroponotic C. parvum. Combined annual Cryptosporidium-attributable diarrhea incidences among children aged <24 months for African and Asian GEMS sites were extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian regions to estimate region-wide MSD and LSD burdens. Attributable and excess mortality due to Cryptosporidium diarrhea were estimated. Findings Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with MSD and LSD below age 24 months. Among Cryptosporidium-positive MSD cases, C. hominis was detected in 77.8% (95% CI, 73.0%-81.9%) and C. parvum in 9.9% (95% CI, 7.1%-13.6%); 92% of C. parvum tested were anthroponotic genotypes. Annual Cryptosporidium-attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27–4.67) and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85–4.52) per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73–2.08) and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66–2.05) per 100 child-years in toddlers. Corresponding Cryptosporidium-attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33–5.01) and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82–8.92) in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56–7.51) and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24–9.18) in toddlers. We estimate 2.9 and 4.7 million Cryptosporidium-attributable cases annually in children aged <24 months in the sub-Saharan Africa and India/Pakistan/Bangladesh/Nepal/Afghanistan regions, respectively, and ~202,000 Cryptosporidium

  14. Fertility implications of nuptiality patterns in South Asia.

    PubMed

    D'souza, S

    1979-01-01

    The author presents an overview of nuptiality in South Asia, with particular reference to India and Bangladesh, and of the effect of nuptiality on fertility. Data are from censuses and national surveys. The characteristics of nuptiality over the past century, including early age at marriage, the large number of widows, and the universality of marriage, are discussed. Exceptions to the general patterns observed, such as Sri Lanka and Kerala, are identified, and the reasons for decreases in fertility in Kerala are analyzed

  15. Food in health security in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, Le Danh

    2009-01-01

    With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as a shift in food aid to investment in agriculture and the empowerment of independent institutions. PMID:19965337

  16. Developing a wind atlas for South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennard, Chris; Hahman, Andrea; Prinsloo, Eric; Mabile, Eugene; Kruger, Andries

    2013-04-01

    The generation of the first verified Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) has been a joint undertaking between South African and Danish scientists to provide stakeholders with the best possible information about the wind climate over South Africa. The project is funded by the Royal Danish Embassy, the United Nations Development Programme, the South African Wind Energy Programme and the South African National Energy Development Institute. The project has focused on the western and southern regions of the country and includes a number of activities: 1. An observation campaign during which ten 65 metre masts were erected at selected sites with instruments at 4 levels that have recorded 2 years of data so far, this is ongoing. 2. Mesoscale and micro-scale modelling that consists of two phases. The first phase is complete and used the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM) run at 5 km with the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) to generate a wind atlas for the western and southern parts of South Africa. This is a statistical-dynamical method that assumes there is a robust relationship between meteorological situations at the large-scale and meteorological situations at the small-scale. The second phase, to be completed by the end of 2013, will develop a numerical wind atlas using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to develop the mesoscale wind climate (4 km resolution) with a continuous 30 year integration from 1980 to 2010. This is a fully dynamical method. The WAsP model will again be used to develop the micro-scale wind climate. 3. An extreme wind climate assessment has identified extreme wind producing synoptic systems, their seasonal and spatial characteristics as well as regions in South Africa particularly prone to extreme wind conditions. 4. New wind climate assessment techniques have been developed in the production of the wind atlas and new techniques to produce the numerical wind atlas will be formulated. 5. Dissemination of

  17. Regulation of Biobanks in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Andanda, Pamela; Govender, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The availability of biological samples and data is critical for the establishment of biobanks for health research purposes. Such availability should be ensured in accordance with relevant national legislation and ethical principles. In this article, we consider the extent to which the current legal and ethical regulatory frameworks in South Africa are capable of governing the use of stored biological samples in a manner that facilitates health research while at the same time protecting the interests of sample donors. These two attributes are essential for establishing biobanks in the country. Our evaluation of the frameworks is based on desk review of the current literature with a special focus on oversight mechanisms in place that ensure compliance with national legislation and ethical review processes to facilitate future and secondary uses of data, the extent to which informed consent policies foster sharing of research samples, data and protocols as well as mechanisms for safeguarding confidentiality. We established that there is an urgent need to streamline South Africa's legal and ethical frameworks because they are currently ambiguous and disjointed. There is equally a need to bring the frameworks in line with the current developments at the national and international levels. PMID:26711418

  18. Roles of genetic counselors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié; Krause, Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Genetic counseling is a growing health profession in South Africa. Training (set up in 1988) and registration are in place, but job creation remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles played by genetic counselors in the provision of genetic services, in South Africa. A questionnaire comprising items on the types of roles they performed was constructed and counselors were asked to make the log-books, in which they recorded their daily counseling activities, available. A check list was drawn up so that relevant information could be collected systematically from these log-books. Then departmental statistics were accessed from the two universities providing genetic services and genetic counselor training. Structured interviews were conducted with the genetic counselors (16 of 23 participated), and data were collected from their completed questionnaires, log-books and the departmental statistics, for the years 2007 and 2008. These data were analyzed and the findings showed that the counselors counseled about one third (39 %) of all the cases seen at genetic clinics per annum, and the total numbers were increasing. They counseled for 57 different genetic disorders, and their clients represented the range of local ethnic groups. They also had educational, research, marketing and administrative roles. They expected to expand these roles and advance the profession in future. Genetic counselors are versatile, playing several significant roles. As these become better recognized, demand for their services should increase, jobs should be created and the service expanded. PMID:23723047

  19. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  20. Malnutrition in South Asia-A Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-10-25

    Malnutrition continues to be a major public health challenge especially in South Asian developing countries. The aim of the present review is to spotlight the magnitude of the prevalence of malnutrition and its dynamics in South Asian region and to suggest potential approaches for the prevention and control of this issue of public health significance. An extensive review of literature, covering malnutrition and its determinants, health and economic consequences and pragmatic preventive strategies was performed on computer based bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline and Sciencedirect.com ) to retrieve abstracts and full texts for India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal. All relevant titles and abstracts were examined and evaluated for malnutrition and its prevalence in South Asia. The results revealed malnutrition to be a major public health problem and a potential cause of high disease burden and mortality in South Asia. Compelling evidence suggests malnutrition to be the leading cause of stunting, wasting and underweight with drastic economic consequences among vulnerable populations. Reduced cognitive performance and low productivity have also been associated with micronutrients malnutrition. Suboptimal breastfeeding, inadequate food supply, micronutrient deficiencies, low household income, poor health care system, increased healthcare costs, illiteracy, unhygienic and substandard living, inappropriate child's care and the caregiver, food insecurity and on top of that vicious cycle of poverty, have been recognized as principal indicators for growing malnutrition prevalence in South Asia. Global organizations, local governments, program managers, NGOs, academia, industry in particular and the society at large need to take up the challenge to completely confiscate malnutrition from the region for economic prosperity and a healthier future.

  1. Worker Education in South Africa: Lessons and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vally, Salim; Bofelo, Mphutlane Wa; Treat, John

    2013-01-01

    Worker education played a crucial role in the development of the trade union movement in South Africa and in the broader struggle for social transformation. This article reviews key moments and dynamics in the trajectory of worker education in South Africa. We argue that international developments, the rise of neoliberalism, and the negotiated…

  2. Educational Access in South Africa. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, S.; Dieltens, V.; Carrim, N.; Kgobe, P.; Moyo, G.; Rembe, S.

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in South Africa. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides a statistical analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Review on Educational Access in South Africa (Motala et al, 2007) [ED508808]…

  3. Contexts of Educational Policy Change in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Chilisa, Bagele

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how different histories and contexts of political and educational change in Botswana and South Africa have shaped the more regular classroom practice observed in Botswana. It does this through an interpretive synthesis and comparison of four key moments of educational change in Botswana and South Africa during the twentieth…

  4. Student Mobility and Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility elsewhere, which are…

  5. Expanding Doctoral Education in South Africa: Pipeline or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the status of the PhD in South Africa and the feasibility of the country's aspiration to increase by fivefold the production of PhDs by 2025. Based on the first empirical studies on doctoral education in South Africa, it argues that in order to move towards this target, an expanded and coordinated…

  6. Developing Curriculum Markers for Agricultural Extension Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient changes have occurred in both the agricultural and educational sectors of South Africa to warrant a careful scrutiny of the agricultural education offerings in South Africa. Agricultural extension is identified as an important part of the intended transformation of the agricultural sector. Further, agricultural extension is essentially…

  7. Investigating Preschool Education and Care in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg, Owen C.; Vergnani, Tania

    Recognizing the complexities of apartheid with its implications for conducting systems-related research within the vortex of South Africa, a study investigated the implementation of a national system of preschool provision for South Africa. The investigation began by studying two earlier reports: the Reilly-Hofmeyr report of 1983 and the report of…

  8. Education Rights, Education Policies and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore education policy changes in South Africa through a rights-based framework. We situate our analysis in the context of deepening poverty and inequality arguing that progress (or the lack thereof) in schools cannot be divorced from poverty and its consequences. We show that education reform in South Africa has been situated…

  9. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and..., South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of...

  10. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. PMID:27137455

  11. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia.

  12. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  13. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification of

  14. Methodology of Leaving America for Asia: Reading South Korea's Social Studies Textbooks through Chen Kuan-Hsing's Asia as Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    This project began as a content analysis of five South Korean high school Social Studies textbooks. Yet, it has evolved into an epistemological experiment to pursue the question of "what does it mean to leave America for Asia, at least methodologically, for the researcher who left Asia for America?" Using the textbooks as a mediating…

  15. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia.

    PubMed

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R Mani; Qamer, Faisal M; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2015-01-15

    Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions of the biosphere. Mangroves are under threat from both natural and anthropogenic stressors; however the current status and dynamics of the region's mangroves are poorly understood. We mapped the current extent of mangrove forests in South Asia and identified mangrove forest cover change (gain and loss) from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat satellite data. We also conducted three case studies in Indus Delta (Pakistan), Goa (India), and Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India) to identify rates, patterns, and causes of change in greater spatial and thematic details compared to regional assessment of mangrove forests. Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ∼7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and

  16. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia.

    PubMed

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R Mani; Qamer, Faisal M; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2015-01-15

    Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions of the biosphere. Mangroves are under threat from both natural and anthropogenic stressors; however the current status and dynamics of the region's mangroves are poorly understood. We mapped the current extent of mangrove forests in South Asia and identified mangrove forest cover change (gain and loss) from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat satellite data. We also conducted three case studies in Indus Delta (Pakistan), Goa (India), and Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India) to identify rates, patterns, and causes of change in greater spatial and thematic details compared to regional assessment of mangrove forests. Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ∼7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and

  17. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  18. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:19119593

  19. Free Tropospheric Aerosols Over South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elina, Giannakaki; Pfüller, Anne; Korhonen, Kimmo; Mielonen, Tero; Laakso, Lauri; Vakkari, Ville; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Beukes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Tiitta, Petri; Chiloane, Kgaugelo; Piketh, Stuart; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lehtinen, Kari

    2016-06-01

    Raman lidar data of one year was been analyzed to obtain information relating aerosol layers in the free troposphere over South Africa, Elandsfontein. In total, 375 layers were observed above the boundary layer during the period 30th January 2010 - 31st January 2011. The seasonal behavior of aerosol layer geometrical characteristics as well as intensive and extensive optical properties were studied. In general, layers were observed at higher altitudes during spring (2520 ± 970 m) while the geometrical layer depth did not show any significant seasonal dependence. The variations of most of the intensive and extensive optical properties analyzed were high during all seasons. Layers were observed at mean altitude of 2100 m ± 1000 m with lidar ratio at 355 nm of 67 ± 25 and extinction-related Ångström exponent between 355 and 532 nm of 1.9 ± 0.8.

  20. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Suffla, Shahnaaz; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Arendse, Najuwa

    2008-01-01

    Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic context, suggesting that

  1. South-South Cooperation: Brazilian experiences in South America and Africa.

    PubMed

    Santos, Roberta de Freitas; Cerqueira, Mateus Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years Brazil has played an increasingly active role internationally, the result of its model of integration and its foreign policy directives. The health sector is a valuable and strategic area for Brazilian technical cooperation to achieve various objectives, including its development goals. This article describes the main directives of Brazilian foreign policy, conceptually defining and characterizing South-South Cooperation, illustrated through an analysis of two Brazilian technical cooperation initiatives in healthcare: one in South America, the other in Africa. The study concludes that, irrespective of the interests and power asymmetries existing in South-South Cooperation, the objectives of this cooperation were achieved through the technical work. PMID:25742098

  2. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Donald, P R

    1998-01-01

    Reports by reliable observers indicate that tuberculous disease did not occur to any great extent amongst South Africa's indigenous peoples prior to European colonization. Colonization introduced sources of infection and caused rapid urbanization for purposes of commerce and trade. By the start of the 20th century tuberculosis was recognized as a common health problem amongst the Black and Coloured peoples of South Africa. National notification commenced in 1921 and an incidence of 43 per 100,000 rose to 365 per 100,000 in 1958 and declined to 162 per 100,000 in 1986 before rising again to 221 per 100,000 in 1993. High incidences have been consistently recorded amongst the Coloured population of the Western Cape Province: in 1993 713 per 100,000 compared to the national incidence of 225 per 100,000. Using a computerized geographical information system the precise distribution of tuberculosis in two adjacent underprivileged, mainly Coloured communities, with a combined population of 34,000, is being studied. From 1985 to 1994 4044 notified tuberculosis cases gave an incidence of about 1200 per 100,000, varying from 78 to 3150 per 100,000 for the 39 enumerator subdistricts used for census purposes, and was highest in those with the lowest income. Of 5345 housing units 1835 (34%) housed at least one case of tuberculosis and 483 (9%) three or more cases. IS6110 DNA fingerprinting of strains from this community has shown a high degree of strain diversity (209 out of 334 strains evaluated). Clustering, indicative of recent transmission, was found in only 30% of isolates in this high tuberculosis incidence community. PMID:9949799

  3. Evolution of the Malvinas Plate South of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, K. M.; Stock, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    We confirm that a Malvinas Plate is required in the Agulhas Basin during the Late Cretaceous because: (1) oblique Mercator plots of marine gravity show that fracture zones generated on the Agulhas rift, as well as the Agulhas Fracture Zone, do not lie on small circles about the 33o-28y South America-Africa stage pole and were therefore not formed by South America-Africa spreading, (2) the 33o-28y South America-Africa stage rotation does not bring 33o magnetic anomalies on the Malvinas Plate into alignment with their conjugates on the African Plate, and (3) errors in the 33o-28y South America-Africa stage rotation cannot account for the misalignment. We present improved Malvinas-Africa finite rotations determined by interpreting magnetic anomaly data in light of fracture zones and extinct spreading rift segments (the Agulhas rift) that are clearly revealed in satellite-derived marine gravity fields covering the Agulhas Basin. The tectonic history of the Malvinas Plate is chronicled through gravity field reconstructions that use the improved Malvinas-Africa finite rotations and more recent South America-Africa and Antarctica-Africa finite rotations. Newly-mapped triple junction traces on the Antarctic, South American, Malvinas, and African Plates, combined with geometric and magnetic constraints observed in the reconstructions, enable us to investigate the locations of the elusive western and southern boundaries of the Malvinas Plate.

  4. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R. Mani; Qamer, Faisal M.; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2014-01-01

    Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ∼7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem.

  5. Global GIS database; digital atlas of South Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Hare, T.M.; Schruben, P.; Sherrill, D.; LaMar, C.; Tsushima, P.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a digital atlas of the countries of South Asia. This atlas is part of a global database compiled from USGS and other data sources at a nominal scale 1:1 million and is intended to be used as a regional-scale reference and analytical tool by government officials, researchers, the private sector, and the general public. The atlas includes free GIS software or may be used with ESRI's ArcView software. Customized ArcView tools, specifically designed to make the atlas easier to use, are also included.

  6. Health consequences of cricket – view from South Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although cricket has origins in the British Empire, it is followed as a religion in South Asia, probably due to the influence of the former during their rule. The sport is equally popular among all groups of the society, and is not subject to gender or age constraints. It marks the epitome of reverence and is considered a battle for self-esteem, not only for those playing, but for those watching as well. The intensity of emotional attachment with this sport renders certain public health benefits as well as drawbacks to the general masses. PMID:23890090

  7. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  8. Undisciplining Knowledge Production: Development Driven Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2006-01-01

    South African higher education institutions are increasingly under scrutiny to produce knowledge that is more relevant to South Africa's social and economic needs, more representative of the diversity of its knowledge producers, and more inclusive of the variety of the sites where knowledge is produced. Only a small percentage of South Africans…

  9. AIDS epidemic runs riot in South Africa.

    PubMed

    1997-05-27

    Based on current health surveys in South Africa, the HIV and AIDS epidemic there is spreading faster than health workers can develop a policy to combat it. 120 million male and 90,000 female condoms have been distributed to the areas that are most affected. According to Health Minister Nkosazana Zuma, the percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women in the North-West Province rose from 8.3% in 1995 to 25% in 1997. In June 1996, 1.7 million people were at risk; this number rose to 2.5 million in 1997, 90,000 of whom will develop advanced AIDS by the end of the year. According to independent researchers, 800 people are infected daily, which means that 16% of South Africa's workers are already infected. This figure could rise to 20% by the year 2000 according to Professor Ronald Green-Thompson. At that time, the cost to the South African economy would be between US$25 million and US$2.3 billion. The World Health Organization (WHO) is touring provinces for the first time to select sites for use by assessment teams in July. Dr. Liz Floyd, head of the HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases unit, states that, although US$6.1 million (US$2.3 million more than in 1996) have been designated to fight the epidemic, new measures have to be found to avoid an infection rate of 1 in 5 young women by the end of the year. The unit conducts annual surveys among women attending public prenatal clinics. Infection appears to be linked to poverty, migration, family breakdowns, and prostitution. The greatest increase has been among women aged 20-24 years. According to Floyd, "the supply of condoms is still uneven and unreliable, especially in high density peri-urban settlements and shanty towns. Primary care for the youth and home-based schemes are poorly coordinated and erratic." Zuma believes that schools should be targeted; she hopes to educate children in 7400 secondary and 13,500 primary schools. Donor agencies, churches, workers, and business people have become involved, including

  10. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  11. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. October 1973 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  12. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in South Asia - challenges and future.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Pratap, Balaji; Sankarasubbaiyan, Suresh; Govindan, Priyanka; Nayak, K Shivanand; Sheriff, Rezvi; Naqvi, S A Jaffar

    2008-01-01

    Chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD), especially continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD), is being increasingly utilized in South Asian countries (population of 1.4 billion). There are divergent geopolitical and socioeconomic factors that influence the growth and expansion of CAPD in this region. The majority of the countries in South Asia are lacking in government healthcare system for reimbursing renal replacement therapy. The largest utilization of chronic PD is in India, with nearly 6500 patients on this treatment by the end of 2006. A large majority of patients are doing 2 L exchanges 3 times per day, using glucose-based dialysis solution manufactured in India. Chronic PD is not being utilized in Myanmar, Bhutan, or Seychelles. Affirmative action by the manufacturing industry, medical professionals, government policy makers, and nongovernmental organizations for reducing the cost of chronic PD will enable the growth and utilization of this life-saving therapy. PMID:18178941

  13. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in…

  14. Understanding the Hydrology of Cholera in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2007-12-01

    Cholera is an acute waterborne illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease remains a major public health issue in several regions of the developing world, mainly in coastal areas around the tropics. Cholera incidences have been historically linked to climate variables and more recently with El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The occurrence of cholera shows bi-annual seasonal peaks and strong inter-annual variability in the Ganges basin region of South Asia. However, the role of hydrologic variables in the seasonal patterns of cholera epidemics is less understood. Preliminary results suggest that a unique combination of increasing water temperature and higher salinity in the coastal zone during the low flow season provide the situation amenable to the first outbreak of cholera in the spring season. Other major factors contributing to the subsequent spread of the disease are sea surface height, monsoon precipitation, and coastal phytoplankton concentration. We will further examine the lag periods between the dominant environmental variables and cholera incidences to understand the seasonal dynamics of cholera in South Asia.

  15. Expansion of student activities in Africa: from south to north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Rim; Ben Salem, Amine; Gueddana, Amor; Zghal, Mourad; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Heidt, Alexander M.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2014-07-01

    Optics and photonics research in Africa has gradually grown in the past ten years with a very active optical community involved in state-of-the-art research. Despite relatively low resources, optics research in the continent is competitive with many international benchmarks and has had a significant impact within the African continent. In the past five years, a group of dynamic students have developed the student chapter network from Tunisia to South Africa. The first student chapters of the optical society of America (OSA) and the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE) were established in South Africa (in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and in the University of Stellenbosch), followed by a chapter in Tunisia (Engineering school of communications of Tunis, Sup'Com). In this paper, we will present the major activities of the student chapters of Tunisia and South Africa, and how they are promoting optics and photonics in Africa.

  16. Human foot bones from Klasies River main site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rightmire, G Philip; Deacon, H J; Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The caves at Klasies River contain abundant archaeological evidence relating to human evolution in the late Pleistocene of southern Africa. Along with Middle Stone Age artifacts, animal bones, and other food waste, there are hominin cranial fragments, mandibles with teeth, and a few postcranial remains. Three foot bones can now be added to this inventory. An adult first metatarsal is similar in size and discrete anatomical features to those from Holocene burials in the Cape Province. A complete and well-preserved second metatarsal is especially long and heavy at midshaft in comparison to all Holocene and more recent South African homologues. A large fifth metatarsal is highly distinctive in its morphology. In overall size, these pedal elements resemble specimens from late Pleistocene sites in western Asia, but there are some differences in proportions. The fossils support earlier suggestions concerning a relatively high level of sexual dimorphism in the African Middle Stone Age population. Squatting facets on the two lateral metatarsals appear to indicate a high frequency of kneeling among members of this group. The new postcranial material also underlines the fact that the morphology of particular skeletal elements of some of the 100,000-year-old Klasies River individuals falls outside the range of modern variation.

  17. Dated rock engravings from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, A.I.; Thackeray, J.F.; Beaumont, P.B.; Vogel, J.C.

    1981-10-02

    Radiocarbon dates associated with engraved stones from sealed archeological deposits at Wonderwerk Cave in the northern Cape Province indicate that rock engraving in South Africa is at least 10,000 years old.

  18. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  19. Revenge and forgiveness in the New South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan Joseph; van Honk, Jack; Ellis, George

    2013-02-01

    Insofar as South Africa underwent a rapid transformation from apartheid to democracy, it may provide a unique laboratory for investigating aspects of revenge and forgiveness. Here we suggest that observations and data from South Africa are partially consistent with the hypotheses generated by MCullough and colleagues. At the same time, the rich range of revenge and forgiveness phenomena in real-life settings is likely to require explanatory concepts other than specialized modules and their computational outputs.

  20. Laser propulsion experiments in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Max M.; Moorgawa, Ashokabose; Forbes, Andrew; Klopper, Wouter; McKenzie, Edric; Boutchiama, David; Bencherif, Hassan

    2002-09-01

    Two sets of experiments indicate a renewal of interest in South Africa in the topic of laser propulsion. Both sets were conducted under the auspices of the new National Laser Center. In the first set, a 1 kW, CO2 laser (1 kHz, 1 J, 100 ns) was used to propel small (ca 1 gram) targets through a vertical tube-launcher and the momentum-coupling coefficient for a variety of conditions was estimated. The somewhat disappointing results were accounted for in terms of the poor beam quality from a single oscillator and premature break-down of the exhaust vapor in the tube. These experiments were conducted with one module of the now dismantled 'MLIS' uranium isotope separation system. The second set of experiments being conducted in Durban with a small but more energetic 'marking' laser (CO2 20 Hz., 4 J, 100 ns). The chief purpose of this, was to better understand the discrepancies between the recent vertical propulsion experiment at Pelindaba and earlier propulsion attempts with the original MLIS chain. Preliminary pendulum experiments were carried out. Burning targets exhibited enhanced coupling for single pulses.

  1. Astronomy at the University of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, D. P.

    2000-12-01

    Unisa is the largest correspondence university in Africa and the only South African university currently offering a BSc in Astronomy. The astronomy modules can be included in any standard BSc Physics programme. Besides using the radio and optical telescopes at HartRAO and SAAO, Unisa also has its own Observatory on the main campus equipped with modern instrumentation for training students and doing niche research projects. Unisa est la plus importante université d'enseignement par correspondance en Afrique et la seule université d'Afrique du Sud qui forme des licenciés ès sciences (BSc) en Astronomie. Les modules d'astronomie peuvent être inclus dans tout programme standard de Physique pour BSc. En plus d'utiliser les télescopes radio et optiques à HartRAO et SAAO, Unisa a aussi sur le campus principal son propre Observatoire équipé d'une instrumentation moderne pour la formation des étudiants et pour mener à bien des projets de recherche dans des niches scientifiques modernes.

  2. Sexual power and HIV risk, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, Audrey E; Measham, Diana M; Rees, Helen V; Padian, Nancy S

    2004-11-01

    Gender power inequities are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic through their effects on women's power in sexual relationships. We hypothesized that lack of sexual power, measured with a four-point relationship control scale and by a woman's experience of forced sex with her most recent partner, would decrease the likelihood of consistent condom use and increase the risk for HIV infection among sexually experienced, 15- to 24-year-old women in South Africa. While limited sexual power was not directly associated with HIV, it was associated with inconsistent condom use: women with low relationship control were 2.10 times more likely to use condoms inconsistently (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-3.78), and women experiencing forced sex were 5.77 times more likely to use condoms inconsistently (95% CI 1.86-17.91). Inconsistent condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.10-2.27). PMID:15550214

  3. A Comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, A. K. Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions" by Katherine Hay. Hay raises a number of extremely relevant issues relating to evaluation field building in South Asia. In this paper, the author aims to underscore the importance of three priorities for initiating public…

  4. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Insights from the Rear View Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    The author enjoyed reading Katharine Hay's ambitious and humbling visions for evaluation field building in South Asia. She has successfully positioned herself on a high mountain with a wonderful set of binoculars that enable her to see the entire evaluation landscape of South Asia. She magically sees and describes significant historical forces and…

  5. Characterizing hydrological hazards and trends with the NASA South Asia Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Limaye, A. S.; Searby, N. D.; Doorn, B.; Bolten, J. D.; Toll, D. L.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Narula, K.; Nischal, S.; Iceland, C.; Bajracharya, B.; Kumar, S.; Shrestha, B. R.; Murthy, M.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    South Asia faces severe challenges to meet the need of water for agricultural, domestic and industrial purposes while coping with the threats posed by climate and land use/cover changes on regional hydrology. South Asia is also characterized by extreme climate contrasts, remote and poorly-monitored headwaters regions, and large uncertainties in estimates of consumptive water withdrawals. Here, we present results from the South Asia Land Data Assimilation System (South Asia LDAS) that apply multiple simulations involving different combination of forcing datasets, land surface models, and satellite-derived parameter datasets to characterize the distributed water balance of the subcontinent. The South Asia LDAS ensemble of simulations provides a range of uncertainty associated with model products. The system includes customized irrigation schemes to capture water use and HYMAP streamflow routing for application to floods. This presentation focuses on two key application areas for South Asia LDAS: the representation of extreme floods in transboundary rivers, and the estimate of water use in irrigated agriculture. We show that South Asia LDAS captures important features of both phenomena, address opportunities and barriers for the use of South Asia LDAS in decision support, and review uncertainties and limitations.This work is being performed by an interdisciplinary team of scientists and decision makers, to ensure that the modeling system meets the needs of decision makers at national and regional levels.

  6. Geomorphology and Geodynamics at Crustal Boundaries within Asia and Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The release of SRTM images by NASA over the past two years year has been greeted by foreign Earth scientist's as "NASA's gift to the World". The goodwill that this has engendered in parts of Africa. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, as scientists in those countries contemplated what many of them considered an unprovoked and unjustifiable US invasion of Iraq, cannot be underestimated. We have used SRTM images from Africa and India and elsewhere to examine aspects of tectonism, geodynamics and tsunami and earthquake hazards. Highlights of this research are itemized in this final report. One difficulty that has arisen is , of course, that the funding for the science lead the availability of the data by more than a year. and as a result many of the findings are as yet unpublished.

  7. [An approach to tuberculosis in newcomers from Asia and Africa].

    PubMed

    Toyota, E; Ootani, N; Suzuki, T; Yosikawa, M; Ozawa, Y; Tajima, H

    1991-12-01

    In recent years, it has been documented that tuberculosis frequently occurs among recently entered foreigners dominantly from Asia. We studied 85 cases admitted to our hospital for active tuberculosis from 1986 to 1990. Many of those cases, we believe, were infected in countries of origin and were reactivated soon after or before entering Japan. In spite of higher rate of involving recurrent cases and resistance to anti-mycobacterial drug agents, chemotherapy has been generally efficient. In some cases, continuance of treatment was difficult because of their illegal stay, misunderstanding of the disease or other problems such as customs and economic difficulties.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  9. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W.

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  10. Local breeds, livelihoods and livestock keepers' rights in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse; Rathore, H S; Mathias, E

    2009-10-01

    In South Asia, and throughout the developing world, the predominant official approach to livestock development has been improvement of production by means of upgrading local breeds via cross-breeding with exotic animals. This strategy has led to the replacement and dilution of locally adapted breeds with non-native ones. This has resulted in an alarming loss that has been estimated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to amount to one breed every two weeks. Based on selected case studies this paper argues that development strategies using locally adapted breeds and species are much more likely to benefit livestock keepers whilst also maintaining domestic animal diversity and bearing a smaller ecological footprint. It also analyses the rationale for "Livestock Keepers' Rights", a principle that grew out of the struggle of traditional livestock keepers to retain control over their production resources, such as grazing areas and breeding stock, in the face of unfavourable policy environments.

  11. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, M.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Narain, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia. PMID:22664492

  12. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  13. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  14. Malaria Evolution in South Asia: Knowledge for Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Chery, Laura; Basu, Analabha; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Escalante, Ananias; Fowble, Joseph; Guler, Jennifer L.; Herricks, Thurston; Kumar, Ashwani; Majumder, Partha; Maki, Jennifer; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Rodrigues, Janneth; Roy, Bikram; Sen, Somdutta; Shastri, Jayanthi; Smith, Joseph; Valecha, Neena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.

    2013-01-01

    The study of malaria parasites on the Indian subcontinent should help us understand unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and from Plasmodium vivax infections. The Malaria Evolution in South Asia (MESA) research program is one of ten International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institute of Health. In this second of two reviews, we describe why population structures of Plasmodia in India will be characterized and how we will determine their consequences on disease presentation, outcome and patterns. Specific projects will determine if genetic diversity, possibly driven by parasites with higher genetic plasticity, plays a role in changing epidemiology, pathogenesis, vector competence of parasite populations, and whether innate human genetic traits protect Indians from malaria today. Deep local clinical knowledge of malaria in India will be supplemented by basic scientists who bring new research tools. Such tools will include whole genome sequencing and analysis methods; in vitro assays to measure genome plasticity, RBC cytoadhesion, invasion, and deformability; mosquito infectivity assays to evaluate changing parasite-vector compatibilities; and host genetics to understand protective traits in Indian populations. The MESA-ICEMR study sites span diagonally across India, including a mixture of very urban and rural hospitals, each with very different disease patterns and patient populations. Research partnerships include government-associated research institutes, private medical schools, city and state government hospitals, and hospitals with industry ties. Between 2012-2017, in addition to developing clinical research and basic science infrastructure at new clinical sites, our training workshops will engage new scientists and clinicians throughout South Asia in the malaria research field. PMID:22266213

  15. Teaching Business Ethically in the "New" South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkomo, Stella M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the author's experience teaching a course on leadership and organizational dynamics to master of business administration students at the Graduate School of Business Leadership, University of South Africa. Considers how the structures of apartheid that permeated all sectors of South African society are only gradually being dismantled. (SG)

  16. An Overview of Education Management in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloi, Kholeka; Bush, Tony

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine three main issues, which are directly linked to school management developments in South Africa since 1994: (1) school leadership and management; (2) professionalization of principalship through the South African Standard for Principalship (SASP); and (3) leading and managing the learning school. In exploring these…

  17. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…

  18. Professional Counseling in South Africa: A Landscape under Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus G.; van der Westhuizen, Carol N.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the history, status, and trends of the counseling profession in South Africa and on the similarities with the development of the counseling profession in the United States. A need exists for South African professional counselors to refocus their research efforts to reflect the realities of the 21st century and link…

  19. The Relationship between Racism and Education in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Ernest F.

    1985-01-01

    The author traces the relationship between racism and education in South Africa in light of the numerous racist policies and practices that the South African government has pursued and continues to implement. Dube describes the introduction of Bantu education and draws attention to the intended and unintended outcomes of this system. (Author/CT)

  20. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  1. Work Restructuring in Post-Apartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Edward; Omar, Rahmat

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of South African companies (mining, manufacturing, and telephone call centers) reveal a mix of management strategies that converge with and diverge from past practices. South Africa is attempting to balance the demands of efficiency, employee rights, and racial equity, a challenge that requires overcoming the legacy of the apartheid…

  2. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  3. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  4. Middle and later Pleistocene hominins in Africa and Southwest Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rightmire, G. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 700,000 years ago, Homo erectus in Africa was giving way to populations with larger brains accompanied by structural adjustments to the vault, cranial base, and face. Such early Middle Pleistocene hominins were not anatomically modern. Their skulls display strong supraorbital tori above projecting faces, flattened frontals, and less parietal expansion than is the case for Homo sapiens. Postcranial remains seem also to have archaic features. Subsequently, some groups evolved advanced skeletal morphology, and by ca. 200,000 years ago, individuals more similar to recent humans are present in the African record. These fossils are associated with Middle Stone Age lithic assemblages and, in some cases, Acheulean tools. Crania from Herto in Ethiopia carry defleshing cutmarks and superficial scoring that may be indicative of mortuary practices. Despite these signs of behavioral innovation, neither the Herto hominins, nor others from Late Pleistocene sites such as Klasies River in southern Africa and Skhūl/Qafzeh in Israel, can be matched in living populations. Skulls are quite robust, and it is only after ≈35,000 years ago that people with more gracile, fully modern morphology make their appearance. Not surprisingly, many questions concerning this evolutionary history have been raised. Attention has centered on systematics of the mid-Pleistocene hominins, their paleobiology, and the timing of dispersals that spread H. sapiens out of Africa and across the Old World. In this report, I discuss structural changes characterizing the skulls from different time periods, possible regional differences in morphology, and the bearing of this evidence on recognizing distinct species. PMID:19581595

  5. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa's springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  6. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa's springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  7. Stress Patterns Across South Africa: Something Amiss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, Marco; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Delvaux De Fenffe, Damien; Durrheim, Ray; Fagereng, Ake; Heidbach, Oliver; Van Der Merwe, Nielen; Saalmann, Kerstin; Saunders, Ian; Hodge, Matthew; Logue, Andrew; Malephane, Hlompho; Muaka, Joseph J.

    2013-04-01

    To mitigate the uncertainties in assessing the geohazards and rock conditions that affect the nuclear, mining (including hydrocarbon extraction) and civil engineering activities in South Africa, the authors are working to improve the data coverage concerning the present day stress field. In principle, this implies constraining the principal compressive stresses (σ1>σ2>σ3) or at least the maximum horizontal compressive stress (σH) because knowledge of these parameters may determine the reactivation potential of known faults, or the behaviour of large excavations and wells. By contrast, much of the subcontinent is under-represented in the World Stress Map database. For this reason we have taken a number of steps, firstly by installing a compact Trillium seismic sensor at Stofkloof (Namaqualand; adjacent to the Vaalputs low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility) and 1-sec sensors at Aggeneys and Koffiemeul (Bushmanland). All stations are equipped with Reftek data loggers and powered by solar panels. The data from these stations will be integrated with data from the national network to obtain focal mechanism solutions for seismic events in the Northern Cape - southernmost Namibia region (also known as the Grootvloer cluster). These neotectonic stress tensors are then combined with σH parameters obtained from calliper logs of off-shore wells and from the geometry of joints, faults and sheared fractures in palaeosols (Bushmanland), soils and calcrete (NW Free State) and aeolianites (southern Cape). We also include underground rock engineering phenomenological observations and measurements, and data in the public domain. Our data consistently indicate a NNW-SSE oriented σH (Wegener Stress Anomaly or WSA) that prevails across most of central, southern and western South Africa, Namibia up to the Ruacana hydroelectric power plant at the Angola border. However, in the Congo basin, a few earthquake focal mechanisms suggest rotation of the regional

  8. Geology, prospects in Orange basin offshore western South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Muntingh, A. Ltd., Parow )

    1993-01-25

    With the fast changing political situation in South Africa it has become possible for Soekor (Pty.) Ltd. To invite international companies to participate in oil and gas exploration in the South African part of the Orange basin. This paper reports on the Orange basin, which comprises a 130,000 sq km area off western South Africa that extends northwards into Namibia, represents a large frontier basin with known hydrocarbon accumulations and the potential for giant fields. Comprehensive seismic coverage and a recent deep-water seismic survey in the Orange basin indicate exciting opportunities in the form of shallow and deep-water plays.

  9. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S. A. Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  10. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S A Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-02-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  11. Complementary feeding practices in South Asia: analyses of recent national survey data by the South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network.

    PubMed

    Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    South Asian region has the highest global burden of child undernutrition, with almost 41% of children stunted, 16% wasted and 33% underweight. Improved feeding of children less than 2 years of age is particularly important because they experience rapid growth and development, and are vulnerable to illnesses such as acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases. The present supplement aimed to describe complementary feeding practices in five South Asian countries - Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka - using the new and updated global complementary feeding indicators and to identify determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices. The South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network held a series of workshops to study and discuss the operational guidelines for the new complementary feeding indicators in consultation with regional and international experts. The latest Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and the National Family Health Survey of India were used as data sources. Four key indicators were calculated: introduction of solid, semisolid or soft foods in 6-8 months aged, minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet in 6-23-month-aged children. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of poor complementary feeding practices. The papers in this supplement present results of these analyses for each individual country and a comparison between countries. The results have important implications for policies, programmes and research on infant and young child feeding in the region, especially for targeting groups at high risk for suboptimal practices.

  12. Geoscience in Developing Countries of South Asia and International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K.

    2007-12-01

    Earth Science community in developing countries of South Asia is actively engaged in interdisciplinary investigations of the Earth and its envelopes through geological, geophysical and geochemical processes, for these processes are interconnected. Interdisciplinary interaction will continue to grow since problems pertaining to the solid earth, with its core-mantle-crust, and fluid envelops can be solved only with contributions from different Science disciplines. The expanding population and revolution in data handling-and-computing have now become a necessity to tackle the geoscientific problems with modern techniques and methodologies to meet these new challenges. As a future strategy, geo-data generation and handling need to be speedier and easier and hence demands a well- knit coordiantion and understanding amongst Governments, Industries and Academic organizations. Such coordination will prove valuable for better understanding of the Earth's processes, especially mitigating natural hazards with more accurate and speedy prdictions, besides sustaining Earth's resources. South Asian geoscience must, therefore, seek new directions by way of strategies, policies, and actions to move forward in this century. Environmental and resource problems affecting the world population have become international issues, since global environmental changes demand international cooperation and planning. The Earth is continually modified by the interplay of internal and external processes. Hence we need to apply modern geophysical techniques and interpret the results with the help of available geological, geochronological and gechemical informations It is through such integrated approach that we could greatly refine our understanding of the deep structure and evolution of the Indian shield. However, the inputs into multi-disciplinary studies necessary to know the crustal structure and tectonics in the adjoining regions (Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc.) still remain

  13. Issues for cross-cultural psychiatric research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swartz, L

    1985-03-01

    South Africa's heterogenous society offers many opportunities for cross-cultural psychiatric research, but researchers in the country are subject to a number of restraints. Apart from legally enforced segregation, there are strict censorship laws and restricted access to certain types of information. The issues surrounding categorization of cultures and factors affecting publishing research from South Africa have important implications for the type of work that is done. It is a central argument of this article that the issues affecting research in South Africa are relevant to other countries as well, and parallels between the local and international context are drawn. The South African experience suggests that analysis of the research enterprise itself is a useful part of the business of cross-cultural psychiatric research.

  14. Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Hugh

    2009-08-01

    It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-east Asia is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical mitigation strategies and research needs, and describes possible mitigation measures that need to be tested. These measures include providing alternative irrigation sources, various agronomic measures, use of soil amendments, growing hyperaccumulator plants, removing contaminated soil and using alternative cooking methods. PMID:19394085

  15. Arsenic in groundwater: a threat to sustainable agriculture in South and South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Hugh; Ravenscroft, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The problem of arsenic pollution of groundwater used for domestic water supplies is now well recognised in Bangladesh, India and some other countries of South and South-east Asia. However, it has recently become apparent that arsenic-polluted water used for irrigation is adding sufficient arsenic to soils and rice to pose serious threats to sustainable agricultural production in those countries and to the health and livelihoods of affected people. This paper reviews the nature of those threats, taking into account the natural sources of arsenic pollution, areas affected, factors influencing arsenic uptake by soils and plants, toxicity levels and the dietary risk to people consuming arsenic-contaminated rice.

  16. Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Hugh

    2009-08-01

    It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-east Asia is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical mitigation strategies and research needs, and describes possible mitigation measures that need to be tested. These measures include providing alternative irrigation sources, various agronomic measures, use of soil amendments, growing hyperaccumulator plants, removing contaminated soil and using alternative cooking methods.

  17. Education and Skills for Development in South Africa: Reflections on the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, S.; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    In July 2005, President Mbeki announced the launch of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA), a new development strategy designed to help the South African state meet the ANC's 2004 election pledges, namely: (1) halve unemployment; (2) halve poverty; (3) accelerate employment equity; and (4) improve broad-based…

  18. Breast cancer in South Asia: a Bangladeshi perspective.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Sorowar; Ferdous, Shameema; Karim-Kos, Henrike E

    2014-10-01

    South Asian countries are facing a hidden breast cancer epidemic. A significant proportion of the breast cancer cases occur in premenopausal women. Knowledge of the various aspects of breast cancer in different geographical regions is limited in South Asia. In this article, we review the Bangladeshi perspective of the epidemiology, risk factors, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. As in other developing countries, because of the lack of breast cancer awareness in Bangladeshi population and inadequate access to health care, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. Early detection has a crucial impact on overall treatment outcomes. To battle against breast cancer in resource-limited countries like Bangladesh, it is not feasible to set up a parallel health service system solely dedicated to cancer. Therefore, a cost-effective public health strategy is needed which could reach a large number of women in the country. Considering all these issues, we propose an innovative female-based primary healthcare approach focused on awareness, screening and early detection of breast cancer in Bangladesh. This preventive strategy could be a model for other resource-limited developing countries. PMID:25182670

  19. New Insights into Samango Monkey Speciation in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré L.; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M. Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study. PMID:25798604

  20. Intraseasonal teleconnections between South America and southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice

    2013-04-01

    Teleconnections are detected for different seasons in the intraseasonal precipitation variability of South America and southern Africa. Observed daily precipitation data from both continents in the period 1979-1999 are gridded to 1°, and a bandpass Lanczos filter is applied to each grid point, retaining only intraseasonal oscillations. Correlation analysis is carried out between filtered precipitation series in each 1° x 1° grid box with data over South America and precipitation averaged over several relatively homogeneous regions in southern Africa. Lags from 0 up to 5 days are applied to the African data, in order to disclose convective anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with the precipitation anomalies over southern Africa. The atmospheric conditions associated with the beginning of a positive (or negative) phase of intraseasonal oscillations in each selected region in southern Africa are assessed through the composites of 200 hPa streamfunction anomalies observed in the first days of these phases, when the daily precipitation anomaly starts exceeding 1 standard deviation in the filtered series. These composite fields show wavetrains connecting both continents, with strongest cyclonic anomaly centered southwest of the African regions under focus, as expected. An influence function analysis of the target points in the center of these cyclonic anomalies indicates that perturbations of the upper level divergence associated with anomalous convection over South America are able to produce the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with enhanced precipitation in those regions of southern Africa. Simulations with a vorticity equation model that includes the divergence of the basic state and the vorticity advection by the anomalous divergent wind confirm the observed connection. Therefore, although internal atmospheric variability may be associated with the intraseasonal oscillations of precipitation in South

  1. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  2. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia. PMID:26503008

  3. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. PMID:24973022

  4. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research.

  5. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  6. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  7. Does race matter? Children's height in Brazil and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Burgard, Sarah

    2002-11-01

    I examine racial differences in child stunting in mid-1990s South Africa and Brazil, two multiracial societies with different histories of legal support for racial discrimination. Using data from nationally representative household samples linked to community-level measures, the analysis shows that racial inequality in the distribution of socioeconomic resources across households and communities explains much of the racial difference in stunting in both countries. Even after these factors are controlled, however, the results indicate that in South Africa, nonwhite children are still at greater risk of growth faltering than are white children. The nature of socioeconomic and racial differences in children's growth is examined, and major determinants are discussed. These findings suggest that although state-sanctioned racism may help to explain the greater racial inequality in stunting in South Africa than in Brazil, the eradication of a disadvantage for nonwhites will depend on changes in the same fundamental socioeconomic inequalities that characterize both nations.

  8. Does race matter? Children's height in Brazil and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Burgard, Sarah

    2002-11-01

    I examine racial differences in child stunting in mid-1990s South Africa and Brazil, two multiracial societies with different histories of legal support for racial discrimination. Using data from nationally representative household samples linked to community-level measures, the analysis shows that racial inequality in the distribution of socioeconomic resources across households and communities explains much of the racial difference in stunting in both countries. Even after these factors are controlled, however, the results indicate that in South Africa, nonwhite children are still at greater risk of growth faltering than are white children. The nature of socioeconomic and racial differences in children's growth is examined, and major determinants are discussed. These findings suggest that although state-sanctioned racism may help to explain the greater racial inequality in stunting in South Africa than in Brazil, the eradication of a disadvantage for nonwhites will depend on changes in the same fundamental socioeconomic inequalities that characterize both nations. PMID:12471853

  9. Sex preference in South Asia: Sri Lanka an outlier.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, A T

    1995-09-01

    At a 1994 symposium on sex preference in Asia, represented countries were grouped as follows: a) rapid fertility decline, strong son preference, and abnormal sex ratio at birth (China, Taiwan, and the Republic of Korea); b) rapid fertility decline, no son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand); and c) slow fertility decline, strong son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan). This article reviews the factors responsible for strong son preference in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan and the reasons for the lack of son preference in Sri Lanka. Abnormal sex ratios are attributed to sex-selective abortions. Sex preference in South Asia results in excessive mortality of female children. Mention is made of a higher mortality risk of daughters in Indian households with more older female children. Bairagi is cited for his evidence that in Bangladesh daughters having older sisters have a higher mortality risk. In Pakistan survey results indicate that sons are preferred. Numerous authors are cited for evidence suggesting that fertility might be lower if son preference were reduced. Rajaretnam and Deshpande are cited for findings that contraceptive prevalence in south India would increase by about 12% in high-prevalence areas and about 25% in low-prevalence areas in the absence of sex preference. Bourne and Walker and Das Gupta are identified as authors providing evidence that increased economic opportunities for women, increased women's status, and increased value placed on women's work would reduce the desire for sons. Cain argues for better old-age security and better access to food and medical care. Abeykoon has shown that weakened son preference in Sri Lanka occurred over a 20-year period as improvements were made in women's status. Parents in Sri Lanka give greater value to the small-family norm than to the sex of the child. A slight preference was found in 1975 and 1992. Discrimination in food

  10. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oelofse, Suzan Hh; Nahman, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between a third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted globally are constrained by limited data, particularly from developing countries. This article attempts to quantify total food waste generation (including both pre-consumer food losses, as well as post-consumer food waste) in South Africa. The estimates are based on available food supply data for South Africa and on estimates of average food waste generation at each step of the food supply chain for sub-Saharan Africa. The preliminary estimate of the magnitude of food waste generation in South Africa is in the order of 9.04 million tonnes per annum. On a per capita basis, overall food waste in South Africa in 2007 is estimated at 177 kg/capita/annum and consumption waste at 7 kg/capita/annum. However, these preliminary figures should be used with caution and are subject to verification through ongoing research.

  11. Lifelong Learning Within Higher Education in South Africa: Emancipatory Potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Shirley

    1999-11-01

    In South Africa under apartheid higher education was inaccessible to the majority. This article argues that in the new South Africa there is an opportunity to redress this situation and promote equity though lifelong learning. This would involve greatly widening access and providing programmes to develop broadly applicable abilities such as computer literacy and problem-solving skills, which would increase the economic competitiveness and personal empowerment of learners. At the same time, the author argues, new educational approaches are needed to promote active citizenship.

  12. Sleights of Hand: South Africa's Gold Mines and Occupational Disease.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Jock

    2016-02-01

    South Africa's gold mines were the first to compensate silicosis and tuberculosis as occupational diseases. They were also the first mines to introduce a state-sanctioned regime of medical surveillance. Despite those innovations, the major mining houses are currently facing class actions by former miners with occupational lung disease. The obvious reason for this medical and legislative failure is to be found in the economic fabric of South Africa's gold industry. In this article, I will argue that it is also found in the system of mine medicine, which was designed to hide rather than reveal the actual disease rates.

  13. Housing conditions and mental health of orphans in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michele; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the developed world suggests that poor housing conditions and housing environments contribute to poor mental health outcomes, although research results are mixed. This study investigates the relationship between housing conditions and the socio-emotional health of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. The results of the study are mainly inconclusive, although it is suggested that methodological considerations play a vital role in explaining the mixed results. However, a positive relationship was found between living in informal settlements and better socio-emotional health of the OVC. We speculate that the historical context of informal settlement formation in South Africa helps to explain this unexpected result. PMID:24013088

  14. Cold season Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern and its relation to the Atlantic multidecadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Ding, Ruiqiang; Jin, Ze

    2016-08-01

    A prominent teleconnection pattern of multidecadal variability of cold season (November to April) upper-level atmospheric circulation over North Africa and Eurasia (NA-EA) is revealed by empirical orthogonal function analysis of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis data. This teleconnection pattern is characterized by an eastward propagating wave train with a zonal wavenumber of 5-6 between 20° and 40°N, extending from the northwest coast of Africa to East Asia, and thus is referred to as the Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern (AAMT). One-point correlation maps show that the teleconnectivity of AAMT is strong and further demonstrate the existence of the AAMT. The AAMT shapes the spatial structure of multidecadal change in atmospheric circulation over the NA-EA region, and in particular the AAMT pattern and associated fields show similar structures to the change occurring around the early 1960s. A strong in-phase relationship is observed between the AAMT and Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) and this connection is mainly due to Rossby wave dynamics. Barotropic modeling results suggest that the upper-level Rossby wave source generated by the AMV can excite the AAMT wave train, and Rossby wave ray tracing analysis further highlights the role of the Asian jet stream in guiding the wave train to East Asia. The AAMT acts as an atmospheric bridge conveying the influence of AMV onto the downstream multidecadal climate variability. The AMV is closely related to the coordinated change in surface and tropospheric air temperatures over Northwest Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Central China, which may result from the adiabatic expansion/compression of air associated with the AAMT.

  15. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa.

  16. Investment in South Africa: A Challenge to Schools of Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunson, Paul M.

    1980-01-01

    Points out the rift between the non-discrimination ethic of social workers and the apartheid policy in South Africa. University corporate investments in South Africa are questioned, especially those from universities with graduate schools of social work. (LAB)

  17. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  18. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. PMID:22392794

  19. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  20. Marriage Institutions and Sibling Competition: Evidence from South Asia*

    PubMed

    Vogl, Tom S

    2013-08-01

    Using data from South Asia, this article examines how arranged marriage cultivates rivalry among sisters. During marriage search, parents with multiple daughters reduce the reservation quality for an older daughter's groom, rushing her marriage to allow sufficient time to marry off her younger sisters. Relative to younger brothers, younger sisters increase a girl's marriage risk; relative to younger singleton sisters, younger twin sisters have the same effect. These effects intensify in marriage markets with lower sex ratios or greater parental involvement in marriage arrangements. In contrast, older sisters delay a girl's marriage. Because girls leave school when they marry and face limited earning opportunities when they reach adulthood, the number of sisters has well-being consequences over the life cycle. Younger sisters cause earlier school-leaving, lower literacy, a match to a husband with less education and a less skilled occupation, and (marginally) lower adult economic status. Data from a broader set of countries indicate that these cross-sister pressures on marriage age are common throughout the developing world, although the schooling costs vary by setting. JEL Codes: J1, I25, O15.

  1. Marriage Institutions and Sibling Competition: Evidence from South Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from South Asia, this article examines how arranged marriage cultivates rivalry among sisters. During marriage search, parents with multiple daughters reduce the reservation quality for an older daughter’s groom, rushing her marriage to allow sufficient time to marry off her younger sisters. Relative to younger brothers, younger sisters increase a girl’s marriage risk; relative to younger singleton sisters, younger twin sisters have the same effect. These effects intensify in marriage markets with lower sex ratios or greater parental involvement in marriage arrangements. In contrast, older sisters delay a girl’s marriage. Because girls leave school when they marry and face limited earning opportunities when they reach adulthood, the number of sisters has well-being consequences over the life cycle. Younger sisters cause earlier school-leaving, lower literacy, a match to a husband with less education and a less skilled occupation, and (marginally) lower adult economic status. Data from a broader set of countries indicate that these cross-sister pressures on marriage age are common throughout the developing world, although the schooling costs vary by setting. JEL Codes: J1, I25, O15. PMID:23966752

  2. Women's cardiovascular health: perspectives from South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Rajadurai, Jeyamalar; Lopez, Eleanor A; Rahajoe, Anna Ulfah; Goh, Ping Ping; Uboldejpracharak, Yingnoi; Zambahari, Robaayah

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented. PMID:22525668

  3. Diabetes in South-East Asia: an update.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Ambady; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan

    2014-02-01

    According to the recent estimates by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), South East-Asia (SEA) Region consisting of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Mauritius and Maldives, is home to more than 72 million adults with diabetes in 2013 and is expected to exceed 123 million in 2035. Nearly 95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is relatively rare in these countries, its prevalence is also rising. Furthermore, a large number (24.3 million) of people also have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Several characteristic differences are seen in the clinical and immunological presentation of these people when compared with their European counterparts. A sharp increase in the prevalence of T2DM has been observed in the SEA Region, both in urban and rural areas, which is mostly associated with the lifestyle transitions towards urbanisation and industrialisation. Evidence suggests that a large portion of T2DM may be preventable by lifestyle modification. However, morbidity and early mortality occur as a result of inadequate healthcare facilities for early detection and initiation of therapy, as well as suboptimal management of diabetes and associated morbidities. This is largely preventable by primary prevention of diabetes and enhancing awareness about the disease among the public and the healthcare providers. There is an urgent need for concerted efforts by government and non-governmental sectors to implement national programmes aimed at prevention, management and surveillance of the disease.

  4. Overseas Educational Developments, 1981: Mexico, South America, Southeast Asia. A World Higher Education Communique Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Educational developments in Mexico, South America, and Southeast Asia are covered in five seminar papers. In addition, country educational profiles are presented on Mexico, Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. In "International Students from Southeast Asia," John F. Brohm considers the following aspects of…

  5. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  6. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat. PMID:26803815

  7. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  8. Dynamic downscaling of South Asia summer monsoon precipitation over COREDEX South Asia using the regional climate model (RegCM4.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mujtaba; Pengfei, Du; Iqbal, Waheed; Ba, Wulong

    2015-04-01

    We used the latest version of Abdus Slam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4.3) in the present study to analyze the multiyear climate simulation over the CORDEX South Asia, which characterize by complex topographical features with extensive mountain ranges of Hindukush-Karakorum-Himalaya (HKH) regions. European Community-Hamburg atmospheric model (ECHAM5) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) 40 years reanalysis data (ERA-40) are used to provide the initial and lateral boundary conditions. Two experiments hereafter referred as RegCM-ERA40 and RegCM-ECHAM5, are performed for present day climate from 1970-2000 with a horizontal resolution of 50 km. Seasonal mean climatology, Interannual variability and annual cycle are compared against the observational data. The main features of spatial distribution of South Asia Summer Monsoon (SASM) precipitation are reproduced well by RegCM4.3 than ECHAM5 GCM. Regional climate model show wet bias over south peninsular India and dry bias over the central India. However RegCM4.3 improves the simulation results for SASM precipitation as compared to both of the driving fields. Our results show that the performance of RegCM4.3 is sufficient for climate change simulation and impact assessment studies over the complex topographical domain of South Asia. Keywords: Regional climate modeling. South Asia. Summer monsoon precipitation.

  9. ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

  10. 77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia. Recruitment for this mission will conclude no...

  11. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice...

  12. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from South Africa..., South Africa, and Taiwan. \\3\\ Commissioner Charlotte R. Lane dissents with respect to the...

  13. 78 FR 65706 - Ferrovanadium From China and South Africa; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... and South Africa (68 FR 4168 and 4169). Following the first five-year reviews by Commerce and the... imports of ferrovanadium from China and South Africa (73 FR 77609). The Commission is now conducting... COMMISSION Ferrovanadium From China and South Africa; Institution of Five- Year Reviews AGENCY: United...

  14. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...

  15. State of Transition: Post-Apartheid Educational Reform in South Africa. Monographs in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    This book reviews the major dimensions of post-apartheid educational change and continuity in South Africa since 1994. It sets educational reform in the context of the nature of the anti-apartheid struggle inside South Africa and in the global economic environment in which South Africa re-entered the world stage as a legitimate actor. Recognizing…

  16. Competition and Cooperation in South Africa's Biotechnology Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerck, Gilton

    2005-01-01

    This article asserts that the normative, institutional and policy framework of an economy moulds the structure and performance of its innovation system. Three case studies of industry?higher education partnerships in South Africa's biotechnology sector challenge both the notion of a simple convergence within and between national innovation systems…

  17. Desegregation in a Former "Whites Only" School in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grootboom, Nomalanga P.

    2012-01-01

    After decades of racially segregated education under apartheid in South Africa, the process of school desegregation commenced in 1990's with the view equalize education for all, and fostering better relationships and making available equal opportunities for all learners. The process of desegregation not has been without problems as it is…

  18. The Dilemma of the Historically Black Universities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilorah, R.

    2006-01-01

    The historical black universities (HBUs) in South Africa were established by the apartheid government to serve black students banned from attending segregated white-only universities. These universities were poorly funded compared to the white-only universities. The poor funding affected their output (research and postgraduates) adversely. With…

  19. Lost Horizons: The Humanities in South Africa (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Politics chartered the development of the Humanities in South Africa. Under the apartheid system three separate traditions--English-speaking, Afrikaner and Homeland--co-existed, albeit uneasily, in separate institutional forms. As apartheid crumbled in the 1980s, the Humanities, by drawing the three traditions together, established a growing voice…

  20. Decolonizing Research in Postapartheid South Africa: The Politics of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2012-01-01

    This article emanates from an in-depth qualitative study that examined ideological beliefs among Indigenous parents regarding school desegregation and school "choice" policies in South Africa. The author discusses the politics of qualitative research design and methodology along two primary dimensions: decolonizing research and the importance of…

  1. Research at Private Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; van Vuuren, Rex; Augustyn, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about whether and what kinds of research are being undertaken at private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in South Africa. This article draws on a recent survey of all registered PHEIs undertaken by a group of interested private higher education providers. This survey was facilitated by the Council on Higher Education…

  2. Recent Optometric Education Developments in the Republic of South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    Two optometry schools, established at the University of the North and the University of Durban-Westville in South Africa which were authorized by separate government departments for Black and Indian ethnic categories, are described. No attempt is made to evaluate the relative quality of the two programs. (MLW)

  3. Transforming the Culture of Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaver, Beverley

    2009-01-01

    Stumbling blocks remain on the road to a fully equitable culture in higher education in South Africa. Between 2003 and 2006, the author conducted two research studies that probed the nature of the transformation of higher education institutions in the country. The first study focused specifically on institutional culture; the second examined the…

  4. 1994: New Academic Profession for a New South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1994, the eyes of the world have been on South Africa, observing with interest the societal reconstruction project, upon which the country had embarked. In this project, higher education is both the terrain and the perceived instrument of change. In this higher education system and its mission, the academic profession is pivotal--especially,…

  5. Academic Freedom and Racial Injustice: South Africa's Former "Open Universities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Y.; Taylor, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article critically re-interrogates three high profile cases of white racism at South Africa's former "open universities" to highlight the way in which existing debates around academic freedom fail to come to terms with questions of racial injustice after apartheid. The cases covered are the Makgoba affair at Wits, the Mamdani affair at the…

  6. Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Aspirations of Dentistry Students in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…

  7. School Choice and Inequalities in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of the new policies of school choice in post-apartheid South Africa and the reasons they have largely failed to achieve greater educational equality--their stated purpose. I argue that the dominant reason for this lies in the continuing inadequate resources of many poor schools and the failure to address them.…

  8. Institutionalising Teacher Clusters in South Africa: Dilemmas and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jita, Loyiso C.; Mokhele, Matseliso L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher clusters are being used as a substitute for the more traditional approaches to the professional development of teachers. With this goal in mind, many provincial education departments in South Africa have sought to institutionalise and encourage the formation of teacher clusters as vehicles for the continuing professional…

  9. An Overview of Education and Drama in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Terri Anne

    2016-01-01

    South Africa labours under a bimodal education system in which inequality is deeply entrenched. Approximately 83% of schools are classed as being "dysfunctional" and many learners are not effectively equipped for meaningful futures. Learners who are able to attend the few functional schools are generally able to attain better jobs and…

  10. The Status of Teaching as a Profession in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Corene

    2016-01-01

    Using ten universally accepted criteria for a profession and following the Structural-Functional Model of professionalism, this study evaluates the status of teaching as a profession in South Africa. The study found that policies and structures have been put in place since the beginning of the new millennium to enhance the professional status of…

  11. English Teaching in South Africa: Languages, Literacies and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Lesley; Homer, David; Patterson, Annette

    1998-01-01

    Uses three addresses given at a mid-term International Federation for the Teaching of English at the University of Witwatersrand to outline workplace realities for South African teachers. Summarizes the addresses which deal with (1) the role of intellectuals in Africa; (2) the problems of school and social reconstruction; and (3) the political…

  12. "No Fee" Schools in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen; Sayeed, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    40% of schools in South Africa, namely the poorest two-fifths as determined by poverty indicators, were declared to be no fee schools as of 2007. These schools receive larger state allocations per learner than other schools, as well as a higher allocation for non-personnel, non-capital expenditure. In other schools parents may continue to apply…

  13. The Making of South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social construction of the "Revised National Curriculum Statement (Grades R-9)" in South Africa between 2000-2002. The author, a participant in the process, uses the experience of the insider to tell the story. The paper discusses the relationship of different lobbies, voices, and interests to the curriculum, and argues…

  14. Fostering National and Global Citizenship: An Example from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota Nelly

    2008-01-01

    During a recent trip to South Africa, the author had an array of opportunities to experience the cultural, historical, political, and geographic landscape of the country. He was privileged to visit classrooms and to teach and interact with students and teachers. Through teaching some lessons on democracy and citizenship, the author learned that…

  15. Black Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter W.; Boult, Brenda E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa are at threatening levels. Outlines selected consequences based on the assertion that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational. Hypothesizes teenage pregnancy needs reexamination in terms of the pheronomal climate's impact on prepuberial girls; and nature's way of…

  16. Social Justice and Rural Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlalele, Dipane

    2012-01-01

    Social justice is undeniably grounded in efforts at circumventing provisions that seek to uphold ostracism and exclusionary practices which have permeated South Africa and many other societies worldwide for extensive periods of time. Vast incongruities and/or inequalities between better resourced urban communities and neglected rural areas impinge…

  17. South Africa's Vocational Colleges Struggle to Do Their Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    With youth unemployment in South Africa hovering around 50 percent and close to half the population living in poverty, a university degree has come to be seen by many as the only way out. And universities are straining under the burden: This admissions cycle, the University of Johannesburg alone rejected more than 70,000 applicants in filling an…

  18. Children's Learning in the Diverse Sociocultural Context of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda; Muzvidziwa, Irene; Richter, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Children develop in several interlocking systems--in the context of their family, and within the interaction of such settings as home, school, and church (Russell, 2011). In South Africa, children's diverse backgrounds within families, neighborhoods, and sociocultural environments provide them with varied experiences and opportunities to learn.…

  19. The Education Roadmap in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    A response to the precarious state of the public education system in South Africa, the Education Roadmap and its 10 Point Programme is a multi-layered policy intervention intended to galvanise educational policymakers and practitioners into action, get schools the support they need, get teachers teaching and learners learning, and ultimately…

  20. To Greener Pastures: Transnational Teacher Migration from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manik, Sadhana

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation of the world economy has intensified migration in the twenty-first century. Professionals are vulnerable to transnational migration and the trend is for professionals from developing countries to fill labour gaps in developed countries. South Africa's (SA) inclusion in the world labour market suggests that she is not immune. She is…

  1. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  2. Exploring Constitutive Meanings of Educational Transformation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wyk, Berte

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade South Africa has undergone a unique process of transformation--a process which has still not been completed. In this paper I explore the concept of transformation within the context of higher education. I attempt to analyse the concept philosophically with the aim of showing how it can manifest in higher education. I construct…

  3. Politics and Human Welfare: Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKendrick, B. W.; Leketi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The study found that apartheid impacted the sociopsychological and physical circumstances of 12 African and 11 White people with retinitis pigmentosa in South Africa. Findings are discussed in terms of onset of condition, effects on subjects' lives, knowledge of social services, and needs unmet by existing services. (JDD)

  4. Lifelong Learning in South Africa: Dreams and Delusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, John

    2004-01-01

    The new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning' in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of 'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought significant changes to education and training for adults?

  5. Women Principals in South Africa: Gender, Mothering and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on qualitative data from a mixed-method study that analysed women's access to the principal role and their leadership experiences. The paper draws on a subset of interviews with 54 female head teachers in the Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Since a mothering style of leadership was self-reported by over half…

  6. Women Principals in Small Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    South Africa presents a distinctive and varied context in which to explore the experience of women principals. The article draws on a larger data set to explore the interplay of gender and school size in seven schools with 200 students or fewer. From this study, we conclude that gender remains a potent influence on the career and experience of…

  7. The Power of eLearning in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredenkamp, John

    2005-01-01

    South Africa's public education system is going through massive transformation, moving away from limited educational opportunities based on race and poverty levels to social and educational inclusiveness. While there is still work to be done, the country's education officials are committed to increasing access to a quality education for all…

  8. The Politics of Education: South Africa's Lost Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Max

    1991-01-01

    Antiapartheid forces' unleashing of the "liberation before education" revolution among school-age children, coupled with the negative effects of years of apartheid education, resulted in a generation of students losing years of schooling. These young people are a daunting challenge to the new South Africa beginning to emerge. (CJS)

  9. Education with Multilingualism in South Africa: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluddemann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of primary education with multilingualism or multilingual education in South Africa. Taking the country's new language-in-education policy as a starting point, this article explores the rationale for the promotion of multilingualism in education and reviews work in progress with reference to teacher education, school-based…

  10. Situation Report - El Salvador, Republic of Korea, and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in three foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are El Salvador, Republic of Korea, and South Africa. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers…

  11. Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

  12. Africa South of the Sahara: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography has been compiled as an introduction to reference resources for college-level African studies and to suggest useful tools for literature searches. It is a guide to materials in the library of McGill University. Call numbers are included. The titles cited refer to Africa South of the Sahara as a whole or to large…

  13. Teaching about Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Dennis; Msibi, Thabo

    2011-01-01

    This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexism and homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who…

  14. Student Activism and Student Exclusions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Charlton; Cele, Mlungisi; Libhaber, Arial

    2006-01-01

    On average, about 25 percent of students leave higher education (HE) institutions annually in South Africa because they are excluded on academic and financial grounds. To resist such putouts, student boycotts and protests are common despite the fact that student organizations were incorporated into decision-making processes at HE institutions…

  15. The Legacy of Deaf President Now in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druchen, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The impact of DPN on South Africa is remarkable particularly the profound transformations in the country since 1988. When citizens find that their civil rights are not being granted, they may form movements to claim equal protection for all citizens. They may also call for new laws to stop current discrimination. In 1988 it was the "Deaf…

  16. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  17. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  18. Educational Access in South Africa. Country Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen; Dieltens, Veerle; Carrim, Nazir; Kgobe, Paul; Moyo, George; Rembe, Symphorosa

    2007-01-01

    Meaningful access to education requires more than full enrolment; it requires high attendance rates, progression through grades with little or no repetition, and learning outcomes that confirm that basic skills are being mastered. This Review describes and explains patterns of access to schools in South Africa for children between the ages of 5…

  19. Coping with Rapid Change: Special Focus on South Africa's Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Stephen, Ed.; Herman, Harold, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The research described by contributors to this special theme issue deals with the core issues of education in the context of South Africa. These issues include teacher control over the process of educational reform and balancing the need for reform with the maintenance of standards in an industrializing society. These essays demonstrate the highly…

  20. Transforming Teacher Education in South Africa: A Space -- Time Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendlebury, Shirley

    1998-01-01

    Offers a critical account of the attempts to transform teacher education and development in South Africa by assessing three conceptions of "space" and related changes in time. Argues that the main direction of change in teacher education is from insulated space and interrupted time to porous space and continuous time. (CMK)

  1. Education Policy Studies in South Africa, 1995-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; Osman, Ruksana; Buchler, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings pertaining to scholarship in education policy drawn from a wider study on all education research in South Africa from 1995 to 2006. This study, which defined education research as broadly pertaining to teaching and/or learning, obtained extensive data from a wide range of sources, including universities, public…

  2. Networking for School Leadership in South Africa: Perceptions and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Moorosi, Pontso

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings from the evaluation of the pilot of a new entry qualification for school principals in South Africa. The programme, Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) School Leadership, had networking as a distinctive feature, and this article examines candidates' perceptions and experiences of networking as a leadership…

  3. Subjective Well-Being and Household Factors in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwalter, Jeffrey T.; Dalenberg, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a household survey from South Africa to estimate a model of subjective well-being based upon poverty and household characteristics including housing, sanitation, and transportation. Following Sen, we allow for factors in addition to income and we begin to incorporate functionings and capabilities as determinants of well-being. This…

  4. New research initiative on air sea interaction in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Rouault, M.; Leethorp, A.; Lutjeharms, J.R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Recent statistical results have demonstrated that the oceanic environment of Southern Africa plays a important regulating role in the climate of the subcontinent. Statistical teleconnections between oceanic temperature anomalies and precipitation over South Africa`s summer rainfall region have been demonstrated, even to the extent of being partially implicated in catastrophic floods. A research program to investigate the interaction between ocean and atmosphere in those ocean areas that have been identified as crucial to Southern Africa climate and rainfall has just started. The first step of this program was to set up a state of the art air-sea interaction measurement system aboard the antarctic research vessel S.A. Agulhas. The second step of the program was to install low cost automatic air sea interaction measurement systems on three research vessels which will provide an extensive database for air-sea interaction studies.

  5. Malaria mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Diboulo, Eric; Sié, Ali; Yé, Maurice; Compaoré, Yacouba; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Jaeger, Fabienne; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Mulugeta, Afework; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Hodgson, Abraham; Oduro, Abraham; Welaga, Paul; Williams, John; Awini, Elizabeth; Binka, Fred N.; Gyapong, Margaret; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Srivastava, Rahul; Chaudhary, Bharat; Juvekar, Sanjay; Wahab, Abdul; Wilopo, Siswanto; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Hamel, Mary J.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Slutsker, Laurence; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Wamukoya, Marylene; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Mee, Paul; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Arthur, Samuelina S.; Sankoh, Osman A.; Tanner, Marcel; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria continues to be a major cause of infectious disease mortality in tropical regions. However, deaths from malaria are most often not individually documented, and as a result overall understanding of malaria epidemiology is inadequate. INDEPTH Network members maintain population surveillance in Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites across Africa and Asia, in which individual deaths are followed up with verbal autopsies. Objective To present patterns of malaria mortality determined by verbal autopsy from INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia, comparing these findings with other relevant information on malaria in the same regions. Design From a database covering 111,910 deaths over 12,204,043 person-years in 22 sites, in which verbal autopsy data were handled according to the WHO 2012 standard and processed using the InterVA-4 model, over 6,000 deaths were attributed to malaria. The overall period covered was 1992–2012, but two-thirds of the observations related to 2006–2012. These deaths were analysed by site, time period, age group and sex to investigate epidemiological differences in malaria mortality. Results Rates of malaria mortality varied by 1:10,000 across the sites, with generally low rates in Asia (one site recording no malaria deaths over 0.5 million person-years) and some of the highest rates in West Africa (Nouna, Burkina Faso: 2.47 per 1,000 person-years). Childhood malaria mortality rates were strongly correlated with Malaria Atlas Project estimates of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rates for the same locations. Adult malaria mortality rates, while lower than corresponding childhood rates, were strongly correlated with childhood rates at the site level. Conclusions The wide variations observed in malaria mortality, which were nevertheless consistent with various other estimates, suggest that population-based registration of deaths using verbal autopsy is a useful approach to understanding the details of malaria

  6. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van der Spoel van Dijk, Anneke; Makhoahle, Pakiso M; Rigouts, Leen; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  7. Evaluation of climatic changes in South-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellstrom, Erik; Rana, Arun; Grigory, Nikulin; Renate, Wilcke; Hansson, Ulf; Kolax, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Literature has sufficient evidences of climate change impact all over the world and its impact on various sectors. In light of new advancements made in climate modeling, availability of several climate downscaling approaches, the more robust bias correction methods with varying complexities and strengths, in the present study we performed a systematic evaluation of climate change impact over South-Asia region. We have used different Regional Climate Models (RCMs) (from CORDEX domain), (Global Climate Models GCMs) and gridded observations for the study area to evaluate the models in historical/control period (1980-2010) and changes in future period (2010-2099). Firstly, GCMs and RCMs are evaluated against the Gridded observational datasets in the area using precipitation and temperature as indicative variables. Observational dataset are also evaluated against the reliable set of observational dataset, as pointed in literature. Bias, Correlation, and changes (among other statistical measures) are calculated for the entire region and both the variables. Eventually, the region was sub-divided into various smaller domains based on homogenous precipitation zones to evaluate the average changes over time period. Spatial and temporal changes for the region are then finally calculated to evaluate the future changes in the region. Future changes are calculated for 2 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), the middle emission (RCP4.5) and high emission (RCP8.5) and for both climatic variables, precipitation and temperature. Lastly, Evaluation of Extremes is performed based on precipitation and temperature based indices for whole region in future dataset. Results have indicated that the whole study region is under extreme stress in future climate scenarios for both climatic variables i.e. precipitation and temperature. Precipitation variability is dependent on the location in the area leading to droughts and floods in various regions in future. Temperature is hinting

  8. Electrochemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) for Rural South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Genuchten, C. M.; Addy, S.; van Wart, S.; Enscoe, A.; Soares, C.; Cousino, N.; Mangold, J.; Kowolik, K.; Muller, M.; Huang, J.; Cheng, D.; Gadgil, A.

    2009-12-01

    Over 140 million people worldwide are slowly being poisoned from arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Almost half live in rural villages of South Asia, too poor to afford arsenic remediation techniques that are only cost effective on large scales. Low cost point-of-use methods are either ineffective for the high concentrations in the region and/or suffer from high maintenance and low acceptability by the public. Electrochemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) overcomes the obstacles of current methods and can be used affordably and on a small community scale, allowing for potential rapid dissemination into rural areas to help mediate this arsenic crisis. Our findings show that ECAR can reduce arsenic levels to below the WHO limit of 10 ppb in synthetic arsenic-contaminated groundwater as well as real groundwater from affected regions in Bangladesh and Cambodia. We will present two recent prototype designs, including a continuous flow device with cylindrical co-axial electrodes and a batch reactor with parallel plate electrodes. We will present performance results, as well as challenges and strengths of the cylindrical design discovered in the field. We will also present initial lab tests of the parallel plate reactor that compare different agitation speeds, the use of impellors versus aeration for agitation, and several plate configurations. Finally, we will briefly discuss the use of electrochemical remediation in a small community clean water center capable of selling affordable clean water for ~US 2.5¢ per person per day with full cost recovery, including a small off-grid electricity source.

  9. World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  10. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  11. Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T.

    1998-12-31

    Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with

  12. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Singh, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  13. Techno Generation: Social Networking amongst Youth in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, Antoinette; Makhasi, Yoliswa; van Vuuren, Daan

    Internet and cell phones can be considered as new media compared to traditional media types and have become a fundamental part of the lives of many young people across the globe. The exploratory research study investigated the diffusion and adoption of new media innovations among adolescents. It was found that new media have diffused at a high rate among South African adolescents who are not only the innovators in this area, but also changing their life styles to adapt to the new media. Social networking grew to prominence in South Africa especially among the youth. The protection of children from potential harmful exposure and other risks remain a concern and adequate measures need to be initiated and implemented for children to enjoy social networks and other forms of new media. The exploratory research study provided worthwhile and interesting insights into the role of the new media, in the lives of adolescents in South Africa.

  14. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability.

  15. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability. PMID:21966701

  16. Vitamin D Status in South Africa and Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Abhimanyu; Meyer, Vanessa; Jeffery, Tamsyn Jacki; Bornman, Liza

    2015-12-01

    According to the World Health Organisation South Africa has the third highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the world, with an estimated 60 % incident cases having both TB and HIV. The South African National Tuberculosis Association (SANTA) recognized the importance of nutrition in the prevention and management of TB by including feeding schemes in community outreach programs. Vitamin D enhances innate immunity against mycobacterial infection through the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin. We reviewed studies on vitamin D status, its link with TB, and potential use in therapy in multiethnic South Africa with sunlight as primary source of vitamin D. Ethnicity, season, disease state, latitude, and urbanization are critical factors to be considered in vitamin D supplementation for prevention and treatment of TB.

  17. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  18. The Report of the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility with Respect to South Africa Shareholder Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    Issues pertinent to Harvard University's holdings in companies with operations in South Africa are examined in this report to determine if Harvard should adopt any changes in its investment policy regarding U.S. companies in South Africa. The history of U.S. involvement in the South African economy is reviewed and both U.S. and South African…

  19. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  20. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. PMID:27187906

  1. A biregional survey and review of first-line treatment failure and second-line paediatric antiretroviral access and use in Asia and southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To better understand the need for paediatric second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART), an ART management survey and a cross-sectional analysis of second-line ART use were conducted in the TREAT Asia Paediatric HIV Observational Database and the IeDEA Southern Africa (International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS) regional cohorts. Methods Surveys were conducted in April 2009. Analysis data from the Asia cohort were collected in March 2009 from 12 centres in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. Data from the IeDEA Southern Africa cohort were finalized in February 2008 from 10 centres in Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Results Survey responses reflected inter-regional variations in drug access and national guidelines. A total of 1301 children in the TREAT Asia and 4561 children in the IeDEA Southern Africa cohorts met inclusion criteria for the cross-sectional analysis. Ten percent of Asian and 3.3% of African children were on second-line ART at the time of data transfer. Median age (interquartile range) in months at second-line initiation was 120 (78-145) months in the Asian cohort and 66 (29-112) months in the southern African cohort. Regimens varied, and the then current World Health Organization-recommended nucleoside reverse transcriptase combination of abacavir and didanosine was used in less than 5% of children in each region. Conclusions In order to provide life-long ART for children, better use of current first-line regimens and broader access to heat-stable, paediatric second-line and salvage formulations are needed. There will be limited benefit to earlier diagnosis of treatment failure unless providers and patients have access to appropriate drugs for children to switch to. PMID:21306608

  2. Gender and Empowerment in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over-determined discrimination of so-called coloured and black South African women, not just on the basis of gender but racial hierarchies still prevalent as well in the rainbow nation. Design/methodology/approach: The observations grapple with reconciling the…

  3. Democratic Nation-Building in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoodie, Nic, Ed.; Liebenberg, Ian, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays by 50 eminent experts/analysts representing a broad range of ideological perspectives and interest groups. Its aim is to contribute to the process of democratic nation-building and the creation of a culture of tolerance by educating South Africans about the intricacies of community reconciliation and…

  4. Use of Emergency Powers in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Edward L.; Wilderson, Fawn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews facts and statistics regarding the use of emergency powers by the South African government. Details the effects of restrictions on constitutional rights and reveals that two-thirds of all killings which occurred during the state of emergency were done by security forces. (JDH)

  5. Portraits of Black Schooling in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suransky-Dekker, Caroline

    This study offers a portrait of the schooling experiences of black South African student teachers. Approximately 1,000 students were involved in the study, which was conducted over 5 years. The project was designed to help the instructor examine curriculum studies courses for their ability to enable student teachers to reflect on their own…

  6. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association.

  7. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association. PMID:24553081

  8. Illicit drug use and treatment in South Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.

  9. The decline of uranium profitability in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-01

    Between 1952 and 1988, the South African uranium industry produced 340 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-some 14 percent of total world production to date. Peak production was 16.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in 1980. In 1989, uranium production will have dropped to less than eight million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year, and the prospects for further decreases are high. This once-booming business that has been a major contributor to South Africa`s economy is on the brink of collapse. While the policy of apartheid has caused several countries to restrict or embargo further deliveries, the uranium business has also become much less profitable. Profits from the production of uranium concentrates in South Africa exceeded 1.5 billion rand during the period 1981-1988. The trend of this profitability is shown. Inflation and low prices in combination with stabilizing exchange rates are continuing to restrict profitability. NUEXCO examines these factors and their impact on South African uranium production in detail in this article.

  10. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  11. Emergent migration policy in a democratic South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kotze, H; Hill, L

    1997-01-01

    This article sets recent debates on migration policy in South Africa against broader historical realities that have shaped patterns of population movement on the subcontinent since the end of the nineteenth century. During the course of the last century, most forms of population movement were the result of disjointed regional economic development which can be traced to two epochal events at the end of the nineteenth century: the creation of the modern African state system and the discovery of mineral wealth in Southern Africa. Although regulation of migrant labor was a fundamental feature of the colonial period, it was only after 1950, when independent states began to define specific migration priorities, that states began to restrict significantly the flow of transnational labor. From this point notions such as internally displaced person, refugee and illegal immigrant become increasingly appropriate to the study of regional migration. Particular attention is given to current debate on the definition of refugee which forms part of a broader international debate. A number of South African writers have argued that, given the structural imbalances contained in the regional economy, the term "refugee" should be redefined to included economic migrants. This position is not shared by the South African Government, and an analysis of current policy and legislation demonstrates a growing tendency to restrict the influx of undocumented migrants. This is due, in part, to the recent political transition and the institutional compromises that it produced as well as the growth of negative sentiment towards illegal immigrants at both mass and elite levels, as demonstrated by two recent research findings. The article concludes with a summation of recent trends in South African migration policy and an evaluation of the ambiguous position that South Africa occupies within Southern Africa.

  12. Health status and its determinants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1994-03-01

    South Africa's apartheid policies have had direct and indirect effects on morbidity and death that will likely remain for decades. Since 1964, the economy has largely been deteriorating, while the population has grown at 2.8%/year, both of which have hampered economic development and health. South Africa needs to supply water, sanitation, and housing to 75% of the population. Rural development is needed to stem malnutrition, soil erosion, and overgrazing. Urban development design and planning must include health. Schooling needs to improve educators can emphasize school health education. Electricity and better lighting are needed to reduce chest diseases and paraffin poisoning and to improve literacy and learning. Labor migration has contributed to a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in rural areas. In some cases, industry and the public sector have become partners to improve health. The alcohol industry sponsors drive safe campaigns. South Africans need to address inequalities in health status by race, region, and gender, and to follow a holistic development approach. Infant mortality is just 6.4/1000 for Whites, while it is 66.7/1000 for Blacks. It is 1.5 times lower in the best region than it is in the worst region. 2 of every 25 children die before their first birthday among Africans living in the poorest third of South Africa. 42% of Black men who live to 15 years die before their 60th birthday, while just 17.5% of like White women do. Black children less than 5 years old have an almost 9-fold excess in deaths over White children. The tuberculosis rate is among the highest in the world and is likely to increase as HIV/AIDS spreads. Many other preventable diseases occur among South Africans. 5-8% of the population suffer a disability. South Africa has the highest per capita violence mortality rate worldwide (59.2/100,000 vs. 9.6/100,000 in the US). South Africa is likely to face increases in lung cancer, chronic lung disease, heart disease

  13. Population policy in South Africa: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Klugman, B

    1991-02-01

    The argument in this article is that population growth and the concept of balancing resources against population growth is flawed when the context, in this case South Africa, is gross inequalities in resource distribution. The fact is that causes of poverty are located in the social and political structures which give people unequal access to existing resources or international aid. Population trends reflect the mode of production of that society. It is argued that the Malthusian law of population and the theory of demographic transition is ahistorical and inaccurate. The theory does not explain why population growth rates change. In South Africa, fertility reflects lack of control over one's life and poverty. Migrant labor in South Africa undermined normal social institutions and disrupted family life. Government has emphasized a fear of a future population crisis because of resource shortages and a fear of the growing black population. The South African population development program is extracted and discussed. Questions are raised about the theory of demographic transition, the way resource allocation is ascertained, the relationship between resources and population in a specific area, and the relationship between population growth and development in general. The theory of demographic transition is examined and the Western influences which contributed to population growth through requests for changes in sexual mores and the effects of colonization. When demographic transition theory postulates that mortality rates decline with industrialization as a result of access to medical care and an improved diet, it doesn't take into account the discriminatory health care allocation under apartheid, or the displacement of rural people from their land and undermining of the rural peasantry. Separate development has led to inferior schooling and lack of access to skilled employment. In discussing the availability of resources in South Africa, the question is raised as to

  14. Nososcomial transmission of viral haemorrhagic fever in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Richards, Guy A

    2015-09-01

    Recent events in West Africa have highlighted the potential for the viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) to cause considerable mortality and morbidity among heathcare workers. However, this is not a new threat as, although the risk is currently increased, it has always been present. In South Africa (SA) the only endemic haemorrhagic fever is Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, transmitted by the Hyalomma tick, which is ubiquitous in cattle farming areas. Johannesburg, the commercial and transport hub of SA, is unusual in that all cases of VHF seen there are imported, either from rural areas in SA or from countries to the north. Johannesburg functions as the gateway to and from the rest of Africa, and as a destination for more affluent residents of neighbouring countries seeking medical attention. Numerous outbreaks of nosocomial infection have occurred in SA, and these are described in the form of brief case reports. PMID:26428962

  15. Mapping rehabilitated coal mine soils in South Africa using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, D. G.

    2000-04-01

    Open-cast mining, involving severe disturbance, of shallow coal deposits has taken place in Mpumalanga, South Africa for some time with little control until recently. Current legislation requires soil investigations. The soils are agriculturally productive and merit effective rehabilitation, but several problems in this process can occur, leading to drastically reduced agricultural productivity. GPR investigation of these mine soils can help with the mapping of the depth to spoil after rehabilitation, on a significantly more cost-effective basis than traditional point observations. A field trial was carried out as part of a research project at Kleinkopje Colliery where it was shown that, despite wet conditions due to irrigation, GPR was able to map spoil depth around six times faster than augering. There is substantial scope in South Africa for GPR to make a significant contribution in this field.

  16. Psychology in South Africa and the end of history.

    PubMed

    Long, Wahbie

    2016-08-01

    Shortly before the end of apartheid rule in South Africa, Kurt Danziger (1994) asked whether the history of psychology had a future. In the 21 years that have since elapsed, the question retains its original significance. In this article, the state of the field in postapartheid South Africa is examined. Several key trends are identified, including a declining historical consciousness and a revival of Whig historiography. It is argued that the resulting lack of a critical history of postapartheid psychology is in keeping with the unassailability of the equivalent period in official state discourse. In view of an emerging consensus that the country is on the brink of another political watershed, it is suggested that the revival of the field may yet be possible. This will require a turn to histories of the present with a focus on the growing problem of co-option. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Establishing a health promotion and development foundation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Perez, A M; Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Hofman, K; Kalideen, S; Maker, A; Mokonoto, D; Morojele, N; Naidoo, P; Parry, C D H; Rendall-Mkosi, K; Saloojee, Y

    2013-01-14

    South Africa has a 'quadruple burden of disease'. One way to reduce this burden, and address the social determinants of health and social inequity, could be through health promotion interventions driven by an independent Health Promotion and Development Foundation (HPDF). This could provide a framework to integrate health promotion and social development into all government and civil society programmes. On priority issues, the HPDF would mobilise resources, allocate funding, develop capacity, and monitor and evaluate health promotion and development work. Emphasis would be on reducing the effects of poverty, inequity and unequal development on disease rates and wellbeing. The HPDF could also decrease the burden on the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) system. We reflect on such foundations in other countries, and propose a structure for South Africa's HPDF and a dedicated funding stream to support its activities. In particular, an additional 2% levy on alcohol and tobacco products is proposed to be utilised to fund the HPDF.

  18. Health effects of amosite mining and milling in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jill; Nelson, Gill

    2008-10-01

    This study focuses on the amosite mining region in South Africa and associated health effects, compared to other mined asbestos fiber types. Historically, dust and fiber levels were high in the amosite mills and mines, and many miners and members of the surrounding communities were exposed to the fibers. Research has shown that amosite produces both benign and malignant disease. Nevertheless, the mesotheliomagenic potential of amosite is several fold lower than crocidolite. The risk of disease associated with amosite exposure is difficult to quantify. Reasons for this include the scarcity of available information, including fiber measurements, and case ascertainment, as well as the juxtaposition of the amosite and crocidolite asbestos seams in South Africa.

  19. Psychology in South Africa and the end of history.

    PubMed

    Long, Wahbie

    2016-08-01

    Shortly before the end of apartheid rule in South Africa, Kurt Danziger (1994) asked whether the history of psychology had a future. In the 21 years that have since elapsed, the question retains its original significance. In this article, the state of the field in postapartheid South Africa is examined. Several key trends are identified, including a declining historical consciousness and a revival of Whig historiography. It is argued that the resulting lack of a critical history of postapartheid psychology is in keeping with the unassailability of the equivalent period in official state discourse. In view of an emerging consensus that the country is on the brink of another political watershed, it is suggested that the revival of the field may yet be possible. This will require a turn to histories of the present with a focus on the growing problem of co-option. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442032

  20. The status of fatherhood and fathering in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with estimates of fatherhood in South Africa, in the absence of formal measures of paternity. It highlights several salient features of fatherhood in the country, particularly low rates of marriages and father absence from households, and it traces their roots in colonialism and Apartheid, the political system in South Africa under which Black people were systematically oppressed. We point out that some forms of father absence illustrate the commitment of men to supporting their families by their willingness to seek migrant work far from their homes. Examples are given of government policies to support fathers and some of the major civil society efforts are described. The paper closes with important themes about fatherhood in work with young children. PMID:23864733

  1. 77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... notice for the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26-30, 2012... Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26-30, 2012, announced in the Notice published at 77 FR...

  2. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  3. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Carol S; Snow, Rachel C; Hosegood, Victoria

    2014-08-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women's increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men's and women's out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa.

  4. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  5. Environment and health in South Africa: gains, losses, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2011-01-01

    South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. Since the advent of democracy in the country, government has made considerable progress in improving living conditions and in developing the legal framework to prevent and manage environmental contamination. Considerable, under-exploited potential also exists in South Africa to prevent disease, including infectious and chronic diseases, and to promote health through a more holistic and public health approach. This article summarizes the main environmental health concerns and reflects on mechanisms and opportunities to improve public environmental health.

  6. Women in physics in South Africa: Progress to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diale, M.; Gledhill, I. M. A.; Buchner, S. J.; Tibane, M.; Grayson, D. J.; Maphanga, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the launch of Women in Physics in South Africa in 2005, the number of women in physics has grown. The growth is noted at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with more women attaining qualifications in physics. Most importantly, there has been a significant increase in the number of women who obtain their PhDs in physics. The progress reported in this paper is based on the findings by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and the database of the South African Institute of Physics. The two sources show an increase in the number of women who obtained their PhDs in physics compared with their male counterparts.

  7. South Africa: firing of Deputy Health Minister Madlala-Routledge.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Courtney

    2007-12-01

    On 8 August 2007, South Africa's President Thabo Mbeki dismissed the Deputy Health Minister, Nozizwe Madlala-Routledge. The President's office stated that the dismissal was because Madlala-Routledge had traveled without permission to Madrid to attend the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Conference. HIV/AIDS activists and other supporters of Madlala-Routledge believe that the Madrid incident merely provided Mbeki with a long sought-after excuse to remove his Deputy Health Minister.

  8. The burden of non-communicable diseases in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Flisher, Alan J; Lalloo, Umesh G; Sitas, Freddy; Tollman, Stephen M; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2009-09-12

    15 years after its first democratic election, South Africa is in the midst of a profound health transition that is characterised by a quadruple burden of communicable, non-communicable, perinatal and maternal, and injury-related disorders. Non-communicable diseases are emerging in both rural and urban areas, most prominently in poor people living in urban settings, and are resulting in increasing pressure on acute and chronic health-care services. Major factors include demographic change leading to a rise in the proportion of people older than 60 years, despite the negative effect of HIV/AIDS on life expectancy. The burden of these diseases will probably increase as the roll-out of antiretroviral therapy takes effect and reduces mortality from HIV/AIDS. The scale of the challenge posed by the combined and growing burden of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases demands an extraordinary response that South Africa is well able to provide. Concerted action is needed to strengthen the district-based primary health-care system, to integrate the care of chronic diseases and management of risk factors, to develop a national surveillance system, and to apply interventions of proven cost-effectiveness in the primary and secondary prevention of such diseases within populations and health services. We urge the launching of a national initiative to establish sites of service excellence in urban and rural settings throughout South Africa to trial, assess, and implement integrated care interventions for chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases. PMID:19709736

  9. Health and development: some concerns about South Africa's health policy.

    PubMed

    Head, J

    1996-09-01

    This critique of South Africa's health policy opens by noting that the World Health Organization's definition of health as "a state of complete physical mental and social well-being" recognizes that health is synonymous with development. Specific areas of concern are then identified as 1) the consequences for health and development of South Africa's emphasis on reducing the budget deficit, 2) the implications of maintaining a private health sector, and 3) the absence of health policy implementation planning. The analysis opens with a look at Mozambique's experience in setting up a health service after independence (between 1976 and 1980). Next, the unique features of South Africa's transition from apartheid to democracy are identified as the rapid migration of people to industrial centers for work, the continuing residence of the powerful European population, and an international context that limits opportunities to promote growth through social democratic policies. The implications of these factors to the health policy are that social inequalities will continue to exist because the health policy fails to delineate how health services will be provided to large urban areas and maintains a two-tier system. It is critical to nationalize the public sector and to involve health workers in the reform process.

  10. Rainwater harvesting in South Africa: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Taigbenu, A. E.

    Water paucity remains a major threat to poverty, hunger alleviation as well as sustainable development. Innovative water technologies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH) have the potential to improve rural water supply and contribute to the provision of the first 6 kl of water consumed monthly. RWH can also be the solution to South Africa food security by increasing water productivity of dryland agriculture and enabling homestead gardening. Although used for decades in South Africa, rainwater harvesting (RWH) is still far from being utilised to its full potential as unresolved challenges prevent its wide scale adoption. The paper presents the challenges and opportunities to the upscaling of RWH in South Africa. Key challenges preventing the nationwide expansion of RWH are the current water related legislations, the lack of finances and the absence of a national umbrella body that coordinates. While opportunities lie in the worth of knowledge gathered by research projects, funded over the last two decades, on the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of RWH.

  11. South Africa offers exploratory potential in variety of basins

    SciTech Connect

    Broad, D.S.; Mills, S.R. )

    1993-12-06

    While the future suspension of the oil embargo against South Africa will no doubt help revitalize the region's most powerful economy, a move away from dependence on coal as the major local energy source is also likely. This could be accomplished through regional cooperation and development were it not for the ongoing conflict in Angola, the only producer of oil and gas in the Southern African Development Community. Even with world oil prices in the doldrums, massive foreign exchange savings would result from a domestic source, and in line with world trends the possibility of harnessing the gas resources of the region is increasingly seen as a possibility. For the present, those resources remain to be defined. But ENH of Mozambique is pursuing an appraisal program for Pande field with World Bank funding, while Shell and its partners are considering possibilities of Kudu field in Namiba. And while South Africa's own national oil company, Soekor, has had limited success with its search for oil during the apartheid years, offshore F-A gas field is in production, and the potential for hydrocarbons-gas in particular--requires a great deal more investigation. The colleagues have prepared a series of articles on basins off South Africa. These articles were prepared in anticipation of the completion of political reform and of the start of a licensing round, possibly during 1994. This article draws together summaries of aspects thought to be most pertinent to petroleum exploration.

  12. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  13. Deadly Fire in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An explosive fire in Kruger National Park in the northern Republic of South Africa has killed at least 21 people and injured several others, perhaps fatally. This true-color image from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the location of that fire and several others in the region indicated in red. Kruger National Park runs along the border of The Republic of South Africa, which takes up most of the western half of the image, and Mozambique, which takes up most of the eastern half. The deadly fire started on Tuesday, September 4, and burned just to the right of the center of this image, near the town of Skukuza. The fire spread rapidly in the winds that blow across South Africa at the end of the region's dry season. This image, made from MODIS data acquired on September 5, shows the perimeter of the fire burning and emitting heavy smoke. An irregularly shaped burn scar stands out in dark brown against the landscape, indicating the extent of the fire. What appears to be another large burn scar can be seen just to the southeast. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position.

  15. Reproductive control in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, C E

    2000-03-01

    Since its inception in 1974, the South African family planning programme has been widely believed to be linked with white fears of growing black numbers. The programme has been repeatedly attacked by detractors as a programme of social and political control. Yet, in spite of the hostile environment, black women's use of services has steadily increased. Using historical and anthropological evidence, this paper delineates the links between the social and political context of racial domination and individual fertility behaviour. It is argued that the quantitative success of the family planning programme is rooted in social and economic shifts conditioning reproductive authority and fertility decision-making. State policies of racial segregation and influx control, ethnic 'homeland' politics, and labour migration of men transformed opportunities and constraints for black women and men, and altered local and household expectations of childbearing. Women came to manage their own fertility as they increasingly found themselves in precarious social and economic circumstances.

  16. Detection of Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus ticks from the Republic of Botswana, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibáñez, Sonia; Blanco, José R; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2007-08-01

    A total of 53 engorged adult ticks belonging to the species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (N = 9), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (N = 27), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (N = 9), Amblyomma hebraeum (N = 5), and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (N = 3), were removed from oryx in Botswana (South Africa). They were tested for the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seventy-seven percent of R. decoloratus as well as twenty percent of A. hebraeum were positive for ompA, gltA and 16S rRNA SFG Rickettsia PCR assays. All nucleotide sequences were homologous to Rickettsia africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever (ATBF). None of the tested ticks was positive for 16S rRNA A. phagocytophilum PCR assays. These results suggest for the first time that R. decoloratus ticks may be reservoirs of R. africae, and support the ATBF risk in this area. PMID:17690416

  17. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  18. Education for Women's Empowerment in Asia and South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruzada, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue contains an editorial, "Empowering Women through Education" (Elizabeth Cruzada), and eight articles. "Women and Education" (Swarna Jayaweera) presents the status of women and girls' education in Asia vis-a-vis the goals set in the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies. "Education Reforms and Development of Chinese Minority Women" (Zhen…

  19. Orientalism(s), World Geography Textbooks, and Temporal Paradox: Questioning Representations of Southwest Asia and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagumny, Lisa; Richey, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this critical discourse analysis of six high-school world geography textbooks, we explore how constructions and representations of North Africa and Southwest Asia have served to reinforce Orientalist discourse in formal curriculum. Visual and written representations in these textbooks were overwhelmingly confounded by a traditional/modern…

  20. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Regional Activities Division. Session on Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on regional activities in Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America which were presented at the 1986 IFLA general conference include: (1) "Appropriate Technology for Libraries in Developing Countries" (Peter N. Chateh, Cameroon); (2) "The Impact of Information Technology on Libraries in Thailand--Present and Future Scene" (Nonglak…

  1. Comparisons of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia at initiation of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa, Asia, and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Firnhaber, Cynthia; Smeaton, Laura; Saukila, Nasinuku; Flanigan, Timothy; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Kumwenda, Johnstone; La Rosa, Alberto; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; De Gruttola, Victor; Hakim, James Gita; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Hematological abnormalities are common manifestations of advanced HIV-1 infection that could affect the outcomes of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Although most HIV-1-infected individuals live in resource-constrained countries, there is little information about the frequency of hematological abnormalities such as anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia among individuals with advanced HIV-1 disease. Methods This study compared the prevalence of pre-antiretroviral therapy hematological abnormalities among 1571 participants in a randomized trial of antiretroviral efficacy in Africa, Asia, South America, the Caribbean, and the USA. Potential covariates for anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were identified in univariate analyses and evaluated in separate multivariable models for each hematological condition. Results The frequencies of neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≤ 1.3 × 109/l), anemia (hemoglobin ≤ 10 g/dl), and thrombocytopenia (platelets ≤ 125 × 109/l) at initiation of antiretroviral therapy were 14%, 12%, and 7%, respectively, and varied by country (p < 0.0001 for each). In multivariable models, anemia was associated with gender, platelet count, and country; neutropenia was associated with CD4+ lymphocyte and platelet counts; and thrombocytopenia was associated with country, gender, and chronic hepatitis B infection. Conclusions Differences in the frequency of pretreatment hematological abnormalities could have important implications for the choice of antiretroviral regimen in resource-constrained settings. PMID:20961784

  2. Examining Trends in Intra-Annual Distribution of Precipitation in South Asia, 1953-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. N.; Walter, T.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is an extremely important source of income and food security in South Asia. Changes in precipitation in the region could therefore influence the well-being of the large part of the world's population that resides there. Climate models project an increase in summer precipitation, an increase in extreme precipitation events and a likely weakening of the monsoon over South Asia. Factors apart from greenhouse gas induced climate change, such as urban heat islands and irrigation, may also affect precipitation patterns. A number of studies have investigated various recent trends in precipitation in South Asia, such as precipitation amounts, frequency, and intensity. Few studies have investigated trends in the start and end of the rainy season. Most of these studies focus on particular regions of India and/or on particular metrics. This presentation aims to more comprehensively examine changes in precipitation patterns over South Asia over the period 1953-2007 using APHRODITE, a newly available gridded daily precipitation dataset. We present two new "objective" methods to define the beginning and end of the rainy season across South Asia. Unlike other methods that rely on absolute thresholds of precipitation over pentads or other units of time, we define start and end of the rainy season based on the shape of annual cumulative precipitation curves. Defining the seasons thus, we then examine precipitation amounts, frequency, and extremes in before, during and after, the rainy season. We find that in most parts of South Asia, there is no trend in either the onset of the rainy season or total amount of precipitation. However, the start to the rainy season appears to have a significant trend towards the earlier in north-western India/eastern Pakistan and later in western Tibet. Some parts appear to have increasing days of precipitation with decreasing mean precipitation per day. Trends vary across the region, implying that the strategies for adaptation may need to

  3. Moving Across Boundaries: Migration in South Africa, 1950–2000

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government’s suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans. PMID:22956415

  4. Moving across boundaries: migration in South Africa, 1950-2000.

    PubMed

    Reed, Holly E

    2013-02-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government's suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans.

  5. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  6. Proceedings of the International Best of Both Worlds Conference (Pretoria, South Africa, March 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains the proceedings of the International Best of Both Worlds Conference presented by the University of South Africa, Vista University, and the South African College of Education. Papers include: (1) "A Strategy for the Implementation of Environmental Education in the Intermediate and Secondary School Phases in South Africa"…

  7. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  8. ICT Policies and Strategies in Higher Education in South Africa: National and Institutional Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Adam, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy initiatives and strategies used to promote the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in South Africa. It explores a wider international outlook and current debates in South Africa to map out an emerging South African perspective concerning the integration of ICT in higher…

  9. Causes and Consequences of Schooling Outcomes in South Africa: Evidence from Survey Data. PSC Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kermyt G.; Case, Anne; Lam, David

    This paper provides an overview of evidence on education in South Africa provided by household survey data, with a particular focus on large national surveys such as the 1993 South African Living Standards Survey and the annual October Household Survey. These surveys indicate that racial gaps in schooling persist in South Africa, although they…

  10. Industrial aerosol characterisation at a remote site in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piketh, S. J.; Formenti, P.; Annegarn, H. J.; Tyson, P. D.

    1999-04-01

    South Africa is the most industrialised country in southern Africa with approximately 1.1 Tg of sulphur emitted from anthropogenic activities per annum. Complex circulation patterns and highly stable vertical atmospheric conditions promote the accumulation of pollutants below 700 hPa or 3000 m asl. A remote site in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, Ben Macdhui (30.5°S 27.9°E, 3001 m) was selected for testing the hypothesis that industrial emissions, specifically sulphate, are transported over thousands of kilometres in anticyclonic type patterns of flow and exported from the subcontinent towards the Indian Ocean at about 30°S. Time resolved particulate sampling (streaker) was conducted between June 1995 and January 1997. To characterise the industrial aerosol signal, two intensive sampling campaigns (summer and winter) were undertaken in 1996. Aerosol samples were collected by a streaker sampler and an open-faced stacked filter unit (SFU). Samples were PIXE analysed to obtain elemental concentrations. The industrial signature detected at Ben Macdhui was characterised by elevated concentration of sulphur and iron in the fine fraction and fine sulphur detected in the coarse mode. Other sources identified from the elemental data were soil (Al, Si, Ca, Mg, K, S, Mn), biomass burning (fine K) and marine (Cl, Ca, Mg, S and coarse K). These four sources accounted for approximately 70% of the total detected elemental mass. Major individual contributions came from the crustal (53%) and industrial components (21%). Air parcel trajectory analyses confirmed that peak episodes of enhanced aerosol sulphur were related to transport from the industrial Highveld region of South Africa and conversely that clean air masses originated over the southern oceans.

  11. Quality of vaccination services and social demand for vaccinations in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Streefland, P. H.; Chowdhury, A. M.; Ramos-Jimenez, P.

    1999-01-01

    For immunization to be effective in the long run as a major global disease control intervention it is important to provide good quality vaccination services. Studies carried out in three countries in Asia (Bangladesh, India, and the Philippines) and two countries in Africa (Ethiopia and Malawi), and reported on in this article, document the fact that parents are willing to invest considerable effort in having their children vaccinated; however, there are a number of serious shortcomings in the quality of the routine vaccination services and strains are apparent at the interface between the vaccination providers and the users. These shortcomings are detracting from the sustainability of routine vaccination programmes and are promoting the growth of pools of nonimmunized and partially immunized children. To safeguard the continued operation and to enhance the coverage of routine vaccination programmes it is crucial that these difficulties be addressed. PMID:10534895

  12. Cause-specific childhood mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Ouattara, Mamadou; Sanou, Aboubakary; Sié, Ali; Lankoandé, Bruno; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Jaeger, Fabienne; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Abreha, Loko; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Ansah, Akosua; Hodgson, Abraham; Oduro, Abraham; Welaga, Paul; Gyapong, Margaret; Narh, Clement T.; Narh-Bana, Solomon A.; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K.; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ngulukyo, Emmanuel; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Sewe, Maquins; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex; Oti, Samuel; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Delaunay, Valérie; Collinson, Mark A.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Kahn, Kathleen; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Bangha, Martin; Sankoh, Osman A.; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood mortality, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major global concern and the target of Millennium Development Goal 4. Although the majority of childhood deaths occur in Africa and Asia, these are also the regions where such deaths are least likely to be registered. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective To present a description of cause-specific mortality rates and fractions over the first 15 years of life as documented by INDEPTH Network sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Design All childhood deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with verbal autopsy (VA) interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provided person-time denominators for mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions are presented according to WHO 2012 VA cause groups for neonatal, infant, 1–4 year and 5–14 year age groups. Results A total of 28,751 childhood deaths were documented during 4,387,824 person-years over 18 sites. Infant mortality ranged from 11 to 78 per 1,000 live births, with under-5 mortality from 15 to 152 per 1,000 live births. Sites in Vietnam and Kenya accounted for the lowest and highest mortality rates reported. Conclusions Many children continue to die from relatively preventable causes, particularly in areas with high rates of malaria and HIV/AIDS. Neonatal mortality persists at relatively high, and perhaps sometimes under-documented, rates. External causes of death are

  13. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  14. Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions

  15. Patient experiences and health system responsiveness in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients' views are being given more and more importance in policy-making. Understanding populations' perceptions of quality of care is critical to developing measures to increase the utilization of primary health care services. Using the data from the South African World Health Survey (WHS), the current study aims to evaluate the degree of health care service responsiveness (both out-patient and in-patient) and comparing experiences of individuals who used public and private services in South Africa. Methods A population-based survey of 2352 participants (1116 men and 1236 women) was conducted in South Africa in 2003, the WHS – as part of a World Health Organization (WHO) project focused on health system performance assessment in member countries. Results Health care utilization was among those who attended in-patient care 72.2% attended a public and 24.3% a private facility, and of those who attended out-patient care 58.7% attended a public and 35.7% a private facility. Major components identified for out-patient care responsiveness in this survey were highly correlated with health care access, communication and autonomy, secondarily to dignity, confidentiality and quality of basic amenities, and thirdly to health problem solution. The degree of responsiveness with publicly provided care was in this study significantly lower than in private health care. Overall patient non-responsiveness for the public out-patient service was 16.8% and 3.2% for private care. Discrimination was also one of the principal reasons for non-responsiveness in all aspects of provided health care. Conclusion Health care access, communication, autonomy, and discriminatory experiences were identified as priority areas for actions to improve responsiveness of health care services in South Africa. PMID:19602290

  16. Spread in South Africa of the Oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala. (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an introduced species closely resembling Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve.

    PubMed

    Braack, L E

    1991-12-01

    Chrysomya megacephala, also known as the Oriental latrine fly, is indigenous to south-east Asia. During the 1970's it successfully invaded Africa and South America, and more recently during the 1980's also established itself in the United States of America. Although the first specimens from South Africa were collected from the south-western Cape Province in 1978, no published data appears to exist on its subsequent spread or status in southern Africa. During May 1991 a specimen of C. megacephala was incidentally captured near Beaufort West, Cape Province, South Africa, which prompted re-examination of blow-flies captured in the Kruger National Park during 1984. In this way it was found that C. megacephala was already well established in the south-eastern Transvaal by mid-1984. Adult C. megacephala can easily be confused with C. bezziana and medical/veterinary entomologists and veterinarians should take note of the existence of this species and the fact that it is probably widespread throughout southern Africa at this state.

  17. Transforming Education in South Africa: Comparative Perceptions of a South African Social Work Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen; Millard, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The state of tertiary education in South Africa is not adequately meeting the needs of its populace. The system in place does not effectively nor appropriately target the racial group of students which forms the democratic majority. This paper portrays the reasons why these students are not succeeding on the basis of a mismatch between their…

  18. Quantitative Study of Vulnerability / Damage Curves in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pule, Tebogo

    2014-05-01

    Southern Africa is considered a stable continental region in spite of several cases of reported earthquakes, which caused considerable damage and casualties particularly in the mining industry. Most buildings and structures in South Africa are not designed to resist any intensity of earthquake and most architects, engineers and builders in the country do not consider seismic resistance as a design requirement. This is mainly because the region has not experienced any large and serious destructive earthquake in recent years. The most destructive earthquake recorded in South Africa is the Ceres earthquake of 1969. The earthquake with a magnitude of 6.3 occurred on September 29, 1969 in the Ceres-Tulbagh region of the Western Cape Province about 100 km northeast of Cape Town. Serious damage occurred to certain buildings in the area (amounting to a total of U.S. 24 million). The structural damage varied from almost total destruction of old and poorly constructed buildings to large cracks in the better-built ones, twelve people were killed and many more were injured. Another event that caused severe damage to infrastructure occurred on March 9, 2005 at Stilfontein near Klerksdorp. It is known that up to 40 or more tremors are recorded monthly in Southern Africa, the locations are predominantly in the places surrounding the gold mining areas with many events around the Carletonville and Klerksdorp areas. Recent years have seen at least four mining induced tremors causing significant damage (Welkom 1976, Klerksdorp 1977, Welkom 1989 and Carletonville 1992). Such events show that it is very necessary to take seismic events into account in the design of any infrastructure. Assessing and understanding the risk facing the South African cities as a result of major seismic activity has been paid little attention. The main focus of this study is to use results of a deterministic hazard assessment to develop the most suitable damage curves for twelve of the most common building

  19. Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy

    1963-01-01

    The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

  20. IYA2009 in Africa: A South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In Africa the stars have always been a part of people's everyday lives, be it in the form of folklore, superstition or even agricultural indicators. Modern astronomy, however, has not been very widespread, with only a few African countries having sufficient facilities or academics to support a modern astronomical community. The International Year of Astronomy serves not only as an opportunity to boost these astronomical communities, but also to celebrate the rich history and culture that has existed for thousands of years. On this, the poorest continent, with so many millions living in rural areas, there is one glaring advantage over other continents - people's abundant access to a dark night sky. We would like to see 2009 as the year that everyone in Africa, no matter what their background or lifestyle, turn their heads to the skies in appreciation of the beauty of the Universe, in celebration of their cultural heritage, and in the hope that they are inspired to overcome harsh challenges that this small planet and its occupants may have placed on them. It is an opportunity not just to promote astronomy, but also to spark curiosity and spur on a culture of learning. The perspective will be given from South Africa, home to a number of major astronomical facilities, and a major player in the development of astronomy across Africa. IYA2009 progress to date and plans for the future will be discussed.

  1. Measuring and Understanding the Well-Being of South Africans: Everyday Quality of Life in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Neil T.

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has a Gini co-efficient of 62, one of the world's highest (Finmark: Project FinScope 2004 and 2005, FinMark Trust, Johannesburg). Hence, measures of wealth are ubiquitous social indicators in South Africa. However, a growing emphasis in government towards measurable service delivery targets and remedial action to redress the…

  2. Policy trade-offs between climate mitigation and clean cook-stove access in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Colin; Pachauri, Shonali; Rao, Narasimha D.; McCollum, David; Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from traditional cook stoves presents a greater health hazard than any other environmental factor. Despite government efforts to support clean-burning cooking fuels, over 700 million people in South Asia could still rely on traditional stoves in 2030. This number could rise if climate change mitigation efforts increase energy costs. Here we quantify the costs of support policies to make clean cooking affordable to all South Asians under four increasingly stringent climate policy scenarios. Our most stringent mitigation scenario increases clean fuel costs 38% in 2030 relative to the baseline, keeping 21% more South Asians on traditional stoves or increasing the minimum support policy cost to achieve universal clean cooking by up to 44%. The extent of this increase depends on how policymakers allocate subsidies between clean fuels and stoves. These additional costs are within the range of financial transfers to South Asia estimated in efforts-sharing scenarios of international climate agreements.

  3. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter

    2015-06-01

    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  4. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter

    2015-06-01

    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  5. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Towards a South Asia Land Data Assimilation System: first results for transboundary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Ghatak, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.; Limaye, A. S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Bajracharya, B.; Shrestha, B. R.; Iceland, C.; Narula, K.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Doorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia faces a remarkably complex and diverse set of hydrologic stresses, including melting glaciers, variable snowpack, intensively utilized transboundary rivers, rapid groundwater depletion due to irrigation, flood and drought hazard, and rapidly changing land use/cover and climate conditions. The management and prediction challenges posed by these conditions are compounded by the sparseness of in situ monitoring sites, particularly in headwaters regions, and a lack of open sharing of hydrometeorological data across national boundaries. As a result, uncertainties in availability in a situation of rising demands are leading to increasing competing and exploitive use of a limited resource, being experienced at various scales. An open water information system for decision support is an absolute necessity. In order to provide an open and spatially complete water information system for decision support across the region, we are implementing a customized Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) designed to provide best-available estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes across South Asia, both retrospectively and in near-real time. The LDAS merges advanced land surface models with satellite-derived and in situ observations. In the case of South Asia, multiple satellite-derived hydrological fields are relevant to complete water balance analysis, including precipitation from multiple sources (e.g., TRMM, CHIRPS, GPM), water storage anomalies from GRACE, thermal infrared evapotranspiration estimates, and snowpack characteristics from visible and microwave sensors. Each of these observation types can either be ingested to South Asia LDAS or used as an independent observation for comparison. Here we present the first results of this South Asian Land Data Assimilation System, with a focus on complete water balance analysis for selected river basins in South Asia.

  7. Periodicities, Trends and Abrupt Changes in the Vegetation Phenology of South Asia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, C.; Mondal, P.; Jain, M.; Galford, G. L.; DeFries, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation phenology provides a context for changes in natural and anthropogenic land cover on both seasonal and inter-annual time scales. The phenology of South Asia is dominated by agricultural cycles that are partially coupled to the annual monsoons and partly dependent on irrigation. Mapping the spatial and temporal distribution of phenologies with different periodicities allows us to quantify extents and inter-annual changes of indigenous vegetation, rainfed agriculture and potentially irrigated agriculture with multiple cycles/year. We characterize spatio-temporal (ST) patterns at the scale of the subcontinent using a combination of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and Fourier analysis on a time series of 286 MODIS EVI images from 2000 to 2013. Temporal EOFs represent seasonal phenology and inter-annual changes while the corresponding spatial PCs map their geographic extents. The Principal Component (PC) transform of the EVI image time series identifies 8 low order periodic EOFs with mixed periodicities. The extremal pixel time series at the periphery of this 8D temporal feature space contain the highest signal/noise with the strongest periodicities. The PC rotation of these extreme time series alone defines an optimal rotation that separates distinct periodicities into different EOFs thereby uncoupling the mixed periodicities. This extreme PC transform of the full image time series clearly distinguishes 7 periodic EOFs and 1 decadal trend EOF from stochastic residual variance. The periodic EOFs represent 87% of total variance as distinct annual, biannual and triannual periodicities in same frequency pairs. Cross spectral Fourier analysis of these periodic EOFs shows high (>0.95) coherency with 87° to 93° phase shifts between same frequency pairs of EOFs; indicating that phase-shifted pairs together represent geographic delays in onset of monsoon-driven greening. The PCs of each pair of periodic EOFs define a phenologic phase plane used to map amplitudes

  8. Older people as resources in South Africa: Mpumalanga households.

    PubMed

    Kimuna, Sitawa R; Makiwane, Monde

    2007-01-01

    The extended family used to be relied upon to provide subsistence and care for older people in sub-Saharan Africa. However, recently South Africa has seen a reversal of roles, where older people now provide subsistence and care to younger generations; this role reversal is being accelerated by HIV/AIDS deaths among young adults. In most rural households, the non-contributory old age pension (OAP) that is means-tested is an important factor in making older people breadwinners. Using data from the 2004 Mpumalanga Older People's Survey, we examined the changing role of older people, which has been influenced mainly by changes in household structure and old age pension. Findings show that in 63% of matrifocal, multigenerational households, 76% of older people are the sole providers of household necessities, caring for the sick and grandchildren in increasingly skip-generation households. PMID:17347119

  9. Perceived discrimination, race and health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Gonzalez, Hector M; Williams, Stacey; Mohammed, Selina A; Moomal, Hashim; Stein, Dan J

    2008-08-01

    To assess the levels of perceived acute and chronic racial and non-racial discrimination in South Africa, their association with health, and the extent to which they contribute to racial differences in physical and mental health, data were used from a national probability sample of adults, the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH). All Black groups in South Africa (African, Coloured and Indian) were two to four times more likely than Whites to report acute and chronic experiences of racial discrimination. Africans and Coloureds report higher levels of ill health than Whites, but acute and chronic racial discrimination were unrelated to ill health and unimportant in accounting for racial differences in self-rated health. In contrast, all Black groups had higher levels of psychological distress than Whites, and perceived chronic discrimination was positively associated with distress. Moreover, these experiences accounted for some of the residual racial differences in distress after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Our main findings indicate that, in a historically racialized society, perceived chronic racial and especially non-racial discrimination acts independently of demographic factors, other stressors, psychological factors (social desirability, self-esteem and personal mastery), and multiple SES indicators to adversely affect mental health. PMID:18486292

  10. Skin lighteners, Black consumers and Jewish entrepreneurs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the rise and decline of South Africa's lucrative and controversial skin-lighteners market through examination of the business history of the largest manufacturers, Abraham and Solomon Krok, and their evolving personas as millionaires and philanthropists. Such examination reveals how the country's skin-lighteners trade emerged as part of the broader growth of a black consumer market after the Second World War and how elements of that market became the target of anti-apartheid protests in subsequent decades. It also demonstrates how the Kroks' experiences as second-generation Jewish immigrants shaped their involvement in the trade and how, later, their self-identification as Jewish philanthropists informed their efforts to rehabilitate their reputations following South Africa's 1990 ban on all skin lighteners. Such efforts include the building of Johannesburg's highly acclaimed Apartheid Museum, modelled after the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This article explores the profound ironies that some South Africans see in the fact that a museum dedicated to commemorating those who suffered under and, ultimately, triumphed against state racism was financed by a family fortune generated through the sale of skin lighteners to black consumers.

  11. Status of Seismotectonic and seismic hazard studies in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, V.

    2012-04-01

    Though South Africa is considered to lie in a stable continental region, earthquakes are recorded and located daily. Large events have been recorded that resulted in severe damage to infrastructure in nearby towns, farms, underground mines and even death in some circumstances. Therefore, it is necessary that we consider the effects of these events in the design of our infrastructure. This mitigation is done by carrying out reliable seismic hazard and risk studies of our regions using state of the art methodologies. In South Africa, several regional seismic hazard studies have been carried out and published. Continental wide studies that include the South African region were also published by various scientists from the continent (e.g. GSHAP). However, to ensure that we conform to international best practice in such studies, more studies need and are being done to improve data, knowledge and methodologies used in the assessments. We continue to collect and improve collection methods of historical and instrumental seismicity data. Available geological information is being used to identify and characterize active or capable faults.

  12. Skin lighteners, Black consumers and Jewish entrepreneurs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the rise and decline of South Africa's lucrative and controversial skin-lighteners market through examination of the business history of the largest manufacturers, Abraham and Solomon Krok, and their evolving personas as millionaires and philanthropists. Such examination reveals how the country's skin-lighteners trade emerged as part of the broader growth of a black consumer market after the Second World War and how elements of that market became the target of anti-apartheid protests in subsequent decades. It also demonstrates how the Kroks' experiences as second-generation Jewish immigrants shaped their involvement in the trade and how, later, their self-identification as Jewish philanthropists informed their efforts to rehabilitate their reputations following South Africa's 1990 ban on all skin lighteners. Such efforts include the building of Johannesburg's highly acclaimed Apartheid Museum, modelled after the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This article explores the profound ironies that some South Africans see in the fact that a museum dedicated to commemorating those who suffered under and, ultimately, triumphed against state racism was financed by a family fortune generated through the sale of skin lighteners to black consumers. PMID:22830098

  13. Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Gonzalez, Hector M; Williams, Stacey; Mohammed, Selina A; Moomal, Hashim; Stein, Dan J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the levels of perceived acute and chronic racial and non-racial discrimination in South Africa, their association with health, and the extent to which they contribute to racial differences in physical and mental health, data were used from a national probability sample of adults, the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH). All Black groups in South Africa (African, Coloured and Indian) were two to four times more likely than Whites to report acute and chronic experiences of racial discrimination. Africans and Coloureds report higher levels of ill health than Whites, but acute and chronic racial discrimination were unrelated to ill health and unimportant in accounting for racial differences in self rated health. In contrast, all Black groups had higher levels of psychological distress than Whites, and perceived chronic discrimination, was positively associated with distress. Moreover, these experiences accounted for some of the residual racial differences in distress after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Our main findings indicate that, in a historically racialized society, perceived chronic racial and especially non-racial discrimination acts independently of demographic factors, other stressors, psychological factors (social desirability, self-esteem and personal mastery), and multiple SES indicators to adversely affect mental health. PMID:18486292

  14. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Susan J.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage. Objective This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization's six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants’ perspectives on nursing education in South Africa. Methods Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of the research area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key informants after informed consent had been obtained. The interviews were analysed using template analysis. Results South Africa has strategic plans on human resources for health and nursing education, training, and practice and has a well-established system of regulation and accreditation of nursing education through the South African Nursing Council (SANC). Key informants criticised the following: the lack of national staffing norms; sub-optimal governance by both the SANC and the Department of Health; outdated curricula that are unresponsive to population and health system needs; lack of preparedness of nurse educators; and the unsuitability of the majority of nursing students. These problems are exacerbated by a perceived lack of prioritisation of nursing, resource constraints in both the nursing education institutions and the health training facilities, and general implementation inertia. Conclusion Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection. PMID:25971402

  15. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.; Hosegood, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women’s increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men’s and women’s out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa. PMID:25332690

  16. Migration of Computer Science Graduates from South Asia to Europe and North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, W. A.; Siddiqi, A. B.; Ahmed, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the influx of computer science graduates from South Asia into Europe and North America. It analyses the need and supply chains between two points and identifies the pros and cons of the education imparted to these graduates. The effects of social disorder due to migrations are addressed. The resulting technological vacuum in…

  17. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  18. Improving Children's Lives, Transforming the Future--25 Years of Child Rights in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth in South Asia, strong inequalities persist and children pay a heavy price. This publication examines latest trends and data on children in the eight countries of the region. It highlights what has been achieved in the 25 years since the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child--and what remains to be done.

  19. Skills Development for Employability and Inclusive Growth: Policy Dilemmas and Priorities in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panth, Brajesh

    2014-01-01

    Most countries in South Asia are either in the middle-income bracket or moving towards it; to move up the value chain towards higher incomes, they need more skilled people and larger investments in infrastructure. The combination of globalization, technological advancement, unprecedented labour mobility, and the demographic dividend offers them…

  20. Secular and Koranic Literacies in South Asia: From Colonisation to Contemporary Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between "secular" and "Koranic" schooling and literacy in South Asia. It begins by tracing an archaeology of the distinction between secular "literacy" and religious "illiteracy". It locates the emergence of the distinction in the colonial census of the 19th century, in the development of "English" education,…

  1. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  2. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  3. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  4. Languages of South Asia. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of South Asia. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). The emphasis is on materials for the adult learner whose native language is…

  5. Reflections on Apartheid in South Africa: Perspectives and an Outlook for the Future. A Curriculum Unit. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (South Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnsley, Johnnye R.

    This curriculum unit is designed for students to achieve a better understanding of the South African society and the numerous changes that have recently occurred. The four-week unit can be modified to fit existing classroom needs. The nine lessons include: (1) "A Profile of South Africa"; (2) "South African Society"; (3) "Nelson Mandela: The…

  6. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  7. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  8. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  9. Child health in South Africa -- past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Haffejee, I E

    1995-01-01

    April 27, 1994, marked the end of the apartheid era in South Africa, but still the infant mortality rate is 130/1000 live births for Blacks compared to 13/1000 for Whites. Diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, malnutrition, and measles account for an estimated ninefold excess of deaths among Black children under 5 years old relative to their White counterparts. In Cape Town the under-five-years mortality rate for the mixed Colored population is 20.5/1000 compared to 4.6/1000 for Whites. In 1992, 19,000 measles cases were recorded. Diarrhea accounts for 20% of the deaths in the under-five group. In Cape Town alone, intestinal infections accounted for 27% of deaths in children followed by acute respiratory infections at 16%, and nutritional deficiencies at 10%. About 100,000 new cases of tuberculosis occur annually. There are currently 350,000 to 400,000 HIV-infected people in South Africa, and the mounting numbers pose a major threat to the health services. The fragmented public health system of South Africa is undergoing rationalization. The new government has extended universal public health care to children under 6 years old and to pregnant mothers. This reform, however, has resulted in undue strain on health services because of financial and staff constraints. Many doctors are threatening to leave the public service because of the increased workload without a concomitant increase in medical or paramedical staffing. Numerous clinics are reporting complete exhaustion of supplies of essential drugs. Currently only 5% of the health care budget is being spent on primary health care and only 3.6% of the public sector GDP is spent on health care. Political commitment, upgrading of skills in public health, redefinition of the government's role, emphasis on education, communication, public-health legislation, direct involvement in health care and research, and greater participation in health issues are required.

  10. A multi-model evaluation of aerosols over South Asia: Common problems and possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Chin, M.; Gautam, R.; Bian, H.; Kim, D.; Colarco, P. R.; Diehl, T. L.; Takemura, T.; Pozzoli, L.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric pollution over South Asia attracts special attention due to its effects on regional climate, the water cycle, and human health. These effects are potentially growing owing to rising trends of anthropogenic aerosol emissions found there. In this study, the spatio-temporal aerosol distributions over South Asia from 7 global models, for the period of 2000-2007, are evaluated systematically against aerosol retrievals of NASA satellite sensors and ground-based measurements. Overall, substantial underestimations of aerosol loading over South Asia are found systematically in 6 out of 7 models. Averaged over the entire South Asia, the annual mean Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is underestimated by a range of 18-45 % across models compared to MISR, which is the lowest bound among various satellite AOD retrievals (from MISR, SeaWiFS, MODIS Aqua and Terra). In particular at Kanpur located in northern India, AOD is underestimated even more by a factor of 4, and annual mean Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD) is underestimated by about a factor of 2 in comparison with AERONET, during the post-monsoon and the wintertime periods (i.e. October-January) when agricultural waste burning and anthropogenic emissions dominate. The largest model underestimation of aerosol loading occurs in the lowest boundary layer (from surface to 2 km) based on the comparisons with aerosol extinction vertical distribution from CALIPSO. The possible causes for the common problems of model aerosol underestimation over south Asia are identified here, which are suggested as the following. During the winter, not only the columnar aerosol loading in models, but also surface concentrations of all aerosol components (sulfate, nitrate, organic aerosol and black carbon) are found lower than observations (ISRO-GBP, ICARB and CALIPSO), indicating that anthropogenic emissions, especially biofuel, are likely underestimated in this season. Nitrate, a major component of aerosols in South Asia, is either

  11. Pneumoconiosis in Chromite Miners in South Africa1

    PubMed Central

    Sluis-Cremer, G. K.; Du Toit, R. S. J.

    1968-01-01

    Ten chromite miners in South Africa have been found to show radiological evidence of a fine nodulation; five of these miners had worked only in chromite mines. These cases occurred in a labour force of some 1,500 persons subjected to regular examination. Clinical evidence and the results of intratracheal injection of chromite suspension into rats indicate that the radiological changes are due not to fibrosis but to a benign deposition of chromite (Cr2O3FeO) dust in the lungs. Images PMID:5642648

  12. Preventing diabetic blindness: a priority for South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Karen Joanne; Cook, Colin; Levitt, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in South Africa is increasing rapidly, and diabetes is a significant cause of blindness. Diabetic complications can induce a cycle of poverty for affected families. Early detection of retinopathy and appropriate management can prevent blindness. Screening for retinopathy using a mobile retinal camera is highly cost-effective, with costs of screening and follow-up treatment being less than the expense of one year of a disability grant. Such a programme is a prime example of a 'best buy' that should be part of the national diabetes care package. PMID:25363046

  13. Violence against women in South Africa: policy position and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mogale, Ramadimetja S; Burns, Kathy Kovacs; Richter, Solina

    2012-05-01

    Violence against women (VAW) in South Africa remains rampant, irrespective of human rights- focused laws passed by the government. This article reflects on the position of two acts: the Domestic Violence Act No 116 of 1998 and Criminal Law (Sexual Offense and Related Matters) Act No 32 of 2007. Both are framed to protect women against all forms of violence. The article discusses the prisms of the two laws, an account of the position taken or interpreted by the reviewed literature regarding the acts, and the findings and recommendations regarding the infrastructure and supports needed to appropriately implement the two acts.

  14. Whistling in the dark - inside South Africa's power crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2008-11-15

    State-owned Eskom has a near-monopoly on power generation in South Africa. Though one might think government control would make the business of managing power supplies easier, the story of Eskom's recent troubles shows that state ownership, in and of itself, is neither the problem nor the solution. More important than ownership structure are policy and planning decisions that take the long view. Eskom's cautionary tale should remind those involved in the power industry anywhere in the world that, to vary a disclosure from the financial sector that too few have paid attention to, past performance is not a guarantee of future success. 8 figs.

  15. [Van Heerden: the first female doctor in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Lammes, Frits B

    2013-01-01

    Petronella van Heerden (1887-1975) was born in South Africa. She studied medicine in Amsterdam from 1908 to 1915 and then worked as the first female doctor in her native country for 4 years before specialising in gynaecology in London. She then returned to Amsterdam, where she gained a PhD in 1923 on a thesis on endometriosis that was written in Afrikaans. She settled in Cape Town and participated in many political and emancipatory activities alongside her work as a doctor. She wrote two autobiographies. PMID:24103131

  16. [The cases of teratology in Mallophaga of South Africa].

    PubMed

    Złotorzycka, J; Modrzejewska, M

    2001-01-01

    The following types ofteratology were found in the collection of 1278 individuals of Mallophaga coming from the birds of South Africa origin: deformity clypeus in Quadraceps kilimandjarensis (KELL.) from Stephanibyx coronatus (BURCH.), partial atrophy of one of the antennae of two males Q. kilimandjarensis and abdomen plates deformity of two females Q. kilimandjarensis, in male and female Quadraceps chorleyi TIMM. from Hoplopterus armatus (BURCH.), in female Saemundssonia africana TIMM. from Stephanibyx coronatus (BODD.) and male Plegadiphilus threskiornis (BEDF.) from Threskiornis aethiopicus (LATH.) the only representative of Amblycera (the other teratology belonged to Ischnocera suborder). Generally teratology was found in 0.70% of the collection. PMID:16888959

  17. The unsuspected killer: Liquefied petroleum gas overexposure in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sampson, L W J; van der Schyff, N; Cupido, C

    2015-02-01

    A 21-year-old woman with no past medical history of note was found unconscious together with five of her family members after prolonged exposure to liquefied petroleum gas. She was admitted to the intensive care unit at Victoria Hospital, Wynberg, Cape Town, South Africa, following resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity. On examination the following was found: coma without focal neurology; shock requiring fluid resuscitation and adrenaline; probable pneumonitis or aspiration pneumonia; acute rhabdomyolysis with severe metabolic acidosis; and raised serum K+. A carboxyhaemoglobin test was unable to confirm or exclude carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26242505

  18. Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria`s nuclear weapons experience. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    The primary focus of this paper is the impact of key South African leaders on the successful developments and subsequent rollbacks of South Africa`s nuclear weapons capability. It highlights the key milestones in the development of South Africa`s nuclear weapon capability. It also relates how different groups within South Africa (scientists, politicians, military and technocrats) interacted to successfully produce South Africa`s nuclear deterrent. It emphasizes the pivotal influence of the senior political leadership to pursue nuclear rollback given the disadvantages of its nuclear means to achieve vital national interests. The conclusions drawn from flu`s effort are the South African nuclear program was an extreme response to its own identity Crisis. Nuclear weapons became a means to achieving a long term end of a closer affiliation with the West. A South Africa yearning to be identified as a Western nation and receive guarantees of its security rationalized the need for a nuclear deterrent. The deterrent was intended to draw in Western support to counter a feared total onslaught by Communist forces in the region. Two decades later, that same South Africa relinquished its nuclear deterrent and reformed its domestic policies to secure improved economic and political integration with the West.

  19. Mission, Science, and Race in South Africa; AW Roberts of Lovedale 1883-1938

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I.S.

    2016-02-01

    Book Review: Biography of Alexander William Roberts. Noted educator, variable star observer and politician who represented South African "natives" in the parliament of the Union of South Africa at a time when they had no other representation.

  20. The dilemma of treating major burns in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Rogers, A; Adams, S; Kleintjes, W; Whitelock-Jones, L; Muganza, A; Allorto, N

    2013-09-01

    The major challenge facing South African burn surgeons is the current and future management of major burns. Survival is greatly dependent on adequate therapeutic measures. Various therapeutic measures can be instituted to overcome the shortage of donor skin, as we describe. Each of these methods has its specific role in the management of major burns. The use of very expensive and highly specialised techniques for individual patients cannot be justified when more accessible and cost-effective methods are available. To serve the greater population of burn victims, every effort should be made to use these available methods rather than channelling scarce financial resources into procedures that have a very limited role in South Africa.  PMID:24300673

  1. Childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes: evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Duncan

    2015-07-01

    Many South African children experience maltreatment, but we know little about the effects on long-term child development. Using the only representative dataset that includes a module on childhood maltreatment for a metropolitan city in South Africa, we explore the association between different measures of childhood maltreatment and two educational outcomes (numeracy test scores and dropout). Our study provides an estimate of the association between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes in a developing country where maltreatment is high. We control for potential confounders using a range of statistical techniques and add several robustness checks to evaluate the strength of our findings. Our results indicate that children who are maltreated suffer large adverse consequences in terms of their numeracy test scores and probability of dropout and that the estimated effects of maltreatment are larger and more consistent for the most severe type of maltreatment.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed. PMID:2004869

  3. Heat pulse observations of Eucalyptus grandis transpiration in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, P.J.; Olbrich, B.W.

    1992-12-31

    Forest plantations in South Africa are currently limited to areas experiencing a minimum mean annual rainfall of 800 mm, and cover approximately 1.18 million ha. Of this total area, 37% is planted to Eucalyptus spp., of which 76% comprise E. grandis Hill ex Maiden. Micrometeorological methods of measuring evapotranspiration are impractical in many areas of South African forestry owing to the rugged topography and heterogeneous canopy and boundary layer conditions. The heat pulse velocity (HPV) technique shows great promise as a suitable method of measuring sap flow in even-aged forest plantations. This paper describes the method in detail, as well as the results of comparisons between HPV sap flow estimates and cut-tree uptake rates for two size classes of E. grandis.

  4. Triple dividends of water consumption charges in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsoalo, Anthony; Blignaut, James; de Wet, Theuns; de Wit, Martin; Hess, Sebastiaan; Tol, Richard S. J.; van Heerden, Jan

    2007-05-01

    The South African government is exploring ways to address water scarcity problems by introducing a water resource management charge on the quantity of water used in sectors such as irrigated agriculture, mining, and forestry. It is expected that a more efficient water allocation, lower use, and a positive impact on poverty can be achieved. This paper reports on the validity of these claims by applying a computable general equilibrium model to analyze the triple dividend of water consumption charges in South Africa: reduced water use, more rapid economic growth, and a more equal income distribution. It is shown that an appropriate budget-neutral combination of water charges, particularly on irrigated agriculture and coal mining, and reduced indirect taxes, particularly on food, would yield triple dividends, that is, less water use, more growth, and less poverty.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed.

  6. Quality assessment of malaria laboratory diagnosis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dini, Leigh; Frean, John

    2003-01-01

    To assess the quality of malaria diagnosis in 115 South African laboratories participating in the National Health Laboratory Service Parasitology External Quality Assessment Programme we reviewed the results from 7 surveys from January 2000 to August 2002. The mean percentage incorrect result rate was 13.8% (95% CI 11.3-16.9%), which is alarmingly high, with about 1 in 7 blood films being incorrectly interpreted. Most participants with incorrect blood film interpretations had acceptable Giemsa staining quality, indicating that there is less of a problem with staining technique than with blood film interpretation. Laboratories in provinces in which malaria is endemic did not necessarily perform better than those in non-endemic areas. The results clearly suggest that malaria laboratory diagnosis throughout South Africa needs strengthening by improving laboratory standardization and auditing, training, quality assurance and referral resources. PMID:16117961

  7. Childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes: evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Duncan

    2015-07-01

    Many South African children experience maltreatment, but we know little about the effects on long-term child development. Using the only representative dataset that includes a module on childhood maltreatment for a metropolitan city in South Africa, we explore the association between different measures of childhood maltreatment and two educational outcomes (numeracy test scores and dropout). Our study provides an estimate of the association between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes in a developing country where maltreatment is high. We control for potential confounders using a range of statistical techniques and add several robustness checks to evaluate the strength of our findings. Our results indicate that children who are maltreated suffer large adverse consequences in terms of their numeracy test scores and probability of dropout and that the estimated effects of maltreatment are larger and more consistent for the most severe type of maltreatment. PMID:24890398

  8. A critical appraisal of clinical trials conducted and subsequent drug approvals in India and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Dnyanesh; Langer, Janka Marisa; Rühling, Tjorben; Fortwengel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relation between the number of clinical trials conducted and respective new drug approvals in India and South Africa. Design Construction and analysis of a comprehensive database of completed randomised controlled clinical trials based on clinicaltrials.gov from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 and drug approval data from 2006 until 2013 for India and South Africa. Setting USA, the EU, India and South Africa. Main outcome measures Percentage of completed randomised clinical trials for an Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP) leading to new drug approval in India and South Africa. Results A total of 622 eligible randomised controlled trials were identified as per search criteria for India and South Africa. Clustering them for the same sponsor and the same Investigational New Drug (IND) resulted in 453 eligible trials, that is, 224 for India and 229 for South Africa. The distribution of the market application approvals between the EU/USA as well as India and South Africa revealed that out of clinical trials with the participation of test centres in India and/or South Africa, 39.6% (India) clinical trials and 60.1% (South Africa) clinical trials led to market authorisation in the EU/USA without a New Drug Application (NDA) approval in India or South Africa. Conclusions Despite an increase in clinical trial activities, there is a clear gap between the number of trials conducted and market availability of these new drugs in India and South Africa. Drug regulatory authorities, investigators, institutional review boards and patient groups should direct their efforts to ensuring availability of new drugs in the market that have been tested and researched on their population. PMID:26324720

  9. NDL's International Exchange Activities with Some Emphasis on Problems Relating to Southeast Asia and South Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawashima, Shinichi

    The international exchange operations of the National Diet Library in Tokyo are developed within the context of universal availability of publications, providing an historical overview of past and present operations and emphasizing the need to strengthen these exchanges with Southeast and South Asian neighbors. Included are a presentation of book…

  10. Foot and mouth disease: the experience of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K; Vosloo, W; Du Plessis, B J A; Kloeck, P E L G; Connoway, L; Ekron, M D; Weaver, D B; Dickason, C J; Schreuder, F J; Marais, T; Mogajane, M E

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and surrounding game parks in South Africa. The last outbreak of the disease in domestic stock outside the FMD control zone occurred in 1957. Due to the success in containing the disease, the country was accorded zone freedom from FMD without vaccination by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE: World organisation for animal health) in 1995. This status was lost in September 2000 when the first-ever recorded case of serotype O in South Africa was diagnosed in a piggery in KwaZulu-Natal after the illegal feeding of untreated swill. In November 2000, an outbreak of FMD caused by serotype South African Territories (SAT) 1 was diagnosed in a feedlot within the free zone of Mpumalanga Province. The SAT 1 outbreak was traced to cattle in the FMD control zone south of the KNP after the game-proof fence surrounding the KNP was severely damaged by floods. This enabled buffalo to come into direct contact with cattle outside the KNP. A further outbreak caused by SAT 2 was diagnosed within the FMD control zone in February 2001, also as a result of buffalo having escaped from the KNP. All these outbreaks were successfully contained, with the re-instatement of zone freedom from FMD without vaccination by the OIE in May 2002. These outbreaks made it necessary to re-examine the methods of control and containment of FMD that have been practised for many years and which are in line with accepted international practices. The authors describe the rationale for the different control strategies that were followed, the need for a multidisciplinary approach to disease control, the interface between control and technological and diagnostic support and the lessons learned. Some suggestions for future control strategies are also offered.

  11. Cerebrovascular disease in South Asia – Part II: Risk factors and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Vibha, Deepti; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2012-01-01

    In South Asian countries, conventional vascular risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, smoking, obesity, atrial fibrillation are the dominant ones, while other aetiologies like rheumatic heart disease, infective meningitis-related infarcts and postpartum cerebral venous thrombosis also constitute a big fraction. This review discusses the evidence of prevalence of various risk factors in South Asian countries and possible measures to combat the rising burden of cerebrovascular disease. The last part of the review discusses prevention and identification of risk factors that are unique to or especially found in patient population of South Asia. PMID:24175078

  12. A palaeo-hydrogeological model for arsenic contamination in southern and south-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Gordon

    2005-12-01

    An argument is presented in which areas of natural arsenic contamination of modern groundwaters throughout Asia have a common origin. Arsenic originally accumulated in oceanic ferro-manganoan sediments of the eastern Palaeo-Tethys. This was further concentrated through oceanic crustal extinction in what later became the south-east Chinese accreted mineralised terrain. Proto-Himalayan uplift of this area created the palaeo-drainage systems of the Ganges - Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Mekong, and Red Rivers, with consequent headwater erosion of arsenic-rich sediments. Their downstream deposition as immature and easily redistributed Neogene sandstones, silts, and iron-rich clays has created secondary and tertiary reservoirs of adsorbed and authigenic arsenic, from which the current arsenic-rich groundwaters have evolved. Considering river basins within the above palaeo-hydrogeological framework provides a basis for assessing the risk of arsenic in groundwater basins of south and south-eastern Asia.

  13. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. PMID:12295213

  14. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur.

  15. A review of Clarias gariepinus invasions in Brazil and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Weyl, O L F; Daga, V S; Ellender, B R; Vitule, J R S

    2016-07-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus is native to most of Africa and small parts of Asia, but has been introduced to 37 countries mainly for aquaculture. This review of introductions, establishment, spread and impact of C. gariepinus in Brazil and outside of its native range in South Africa provides evidence that the species has been able to overcome all barriers to invasion in both countries. Following initial introductions across geographical barriers, containment seems to have been impossible and escape from aquaculture facilities and spread by illegal introductions is an invasion pathway in both countries. There is evidence of individuals dispersing rapidly following escape, and surviving and reproducing at multiple sites in a wide spectrum of habitats in both countries. There is a severe paucity of research on impacts, many of which are inferred from field and laboratory observations, but have not been demonstrated at population or community level. Such impact studies are urgently required to better understand the consequences of these invasions and to develop appropriate strategies to mitigate impacts and spread. PMID:27094809

  16. A review of Clarias gariepinus invasions in Brazil and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Weyl, O L F; Daga, V S; Ellender, B R; Vitule, J R S

    2016-07-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus is native to most of Africa and small parts of Asia, but has been introduced to 37 countries mainly for aquaculture. This review of introductions, establishment, spread and impact of C. gariepinus in Brazil and outside of its native range in South Africa provides evidence that the species has been able to overcome all barriers to invasion in both countries. Following initial introductions across geographical barriers, containment seems to have been impossible and escape from aquaculture facilities and spread by illegal introductions is an invasion pathway in both countries. There is evidence of individuals dispersing rapidly following escape, and surviving and reproducing at multiple sites in a wide spectrum of habitats in both countries. There is a severe paucity of research on impacts, many of which are inferred from field and laboratory observations, but have not been demonstrated at population or community level. Such impact studies are urgently required to better understand the consequences of these invasions and to develop appropriate strategies to mitigate impacts and spread.

  17. South Asia in the Minds of Pennsylvania High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, C. Robert; McCartney, Donna

    Pennsylvania high school seniors who were tested on their knowledge of South Asian geography, history, political science, and culture knew little about this politically important region. The sample included 684 urban and rural students from high and low income families who answered 43 multiple choice questions on knowledge, interests, and…

  18. Climatic mapping to identify high-risk areas for Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum leaf blight on eucalypts in mainland South East Asia and around the world.

    PubMed

    Booth, T H; Jovanovic, T; Old, K M; Dudzinski, M J

    2000-06-01

    Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum is a pathogen on a wide range of hosts. It affects at least 20 species of eucalypts and is an important causal agent of leaf blight of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in central and southern Vietnam. Results from previous studies and observations of broadscale infection patterns in mainland South East Asia were used to derive simple rules (i.e. mean minimum temperature of coldest month > or =16 degrees C and mean annual precipitation > or =1400 mm) to identify locations which are likely to have a high risk of C. quinqueseptatum leaf blight (CqLB). Climatic mapping programs, which include interpolated climatic data estimated for numerous locations, were used to map these high risk areas in Africa, Australia and Latin America as well as in South East Asia. The predicted high-risk areas included several regions where CqLB has already been reported and the maps generated suggested other areas which may be at risk under present climatic conditions given the presence of C. quinqueseptatum and susceptible hosts. Some simple climate change scenarios were also used to suggest areas in mainland South East Asia which may become vulnerable to CqLB over the next 50 years. It is concluded that climatic mapping programs can assist the broadscale evaluation of risk of CqLB infections, although it is recognised that more detailed models and survey information are also needed. PMID:15092931

  19. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context.

  20. Teenage Childbearing and Educational Attainment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Timaeus, Ian M; Moultrie, Tom A

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between teenage childbearing and school attainment is investigated using nationally representative longitudinal data drawn from South Africa's National Income Dynamics Study. The analysis focuses on the outcomes by 2010 of a panel of 673 young women who were aged 15-18 and childless in 2008. Controlling for other factors, girls who went on to give birth had twice the odds of dropping out of school by 2010 and nearly five times the odds of failing to matriculate. Few girls from households in the highest-income quintile gave birth. Girls who attended schools in higher-income areas and were behind at school were much more likely to give birth than those who were in the appropriate grade for their age or were in no-fee schools. New mothers were much more likely to have re-enrolled in school by 2010 if they were rural residents, they belonged to relatively well-off households, or their own mother had attended secondary school. These findings suggest that, in South Africa, interventions that address poor school attainment would also reduce teenage childbearing.

  1. Teenage Childbearing and Educational Attainment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Timaeus, Ian M; Moultrie, Tom A

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between teenage childbearing and school attainment is investigated using nationally representative longitudinal data drawn from South Africa's National Income Dynamics Study. The analysis focuses on the outcomes by 2010 of a panel of 673 young women who were aged 15-18 and childless in 2008. Controlling for other factors, girls who went on to give birth had twice the odds of dropping out of school by 2010 and nearly five times the odds of failing to matriculate. Few girls from households in the highest-income quintile gave birth. Girls who attended schools in higher-income areas and were behind at school were much more likely to give birth than those who were in the appropriate grade for their age or were in no-fee schools. New mothers were much more likely to have re-enrolled in school by 2010 if they were rural residents, they belonged to relatively well-off households, or their own mother had attended secondary school. These findings suggest that, in South Africa, interventions that address poor school attainment would also reduce teenage childbearing. PMID:26059987

  2. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable. PMID:15283786

  3. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, A; Rheeder, P; Hak, E

    2009-07-01

    This study primarily aimed to estimate the association between influenza vaccination and the occurrence of hospitalization for acute respiratory or cardiovascular diseases, or all-cause death during the influenza season in an elderly population in South Africa. We conducted a nested case-control study using data from a cohort of 45 522 elderly members of a private medical funding organization during the moderate 2004 influenza season. In 1282 (2.8%) subjects the combined outcome occurred and the influenza vaccination rate in controls was 15.4%. After adjustments for measured confounders, vaccination was associated with a statistically significant reduction of 19% (95% confidence interval 3.1-32.9) in the combined outcome. Post-hoc sensitivity analysis of the potential impact of potential healthy user bias showed that confounding, if present, could have caused this finding. Our data were inconclusive regarding the benefits of influenza vaccination in elderly persons in South Africa and given the low vaccine uptake, long-term follow-up is warranted. PMID:18925986

  4. The costs of household food waste in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem; Oelofse, Suzan; Godfrey, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting), wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain, and problems associated with the disposal of organic waste to landfill. This paper quantifies the household food waste stream in South Africa, in order to draw attention to the magnitude of the problem. In addition, it estimates the economic (monetary) value of the wasted food, as well as the costs associated with disposing putrescible food waste to landfill, in order to highlight the associated costs to society. Costs associated with the loss of a potentially valuable food source are valued using a weighted average market price of the wasted food. Costs associated with the disposal of food waste to landfill are quantified based on estimates of the financial and external costs associated with landfilling. For household food waste alone, the costs to society associated with these two food-waste related problems are estimated at approximately R21.7 billion (approximately US$2.7 billion) per annum, or 0.82% of South Africa's annual GDP. These costs are therefore significant, particularly considering that household food waste accounts for less than 4% of total food losses across the food supply chain.

  5. TB Incidence in an Adolescent Cohort in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mahomed, Hassan; Ehrlich, Rodney; Hawkridge, Tony; Hatherill, Mark; Geiter, Lawrence; Kafaar, Fazlin; Abrahams, Deborah Ann; Mulenga, Humphrey; Tameris, Michele; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Hanekom, Willem Albert; Verver, Suzanne; Hussey, Gregory Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem globally. Little is known about TB incidence in adolescents who are a proposed target group for new TB vaccines. We conducted a study to determine the TB incidence rates and risk factors for TB disease in a cohort of school-going adolescents in a high TB burden area in South Africa. Methods We recruited adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from high schools in Worcester, South Africa. Demographic and clinical information was collected, a tuberculin skin test (TST) performed and blood drawn for a QuantiFERON TB Gold assay at baseline. Screening for TB cases occurred at follow up visits and by surveillance of registers at public sector TB clinics over a period of up to 3.8 years after enrolment. Results A total of 6,363 adolescents were enrolled (58% of the school population targeted). During follow up, 67 cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB were detected giving an overall incidence rate of 0.45 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.29–0.72). Black or mixed race, maternal education of primary school or less or unknown, a positive baseline QuantiFERON assay and a positive baseline TST were significant predictors of TB disease on adjusted analysis. Conclusion The adolescent TB incidence found in a high burden setting will help TB vaccine developers plan clinical trials in this population. Latent TB infection and low socio-economic status were predictors of TB disease. PMID:23533639

  6. Medical certification of death in South Africa--moving forward.

    PubMed

    Burger, E H; Groenewald, P; Rossouw, A; Bradshaw, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements to the Death Notification Form (DNF) used in South Africa (SA), the quality of cause-of-death information remains suboptimal. To address these inadequacies, the government ran a train-the-trainer programme on completion of the DNF, targeting doctors in public sector hospitals. Training materials were developed and workshops were held in all provinces. This article reflects on the lessons learnt from the training and highlights issues that need to be addressed to improve medical certification and cause-of-death data in SA. The DNF should be completed truthfully and accurately, and confidentiality of the information on the form should be maintained. The underlying cause of death should be entered on the lowest completed line in the cause-of-death section, and if appropriate, HIV should be entered here. Exclusion clauses for HIV in life insurance policies with Association of Savings and Investments South Africa companies were scrapped in 2005. Interactive workshops provide a good learning environment, but are logistically challenging. More use should be made of online training resources, particularly with continuing professional development accreditation and helpline support. In addition, training in the completion of the DNF should become part of the curriculum in all medical schools, and part of the orientation of interns and community service doctors in all facilities.

  7. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mehl, James W M; Slippers, Bernard; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    There have been several recent reports of Pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) trees dying in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, where this tree is used in traditional medicine and is a valuable source of timber for woodcarving and furniture. A survey of material from diseased P. angolensis trees in South Africa yielded isolates of the Botryosphaeriaceae, an important fungal family known to cause a number of tree diseases. The aim of this study was to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae and to determine their pathogenicity to P. angolensis with branch inoculations. Seven species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified based on a combination of morphological characteristics and sequences from the ITS and EF-1α gene regions. Four of these represent undescribed taxa for which the names Pseudofusicoccum violaceum, P. olivaceum, Diplodia alatafructa and Fusicoccum atrovirens are provided. The remaining three species collected include Lasiodiplodia theobromae, L. pseudotheobromae and L. crassispora. Inoculation trials on tree branches showed that L. pseudotheobromae and one isolate of D. alatafructa differed significantly from control inoculations. The high levels of virulence and common occurrence of L. pseudotheobromae suggest that this species could play a role in tree dieback and death. PMID:21186325

  8. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  9. Student experiences of participating in five collaborative blended learning courses in Africa and Asia: a survey

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Salla; Yan, Weirong; Meragia, Elnta; Mahomed, Hassan; Rosales-Klintz, Senia; Skinner, Donald; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2016-01-01

    Background As blended learning (BL; a combination of face-to-face and e-learning methods) becomes more commonplace, it is important to assess whether students find it useful for their studies. ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH (African Regional Capacity Development for Health Systems and Services Research; Asian Regional Capacity Development for Research on Social Determinants of Health) were unique capacity-building projects, focusing on developing BL in Africa and Asia on issues related to global health. Objective We aimed to evaluate the student experience of participating in any of five ARCADE BL courses implemented collaboratively at institutions from Africa, Asia, and Europe. Design A post-course student survey with 118 students was conducted. The data were collected using email or through an e-learning platform. Data were analysed with SAS, using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. We focused on the associations between various demographic and experience variables and student-reported overall perceptions of the courses. Results In total, 82 students responded to the survey. In bivariate logistic regression, the course a student took [p=0.0067, odds ratio (OR)=0.192; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.058–0.633], male gender of student (p=0.0474, OR=0.255; 95% CI: 0.066–0.985), not experiencing technical problems (p<0.001, OR=17.286; 95% CI: 4.629–64.554), and reporting the discussion forum as adequate for student needs (p=0.0036, OR=0.165; 95% CI: 0.049–0.555) were found to be associated with a more positive perception of BL, as measured by student rating of the overall helpfulness of the e-learning component to their studies. In contrast, perceiving the assessment as adequate was associated with a worse perception of overall usefulness. In a multiple regression, the course, experiencing no technical problems, and perceiving the discussion as adequate remained significantly associated with a more positively rated perception of the usefulness of the

  10. Present Early Childhood Educare Policy in South Africa. National Education Policy Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    The state of preschool education and day care (educare) in South Africa is summarized in this report. The first of five parts quotes relevant national and provincial laws that apply to preschool education in South Africa. The second part outlines the national government's preschool education policies, as set forth in the 1983 White Paper on the…

  11. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  12. Psychological Distress amongst AIDS-Orphaned Children in Urban South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background: South Africa is predicted to have 2.3 million children orphaned by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by 2020 (Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2005). There is little knowledge about impacts of AIDS-related bereavement on children, to aid planning of services. This study aimed to investigate psychological consequences of AIDS…

  13. Vocational Training and Technical Qualification Systems in Korea and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-Yoon; Tau, Alfred; Pereira, Clarence A.

    A comparison of vocational training and technical qualification systems in Korea and South Africa shows both countries are responding to similar changes in economic and enterprise structures. South Africa's work experience learnership system is more desirable than Korea's more traditional separation between formal education and workplace training,…

  14. Privatising Public Schooling in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Equity Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen

    2009-01-01

    Through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data on school funding in South Africa, this paper aims to analyse the user fee policy option in public schooling in South Africa. Debate is ongoing about the role of private input into public schooling and whether this practice affects access (and the constitutional right) to basic education,…

  15. Integrated Education and Black Development in Post-apartheid South Africa: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the problems of education and development in post-apartheid South Africa. Argues that there must be a focus on the uneven terrain of educational attainment and long term socio-economic development. Discusses factors hindering educational development. Calls for reconstitution of South Africa's educational programs for all citizens. (CAJ)

  16. Optical Astronomy in Post-Apartheid South Africa: 1994 to 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, P. A.

    2004-10-01

    The progress of optical astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the socio-political climate which embraced the idea of a 10-m class telescope as a flagship project that would lead to widespread development in science, technology and education - not only in South Africa, but across the subcontinent.

  17. Subjective Well-Being, Poverty and Ethnicity in South Africa: Insights from an Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest inequality levels in the world. In 1993, nearly half of the population were considered poor. These poverty and inequality levels were and still are a legacy of South Africa's colonial and apartheid past. Since the end of apartheid, there has been a strong governmental effort to combat poverty and in this light a…

  18. Another Lost Generation? The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Schooling in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the different ways in which the HIV/AIDS pandemic is negatively impacting on affected and infected children's willingness and ability to attend school in South Africa. Within the context of HIV/AIDS, South Africa has the mammoth responsibility of saving the present generation of children from a fate similar to or worse than…

  19. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  20. Outcomes-Based Education in the English Second Language Classroom in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlebusch, Gawie; Thobedi, Motsamai

    2004-01-01

    The re-birth of South Africa in 1994 has brought the implementation of effective educational policies. Simultaneously, the Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) approach has been introduced to advance the teaching and learning of the Learning areas in schools in South Africa. This article focuses on the learning of English as a Second Language (ESL) in…

  1. Language Use in a Multilingual Mathematics Classroom in South Africa: A Different Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setati, Mamokgethi

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an argument that language-use in multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa is as much a function of politics as it is of cognition and communication. It draws from a wider study focusing on language practices in intermediate multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa. In the study the notion of cultural…

  2. Student Involvement and Empowerment in Quality Assurance in Distance Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Anneke

    2006-01-01

    This article attempts to explore why and how student involvement is a necessary, but under-developed and under-utilised strategy for enhancing quality distance education in South Africa. Any critical analysis of education in South Africa needs to consider the historical and current social contexts, and in this case the analysis needs to explain…

  3. Sharing Ownership in Multicultural Music: A Hands-On Approach in Teacher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    South Africa prides itself in a rich and colorful array of the Arts where music plays a significant role in social regeneration, unity and reconciliation. Little research has been undertaken in teacher education courses in South Africa regarding the inclusion of African music within multicultural music practice. Using the theoretical frameworks of…

  4. Changing Forms of Teacher Education in South Africa: A Case Study of Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines some aspects of teacher education policy change in South Africa. It contextualises the changes by firstly examining the apartheid teacher education system and then mapping the changes that have occurred in teacher education in South Africa since 1994. Using a case study of the Further Diploma in Educational Management at the…

  5. Perspectives on Learnerships: A Critique of South Africa's Transformation of Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew J.; Jennings, Ross; Solanki, Geetesh

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a critique of South Africa's attempt to transform apprenticeships using data from the 2004 Baseline Survey of the Learnership Programme in South Africa. The data suggests that Learnerships provide important opportunities for those in work to learn new theoretical and practical capabilities and thus deepen the skills base of…

  6. Parent Involvement in Public School Governance: The United States and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Colditz, Paul; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This article explores parent involvement in decision making in the United States and in postapartheid South Africa and highlights similarities and differences in how parents in these two countries participate in public school governance and decision making. Parents' role in public school governance in South Africa is significant and entrenched in…

  7. Entrepreneurial Education in a Tertiary Context: A Perspective of the University of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadi-Echendu, Anthea P.; Phillips, Magaret; Chodokufa, Kudakwashe; Visser, Thea

    2016-01-01

    South Africa is characterised by high unemployment levels, a low Total Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity rate, and a high small business failure rate. Entrepreneurship and small business development is seen as a solution to end unemployment in South Africa. A study to understand how to improve small business support was conducted at the…

  8. 77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Sectors sections of the Notice of the Executive- Led Mission to Zambia and South Africa, 77 FR 31574, May... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... the Notice published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to...

  9. The African Renaissance and the Transformation of the Higher Education Curriculum in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum is a critical element in the transformation of higher education, and as a result, I argue for the inclusion of what I refer to as an African epistemic in higher education curricula in South Africa. In so doing, attention is directed at the decolonisation of the curriculum in higher education in South Africa, which aims to give…

  10. Higher Education Research Expenditure in South Africa: A Review of the New Funding Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M.; Ntenga, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The trends and the trajectory of higher education research expenditure in South Africa since the introduction of the New Funding Formula in 2004 have been analysed. The paper also compares the level of South Africa's total gross expenditure on research and development with those of other selected economies. The findings show that following…

  11. Students' Engagement with Engagement: The Case of Teacher Education Students in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Ruksana; Petersen, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Public engagement is one of the three legs which support and underpin a restructured and transformed post-apartheid higher education system in South Africa (along with teaching and research). This third sector role of higher education is widely implemented in South Africa and is described differently by different institutions and entails a diverse…

  12. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook Napier, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

  13. Community Service Learning as Democratic Education in South Africa and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel-Reyes, Meta; Weinstein, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Describes development of the first community service-learning program for democratic education in South Africa, based on the Swarthmore College (Pennsylvania) Democracy Education Project at a black high school near Capetown (South Africa). Notes that successful transposition of the model requires recognition of complex historical and cultural…

  14. Universities and Adult Literacy in South Africa: An Exploration of Their Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenham, John; French, Edward

    Observations of the relationship between South Africa's universities and adult literacy are offered by a British Council consultant after a visit to South Africa. The purpose was to help university lecturers design and develop an adult literacy course and to give seminars to local literacy groups. Impressions are described on the state of…

  15. Developing Talent Potential in Non-School Settings in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, J.

    The paper briefly describes non-school enrichment programs and services for gifted and talented students in South Africa. Preliminary discussion examines the context of non-school interventions, the relevancy of non-formal gifted child education, and categorizing non-school provisions for this population in South Africa. Programs are listed under…

  16. What the U.S. Could Learn from South Africa about Education and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue; Ndlalane, Thembi

    2011-01-01

    Educational policy and practice has resided and continues to reside at the vortex of social and political strife in South Africa, as in the United States. Although school poverty and inequities among schools in the U.S. pale in comparison to conditions in South Africa, the two nations have much in common, including histories of state-sanctioned…

  17. A Survey of Music Education in the Primary Schools of South Africa's Cape Peninsula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Anri; Wet, Jacques de; Rijsdijk, Susan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the state of music education in government primary schools in the Cape Peninsula (Western Cape Province, South Africa) as perceived by the general class teacher. Since the first democratic elections in South Africa (1994), the entire primary and secondary school education system has changed drastically in terms of content, and…

  18. South Africa, the Arts and Youth in Conflict with the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Sheila C.; Sloth-Nielsen, Julia; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Diversion into Music Education (DIME) youth intervention programme that originated in South Africa in 2001. DIME offers instruction in African marimba and djembe ensemble performance to juvenile offenders. Conceived as community collaboration among organizations in the cities of Cape Town, South Africa and Tampa, United…

  19. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  20. Coming in from the Cold? Further Education and Training in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon

    2000-01-01

    Explores the 1998 reforms of the further education and training system in the context of educational and economic transformation in South Africa. Examines the further education and training (FET) policy. Focuses on the attempts by South Africa to transform its education and training system at the post-compulsory, pre-tertiary level. Includes…