Science.gov

Sample records for africa southeast asia

  1. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  2. Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, B.D.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

  3. The Plasmodium vivax in China: decreased in local cases but increased imported cases from Southeast Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Xiao, Huihui; Zhang, Li; Yan, He; Feng, Xinyu; Fang, Wen; Xia, Zhigui

    2015-01-01

    Currently the local P. vivax was sharply decreased while the imported vivax malaria increased in China. Despite Southeast Asia was still the main import source of vivax malaria, the trend of Africa become serious, especially for west and central Africa. Herein we have clarified the trend of P. vivax in China from 2004–2012, and made some analysis for the differences of imported vivax back from different regions. There are significantly different of P. vivax between Southeast Asia and Africa, also the difference was observed for different regions in Africa. Additionally, we have explored the possibility for the difference of the P. vivax between migrant workers back from west and central Africa and the prevalence of local population. This reminds us that surveillance and training should be strengthened by medical staffs on the imported P. vivax cases reported especially from west and central Africa, in order to reduce the risk of malaria reintroduction and, specific tools should be developed, as well as the epidemiological study to avoid the misdiagnosis such as P. ovale and P. vivax. PMID:25739365

  4. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates can infect diverse mosquito vectors of Southeast Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Brandyce; Miller, Becky; Burton, Timothy A.; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Men, Sary; Sovannaroth, Siv; Fay, Michael P.; Miotto, Olivo; Gwadz, Robert W.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites are rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia, yet nothing is known about their transmission. This knowledge gap and the possibility that these parasites will spread to Africa endanger global efforts to eliminate malaria. Here we produce gametocytes from parasite clinical isolates that displayed artemisinin resistance in patients and in vitro, and use them to infect native and non-native mosquito vectors. We show that contemporary artemisinin-resistant isolates from Cambodia develop and produce sporozoites in two Southeast Asian vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus, and the major African vector, Anopheles coluzzii (formerly Anopheles gambiae M). The ability of artemisinin-resistant parasites to infect such highly diverse Anopheles species, combined with their higher gametocyte prevalence in patients, may explain the rapid expansion of these parasites in Cambodia and neighbouring countries, and further compromise efforts to prevent their global spread. PMID:26485448

  5. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates can infect diverse mosquito vectors of Southeast Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Brandyce; Miller, Becky; Burton, Timothy A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Men, Sary; Sovannaroth, Siv; Fay, Michael P; Miotto, Olivo; Gwadz, Robert W; Anderson, Jennifer M; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites are rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia, yet nothing is known about their transmission. This knowledge gap and the possibility that these parasites will spread to Africa endanger global efforts to eliminate malaria. Here we produce gametocytes from parasite clinical isolates that displayed artemisinin resistance in patients and in vitro, and use them to infect native and non-native mosquito vectors. We show that contemporary artemisinin-resistant isolates from Cambodia develop and produce sporozoites in two Southeast Asian vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus, and the major African vector, Anopheles coluzzii (formerly Anopheles gambiae M). The ability of artemisinin-resistant parasites to infect such highly diverse Anopheles species, combined with their higher gametocyte prevalence in patients, may explain the rapid expansion of these parasites in Cambodia and neighbouring countries, and further compromise efforts to prevent their global spread. PMID:26485448

  6. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  7. Systematics and biogeography of the Hylarana frog (Anura: Ranidae) radiation across tropical Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Lauren A; Prendini, Elizabeth; Kraus, Fred; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    We present an inclusive molecular phylogeny for Hylarana across its global distribution, utilizing two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene regions for 69 of the 97 currently described species. We use phylogenetic methods to test monophyly of Hylarana, determine relationships among ten putative subgenera, identify major clades, reconstruct biogeographic history, and estimate continental dispersal dates. Results support Hylarana as a monophyletic group originating approximately 26.9MYA and comprising eight clades that partly correspond to currently described subgenera plus two new groups. The African and Australasian species each form clades embedded within a paraphyletic Southeast Asian group. We estimate that Africa and Australasia were colonized by Hylarana s.l. from SE Asia approximately 18.7 and 10.8MYA, respectively. Biogeographic reconstructions also support three separate colonization events in India from Southeast Asia. Examination of museum specimens identified morphological characters useful for delineating subgenera and species. We herein elevate all supported subgenera to genus rank and formally describe two new genera to produce a revised taxonomy congruent with our new phylogenetic and biogeographic findings. PMID:25987527

  8. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  9. Southeast Asia: `A robust market`

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-04-01

    Southeast Asia is emerging as a robust market for exploration and field development activities. While much of the worldwide attention is focused on lucrative deep water drilling and production in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Brazil, and West Africa, the burgeoning Pacific Rim region is very much in the spotlight. As the industry approaches the next century. Southeast Asia is a key growth area that will be the focus of extensive drilling and development. Regional licensing activity is buoyant as oil and gas companies continue to express interest in Southeast Asian opportunities. During 1996, about 75 new license awards were granted. This year, at least an equal number of licenses likely will be awarded to international major and independent oil companies. In the past five years, the number of production-sharing contracts and concessions awarded declined slightly as oil companies apparently opted to invest in other foreign markets. Brunei government officials plan to open offshore areas to licensing in 1997, including what may prove to be attractive deep water areas. Indonesia`s state oil company Pertamina will offer 26 offshore tracts under production-sharing and technical assistance contracts this year. Malaysia expects to attract international interest in some 30 blocks it will soon offer under production-sharing terms. Bangladesh expects to call for tenders for an unspecified number of concessions later this year. Nearby, bids were submitted earlier this year to the Australian government for rights to explore 38 offshore areas. Results are expected to be announced by mid-year.

  10. Population frequencies of the Triallelic 5HTTLPR in six Ethnicially diverse samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew; Williams, Redford B; Bishop, George D; Foshee, Vangie A; Thornberry, Terence P; Conger, Rand; Siegler, Ilene C; Zhang, Xiaodong; Boardman, Jason D; Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Stallings, Michael C; Brent Donnellan, M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-03-01

    Genetic differences between populations are potentially an important contributor to health disparities around the globe. As differences in gene frequencies influence study design, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the natural variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest. Along these lines, we characterized the variation of the 5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ in their racial and ethnic composition. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for 24,066 participants. Results indicated higher frequencies of the rs25531 G-allele among Black and African populations as compared with White, Hispanic and Asian populations. Further, we observed a greater number of 'extra-long' ('XL') 5HTTLPR alleles than have previously been reported. Extra-long alleles occurred almost entirely among Asian, Black and Non-White Hispanic populations as compared with White and Native American populations where they were completely absent. Lastly, when considered jointly, we observed between sample differences in the genotype frequencies within racial and ethnic populations. Taken together, these data underscore the importance of characterizing the L-G allele to avoid misclassification of participants by genotype and for further studies of the impact XL alleles may have on the transcriptional efficiency of SLC6A4. PMID:25564228

  11. POPULATION FREQUENCIES OF THE TRIALLELIC 5HTTLPR IN SIX ETHNICIALLY DIVERSE SAMPLES FROM NORTH AMERICA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, AND AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew; Williams, Redford B.; Bishop, George D.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Thornberry, Terence P; Conger, Rand; Siegler, Ilene C.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Boardman, Jason D; Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Stallings, Michael C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Genetic differences between populations are a potentially an important contributor to health disparities around the globe. As differences in gene frequencies influence study design, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the natural variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest. Along these lines, we characterized the variation of the 5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ in their racial and ethnic composition. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for 24,066 participants. Results indicated higher frequencies of the rs25531 G-allele among Black and African populations as compared with White, Hispanic and Asian populations. Further, we observed a greater number of ‘extra-long’ (‘XL’) 5HTTLPR alleles than have previously been reported. Extra-long alleles occurred almost entirely among Asian, Black and Non-White Hispanic populations as compared with White and Native American populations where they were completely absent. Lastly, when considered jointly, we observed between sample differences in the genotype frequencies within racial and ethnic populations. Taken together, these data underscore the importance of characterizing the L-G allele to avoid misclassification of participants by genotype and for further studies of the impact XL alleles may have on the transcriptional efficiency of SLC6A4. PMID:25564228

  12. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers. PMID:12294443

  13. ESP in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Tony, Ed.

    Seven conference papers discuss English language training and political development in Asia, including language project design and evaluation, counterparting, sustainability, appropriate technology, and languages and the politics of development. Papers included are: "Linguistic and Cultural Considerations of Writing ELT Texts for Use in Asia"…

  14. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  15. South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bain, I

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV infections in the Mekong Region countries of Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The HIV/AIDS situation is profiled in each country. The populations at risk include legal and undocumented cross-border migrants, internal migrants, sex workers, and mobile occupational persons, such as truck drivers, fishermen, seafarers, and cross-border traders. Currently, there is little regional cooperation on the issue of HIV among migrants. Prevalence is high in most of the region. Programs range from being very developed in Thailand to minimal in China. Recently, nongovernmental organizations have created innovative models. AIDSCAP studies have focused on river trade routes along the Thai-Lao border and fishing ports in Thailand and Cambodia. The Asian Research Center for Migration has researched fishermen in 6 countries; Burmese women in Thailand; migrants along the Thai-Myanmar borders; and the impact of transportation routes on the spread of HIV/AIDS along six main inter-country routes. Coordination of Action Research has engaged in research and action projects in 8 southeast Asian countries. The region would benefit from information exchanges about lessons learned and best practices. Field researchers could use better technical support. Regional strategies are useful for providing support from origin to destination. PMID:12295096

  16. Fake artesunate in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Newton, P; Proux, S; Green, M; Smithuis, F; Rozendaal, J; Prakongpan, S; Chotivanich, K; Mayxay, M; Looareesuwan, S; Farrar, J; Nosten, F; White, N J

    2001-06-16

    Artesunate is a key antimalarial drug in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southeast Asia. We investigated the distribution of counterfeit artesunate tablets by use of the validated, simple, and inexpensive Fast Red TR dye technique. We also aimed to identify distinguishing characteristics of the fake drugs. Of 104 shop-bought "artesunate" samples from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, 38% did not contain artesunate. Characteristics such as cost and physical appearance of the tablets and packaging reliably predicted authenticity. The illicit trade in counterfeit antimalarials is a great threat to the lives of patients with malaria. The dye test will assist national malaria control authorities in urgently needed campaigns to stop this murderous trade. PMID:11425421

  17. East and Southeast Asia assessment.

    PubMed

    Suyono, H

    1984-06-01

    The people of East and Southeast Asia, despite societal differences and varied economic successes, share 1 cultural value, i.e., the love of children and the importance of family. The small family norms espoused by family planning programs, the goal in some nations of 1- or 2-child families, the concept that 2 children are enough regardless of their sex -- all these ideas contradict the basic cultural appreciation for children in most countries and the preference for sons in many. Yet, demographic realities give Asia no alternative. It is necessary to work against cultural values to increase the opportunities for individuals, their families, their countries, and the region as a whole. All the countries of this region have had family planning programs since at least the 1970s, and some have been very successful. It may be well into the 21st century before the populations of most East and Southeast countries stabilize. Stabilization will take longer for those countries which are without successful family planning policies and programs. Each national family planning program requires the full and positive political and financial commitment of its government. Programs also need the freedom to try all new approaches. The appropriateness and acceptability of a particular mehtod should be decided by program managers and personnel in consultation with potential users, rather than by politicians. Future family planning programs will need to be even more innovative. Family planning service delivery must be brought closer to the client so it will be available in all communities and work places and at all potential public and private places. Other basic services such as nutrition, income-generating schemes, and general and maternal/child health must be integrated into the programs. The responsibility for managing programs must be assumed by the community in order to create a very strong and broad base of national commitment. PMID:12339633

  18. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51–46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ∼63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic–modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ∼50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. PMID:22908291

  19. Diarrhoeal problems in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Sunoto

    1982-09-01

    Diarrhoea up till now is still a major problem in Southeast Asia with high morbidity and mortality, particularly among children under 5 years of age, with the peak in children between 6 - 24 months. In Indonesia, in 1981, it was estimated that there are 60 million episodes with 300,000 - 500,000 deaths. In the Philippines, diarrhoea ranks as a second cause of morbidity (600 per 100,000 in 1974) and second cause of infant mortality (5 per 1,000 in 1974). In Thailand, in 1980, the morbidity rate was 524 per 100,000 and the mortality rate 14 per 100,000. In Malaysia, in 1976, diarrhoea was still ranking number 5 (3.1%) as a cause of total admission and number 9 (2.2%) as a cause of total deaths. In Singapore, diarrhoea still ranks number 3 as a cause of deaths (4% of total deaths). In Bangladesh, the overall attack rates imply a prevalence of 2.0% for the entire population, with the highest for under 5 groups i.e. 4.1%. The diarrhoea episode in rural population is 85.4%, 39% of them are children under 5. The most common enteropathogens found in all countries are rotavirus followed by Enterotoxigenic E. coli, Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Campylobacter. Malnutrition and decline of giving breast-feeding play an important role in causing high morbidity, besides socio-economic, socio-cultural and poor environmental sanitation. PMID:7163834

  20. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    PubMed

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia. PMID:15542748

  1. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  2. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  3. Women of Southeast Asia. Occasional Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Esterik, Penny, Ed.

    Nine chapters emphasizing religious, domestic, and economic aspects of women in Southeast Asia are presented. In an introductory chapter, Penny Van Esterik discusses women and Buddhism, societal and domestic roles, occupational patterns, research on women in Southeast Asia, and Southeast Asia's past and future. In chapter 2, "Buddhism, Sex-Roles,…

  4. Development of Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Challenges for Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virasai, Banphot, Ed.

    Five articles on the development of higher education in Southeast Asia are presented. In "Philosophy and Objectives for Higher Education in Southeast Asia," William B. Relf discusses the historical background of education in Southeast Asia, three general purposes for a university, education and national development, future needs, recommendations…

  5. Folk Tales: Getting to Know Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia Curriculum Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgley, Marlene

    A teaching/learning plan designed to provide the elementary classroom teacher with an overview of the geography, environment, culture, and people of Southeast Asia includes five sections on the following subjects: geography, animals, plants, social roles and occupations, and religion. Through the use of folk tales from each of six Southeast Asian…

  6. Petroleum systems, resources of Southeast Asia, Australasia

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.

    1997-12-15

    The Southeast Asia-Australasia region has over 100 productive petroleum systems ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pliocene. Plate tectonics have played a fundamental role in controlling the distribution and character of the region`s petroleum systems. There is a clear division between those systems on the Eurasian plate and those on the Indo-Australian plate. The distribution of significant oil and gas resources is highly concentrated in just a few chrono-stratigraphic units. Early Tertiary Paleogene source rocks account for over 50% of the region`s in-place petroleum resources. This article summarizes the region`s systems and resources, and compares and contrasts some of their essential elements in Southeast Asia and Australasia. With average production of 3.2 million b/d of oil and 18 bscfd of gas, the region accounts for almost 6% of world oil and gas production.

  7. Concrete platforms for Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, G.C.; Reusswig, G.H.

    1995-10-01

    The use of concrete offshore structures for hydrocarbon resource developments in SE Asia has, to-date, had little precedent but their potential across the region seems unlimited. The interest is continuing to grow because the structures can be built using local materials and local labor in the countries where the platforms are to be used. For many applications, they are cost competitive with steel structures. The concrete substructure requires little or no maintenance throughout the life of the structure, thus reducing operating costs. The concrete structures can be self-installing without the use of crane barges or heavy-lift vessels. They are re-floatable and can be used again in other locations. They also can be designed to include oil or condensate storage within the structure, thus eliminating the need for additional floating storage in areas where offshore pipelines do not exist. The paper describes a few concrete structure concepts that are applicable for Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and Australia and considerations for their use.

  8. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. METHODS: The literature searching for the reports on Zika virus in Southeast Asia was done using standard database PubMed and the re-analysis and summarization on the reports was done. RESULTS: A limited number of reports have addressed Zika virus disease in Southeast Asia, but it is has been confirmed that a problem already exists. Individual case reports and outbreaks of Zika virus have been confirmed in Southeast Asia. Several reports have also described patients becoming infected after visiting Southeast Asia. In addition, the concurrent circulation of Zika virus with other arboviruses has been confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: As a tropical region with a high prevalence of arboviral diseases, the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia is a major concern. It is essential for local medical personnel to recognize this disease. Given the status of Southeast Asia as a globally important tourist destination, continuous updates on the status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia are required and should be incorporated into global health advisories regarding travel. PMID:27336445

  9. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  10. The large terrestrial carnivore guild in Quaternary Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louys, Julien

    2014-07-01

    Much of Southeast Asia's large terrestrial carnivores appeared, evolved and disappeared from the region for reasons that remain poorly understood. Two of the most significant extinctions are represented by the charismatic Pleistocene megacarnivores Pachycrocuta and Pliocrocuta. Southeast Asia hosts the last populations of these species globally. Their persistence in southern China until the late Pleistocene suggests their extinction was not tied to that of the machairodont cats, which like the rest of the world became extinct sometime in the early Pleistocene in this region. Instead the disappearance of the hyenids is probably related to climate change and deteriorating environmental conditions. There is some evidence that the wolf and domesticated dog first appeared in Southeast Asia, although confirmation of this awaits more detailed fossil records. There does not appear to be a large carnivore guild turnover of the same scale or time as recorded in Europe and Africa, although an extinction event in the late Pleistocene is provisionally recorded. Environmental changes and fluctuating sea levels have had a unique impact on the region's large carnivore guild. Several large carnivores from Java show unique genetic and morphological variations, and this could potentially be related to the connection between Java and the Indochinese mainland sometime during the middle Pleistocene. The effects of islands on the large carnivores are complicated and at times contradictory. Nevertheless, periods of isolation of large carnivores on Java, Sumatra and Borneo from the continent had impacts on both extinctions and speciations, with at least one well documented endemic large carnivore evolving in Sundaland (Sunda clouded leopard). Hunting and deforestation ongoing since the mid- to late Holocene means that many extant members of the large carnivore guild are at high risk of extinction.

  11. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  12. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  13. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  14. The Tertiary tectonics of the southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Honza, Eiichi )

    1990-06-01

    Most of the terranes in eastern Asia appear to be relics of arcs, oceanic islands, and subduction complexes. They have collided and accreted from the inner (northwestern) side in China since the Silurian. They are characterized by three stages of Pacific and Tethys evolution. The first collision is related to the Pacific domain in the Permian in which these movements are not clearly reconstructed. The second collision is related to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. The third is related to closure of the Neo-Tethys and the subsequent collision of India in the Tertiary. Southeast Asia is in one of the most enigmatic plate boundaries in the world, forming many small plates, collisions, and consumptions. This complication is also suggested to be a result of the northward movement of Australia since its break-up from Gondwanaland in the Cretaceous. During their evolution, most of them have associated with arcs. These arcs also have formed superimpositions on the older exotic blocks of terranes. They are reconstructed on the base of the regular duration on the formation of arcs and backarc basins, which can be seen in the Western Pacific Arc Chain.

  15. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... Winds--Asia business forum (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia...

  16. On The Trail of Disease in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maxmen, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Infectious disease research is blossoming in cities like Bangkok, as local clinicians and scientists delve into the surrounding muddy tropics of Southeast Asia to learn about endemic pathogens. PMID:19153251

  17. Early hominin biogeography in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Larick, Roy; Ciochon, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia covers Eurasia's tropical expanse of continental shelf and active subduction zones. Cutting between island landmasses, Wallace's Line separates Sunda and the Eastern Island Arc (the Arc) into distinct tectonic and faunal provinces. West of the line, on Sunda, Java Island yields many fossils of Homo erectus. East of the line, on the Arc, Flores Island provides one skeleton and isolated remains of Homo floresiensis. Luzon Island in the Philippines has another fossil hominin. Sulawesi preserves early hominin archeology. This insular divergence sets up a unique regional context for early hominin dispersal, isolation, and extinction. The evidence is reviewed across three Pleistocene climate periods. Patterns are discussed in relation to the pulse of global sea-level shifts, as well as regional geo-tectonics, catastrophes, stegodon dispersal, and paleogenomics. Several patterns imply evolutionary processes typical of oceanic islands. Early hominins apparently responded to changing island conditions for a million-and-a-half years, likely becoming extinct during the period in which Homo sapiens colonized the region. PMID:26478140

  18. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for island southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru; Macaulay, Vincent; Clarke, Dougie; Blumbach, Petya B; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu; Forster, Peter; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian-speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan approximately 5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene "Out of Taiwan" event as traditionally envisioned. Only approximately 20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women. PMID:17160892

  19. A Mitochondrial Stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Catherine ; Soares, Pedro ; Mormina, Maru ; Macaulay, Vincent ; Clarke, Dougie ; Blumbach, Petya B. ; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu ; Forster, Peter ; Bulbeck, David ; Oppenheimer, Stephen ; Richards, Martin 

    2007-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian–speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan ∼5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA ∼4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene “Out of Taiwan” event as traditionally envisioned. Only ∼20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women. PMID:17160892

  20. Foodborne Intestinal Flukes in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, a total of 59 species of foodborne intestinal flukes have been known to occur in humans. The largest group is the family Heterophyidae, which constitutes 22 species belonging to 9 genera (Centrocestus, Haplorchis, Heterophyes, Heterophyopsis, Metagonimus, Procerovum, Pygidiopsis, Stellantchasmus, and Stictodora). The next is the family Echinostomatidae, which includes 20 species in 8 genera (Artyfechinostomum, Acanthoparyphium, Echinochasmus, Echinoparyphium, Echinostoma, Episthmium, Euparyphium, and Hypoderaeum). The family Plagiorchiidae follows the next containing 5 species in 1 genus (Plagiorchis). The family Lecithodendriidae includes 3 species in 2 genera (Phaneropsolus and Prosthodendrium). In 9 other families, 1 species in 1 genus each is involved; Cathaemaciidae (Cathaemacia), Fasciolidae (Fasciolopsis), Gastrodiscidae (Gastrodiscoides), Gymnophallidae (Gymnophalloides), Microphallidae (Spelotrema), Neodiplostomidae (Neodiplostomum), Paramphistomatidae (Fischoederius), Psilostomidae (Psilorchis), and Strigeidae (Cotylurus). Various types of foods are sources of human infections. They include freshwater fish, brackish water fish, fresh water snails, brackish water snails (including the oyster), amphibians, terrestrial snakes, aquatic insects, and aquatic plants. The reservoir hosts include various species of mammals or birds.The host-parasite relationships have been studied in Metagonimus yokogawai, Echinostoma hortense, Fasciolopsis buski, Neodiplostomum seoulense, and Gymnophalloides seoi; however, the pathogenicity of each parasite species and host mucosal defense mechanisms are yet poorly understood. Clinical aspects of each parasite infection need more clarification. Differential diagnosis by fecal examination is difficult because of morphological similarity of eggs. Praziquantel is effective for most intestinal fluke infections. Continued efforts to understand epidemiological significance of intestinal fluke infections, with

  1. A profile of health sciences libraries in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, S C; Anand, S K

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey undertaken by the World Health Organization of health sciences libraries in Southeast Asia. It includes information on clientele, budget, personnel, collections, lending policy, dissemination of information, and reference services. The survey indicates that the collections in most of the health sciences libraries in Southeast Asia are deficient and that services provided to readers are inadequate. Recommendations for improvement are outlined. PMID:354704

  2. Fires and Thick Smoke Across Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Vehicles and power plants are not the only sources of air pollution and greenhouses gases: fires contribute, too. In the Northern Hemisphere spring, which is the end of dry season across much of Southeast Asia, thousands of fires burn each year as people clear cropland and pasture in anticipation of the upcoming wet (growing) season. Intentional fires also escape people's control and burn into adjacent forest. The smoke from these fires crosses the Pacific Ocean, affecting climate far away. This dramatic photo-like image of fires and smoke in Southeast Asia was captured on April 2, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite. MODIS detected hundreds, possibly thousands of fires (marked in red), burning in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and China. Thick smoke hides nearly all of Laos, where the highest concentration of fires is located. In southern China and northern Vietnam, the smoke has sunk into the valleys that crisscross the mountainous terrain; only the highest ridgelines, which appear dark green, emerge from the blanket of smoke. The smoke sails above a bank of clouds at upper right as a dingy, yellowish haze. Fires have been burning in the region for more than month, as shown by the high carbon monoxide levels observed by NASA's MOPITT sensor during March 2007. In addition to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, fires produce tiny particles of incompletely burned, or charred, carbon. According to research published in mid-March 2007 in the Journal of Geophysical Research, significant amounts of this black carbon travel across the Pacific Ocean to North America at altitudes above 2 kilometers. In spring 2004, between 25-35 gigatons (roughly 55 to 77 million pounds) of black carbon crossed the Pacific and entered skies over western North America between March 26 and April 25; nearly 75 percent of it came from Asia. (Smoke and other pollution have no respect for borders; for example, scientists have also

  3. Aerosol Optical Properties in Southeast Asia From AERONET Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Boonjawat, J.; Le, H. V.; Schafer, J. S.; Reid, J. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.

    2003-12-01

    There is little published data available on measured optical properties of aerosols in the Southeast Asian region. The AERONET project and collaborators commenced monitoring of aerosol optical properties in February 2003 at four sites in Thailand and two sites in Viet Nam to measure the primarily anthropogenic aerosols generated by biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion/ industrial emissions. Automatic sun/sky radiometers at each site measured spectral aerosol optical depth in 7 wavelengths from 340 to 1020 nm and combined with directional radiances in the almucantar, retrievals were made of spectral single scattering albedo and aerosol size distributions. Angstrom exponents, size distributions and spectral single scattering albedo of primarily biomass burning aerosols at rural sites are compared to measurements made at AERONET sites in other major biomass burning regions in tropical southern Africa, South America, and in boreal forest regions. Additionally, the aerosol single scattering albedo and size distributions measured in Bangkok, Thailand are compared with those measured at other urban sites globally. The influences of aerosols originating from other regions outside of Southeast Asia are analyzed using trajectory analyses. Specifically, cases of aerosol transport and mixing from Southern China and from India are presented.

  4. Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

    1992-05-01

    While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people. PMID:1508934

  5. Malaria in the WHO Southeast Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kondrashin, A V

    1992-09-01

    Malaria endemic countries in the southeast Asia region include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Population movement and rapid urbanization, both largely caused by unemployment, and environmental deterioration change the malaria pattern. They also increase the incidence of drug-resistant malaria, especially resistance to 4-aminoquinolines. In India, Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the density and distribution of tribals, and, in southern Thailand, rubber tappers have the highest malaria incidence rate (46.29%). Since the population is young and the young are highly sensitive to malaria infection, the region has low community immunity. High malaria priority areas are forests, forested hills, forest fringe areas, developmental project sites, and border areas. High risk groups include infants, young children, pregnant women, and mobile population groups. Malaria incidence is between 2.5-2.8 million cases, and the slide positivity rate is about 3%. P. falciparum constitutes 40% for all malaria cases. In 1988 in India, there were 222 malaria deaths. Malaria is the 7th most common cause of death in Thailand. 3 of the 19 Anopheline species are resistant to at least 1 insecticide, particularly DDT. Posteradication epidemics surfaced in the mid-1970s. Malaria control programs tend to use the primary health care and integration approach to malaria control. Antiparasite measures range from a single-dose of an antimalarial to mass drug administration. Residual spraying continues to be the main strategy of vector control. Some other vector control measures are fish feeding on mosquito larvae, insecticide impregnated mosquito nets, and repellents. Control programs also have health education activities. India allocates the highest percentage of its total health budget to malaria control (21.54%). Few malariology training programs exist in the region. Slowly processed surveillance data limit the countries' ability to

  6. Toxicity test method development in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Use of aquatic toxicity tests is relatively new in southeast Asia. As part of the ASEAN-Canada Cooperative Programme on Marine Science -- Phase 2, which includes development of marine environmental criteria, a need for tropical toxicity data was identified. A step-wise approach was used for test method development (simple, acute tests and easily measured endpoints first, then more complex short-term chronic methods), for test specific selection (using species found throughout the region first, and then considering species with narrower geographic distribution), and for integration of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) practices into all laboratory activities. Development of test protocols specifically for tropical species included acute and chronic toxicity tests with marine fish, invertebrates and algae. Criteria for test species selection will be reviewed. Method development was based on procedures and endpoints already widely used in North America and Europe (e.g., 96-h LC50 with fish), but adapted for use with tropical species. For example, a bivalve larval development test can use the same endpoints but the duration is only 24 hours. Test method development included research on culture and holding procedures, determination of test conditions (e.g., duration, test containers), and identification of appropriate endpoints. Acute tests with fish and invertebrates were developed first. The next step was development of short-term chronic tests to measure phytoplankton growth, bivalve and echinoderm embryo or larval development, and larval fish growth. The number of species and types of tests was increased in a staged approach, as laboratories became better equipped and personnel gained practical experience. In most cases, method development coincided with training workshops to introduce the principles of toxicity testing.

  7. Strategies for Astronomy Development in the Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy in the Southeast Asia has significantly growth. New telescopes and instruments, number of astronomers and astronomical activities have been increased during the past decade. Nevertheless, there are still some constraints for the development of astronomy in the Southeast Asia, especially national policy and funding in astronomy, proper scientific training programs, critical number of astronomers and concrete collaboration in the region.Long-term plans for key science direction, infrastructures, human resources and capacity buildings need to be considered for the sustainable development of Astronomy in the region. Southeast Asian Regional Office for Astronomy Development: SEA ROAD will take an important role for the regional collaboration and accomplishment on the development in astronomy in the Southeast Asia.

  8. Dental perspectives on the population history of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hirofumi; Hudson, Mark J

    2005-06-01

    This article uses metric and nonmetric dental data to test the "two-layer" or immigration hypothesis whereby Southeast Asia was initially occupied by an "Australo-Melanesian" population that later underwent substantial genetic admixture with East Asian immigrants associated with the spread of agriculture from the Neolithic period onwards. We examined teeth from 4,002 individuals comprising 42 prehistoric and historic samples from East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, and Melanesia. For the odontometric analysis, dental size proportions were compared using factor analysis and Q-mode correlation coefficients, and overall tooth size was also compared between population samples. Nonmetric population affinities were estimated by Smith's distances, using the frequencies of 16 tooth traits. The results of both the metric and nonmetric analyses demonstrate close affinities between recent Australo-Melanesian samples and samples representing early Southeast Asia, such as the Early to Middle Holocene series from Vietnam, Malaysia, and Flores. In contrast, the dental characteristics of most modern Southeast Asians exhibit a mixture of traits associated with East Asians and Australo-Melanesians, suggesting that these populations were genetically influenced by immigrants from East Asia. East Asian metric and/or nonmetric traits are also found in some prehistoric samples from Southeast Asia such as Ban Kao (Thailand), implying that immigration probably began in the early Neolithic. Much clearer influence of East Asian immigration was found in Early Metal Age Vietnamese and Sulawesi samples. Although the results of this study are consistent with the immigration hypothesis, analysis of additional Neolithic samples is needed to determine the exact timing of population dispersals into Southeast Asia. PMID:15558609

  9. Migrant workers spreading HIV in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    1996-10-21

    Interruption of the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) across southeast Asian borders by legal and illegal migrant laborers is a major concern of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ASEAN intends to move immediately to implement regional projects focused on education, information sharing, and improved surveillance. HIV transmission from laborers from poorer countries in search of jobs in economically booming regions underscores the global nature of the AIDS problem. Malaysia, for example, has over 1 million illegal workers. Moreover, many legal guest workers who enter Malaysia with letters from a physician stating they are not HIV-infected have falsified documents. PMID:12320478

  10. The human causes of deforestation in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kummer, D.M.; Turner, B.L. II )

    1994-05-01

    The recurrent pattern of deforestation in southeast Asia is that of large scale logging for exports followed by agricultural expansion. The apparent difference between global and regional or local causes of land use, such as in SE Asia, has become a central theme in the emerging global change agenda. This article illustrates the significance of regional variation for understanding one example of land cover change, tropical deforestation, focusing on the Philippines, and using mathematical modeling. The commonalities of this case with other in SE Asia are discussed. 43 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  12. Southeast Asia: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This bibliography, which contains approximately 500 citations dated between 1952 and 1972, is one of a series on various areas of the world. Countries included in this bibliography on Southeast Asia are: Australia, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia and Singapore, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, Viet-Nam, Western Samoa and the…

  13. Multicentre studies of insecticide-treated durable wall lining in Africa and South-East Asia: entomological efficacy and household acceptability during one year of field use

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a primary method of malaria vector control, but its potential impact is constrained by several inherent limitations: spraying must be repeated when insecticide residues decay, householders can tire of the annual imposition and campaign costs are recurrent. Durable lining (DL) can be considered an advanced form of long-lasting IRS where insecticide is gradually released from an aesthetically attractive wall lining material to provide vector control for several years. A multicentre trial was carried out in Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Mali, South Africa and Vietnam to assess the feasibility, durability, bioefficacy and household acceptability of DL, compared to conventional IRS or insecticide-treated curtains (LLITCs), in a variety of operational settings. Methods This study was conducted in 220 households in traditional rural villages over 12-15 months. In all sites, rolls of DL were cut to fit house dimensions and fixed to interior wall surfaces (usually with nails and caps) by trained teams. Acceptability was assessed using a standardized questionnaire covering such topics as installation, exposure reactions, entomology, indoor environment, aesthetics and durability. Bioefficacy of interventions was evaluated using WHO cone bioassay tests at regular intervals throughout the year. Results The deltamethrin DL demonstrated little to no decline in bioefficacy over 12-15 months, supported by minimal loss of insecticide content. By contrast, IRS displayed a significant decrease in bioactivity by 6 months and full loss after 12 months. The majority of participants in DL households perceived reductions in mosquito density (93%) and biting (82%), but no changes in indoor temperature (83%). Among those households that wanted to retain the DL, 73% cited protective reasons, 20% expressed a desire to keep theirs for decoration and 7% valued both qualities equally. In Equatorial Guinea, when offered a choice of vector control product at

  14. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  15. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  16. Frontotemporal Dementia in Southeast Asia: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yee-Leng; Ng, Amanda; Kandiah, Nagaendran

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical profile of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in Southeast Asia is not known. We characterized and compared the demographic and clinical characteristics of FTD patients in Southeast Asia with North Asian and Western patients. Methods The study included Southeast Asian FTD patients presenting to a tertiary neurology institute. Behavioral variant (bv-FTD) and language variant (lv-FTD) subtypes of FTD were diagnosed based on the Lund-Manchester criteria. The patients were characterized according to demographics, clinical, neuroimaging and longitudinal profiles. Results Twenty-five bv-FTD and 19 lv-FTD patients were identified, with a female predominance ratio of 2:1 and a mean age of 56 years. The mean MMSE score was 16.2, and 88.4% of patients had memory symptoms. Over 5.1 ± 2.4 years of follow-up, 60% of bv-FTD and 36.8% of lv-FTD patients developed a second FTD syndrome. bv-FTD was the predominant type of FTD among Southeast Asians. Conclusion FTD represents an important cause of young-onset dementia in Southeast Asia. Greater awareness of FTD is required to ensure early diagnosis and management. PMID:23569453

  17. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji. PMID:27018566

  18. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  19. Volcanic ash: a hazard for aviation in Southeast Asia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelley, P.; Newhall, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    There are more than 500 potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of Volcanic Explosivity Index 3 (VEI 3) and larger pose local hazards while eruptions of VEI 4 or greater could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. To better manage and understand the risk volcanic ash presents to Southeast Asia, this study quantifies the long-term probability of an eruption interfering with aviation in the region. Southeast Asian volcanoes are classified into 5 groups, using satellite data, by their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history. ';Laguna' type are fields of maars, cinder cones and spatter cones, named for the Laguna Volcanic Field, Philippines. ';Mayon' type volcanoes are open-vent (i.e., observably degassing), frequently active, steep sided stratocones with small summit craters, spatter ramparts, small pyroclastic fans (typically < 3 km but up to 5 km) and lava flows (Mayon Volcano, Philippines). ';Kelut' type are plugged (i.e., not observably degassing) composite cones with dome complexes, pyroclastic fans, and/or debris avalanche deposits (Kelut Volcano, Indonesia). ';Pinatubo' type are large plugged stratovolcanoes with extensive (tens of km) pyroclastic fans and large summit craters or calderas up to 5 km in diameter (Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines). ';Toba-Tambora' type are calderas with long axes > 5 km and surrounded by ignimbrite sheets (Toba Caldera, Indonesia; Tambora Volcano, Indonesia). In addition, silicic dome complexes that might potentially produce large caldera-forming eruptions are classified as Toba-Tambora type. The eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained. Assuming that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories, we use eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic category as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. Results from this work are used to model volcanic ash contamination

  20. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  1. Ecospaces occupied by Homo erectus and Homo sapiens in insular Southeast Asia in the Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Volmer, Rebekka; Bruch, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Hominins migrated to the islands of the Sunda Shelf multiple times. At least two immigration events are evident, an early immigration of Homo erectus in the late Early Pleistocene and a second immigration of Homo sapiens during the Late Pleistocene. Regional environments changed considerably in the Pleistocene. Expansion patterns among hominins are at least co-determined by their ecologies and environmental change. We examine these expansion patterns on the basis of habitat reconstructions. Mammalian communities provide a geographically extensive record and permit to assess hominin ecospaces. Although chronological resolution is low, they represent the most complete record of habitat changes associated with hominin expansion patterns. In order to reconstruct and compare hominin ecospaces on a quantitative scale, we set up a reference sample consisting of mammalian communities of 117 national parks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The diversity of such communities is assessed by ecological profiling of specialized herbivore taxa. Moreover, datasets on climate and vegetation correlate with the diversity structure of such specialized herbivore communities. Reconstructing the diversity structure of communities at key sites in Pleistocene Southeast Asia permits to infer features of the climatic and vegetation framework associated with different hominin taxa. Our results show that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens did not occupy similar ecospaces. The ecospace of Homo erectus is characterized by comparatively low diversity among frugivorous and folivorous taxa, while obligate grazers are part of the assemblages. Specialized herbivore communities with such a diversity structure occur at present in East Africa, while they are absent in Southeast Asia. In the reference sample, this type of ecospace corresponds to seasonal wetlands. Although Homo sapiens still inhabits this type of environment in Southeast Asia, his ecospace is wider. Homo sapiens is associated with

  2. Projections of agricultural droughts in the Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the most populated regions in the world, which falls among the food insecure regions. Droughts during the monsoon season hamper crop growth and food production. During the last few decades, rainfall in the monsoon season has been erratic leading to some of the most wide spread droughts in the region. Severity, areal extents, and frequency of droughts are analyzed using the observed data for the period of 1951-2007. Results indicate that frequency of severe drought increased in the Southeast Asia during the recent decades (1980-2007). To assess the variability of hydrologic and agricultural drought in the region, runoff and soil moisture were simulated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The model simulated drought variability was compared with drought simulated by the CMIP5 models during the historic period (1951-2005). Most of the CMIP5 models show increased frequency of severe agricultural droughts in the region under the projected future climate. Increased agricultural droughts in the Southeast Asia may put enormous pressure on the efforts towards achieving food security in the region.

  3. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

  4. Forest classification of southeast Asia using NOAA AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Achard, F.; Estreguil, C.

    1995-12-01

    Tropical deforestation is one of the most significant forms of global environmental change. It has been identified as an important component of the global carbon cycle while also having been shown to effect regional climate and hydrology. Methodologies using the 1 km resolution data of the NOAA AVHRR instrument were developed for tropical forest spectral discrimination and mapping at a regional scale. Tropical Southeast Asia was selected as a cause study using a multitemporal AVHRR data set of 1990--1992. This study documents first the relevance of AVHRR data to assess the extent of seasonal and dense forest and, moreover, reports on the derivation of a specific fragmented/disturbed forest class. A geographically dependent methodology is developed: for continental Southeast Asia, where generally good cloud-free images are available during the dry season and seasonal vegetation formations are present, multitemporal AVHRR mosaics were produced before the classification process. For insular Southeast Asia, which is particularly affected by the cloud cover and where only humid vegetation formations are present, a multitemporal set of single-date AVHRR images was first classified, and then the classifications were mosaicked together using a combination of two criteria (image quality and maximum occurrence). Unsupervised classifications using NDVI and Channel 3 radiance were processed in both cases. Verification of the AVHRR class assignment was carried out locally using a few high spatial resolution satellite images. It highlights the sources of misclassification.

  5. Craniodental affinities of Southeast Asia's "negritos" and the concordance with their genetic affinities.

    PubMed

    Bulbeck, David

    2013-01-01

    Genetic research into Southeast Asia's "negritos" has revealed their deep-rooted ancestry, with time depth comparable to that of Southwest Pacific populations. This finding is often interpreted as evidence that negritos, in contrast to other Southeast Asians, can trace much of their ancestry directly back to the early dispersal of Homo sapiens in the order of 70 kya from Africa to Pleistocene New Guinea and Australia. One view on negritos is to lump them and Southwest Pacific peoples into an "Australoid" race whose geographic distribution had included Southeast Asia prior to the Neolithic incursion of "Mongoloid" farmers. Studies into Semang osteology have revealed some hints of Southwest Pacific affinities in cranial shape, dental morphology, and dental metrical "shape." On the other hand, the Andamanese have been shown to resemble Africans in their craniometrics and South Asians in their dental morphology, while Philippine negritos resemble Mongoloid Southeast Asians in these respects and also in their dental metrics. This study expands the scope of negrito cranial comparisons by including Melayu Malays and additional coverage of South Asians. It highlights the distinction between the Mongoloid-like Philippine negritos and the Andamanese and Semang (and Senoi of Malaya) with their non-Mongoloid associations. It proposes that the early/mid-Holocene dispersal of the B4a1a mitochondrial DNA clade across Borneo, the Philippines, and Taiwan may be important for understanding the distinction between Philippine and other negritos. PMID:24297222

  6. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program... AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 7 Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program. In order to adapt the provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast...

  8. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. PMID:27137455

  9. Influence of Biomass Burning Aerosols on Southeast Asia Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Bar-Or, Rotem; Wang, Chien

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning activities in Southeast Asia have become a major concern of general public as well as governments in the region. This is because that aerosols emitted from such fires can cause long-lasting haze events under favorite weather conditions in downwind locations such as Singapore, degrading air quality and causing human health issues. In order to improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in Southeast Asia, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a smoke aerosol module to conduct multi-year simulations covering the period from 2002 to 2014, driven by the biomass burning emissions from the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) version 1.5. To attribute the aerosol influences over various target regions to specific fire locations, we have also partitioned aerosols emitted from five major fire regions of Southeast Asia in the simulations. Based on the simulation results, we have examined the influences of various meteorological regimes on the aerosol transport and wet removal. We find that the transport and scavenging of biomass burning aerosols are strongly modulated by the Southeast Asian monsoon wind field and precipitation. We also identified that in the past decade, smoke aerosols are responsible for a substantial fraction of low visibility events in the major metropolitan areas of the region: 35% in Bangkok, 25% in Kuala Lumpur, 16% in Singapore, and 22% in Jakarta. The fires in the Indochina peninsula account for the largest percentage of the total fire enhancement to PM2.5 in Bangkok (98.9%), and fires in Sumatra were the major contributor in Kuala Lumpur (49%), Singapore (39%), and Jakarta (48%).

  10. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  11. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the ‘Austronesian expansion,’ which began 4,000–5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

  12. Patrilineal perspective on the Austronesian diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Dong; Peng, Min-Sheng; Quang, Huy Ho; Dang, Khoa Pham; Trieu, An Vu; Wu, Shi-Fang; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Murphy, Robert W; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The Cham people are the major Austronesian speakers of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and the reconstruction of the Cham population history can provide insights into their diffusion. In this study, we analyzed non-recombining region of the Y chromosome markers of 177 unrelated males from four populations in MSEA, including 59 Cham, 76 Kinh, 25 Lao, and 17 Thai individuals. Incorporating published data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), our results indicated that, in general, the Chams are an indigenous Southeast Asian population. The origin of the Cham people involves the genetic admixture of the Austronesian immigrants from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) with the local populations in MSEA. Discordance between the overall patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA in the Chams is evidenced by the presence of some Y chromosome lineages that prevail in South Asians. Our results suggest that male-mediated dispersals via the spread of religions and business trade might play an important role in shaping the patrilineal gene pool of the Cham people. PMID:22586471

  13. Patrilineal Perspective on the Austronesian Diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Quang, Huy Ho; Dang, Khoa Pham; Trieu, An Vu; Wu, Shi-Fang; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Murphy, Robert W.; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The Cham people are the major Austronesian speakers of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and the reconstruction of the Cham population history can provide insights into their diffusion. In this study, we analyzed non-recombining region of the Y chromosome markers of 177 unrelated males from four populations in MSEA, including 59 Cham, 76 Kinh, 25 Lao, and 17 Thai individuals. Incorporating published data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), our results indicated that, in general, the Chams are an indigenous Southeast Asian population. The origin of the Cham people involves the genetic admixture of the Austronesian immigrants from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) with the local populations in MSEA. Discordance between the overall patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA in the Chams is evidenced by the presence of some Y chromosome lineages that prevail in South Asians. Our results suggest that male-mediated dispersals via the spread of religions and business trade might play an important role in shaping the patrilineal gene pool of the Cham people. PMID:22586471

  14. Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Mathilde; Tatard, Caroline; Chaval, Yannick; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Buchy, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across Southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia), between 2009 to 2010. Human isolates were also obtained from localities close to where rodents were sampled. The prevalence of Leptospira infection was assessed by real-time PCR using DNA extracted from rodent kidneys, targeting the lipL32 gene. Sequencing rrs and secY genes, and Multi Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on DNA extracted from rat kidneys for Leptospira isolates molecular typing. Four species were detected in rodents, L. borgpetersenii (56% of positive samples), L. interrogans (36%), L. kirschneri (3%) and L. weilli (2%), which were identical to human isolates. Mean prevalence in rodents was approximately 7%, and largely varied across localities and habitats, but not between rodent species. The two most abundant Leptospira species displayed different habitat requirements: L. interrogans was linked to humid habitats (rice fields and forests) while L. borgpetersenii was abundant in both humid and dry habitats (non-floodable lands). Conclusion/Significance L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii species are widely distributed amongst rodent populations, and strain typing confirmed rodents as reservoirs for human leptospirosis. Differences in habitat requirements for L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii supported differential transmission modes. In Southeast Asia, human infection risk is not only restricted to activities taking place in wetlands and rice fields as is commonly accepted, but should also include tasks such as forestry work, as well as the hunting and preparation of rodents for consumption, which

  15. Fiscal space for health spending in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the availability of fiscal space in the context of health spending and the challenges and constraints in raising additional resources for health given the macroeconomic situations, in the ten countries of the South-East Asia region (SEAR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Using a variety of secondary data, the analysis indicates that there are differences among the SEAR countries with respect to the various indicators of fiscal space. While the aid situation is under control, there are concerns regarding public debt, fiscal deficit, and revenues. Based on the findings, this article proposes ways forward for each of the countries in the coming years. PMID:24003763

  16. Advances in drilling covered at conference in Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Recent advances in drilling technology include new applications for various polymer-based drilling fluids, an analytical evaluation of certain gas control additives for light cement slurries, the use of a new wellhead connector, and the development of a unique completion tool for slim hole wells. This paper reports on these topics which were covered in several papers prepared for the Offshore South East Asia 9th Conference and Exhibition held Dec. 1-4, 1992, in Singapore. Drilling fluids formulated with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were used successfully and economically to control well bore problems in a development drilling program in southeast Asia. Another paper presented results on the use of various cationic and anionic materials to control shale stability problems common to areas offshore western Australia. Another paper presented results of an evaluation of five common additives used to control gas migration problems in light-weight cements. In addition to these fluid topics, recent mechanical developments were covered.

  17. Policies, Political-Economy, and Swidden in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jefferson; Fujita, Yayoi; Ngidang, Dimbab; Peluso, Nancy; Potter, Lesley; Sakuntaladewi, Niken; Sturgeon, Janet; Thomas, David

    2009-06-01

    For centuries swidden was an important farming practice found across the girth of Southeast Asia. Today, however, these systems are changing and sometimes disappearing at a pace never before experienced. In order to explain the demise or transitioning of swidden we need to understand the rapid and massive changes that have and are occurring in the political and economic environment in which these farmers operate. Swidden farming has always been characterized by change, but since the onset of modern independent nation states, governments and markets in Southeast Asia have transformed the terms of swiddeners' everyday lives to a degree that is significantly different from that ever experienced before. In this paper we identified six factors that have contributed to the demise or transformation of swidden systems, and support these arguments with examples from China (Xishuangbanna), Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. These trends include classifying swiddeners as ethnic minorities within nation-states, dividing the landscape into forest and permanent agriculture, expansion of forest departments and the rise of conservation, resettlement, privatization and commoditization of land and land-based production, and expansion of market infrastructure and the promotion of industrial agriculture. In addition we note a growing trend toward a transition from rural to urban livelihoods and expanding urban-labor markets. PMID:19609457

  18. Documentation for the Southeast Asia seismic hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Haller, Kathleen; Dewey, James; Luco, Nicolas; Crone, Anthony; Lidke, David; Rukstales, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project originated in response to the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M9.2) and the resulting tsunami that caused significant casualties and economic losses in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. During the course of this project, several great earthquakes ruptured subduction zones along the southern coast of Indonesia (fig. 1) causing additional structural damage and casualties in nearby communities. Future structural damage and societal losses from large earthquakes can be mitigated by providing an advance warning of tsunamis and introducing seismic hazard provisions in building codes that allow buildings and structures to withstand strong ground shaking associated with anticipated earthquakes. The Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project was funded through a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)—Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System to develop seismic hazard maps that would assist engineers in designing buildings that will resist earthquake strong ground shaking. An important objective of this project was to discuss regional hazard issues with building code officials, scientists, and engineers in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The code communities have been receptive to these discussions and are considering updating the Thailand and Indonesia building codes to incorporate new information (for example, see notes from Professor Panitan Lukkunaprasit, Chulalongkorn University in Appendix A).

  19. Volcanic ash: a potential hazard for aviation in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelley, P. L.; Newhall, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    There are more than 400 volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of Volcanic Explosivity Index 3 (VEI 3) and larger pose local hazards and eruptions of VEI 4 or greater could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. To better manage and understand the risk volcanic ash poses to Southeast Asia, this study quantifies the long-term probability of a large eruption sending ash into the Singapore Flight Information Region (FIR), which is a 1,700 km long, quasi-rectangular zone from the Strait of Malacca to the South China Sea. Southeast Asian volcanoes are classified into 6 groups, using satellite data, by their morphology, and where known, their eruptive history. 'Laguna' type are fields of maars, cinder cones and spatter cones, named for the Laguna Volcanic Field, Philippines (13.204, 123.525). 'Kembar' type are broad, gently sloping shield volcanoes with extensive lava flows (Kembar Volcano, Indonesia: 3.850, 097.664). 'Mayon' type volcanoes are open-vent, frequently active, steep sided stratocones with small summit craters, spatter ramparts, small pyroclastic fans (typically < 3 km but up to 5 km) and lava flows (Mayon Volcano, Philippines: 13.257, 123.685). 'Kelut' type are semi-plugged composite cones with dome complexes, pyroclastic fans, and/or debris avalanche deposits (Kelut Volcano, Indonesia: -7.933, 112.308). 'Pinatubo' type are large plugged stratovolcanoes with extensive (tens of km) pyroclastic fans and large summit craters or calderas up to 5 km in diameter (Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines: 15.133, 120.350). 'Toba' type are calderas with long axes > 5 km and surrounded by ignimbrite sheets (Toba Caldera, Indonesia: 02.583, 098.833). In addition silicic dome complexes that might eventually produce large caldera-forming eruptions are also classified as Toba type. The eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained. Assuming that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption

  20. Collaborating to conserve large mammals in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Robert; Chutipong, Wanlop; Seuaturien, Naret

    2006-10-01

    Depressed mammal densities characterize the interior of many Southeast Asian protected areas, and are the result of commercial and subsistence hunting. Local people are part of this problem but can participate in solutions through improved partnerships that incorporate local knowledge into problem diagnosis. The process of involving local people helps build a constituency that is more aware of its role (positive and negative) in a protected area and generates site-specific conservation assessments for management planning. We illustrate the practical details of initiating such a partnership through our work in a Thai wildlife sanctuary. Many protected areas in Southeast Asia present similar opportunities. In local workshops, village woodsmen were led through ranking exercises to develop a spatially explicit picture of 20-year trends in the abundance of 31 mammal species and to compare species-specific causes for declines. Within five taxonomic groups, leaf monkeys (primates), porcupines (rodents), tigers (large carnivores), civets (small carnivores), and elephants (ungulates) had declined most severely (37-74%). Commercial hunting contributed heavily to extensive population declines for most species, and subsistence hunting was locally significant for some small carnivores, leaf monkeys, and deer. Workshops thus clarified which species were at highest risk of local extinction, where the most threatened populations were, and causes for these patterns. Most important, they advanced a shared problem definition, thereby unlocking opportunities for collaboration. As a result, local people and sanctuary managers have increased communication, initiated joint monitoring and patrolling, and established wildlife recovery zones. Using local knowledge has limitations, but the process of engaging local people promotes collaborative action that large mammals in Southeast Asia need. PMID:17002757

  1. A Cenozoic tectonic model for Southeast Asia - microplates and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.A.

    1995-04-01

    A computer-assisted Cenozoic tectonic model was built for Southeast Asia and used to construct 23 base maps, 2 to 6 million years apart. This close temporal spacing was necessary to constrain all the local geometric shifts in a consistent and geologically feasible fashion. More than a hundred individual blocks were required to adequately treat Cenozoic microplate processes at a basic level. The reconstructions show tectonic evolution to be characterized by long periods of gradual evolution, interrupted by brief, widespread episodes of reorganization in fundamental plate geometries and kinematics. These episodes are triggered by major collisions, or by accumulation of smaller changes. The model takes into account difficulties inherent in the region. The Pacific and Indo-Australian plates and their predecessors have driven westward and northward since the late Paleozoic, towards each other and the relatively stationary backstop of Asia. Southeast Asia is therefore the result of a long-lived, complex process of convergent tectonics, making it difficult to reconstruct tectonic evolution as much of the continental margin and sea floor spreading record was erased. In addition, the region has been dominated by small-scale microplate processes with short time scales and internal deformation, taking place in rapidly evolving and more ductile buffer zones between the major rigid plate systems. These plate interaction zones have taken up much of the relative motion between the major plates. Relatively ephemeral crustal blocks appear and die within the buffer zones, or accrete to and disperse from the margins of the major plate systems. However, such microplate evolution is the dominant factor in Cenozoic basin evolution. This detailed testonic model aids in comprehension and prediction of basin development, regional hydrocarbon habitat, and petroleum systems.

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports...

  6. Overseas Educational Developments, 1981: Mexico, South America, Southeast Asia. A World Higher Education Communique Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Educational developments in Mexico, South America, and Southeast Asia are covered in five seminar papers. In addition, country educational profiles are presented on Mexico, Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. In "International Students from Southeast Asia," John F. Brohm considers the following aspects of…

  7. More Than We Bargained For: The Impact of Consumer Culture in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Katherine T.

    Advertising by multinational corporations in Southeast Asia is generating a growing resistance to its perceived role in creating a "consumer culture" damaging to indigenous values systems. Critics of advertising in Southeast Asia argue that when multinational advertisers or their multinational advertising agencies move into this foreign setting,…

  8. Hunter-gatherers in southeast Asia: from prehistory to the present.

    PubMed

    Higham, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Anatomically modern hunter-gatherers expanded from Africa into Southeast Asia at least 50,000 years ago, where they probably encountered and interacted with populations of Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis and the recently discovered Denisovans. Simulation studies suggest that these hunter-gatherers may well have followed a coastal route that ultimately led to the settlement of Sahul, while archaeology confirms that they also crossed significant seas and explored well into the interior. They also adapted to marked environmental changes that alternated between relatively cool and dry conditions and warmer, wetter interludes. During the former, the sea fell by up to 120 m below its present level, which opened up a vast low-lying area known as Sundaland. Three principal alignments can be identified: the first involved the occupation of rock shelters in upland regions, the second has identified settlement on broad riverine floodplains, and the last concentrated on the raised beaches formed from about five millennia ago when the sea level was elevated above its present position. This cultural sequence was dislocated about 4 kya when rice and millet farmers infiltrated the lowlands of Southeast Asia ultimately from the Yangtze River valley. It is suggested that this led to two forms of interaction. In the first, the indigenous hunter-gatherers integrated with intrusive Neolithic communities and, while losing their cultural identity, contributed their genes to the present population of Southeast Asia. In the second, hunter-gatherers withdrew to rainforest refugia and, through selective pressures inherent in such an environment, survived as the small-bodied, dark-skinned humans found to this day in the Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand, and the Andaman Islands. Beyond the impact of expansive rice farmers in Melanesia and Australia, hunter-gatherers continued to dominate until they encountered European settlement. PMID:24297219

  9. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  10. Introduction: revisiting the "negrito" hypothesis: a transdisciplinary approach to human prehistory in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Endicott, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The "negrito" hypothesis predicts that a shared phenotype among various contemporary groups of hunter-gatherers in Southeast Asia--dark skin, short stature, tight curly hair--is due to common descent from a region-wide, pre-Neolithic substrate of humanity. The alternative is that their distinctive phenotype results from convergent evolution. The core issues of the negrito hypothesis are today more relevant than ever to studies of human evolution, including the out-of-Africa migration, admixture with Denisovans, and the effects of environment and ecology on life-history traits. Understanding the current distribution of the negrito phenotype dictates a wide-ranging remit for study, including the articulation of the relationship between foragers and farmers in the present, the development of settled agriculture in the mid-Holocene, and terminal Pleistocene population expansions. The consensus reached by the contributors to this special double issue of Human Biology is that there is not yet conclusive evidence either for or against the negrito hypothesis. Nevertheless, the process of revisiting the problem will benefit the knowledge of the human prehistory of Southeast Asia. Whether the term negrito accurately reflects the all-encompassing nature of the resulting inquiry is in itself questionable, but the publication of this double issue is testament to the enduring ability of this hypothesis to unite disparate academic disciplines in a common purpose. PMID:24297218

  11. Early Modern Humans and Morphological Variation in Southeast Asia: Fossil Evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling‘s cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3. PMID:25849125

  12. Early modern humans and morphological variation in Southeast Asia: fossil evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling's cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3. PMID:25849125

  13. Predicting groundwater arsenic contamination in Southeast Asia from surface parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, Lenny; Berg, Michael; Amini, Manouchehr; Hug, Stephan J.; Annette Johnson, C.

    2008-08-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater resources threatens the health of millions of people worldwide, particularly in the densely populated river deltas of Southeast Asia. Although many arsenic-affected areas have been identified in recent years, a systematic evaluation of vulnerable areas remains to be carried out. Here we present maps pinpointing areas at risk of groundwater arsenic concentrations exceeding 10μgl-1. These maps were produced by combining geological and surface soil parameters in a logistic regression model, calibrated with 1,756 aggregated and geo-referenced groundwater data points from the Bengal, Red River and Mekong deltas. We show that Holocene deltaic and organic-rich surface sediments are key indicators for arsenic risk areas and that the combination of surface parameters is a successful approach to predict groundwater arsenic contamination. Predictions are in good agreement with the known spatial distribution of arsenic contamination, and further indicate elevated risks in Sumatra and Myanmar, where no groundwater studies exist.

  14. Simulating Land-Cover Change in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B.; Sen, Omer L.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Ziegler, Alan D.

    2012-05-01

    We used the conversion of land use and its effects (CLUE-s) model to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia (MMSEA), a region in the midst of transformation due to rapid intensification of agriculture and expansion of regional trade markets. Simulated changes affected approximately 10 % of the MMSEA landscape between 2001 and 2025 and 16 % between 2001 and 2050. Roughly 9 % of the current vegetation, which consists of native species of trees, shrubs, and grasses, is projected to be replaced by tree plantations, tea, and other evergreen shrubs during the 50 years period. Importantly, 4 % of this transition is expected to be due to the expansion of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis), a tree plantation crop that may have important implications for local-to-regional scale hydrology because of its potentially high water consumption in the dry season.

  15. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. PMID:12295213

  16. The Culex pipiens fatigans problem in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.

    1967-01-01

    In South-East Asia in recent years urbanization has proceeded rapidly. Because of limited financial resources it has seldom been possible to provide sufficient sanitation; this has led to conditions favourable to the breeding of Culex pipiens fatigans. The density of C. p. fatigans is higher in urban areas than in rural ones. Differences in infection and infectivity rates in C. p. fatigans seem to be due to differences in infection rates in the human population rather than to differences in the life-span of the mosquito. Precipitin tests have shown that the species feeds predominantly on man. It breeds in almost any type of stagnant water with organic contamination. Filariasis problems in India have been classified according to the duration of established transmission. PMID:5300060

  17. Simulating land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B; Sen, Omer L; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Ziegler, Alan D

    2012-05-01

    We used the conversion of land use and its effects (CLUE-s) model to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia (MMSEA), a region in the midst of transformation due to rapid intensification of agriculture and expansion of regional trade markets. Simulated changes affected approximately 10 % of the MMSEA landscape between 2001 and 2025 and 16 % between 2001 and 2050. Roughly 9 % of the current vegetation, which consists of native species of trees, shrubs, and grasses, is projected to be replaced by tree plantations, tea, and other evergreen shrubs during the 50 years period. Importantly, 4 % of this transition is expected to be due to the expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), a tree plantation crop that may have important implications for local-to-regional scale hydrology because of its potentially high water consumption in the dry season. PMID:22476665

  18. Origin and evolution of Japanese encephalitis virus in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Tom; Ni, Haolin; Beasley, David W C; Ekkelenkamp, Miquel; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Barrett, Alan D T

    2003-03-01

    Since it emerged in Japan in the 1870s, Japanese encephalitis has spread across Asia and has become the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide. Four genotypes of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are presently recognized (representatives of genotypes I to III have been fully sequenced), but its origin is not known. We have determined the complete nucleotide and amino acid sequence of a genotype IV Indonesian isolate (JKT6468) which represents the oldest lineage, compared it with other fully sequenced genomes, and examined the geographical distribution of all known isolates. JKT6468 was the least similar, with nucleotide divergence ranging from 17.4 to 19.6% and amino acid divergence ranging from 4.7 to 6.5%. It included an unusual series of amino acids at the carboxy terminus of the core protein unlike that seen in other JEV strains. Three signature amino acids in the envelope protein (including E327 Leu-->Thr/Ser on the exposed lateral surface of the putative receptor binding domain) distinguished genotype IV strains from more recent genotypes. Analysis of all 290 JEV isolates for which sequence data are available showed that the Indonesia-Malaysia region has all genotypes of JEV circulating, whereas only more recent genotypes circulate in other areas (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that JEV originated from its ancestral virus in the Indonesia-Malaysia region and evolved there into the different genotypes which then spread across Asia. Our data, together with recent evidence on the origins of other emerging viruses, including dengue virus and Nipah virus, imply that tropical southeast Asia may be an important zone for emerging pathogens. PMID:12584335

  19. Latest Homo erectus of Java: potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Swisher, C C; Rink, W J; Antón, S C; Schwarcz, H P; Curtis, G H; Suprijo, A; Widiasmoro

    1996-12-13

    Hominid fossils from Ngandong and Sambungmacan, Central Java, are considered the most morphologically advanced representatives of Homo erectus. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and mass spectrometric U-series dating of fossil bovid teeth collected from the hominid-bearing levels at these sites gave mean ages of 27 +/- 2 to 53.3 +/- 4 thousand years ago; the range in ages reflects uncertainties in uranium migration histories. These ages are 20,000 to 400,000 years younger than previous age estimates for these hominids and indicate that H. erectus may have survived on Java at least 250,000 years longer than on the Asian mainland, and perhaps 1 million years longer than in Africa. The new ages raise the possibility that H. erectus overlapped in time with anatomically modern humans (H. sapiens) in Southeast Asia. PMID:8943192

  20. Stable isotope composition of precipitation over southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AraguáS-AraguáS, Luis; Froehlich, Klaus; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    1998-11-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of the stable isotope composition of precipitation in the southeast Asia and western Pacific region is discussed, with emphasis on the China territory, based on the database of the International Atomic Energy Agency/World Meteorological Organization Global Network "Isotopes in Precipitation" and the available information on the regional climatology and atmospheric circulation patterns. The meteorological and pluviometric regime of southeast Asia is controlled by five different air masses: (1) polar air mass originating in the Arctic, (2) continental air mass originating over central Asia, (3) tropical-maritime air mass originating in the northern Pacific, (4) equatorial-maritime air mass originating in the western equatorial Pacific, and (5) equatorial-maritime air mass originating in the Indian Ocean. The relative importance of different air masses in the course of a given year is modulated by the monsoon activity and the seasonal displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Gradual rain-out of moist, oceanic air masses moving inland, associated with monsoon circulation, constitutes a powerful mechanism capable of producing large isotopic depletions in rainfall, often completely overshadowing the dependence of δ18O and δ2H on temperature. For instance, precipitation at Lhasa station (Tibetan Plateau) during rainy period (June-September) is depleted in 18O by more than 6‰ with respect to winter rainfall, despite of 10°C higher surface air temperature in summer. This characteristic isotopic imprint of monsoon activity is seen over large areas of the region. The oceanic air masses forming the two monsoon systems, Pacific and Indian monsoon, differ in their isotope signatures, as demonstrated by the average δ18O of rainfall, which in the south of China (Haikou. Hong Kong) is about 2.5‰ more negative than in the Bay of Bengal (Yangoon). Strong seasonal variations of the deuterium excess values in precipitation

  1. Country to country transport of anthropogenic sulphur in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engardt, M.; Siniarovina, U.; Khairul, N. I.; Leong, C. P.

    The MATCH model—driven by archived meteorological data from the ECMWF—has been used to study the long-range transport of pollutants in Southeast Asia during the year 2000. We have specifically investigated the atmospheric export and import of anthropogenic sulphur between nine countries in Southeast Asia as well as the import to these countries from the boundaries of our model domain, from southern China, and from international shipping in the surrounding waters. Compared to the conditions at the mid-latitudes (Europe, North America and East Asia), we find less long-range transport in this part of the world. In all countries in the region (except those with very small area, i.e. Singapore and Brunei), did the major part of the domestic emissions (60-70%) fall down on the emitting country itself. The fraction of the countries own emissions contributing to the total, annually accumulated, national deposition varied from 10% for Laos—which is a country with small emissions neighbouring large emitters—to 80-90% in countries not surrounded by significant emitters (i.e. Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore and Brunei). Sensitivity tests were performed to explore the uncertainties in the model simulations and to investigate to what extent the current results could be used for source-receptor relationships in the future, when the magnitude and location of the emissions may be different. We found that the general feature—with relatively little long-range transport of sulphur—will not be altered, while the absolute magnitude of the deposition in areas downwind of large emitters could change considerably if certain model parameters, or the emission patterns are changed. This is particularly true in light of the seasonal variation of the deposition pathways. The atmospheric import of anthropogenic sulphur from specific countries can vary by an order of magnitude between different months. Incidentally, a decrease in import from one country during a certain period is often

  2. Muslim refugees in Southeast Asia, the Malaysian response.

    PubMed

    Dorall, R F

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between

  3. Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Kircher, Martin; Delfin, Frederick; Nandineni, Madhusudan R; Pugach, Irina; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Ko, Ying-Chin; Jinam, Timothy A; Phipps, Maude E; Saitou, Naruya; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred; Pääbo, Svante; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-10-01

    It has recently been shown that ancestors of New Guineans and Bougainville Islanders have inherited a proportion of their ancestry from Denisovans, an archaic hominin group from Siberia. However, only a sparse sampling of populations from Southeast Asia and Oceania were analyzed. Here, we quantify Denisova admixture in 33 additional populations from Asia and Oceania. Aboriginal Australians, Near Oceanians, Polynesians, Fijians, east Indonesians, and Mamanwa (a "Negrito" group from the Philippines) have all inherited genetic material from Denisovans, but mainland East Asians, western Indonesians, Jehai (a Negrito group from Malaysia), and Onge (a Negrito group from the Andaman Islands) have not. These results indicate that Denisova gene flow occurred into the common ancestors of New Guineans, Australians, and Mamanwa but not into the ancestors of the Jehai and Onge and suggest that relatives of present-day East Asians were not in Southeast Asia when the Denisova gene flow occurred. Our finding that descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia do not all harbor Denisova admixture is inconsistent with a history in which the Denisova interbreeding occurred in mainland Asia and then spread over Southeast Asia, leading to all its earliest modern human inhabitants. Instead, the data can be most parsimoniously explained if the Denisova gene flow occurred in Southeast Asia itself. Thus, archaic Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia. PMID:21944045

  4. Denisova Admixture and the First Modern Human Dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Kircher, Martin; Delfin, Frederick; Nandineni, Madhusudan R.; Pugach, Irina; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Ko, Ying-Chin; Jinam, Timothy A.; Phipps, Maude E.; Saitou, Naruya; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred; Pääbo, Svante; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been shown that ancestors of New Guineans and Bougainville Islanders have inherited a proportion of their ancestry from Denisovans, an archaic hominin group from Siberia. However, only a sparse sampling of populations from Southeast Asia and Oceania were analyzed. Here, we quantify Denisova admixture in 33 additional populations from Asia and Oceania. Aboriginal Australians, Near Oceanians, Polynesians, Fijians, east Indonesians, and Mamanwa (a “Negrito” group from the Philippines) have all inherited genetic material from Denisovans, but mainland East Asians, western Indonesians, Jehai (a Negrito group from Malaysia), and Onge (a Negrito group from the Andaman Islands) have not. These results indicate that Denisova gene flow occurred into the common ancestors of New Guineans, Australians, and Mamanwa but not into the ancestors of the Jehai and Onge and suggest that relatives of present-day East Asians were not in Southeast Asia when the Denisova gene flow occurred. Our finding that descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia do not all harbor Denisova admixture is inconsistent with a history in which the Denisova interbreeding occurred in mainland Asia and then spread over Southeast Asia, leading to all its earliest modern human inhabitants. Instead, the data can be most parsimoniously explained if the Denisova gene flow occurred in Southeast Asia itself. Thus, archaic Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia. PMID:21944045

  5. CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Fricke, Brian A; Bansal, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of Southeast Asia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated means of 21.6 billion barrels of oil and 299 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 22 provinces of southeast Asia.

  7. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  8. Climate change and postglacial human dispersals in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Soares, Pedro; Trejaut, Jean Alain; Loo, Jun-Hun; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Lee, Chien-Liang; Chen, Yao-Ming; Hudjashov, Georgi; Forster, Peter; Macaulay, Vincent; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Lin, Marie; Richards, Martin B

    2008-06-01

    Modern humans have been living in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) for at least 50,000 years. Largely because of the influence of linguistic studies, however, which have a shallow time depth, the attention of archaeologists and geneticists has usually been focused on the last 6,000 years--in particular, on a proposed Neolithic dispersal from China and Taiwan. Here we use complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequencing to spotlight some earlier processes that clearly had a major role in the demographic history of the region but have hitherto been unrecognized. We show that haplogroup E, an important component of mtDNA diversity in the region, evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years and expanded dramatically throughout ISEA around the beginning of the Holocene, at the time when the ancient continent of Sundaland was being broken up into the present-day archipelago by rising sea levels. It reached Taiwan and Near Oceania more recently, within the last approximately 8,000 years. This suggests that global warming and sea-level rises at the end of the Ice Age, 15,000-7,000 years ago, were the main forces shaping modern human diversity in the region. PMID:18359946

  9. In the line of fire: the peatlands of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Page, S E; Hooijer, A

    2016-06-01

    Peatlands are a significant component of the global carbon (C) cycle, yet despite their role as a long-term C sink throughout the Holocene, they are increasingly vulnerable to destabilization. Nowhere is this shift from sink to source happening more rapidly than in Southeast Asia, and nowhere else are the combined pressures of land-use change and fire on peatland ecosystem C dynamics more evident nor the consequences more apparent. This review focuses on the peatlands of this region, tracing the link between deforestation and drainage and accelerating C emissions arising from peat mineralization and fire. It focuses on the implications of the recent increase in fire occurrence for air quality, human health, ecosystem resilience and the global C cycle. The scale and controls on peat-driven C emissions are addressed, noting that although fires cause large, temporary peaks in C flux to the atmosphere, year-round emissions from peat mineralization are of a similar magnitude. The review concludes by advocating land management options to reduce future fire risk as part of wider peatland management strategies, while also proposing that this region's peat fire dynamic could become increasingly relevant to northern peatlands in a warming world.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216508

  10. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction. PMID:12307191

  11. Emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Dash, A P; Bhatia, Rajesh; Sunyoto, Temmy; Mourya, D T

    2013-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have become significant public health problems, with the emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases nearly worldwide. The most populated Southeast Asia region is particularly vulnerable. The arboviral diseases such as dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya fever (CHIK), hemorrhagic fevers such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic (CCHF) fever, Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), etc. are on the rise and have spread unprecedentedly, causing considerable burden of disease. The emergence/re-emergence of these diseases is associated with complex factors, such as viral recombination and mutation, leading to more virulent and adaptive strains, urbanization and human activities creating more permissive environment for vector-host interaction, and increased air travel and commerce. Climate is a major factor in determining the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods, the characteristics of arthropod life cycles, the consequent dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses, the evolution of arboviruses; and the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. The present and future arboviral threats must be mitigated by priority actions such as improving surveillance and outbreak response, establishing collaboration and communication intersectorally, and strengthening the prevention and control programmes along with improving biosafety aspects with regards to highly infectious nature of these arboviral diseases. Evidence from research needs to be generated and priority areas for research defined. PMID:23995308

  12. Women's cardiovascular health: perspectives from South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Rajadurai, Jeyamalar; Lopez, Eleanor A; Rahajoe, Anna Ulfah; Goh, Ping Ping; Uboldejpracharak, Yingnoi; Zambahari, Robaayah

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented. PMID:22525668

  13. Predawn plasma bubble cluster observed in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Tsunoda, Roland; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Supnithi, Pornchai; Ishii, Mamoru; Yatini, Clara

    2016-06-01

    Predawn plasma bubble was detected as deep plasma depletion by GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) network and in situ measurement onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F15 (DMSPF15) satellite and was confirmed by sparse GPS network in Southeast Asia. In addition to the deep depletion, the GPS network revealed the coexisting submesoscale irregularities. A deep depletion is regarded as a primary bubble. Submesoscale irregularities are regarded as secondary bubbles. Primary bubble and secondary bubbles appeared together as a cluster with zonal wavelength of 50 km. An altitude of secondary bubbles happened to be lower than that of the primary bubble in the same cluster. The observed pattern of plasma bubble cluster is consistent with the simulation result of the recent high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model. This event is only a single event out of 76 satellite passes at nighttime during 3-25 March 2012 that significantly shows plasma depletion at plasma bubble wall. The inside structure of the primary bubble was clearly revealed from the in situ density data of DMSPF15 satellite and the ground-based GRBR total electron content.

  14. The Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2014-04-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of Southeast Asia have given rise to numerous controversies that include the accretionary history of Sundaland and the enigmatic tectonic origin of the proto-South China Sea. We assimilate a diversity of geological and geophysical observations into a new regional plate model, coupled to a global model, to address these debates. Our approach takes into account terrane suturing and accretion histories, the location of subducted slabs imaged in mantle tomography in order to constrain the evolution of regional subduction zones, as well as plausible absolute and relative plate velocities and tectonic driving mechanisms. We propose a scenario of rifting from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, driven by northward slab pull from north-dipping subduction of Tethyan crust beneath Eurasia, to detach East Java, Mangkalihat, southeast Borneo and West Sulawesi blocks that collided with a Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zone in the mid-Cretaceous and subsequently accreted to the Sunda margin (i.e., southwest Borneo core) in the Late Cretaceous. In accounting for the evolution of plate boundaries, we propose that the Philippine Sea plate originated on the periphery of Tethyan crust forming this northward conveyor. We implement a revised model for the Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zones to reconcile convergence rates, changes in volcanism and the obduction of ophiolites. In our model the northward margin of Greater India collides with the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc at ∼53 Ma, followed by continent-continent collision closing the Shyok and Indus-Tsangpo suture zones between ∼42 and 34 Ma. We also account for the back-arc opening of the proto-South China Sea from ∼65 Ma, consistent with extension along east Asia and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites presently found on the island of Mindoro. The related rifting likely detached the Semitau continental fragment from South China, which accreted to northern Borneo in

  15. The Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2013-08-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of Southeast Asia have given rise to numerous controversies which include the accretionary history of Sundaland and the enigmatic tectonic origin of the Proto South China Sea. We assimilate a diversity of geological and geophysical observations into a new regional plate model, coupled to a global model, to address these debates. Our approach takes into account terrane suturing and accretion histories, the location of subducted slabs imaged in mantle tomography in order to constrain the opening and closure history of paleo-ocean basins, as well as plausible absolute and relative plate velocities and tectonic driving mechanisms. We propose a scenario of rifting from northern Gondwana in the Late Jurassic, driven by northward slab pull, to detach East Java, Mangkalihat, southeast Borneo and West Sulawesi blocks that collided with a Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zone in the mid Cretaceous and subsequently accreted to the Sunda margin (i.e. southwest Borneo core) in the Late Cretaceous. In accounting for the evolution of plate boundaries, we propose that the Philippine Sea Plate originated on the periphery of Tethyan crust forming this northward conveyor. We implement a revised model for the Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zones to reconcile convergence rates, changes in volcanism and the obduction of ophiolites. In our model the northward margin of Greater India collides with the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc at ∼53 Ma, followed by continent-continent collision closing the Shyok and Indus-Tsangpo suture zones between ∼42 and 34 Ma. We also account for the back-arc opening of the Proto South China Sea from ∼65 Ma, consistent with extension along east Asia and the emplacement of supra-subduction zone ophiolites presently found on the island of Mindoro. The related rifting likely detached the Semitau continental fragment from east China, which accreted to northern Borneo in the mid Eocene, to account for the Sarawak Orogeny

  16. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  17. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Michael B; Mosites, Emily M; Tian, Mu; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Mokhdad, Ali H; Meller, Margaret; Ochiai, Rion L; Walson, Judd L

    2014-06-01

    Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of

  18. Estimating the Burden of Paratyphoid A in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Michael B.; Mosites, Emily M.; Tian, Mu; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Mokhdad, Ali H.; Meller, Margaret; Ochiai, Rion L.; Walson, Judd L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of

  19. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  20. Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rhett D; Sreekar, Rachakonda; Brodie, Jedediah F; Brook, Sarah; Luskin, Matthew; O'Kelly, Hannah; Rao, Madhu; Scheffers, Brett; Velho, Nandini

    2016-10-01

    Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting-tolerant species. To document hunting impacts on vertebrate populations regionally, we conducted an extensive literature review, including papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Evidence from multiple sites indicated animal populations declined precipitously across the region since approximately 1980, and many species are now extirpated from substantial portions of their former ranges. Hunting is by far the greatest immediate threat to the survival of most of the region's endangered vertebrates. Causes of recent overhunting include improved access to forests and markets, improved hunting technology, and escalating demand for wild meat, wildlife-derived medicinal products, and wild animals as pets. Although hunters often take common species, such as pigs or rats, for their own consumption, they take rarer species opportunistically and sell surplus meat and commercially valuable products. There is also widespread targeted hunting of high-value species. Consequently, as currently practiced, hunting cannot be considered sustainable anywhere in the region, and in most places enforcement of protected-area and protected-species legislation is weak. The international community's focus on cross-border trade fails to address overexploitation of wildlife because hunting and the sale of wild meat is largely a local issue and most of the harvest is consumed in villages, rural towns, and nearby cities. In addition to improved enforcement, efforts to engage hunters and manage wildlife populations through sustainable hunting practices are urgently needed. Unless there is a step change in efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation to sustainable levels, the

  1. The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Dylan; Horton, Susan; Siregar, Adiatma Yudistira Manogar; Pitriyan, Pipit; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mathisen, Roger; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Rudert, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Rates of exclusive breastfeeding are slowly increasing, but remain suboptimal globally despite the health and economic benefits. This study estimates the costs of not breastfeeding across seven countries in Southeast Asia and presents a cost-benefit analysis of a modeled comprehensive breastfeeding strategy in Viet Nam, based on a large programme. There have been very few such studies previously for low- and middle-income countries. The estimates used published data on disease prevalence and breastfeeding patterns for the seven countries, supplemented by information on healthcare costs from representative institutions. Modelling of costs of not breastfeeding used estimated effects obtained from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Modelling of cost-benefit for Viet Nam used programme data on costs combined with effects from a large-scale cluster randomized breastfeeding promotion intervention with controls. This study found that over 12 400 preventable child and maternal deaths per year in the seven countries could be attributed to inadequate breastfeeding. The economic benefits associated with potential improvements in cognition alone, through higher IQ and earnings, total $1.6 billion annually. The loss exceeds 0.5% of Gross National Income in the country with the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rate (Thailand). The potential savings in health care treatment costs ($0.3 billion annually) from reducing the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia could help offset the cost of breastfeeding promotion. Based on the data available and authors’ assumptions, investing in a national breastfeeding promotion strategy in Viet Nam could result in preventing 200 child deaths per year and generate monetary benefits of US$2.39 for every US$1, or a 139% return on investment. These encouraging results suggest that there are feasible and affordable opportunities to accelerate progress towards achieving the Global Nutrition Target for exclusive breastfeeding by 2025. PMID:27107295

  2. Economic and Disease Burden of Dengue in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Donald S.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Halasa, Yara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA). Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies. Methods and Findings We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources—surveillance data, World Health Organization (WHO), and published studies—and adjusted for underreporting using expansion factors from previous literature. We obtained unit costs per episode through a systematic literature review, and completed missing data using linear regressions. We excluded costs such as prevention and vector control, and long-term sequelae of dengue. Over the decade of 2001–2010, we obtained an annual average of 2.9 million (m) dengue episodes and 5,906 deaths. The annual economic burden (with 95% certainty levels) was US$950m (US$610m–US$1,384m) or about US$1.65 (US$1.06–US$2.41) per capita. The annual number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), based on the original 1994 definition, was 214,000 (120,000–299,000), which is equivalent to 372 (210–520) DALYs per million inhabitants. Conclusion Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in SEA with a DALY burden per million inhabitants in the region. This burden is higher than that of 17 other conditions, including Japanese encephalitis, upper respiratory infections, and hepatitis B. PMID:23437406

  3. Cloud Cover and Wildfire Variations in Vietnam and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasko, K.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring fires from space is constrained by cloud cover, particularly in tropical regions. Cloud cover-fire variations were assessed using the CERES SSF1Deg and MODIS active fire (MCD14ML) products in Vietnam and Southeast Asia. Twelve years (2003-2014) of data have been analyzed spatially and temporally at four spatial scales: a) country level; b). 1x1 degree scale; c). land cover type; d). regions. Country-level results suggested Vietnam having the highest monthly cloud cover (72.37%) followed by Cambodia (69.69%), Laos (67.64%), Thailand (67.58%), and Myanmar (59.90%). Strong negative correlation between cloud cover and MODIS active fires has been observed during the biomass burning months (Jan-Apr). Of the different countries, Vietnam also had the lowest monthly fire detections. Pixel by pixel spatial correlation at 1x1 degree suggested negative fire-cloud relationships over the Red River Delta of Vietnam, the forests of northern Laos, and agriculture-dominated peninsulas of Thailand and Myanmar. Among the different land cover types, the average monthly cloud cover varied between 64% - 66%. Further, results from daily data showed the Red River Delta to have consistently more cloud cover (20-40% more) than the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam, with fewer fire detections in the former than the latter. The study highlights potential fire under-detection due to clouds. Our results highlight spatial and temporal variations in cloud-fire relationships and the difficulty of using optical data for fire detection and characterization in persistently cloudy regions.

  4. Australia to fund HIV / AIDS projects in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    1994-12-19

    Australia will fund 23 new HIV-AIDS projects in Southeast Asian countries, the government announced. "Asia is predicted to be the major growth area for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections over the next decade, " Minister for Development Cooperation Gordon Bilney said. "These projects, worth some $4.35 million over three years, will help meet the challenge of preventing the spread of the disease in the region." The projects--in Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Cambodia--emphasize education and prevention activities as well as programs which focus on the care and support of people living with HIV, Bilney said. He also said a variety of Australian and overseas organizations will implement the projects, many of which will feature the significant involvement of communities at risk and people with HIV. "It is in keeping with the fundamental spirit of the aid program that we should seek to share this expertise with our neighbors in the region." Bilney said one Australian success story--the creative "Streetwize comics" (publications in Australia which help street kids and under privileged kids understand HIV/AIDS problems)--will be piloted in Vietnam in conjunction with the Vietnam Youth Federation. He said Vietnamese staff will be trained in the production of a series of bilingual mini-comics on HIV-AIDS prevention for youth. "This project will receive funding of $187,500 over three years," Bilney said. Bilney said the projects would help minimize the individual and social impact of the epidemic in the targeted countries. PMID:12288268

  5. Directory of Engineering Education Institutions: Africa, Asia, Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This directory presents data on 458 degree-awarding engineering education institutions in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Data include the general educational pattern of the country and specific institutional information such as: structure, staff, enrollment, research, specializations offered, address, academic period, admissions…

  6. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  7. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  8. Doctor-Patient Communication in Southeast Asia: A Different Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative…

  9. Rickettsial Infections in Southeast Asia: Implications for Local Populace and Febrile Returned Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W.; Murray, Ronan J.; Graves, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsial infections represent a major cause of non-malarial febrile illnesses among the residents of Southeast Asia and returned travelers from that region. There are several challenges in recognition, diagnosis, and management of rickettsioses endemic to Southeast Asia. This review focuses on the prevalent rickettsial infections, namely, murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi), scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae. Information on epidemiology and regional variance in the prevalence of rickettsial infections is analyzed. Clinical characteristics of main groups of rickettsioses, unusual presentations, and common pitfalls in diagnosis are further discussed. In particular, relevant epidemiologic and clinical aspects on emerging spotted fever group rickettsiae in the region, such as Rickettsia honei, R. felis, R. japonica, and R. helvetica, are presented. Furthermore, challenges in laboratory diagnosis and management aspects of rickettsial infections unique to Southeast Asia are discussed, and data on emerging resistance to antimicrobial drugs and treatment/prevention options are also reviewed. PMID:24957537

  10. Unravelling the Genetic History of Negritos and Indigenous Populations of Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Aghakhanian, Farhang; Yunus, Yushima; Naidu, Rakesh; Jinam, Timothy; Manica, Andrea; Hoh, Boon Peng; Phipps, Maude E.

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous populations of Malaysia known as Orang Asli (OA) show huge morphological, anthropological, and linguistic diversity. However, the genetic history of these populations remained obscure. We performed a high-density array genotyping using over 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in three major groups of Negrito, Senoi, and Proto-Malay. Structural analyses indicated that although all OA groups are genetically closest to East Asian (EA) populations, they are substantially distinct. We identified a genetic affinity between Andamanese and Malaysian Negritos which may suggest an ancient link between these two groups. We also showed that Senoi and Proto-Malay may be admixtures between Negrito and EA populations. Formal admixture tests provided evidence of gene flow between Austro-Asiatic-speaking OAs and populations from Southeast Asia (SEA) and South China which suggest a widespread presence of these people in SEA before Austronesian expansion. Elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD) and enriched homozygosity found in OAs reflect isolation and bottlenecks experienced. Estimates based on Ne and LD indicated that these populations diverged from East Asians during the late Pleistocene (14.5 to 8 KYA). The continuum in divergence time from Negritos to Senoi and Proto-Malay in combination with ancestral markers provides evidences of multiple waves of migration into SEA starting with the first Out-of-Africa dispersals followed by Early Train and subsequent Austronesian expansions. PMID:25877615

  11. Spatial genetic structure of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in mainland Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Thaung; Tun-Lin, Willoughby; Somboon, Pradya; Socheat, Duong; Setha, To; Min, Sein; Thaung, Sein; Anyaele, Okorie; De Silva, Babaranda; Chang, Moh Seng; Prakash, Anil; Linton, Yvonne; Walton, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes originated in Africa and are thought to have spread recently to Southeast Asia, where they are the major vector of dengue. Thirteen microsatellite loci were used to determine the genetic population structure of A. aegypti at a hierarchy of spatial scales encompassing 36 sites in Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand, and two sites in Sri Lanka and Nigeria. Low, but significant, genetic structuring was found at all spatial scales (from 5 to >2000 km) and significant F IS values indicated genetic structuring even within 500 m. Spatially dependent genetic-clustering methods revealed that although spatial distance plays a role in shaping larger-scale population structure, it is not the only factor. Genetic heterogeneity in major port cities and genetic similarity of distant locations connected by major roads, suggest that human transportation routes have resulted in passive long-distance migration of A. aegypti. The restricted dispersal on a small spatial scale will make localized control efforts and sterile insect technology effective for dengue control. Conversely, preventing the establishment of insecticide resistance genes or spreading refractory genes in a genetic modification strategy would be challenging. These effects on vector control will depend on the relative strength of the opposing effects of passive dispersal. PMID:25567928

  12. Unravelling the genetic history of Negritos and indigenous populations of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Aghakhanian, Farhang; Yunus, Yushima; Naidu, Rakesh; Jinam, Timothy; Manica, Andrea; Hoh, Boon Peng; Phipps, Maude E

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous populations of Malaysia known as Orang Asli (OA) show huge morphological, anthropological, and linguistic diversity. However, the genetic history of these populations remained obscure. We performed a high-density array genotyping using over 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in three major groups of Negrito, Senoi, and Proto-Malay. Structural analyses indicated that although all OA groups are genetically closest to East Asian (EA) populations, they are substantially distinct. We identified a genetic affinity between Andamanese and Malaysian Negritos which may suggest an ancient link between these two groups. We also showed that Senoi and Proto-Malay may be admixtures between Negrito and EA populations. Formal admixture tests provided evidence of gene flow between Austro-Asiatic-speaking OAs and populations from Southeast Asia (SEA) and South China which suggest a widespread presence of these people in SEA before Austronesian expansion. Elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD) and enriched homozygosity found in OAs reflect isolation and bottlenecks experienced. Estimates based on Ne and LD indicated that these populations diverged from East Asians during the late Pleistocene (14.5 to 8 KYA). The continuum in divergence time from Negritos to Senoi and Proto-Malay in combination with ancestral markers provides evidences of multiple waves of migration into SEA starting with the first Out-of-Africa dispersals followed by Early Train and subsequent Austronesian expansions. PMID:25877615

  13. Pollution monitoring in Southeast Asia using biomarkers in the mytilid mussel Perna viridis (Mytilidae: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S; Lam, P K S

    2005-01-01

    Mytilid mussels have been extensively used in marine pollution monitoring programmes in temperate regions of the world although widespread subtropical representatives such as Perna viridis have only comparatively recently been utilised to monitor the sublethal effects of pollution in Southeast Asia. P. viridis is considered a subtropical equivalent of the temperate Mytilus sp. and has considerable potential for pollution monitoring throughout its geographical range. This paper reviews the current status of biomarkers in P. viridis and provides some recommendations on biological-effects monitoring to facilitate the assessment of coastal pollution in Southeast Asia. PMID:15607786

  14. AB109. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT): differences in testing indications between the US and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Fosler, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Cell-free DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been validated as a screening test for certain fetal aneuploidy in high-risk women. High-risk indications include advanced maternal age (AMA), positive serum screen result, abnormal fetal ultrasound findings, and a previous affected pregnancy. However, recent studies show the effectiveness of NIPT in all pregnant women, regardless of risk. Determine if there are global differences in NIPT implementation between centers in Southeast Asia and the United States (US). Methods We queried the Illumina laboratory database for NIPT samples originating from Southeast Asian countries and the United States. The ordering providers had the option of specifying clinical indications for testing on the test requisition form (TRF). Indications included: AMA, abnormal ultrasound, positive serum screen, history of increased risk, or other. Samples were reviewed and classified into one of the five indications listed above or classified as “multiple indications” if more than one indication was selected; samples without an indication selected were excluded. Test indications were compared between the Southeast Asian and US cohorts. Results There was a significant difference in the test indications of the two cohorts (P<0.001). The majority of samples from the US had AMA as the indication (70.1%) vs. 47.0% in Southeast Asia samples. A positive serum screen was a more common indication in Southeast Asia (31.5%) than in the US (8.4%). More US (11.6%) than Southeast Asian (3.7%) samples specified an abnormal ultrasound as a test indication. “Other”, indicated in 7.4% of Southeast Asian samples and 0.6% of US samples, covered a range of indications detailed by providers, including maternal anxiety, borderline risk on serum screening, and late entry to prenatal care. Interestingly, maternal anxiety was more commonly listed for Southeast Asia (4.6%) than US (0.1%) samples. Conclusions This study

  15. Sustainability Issues of the Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific (AEESEAP) Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Nasrudin Abdul; Said, Suhana Mohd

    The Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific was established with the aim to improve the education of engineers and technologists in its member countries. This paper will give an overview of AEESEAP objectives and its current activities, coordinated by the current secretariat based in Malaysia. The main issue being dealt with throughout the existence of AEESEAP is the issue of sustainability of the association. This paper will highlight the objectives and current activities of AEESEAP, with regards to sustaining this association.

  16. Analysis of human infectious avian influenza virus: hemagglutinin genetic characteristics in Asia and Africa from 2004 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jirong; Lei, Fumin

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, we used nucleotide and protein sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1, which were obtained in Asia and Africa, analyzed HA proteins using ClustalX1.83 and MEGA4.0, and built a genetic evolutionary tree of HA nucleotides. The analysis revealed that the receptor specificity amino acid of A/HK/213/2003, A/Turkey/65596/2006 and etc mutated into QNG, which could bind with á-2, 3 galactose and á-2, 6 galactose. A mutation might thus take place and lead to an outbreak of human infections of avian influenza virus. The mutations of HA protein amino acids from 2004 to 2009 coincided with human infections provided by the World Health Organization, indicating a "low-high-highest-high-low" pattern. We also found out that virus strains in Asia are from different origins: strains from Southeast Asia and East Asia are of the same origin, whereas those from West Asia, South Asia and Africa descend from one ancestor. The composition of the phylogenetic tree and mutations of key site amino acids in HA proteins reflected the fact that the majority of strains are regional and long term, and virus diffusions exist between China, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iraq. We would advise that pertinent vaccines be developed and due attention be paid to the spread of viruses between neighboring countries and the dangers of virus mutation and evolution. PMID:21392344

  17. The Nature of Values Education in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray

    In recent years, concern in several Southeast Asian nations about the deterioration of values within their societies has resulted in renewed efforts to teach values by means of special courses in the schools. This paper compares the current programs of values education in four of the nations: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Phillipines, and Singapore.…

  18. Development Planning in Southeast Asia: Role of the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoong, Yip Yat, Ed.

    The first volume in a series of three, this report relates the in-depth studies of development planning in four Southeast Asian countries: Singapore, Malaysia, South Vietnam, and the Philippines. The studies examined the ways in which universities are assisting and can assist more in the formulation and implementation of national development plans…

  19. Simulation of surface temperature in Southeast Asia during the Southeast Asian southwest monsoon using RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jing Xiang; Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tay, Tze Wei; Liew, Ju Neng; Tangang, Fredolin

    2015-09-01

    The performance of RegCM4 in simulating the surface temperature in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the Southeast Asian southwest monsoon using six different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs) was assessed in this study using the model output from the Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling/ Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment Southeast Asia (SEACLID/CORDEX-SEA) project. The simulated surface temperatures were evaluated against the surface temperature from the CRU observation dataset from year 1990 to 2008. The assessment shows that all the simulations produced an overall cold bias in SEA. The cold bias is the strongest in the mountain region of west Papua, followed by that over the north-eastern region of Thailand. Generally, the cold bias over the maritime continent is found to be much weaker compared to that of Indo-China mainland. As the bias is not unique to any simulations, the bias simulated is not very much CPSs dependence. It is also noticed that the model has the tendency to underestimate the maximum surface temperature (Tmax) explaining the systematic cold bias produced by the model. Also, the model tends to overestimate the minimum surface temperature (Tmin). The overestimation of Tmin is slightly higher over the maritime continent, explaining the weaker cold bias in surface temperature observed over that area. Through assessing the simulations bias and the simulated spatial pattern agreement, we noticed that the reasonable choice of CPS to be used has to have Emanuel set on land when the simulation of southwest monsoon surface temperature is concerned. Nevertheless, the ensemble standard deviation calculated across all the simulations reveals that th e surface temperature over SEA is less sensitive to the choice of CPS used, especially at the maritime continent. Comparatively, the surface temperature over Indo-China mainland is more sensitive to the choice of CPS used.

  20. Synthetic Aperture Radar (sar) and Optical Imagery Data Fusion: Crop Yield Analysis in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    With the expanding energy crisis and rising food prices, crop yield analysis in Southeast Asia is an increasingly important topic in this region. Rice is the most important food crop in Southeast Asia and the ability to accurately predict crop yields during a growing season is useful for decision-makers, aid providers, and commercial trade organizations. The use of optical satellite image data by itself is difficult due to the almost constant cloud in many parts of Southeast Asia. However, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or SAR data, which can image the Earth's surface through cloud cover, is suitable for many agricultural purposes, such as the detection of rice fields, and the identification of different crop species. Crop yield analysis is difficult in this region due to many factors. Rice cropping systems are often characterized by the type of rice planted, the size of rice field, the sowing dates for different fields, different types of rice cropping systems from one area to another, as well as cultural practices such as sowing and transplanting. This paper will discuss the use of SAR data fused with optical imagery to improve the ability to perform crop yield analysis on rice crops in Southeast Asia.

  1. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Daniel R.; Friess, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation. PMID:26712025

  2. Strategy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in Southeast Asia (SEAFMD).

    PubMed

    Edwards, J R

    2004-01-01

    The OIE Southeast Asia Foot-and-Mouth Disease Campaign (SEAFMD) involves the coordinated control of foot-and-mouth disease by eight of the ASEAN countries. A long term vision for SEAFMD has been developed and the core element is a progressive zoning approach to the control and eradication of FMD in the region. This paper describes the current status of FMD in Southeast Asia and progress towards achievement of OIE free zone status for FMD in parts of the Philippines and Malaysia and the initiation of the Malaysia-Thailand-Myanmar (MTM) Peninsular Campaign for FMD Freedom. In mainland Southeast Asia, the progressive zoning approach involves several sub-regional groups working in parallel to oversee the epidemiological and economic studies required to determine the feasibility of the approach. Areas involved include the Lower Mekong Basin, Upper Mekong Basin, parts of Myanmar and the Red River Delta of Vietnam. The paper describes the current usage of vaccines for FMD in Southeast Asia and provides recommendations for their supply and use in the new regional initiatives. PMID:15742655

  3. The Powers of the Feminine. Sacred Images of India and Southeast Asia. Teacher's Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    Sacred women have been portrayed throughout the history of India and Southeast Asia. Some were depicted as consorts to the Hindu gods and regarded as the necessary force that activates male energy. Other images arose out of local fertility cults and represented uncontrolled feminine energy that could be terrifying in aspect. The calmer Buddhist…

  4. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  5. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  6. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2016-01-12

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation. PMID:26712025

  7. Collections Care in Southeast Asia: Conservation and the Need for the Creation of Micro-Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, John F.

    For a variety of reasons, collection care in Southeast Asia, especially in the northern regions, is fraught with many difficult challenges. Climates that are unfriendly to paper-based materials, poor economies, war, and civil unrest, are just a few of the reasons that librarians and archivists find it extremely difficult to ensure the survival of…

  8. Chinese Dialects in Southeast Asia. Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 7 No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leok Har Chan

    This paper discusses the dialects of the Chinese people who have settled in various countries of Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Burma, Thailand, Laos, North and South Vietnam, and the Khmer Republic. Data are first given regarding the area in general. The data are then broken down according to individual…

  9. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nghiem, Le T. P.; Soliman, Tarek; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Tan, Hugh T. W.; Evans, Theodore A.; Mumford, John D.; Keller, Reuben P.; Baker, Richard H. A.; Corlett, Richard T.; Carrasco, Luis R.

    2013-01-01

    Harmful non-indigenous species (NIS) impose great economic and environmental impacts globally, but little is known about their impacts in Southeast Asia. Lack of knowledge of the magnitude of the problem hinders the allocation of appropriate resources for NIS prevention and management. We used benefit-cost analysis embedded in a Monte-Carlo simulation model and analysed economic and environmental impacts of NIS in the region to estimate the total burden of NIS in Southeast Asia. The total annual loss caused by NIS to agriculture, human health and the environment in Southeast Asia is estimated to be US$33.5 billion (5th and 95th percentile US$25.8–39.8 billion). Losses and costs to the agricultural sector are estimated to be nearly 90% of the total (US$23.4–33.9 billion), while the annual costs associated with human health and the environment are US$1.85 billion (US$1.4–2.5 billion) and US$2.1 billion (US$0.9–3.3 billion), respectively, although these estimates are based on conservative assumptions. We demonstrate that the economic and environmental impacts of NIS in low and middle-income regions can be considerable and that further measures, such as the adoption of regional risk assessment protocols to inform decisions on prevention and control of NIS in Southeast Asia, could be beneficial. PMID:23951120

  10. Serial Murder in Southeast Asia: Collecting and Preserving Serials in Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Carol L.

    This paper surveys the loss of important serials from and about Southeast Asia. At risk titles are described, including statistical serials, publications of regional presses, minority language magazines, science and technology journals, political and non-governmental organization publications, popular or mass press publications, women's magazines,…

  11. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  12. High resolution population distribution maps for Southeast Asia in 2010 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Andrea E; Stevens, Forrest R; Linard, Catherine; Jia, Peng; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Spatially accurate, contemporary data on human population distributions are vitally important to many applied and theoretical researchers. The Southeast Asia region has undergone rapid urbanization and population growth over the past decade, yet existing spatial population distribution datasets covering the region are based principally on population count data from censuses circa 2000, with often insufficient spatial resolution or input data to map settlements precisely. Here we outline approaches to construct a database of GIS-linked circa 2010 census data and methods used to construct fine-scale (∼100 meters spatial resolution) population distribution datasets for each country in the Southeast Asia region. Landsat-derived settlement maps and land cover information were combined with ancillary datasets on infrastructure to model population distributions for 2010 and 2015. These products were compared with those from two other methods used to construct commonly used global population datasets. Results indicate mapping accuracies are consistently higher when incorporating land cover and settlement information into the AsiaPop modelling process. Using existing data, it is possible to produce detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for Southeast Asia. The 2010 and 2015 datasets produced are freely available as a product of the AsiaPop Project and can be downloaded from: www.asiapop.org. PMID:23418469

  13. Linking Young Astronomers in Southeast Asia: The SEAYAC Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisio Sese, Rogel Mari

    2015-08-01

    The importance of involving young astronomers in developing astronomy cannot be overemphasized. This is very much true in areas where astronomy is still an emerging and minor field, such as in the Southeast Asian (SEA) region. However, recent years have seen a sudden spark of interest in developing professional astronomy within SEA, primarily for young astronomers and students. This was especially highlighted during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy. In this presentation, we introduce the Southeast Asian Young Astronomers Collaboration (SEAYAC), a recently formed organization that aims to provide a venue for professional and personal interaction for young astronomers in the SEA region. Here we present the background and rationale behind the formation of SEAYAC, its current status as well as planned future activities aimed at developing collaborations between young astronomers in the SEA region. We will also discuss the problems and challenges being faced by SEAYAC as well as its future plan of actions.

  14. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44–0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while

  15. A Bibliography of the Hmong (Miao) of Southeast Asia and the Hmong Refugees in the United States. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers Number One. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olney, Douglas P., Comp.

    This bibliography on the Hmong and related Southeast Asian peoples is divided into 11 sections: (1) general works on Southeast Asia; (2) general Hmong ethnography; (3) specific aspects of Hmong ethnography, including kinship and social organization, cultural ecology, ecomomics and material culture, and religion, ritual and folklore; (4) linguistic…

  16. Stone artifacts and hominins in island Southeast Asia: new insights from Flores, eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark W; Brumm, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This study reexamines the current understanding of Pleistocene stone-artifact assemblages in island Southeast Asia. A differentiation has long been made between assemblages of large-sized "core tools" and assemblages of small-sized "flake tools." "Core tool" assemblages are often argued to be the handiwork of early hominin species such as Homo erectus, while small-sized "flake tool" assemblages have been attributed to Homo sapiens. We argue that this traditional Southeast Asian perspective on stone tools assumes that the artifacts recovered from a site reflect a complete technological sequence. Our analyses of Pleistocene-age artifact assemblages from Flores, Indonesia, demonstrate that large pebble-based cores and small flake-based cores are aspects of one reduction sequence. We propose that the Flores pattern applies across island Southeast Asia: large-sized "core tool" assemblages are in fact a missing element of the small-sized flake-based reduction sequences found in many Pleistocene caves and rock-shelters. We conclude by discussing the implications of this for associating stone-artifact assemblages with hominin species in island Southeast Asia. PMID:17069874

  17. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  18. Change in tropical forest cover of Southeast Asia from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stibig, H.-J.; Achard, F.; Carboni, S.; Raši, R.; Miettinen, J.

    2014-01-01

    The study assesses the extent and trends of forest cover in Southeast Asia for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2010 and provides an overview on the main causes of forest cover change. A systematic sample of 418 sites (10 km × 10 km size) located at the one-degree geographical confluence points and covered with satellite imagery of 30 m resolution is used for the assessment. Techniques of image segmentation and automated classification are combined with visual satellite image interpretation and quality control, involving forestry experts from Southeast Asian countries. The accuracy of our results is assessed through an independent consistency assessment, performed from a subsample of 1572 mapping units and resulting in an overall agreement of >85% for the general differentiation of forest cover versus non-forest cover. The total forest cover of Southeast Asia is estimated at 268 Mha in 1990, dropping to 236 Mha in 2010, with annual change rates of 1.75 Mha (∼0.67%) and 1.45 Mha (∼0.59%) for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2010, respectively. The vast majority of forest cover loss (∼2 / 3 for 2000-2010) occurred in insular Southeast Asia. Complementing our quantitative results by indicative information on patterns and on processes of forest change, obtained from the screening of satellite imagery and through expert consultation, respectively, confirms the conversion of forest to cash crops plantations (including oil palm) as the main cause of forest loss in Southeast Asia. Logging and the replacement of natural forests by forest plantations are two further important change processes in the region.

  19. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. PMID:21269674

  20. Change in tropical forest cover of Southeast Asia from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stibig, H.-J.; Achard, F.; Carboni, S.; Raši, R.; Miettinen, J.

    2013-08-01

    The study assesses the extent and trends of forest cover in Southeast Asia for the period 1990-2000-2010 and provides an overview on the main drivers of forest cover change. A systematic sample of 418 sites (10 km × 10 km size) located at the one-degree geographical confluence points and covered with satellite imagery of 30 m resolution is used for the assessment. Techniques of image segmentation and automated classification are combined with visual satellite image interpretation and quality control, involving forestry experts from Southeast Asian countries. The accuracy of our results is assessed through an independent consistency assessment, performed from a subsample of 1572 mapping units and resulting in an overall agreement of > 85% for the general differentiation of forest cover vs. non-forest cover. The total forest cover of Southeast Asia is estimated at 268 Mha in 1990, dropping to 236 Mha in 2010, with annual change rates of 1.75 Mha (~0.67% and 1.45 Mha (~0.59%) for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2010, respectively. The vast majority of forest cover loss (~2/3 for 2000-2010) occurred in insular Southeast Asia. Combining the change patterns visible from satellite imagery with the output of an expert consultation on the main drivers of forest change highlights the high pressure on the region's remaining forests. The conversion of forest cover to cash crop plantations (e.g. oil palm) is ranked as the dominant driver of forest change in Southeast Asia, followed by selective logging and the establishment of tree plantations.

  1. The Need for More Earthquake Science in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions within SE Asia have as great a density of active seismic structures as does the western US - Sumatra, Myanmar, Bangladesh, New Guinea and the Philippines come first to mind. Much of Earth's release of seismic energy in the current millennium has, in fact, come from these regions, with great losses of life and livelihoods. Unfortunately, the scientific progress upon which seismic-risk reduction in SE Asia ultimately depends has been and continues to be slow. Last year at AGU, for example, I counted 57 talks about the M6 Napa earthquake. In contrast, I can't recall hearing any talk on a SE Asian M6 earthquake at any venue in the past many years. In fact, even M7+ earthquakes often go unstudied. Not uncommonly, the region's earthquake scientists face high financial and political impediments to conducting earthquake research. Their slow speed in the development of scientific knowledge doesn't bode well for speedy progress in the science of seismic hazards, the sine qua non for substantially reducing seismic risk. There are two basic necessities for the region to evolve significantly from the current state of affairs. Both involve the development of regional infrastructure: 1) Data: Robust and accessible geophysical monitoring systems would need to be installed, maintained and utilized by the region's earth scientists and their results shared internationally. Concomitantly, geological mapping (sensu lato) would need to be undertaken. 2) People: The training, employment, and enduring support of a new, young, international corps of earth scientists would need to accelerate markedly. The United States could play an important role in achieving the goal of significant seismic risk reduction in the most seismically active countries of SE Asia by taking the lead in establishing a coalition to robustly fund a multi-decadal program that supports scientists and their research institutions to work alongside local expertise.

  2. A Regional Decision Support Scheme for Pest Risk Analysis in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Soliman, T; MacLeod, A; Mumford, J D; Nghiem, T P L; Tan, H T W; Papworth, S K; Corlett, R T; Carrasco, L R

    2016-05-01

    A key justification to support plant health regulations is the ability of quarantine services to conduct pest risk analyses (PRA). Despite the supranational nature of biological invasions and the close proximity and connectivity of Southeast Asian countries, PRAs are conducted at the national level. Furthermore, some countries have limited experience in the development of PRAs, which may result in inadequate phytosanitary responses that put their plant resources at risk to pests vectored via international trade. We review existing decision support schemes for PRAs and, following international standards for phytosanitary measures, propose new methods that adapt existing practices to suit the unique characteristics of Southeast Asia. Using a formal written expert elicitation survey, a panel of regional scientific experts was asked to identify and rate unique traits of Southeast Asia with respect to PRA. Subsequently, an expert elicitation workshop with plant protection officials was conducted to verify the potential applicability of the developed methods. Rich biodiversity, shortage of trained personnel, social vulnerability, tropical climate, agriculture-dependent economies, high rates of land-use change, and difficulties in implementing risk management options were identified as challenging Southeast Asian traits. The developed methods emphasize local Southeast Asian conditions and could help support authorities responsible for carrying out PRAs within the region. These methods could also facilitate the creation of other PRA schemes in low- and middle-income tropical countries. PMID:26919665

  3. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers. PMID:26269489

  4. A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stibig, H.-J.; Belward, A.S.; Roy, P.S.; Rosalina-Wasrin, U.; Agrawal, S.; Joshi, P.K.; Hildanus; Beuchle, R.; Fritz, S.; Mubareka, S.; Giri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to produce a uniform 'regional' land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia based on 'sub-regional' mapping results generated in the context of the Global Land Cover 2000 project. Location: The 'region' of tropical and sub-tropical South and Southeast Asia stretches from the Himalayas and the southern border of China in the north, to Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south, and from Pakistan in the west to the islands of New Guinea in the far east. Methods: The regional land-cover map is based on sub-regional digital mapping results derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data for the years 1998-2000. Image processing, digital classification and thematic mapping were performed separately for the three sub-regions of South Asia, continental Southeast Asia, and insular Southeast Asia. Landsat TM images, field data and existing national maps served as references. We used the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for coding the sub-regional land-cover classes and for aggregating the latter to a uniform regional legend. A validation was performed based on a systematic grid of sample points, referring to visual interpretation from high-resolution Landsat imagery. Regional land-cover area estimates were obtained and compared with FAO statistics for the categories 'forest' and 'cropland'. Results: The regional map displays 26 land-cover classes. The LCCS coding provided a standardized class description, independent from local class names; it also allowed us to maintain the link to the detailed sub-regional land-cover classes. The validation of the map displayed a mapping accuracy of 72% for the dominant classes of 'forest' and 'cropland'; regional area estimates for these classes correspond reasonably well to existing regional statistics. Main conclusions: The land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia provides a synoptic view of the distribution of land cover of tropical and sub-tropical Asia, and it delivers

  5. New Mycomya species from South-East Asia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) .

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are revised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia. PMID:24943632

  6. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  7. On mobility and fertility transitions in east and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between fertility and mobility is examined with reference to Zelinsky's [1971] mobility transition hypothesis. Five Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, China) at different stages of development and mobility transition are compared with respect to shifting sectoral patterns of migration and changing levels of fertility. National trends suggest that the development sequence proposed by Zelinsky on the basis of the European experience does not generally apply to Asia. In four out of five cases examined, fertility declined before substantial urbanization took place. Zelinsky's sequence of mobility change should be modified to fit the experience of developing countries, but the importance of the interrelations hip between fertility decline and mobility change remains PMID:12343909

  8. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  9. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  10. The forest products industry in southeast Asia: An emphasis on Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, E.T. . School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries); Atmawidjaja, R. . Faculty of Forestry); Achmadi, S.S. . Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science)

    1993-05-01

    Wood production has increased rapidly in Southeast Asia in recent years. Harvesting intensity has also increased dramatically. To such an extent that the destruction of the tropical rainforest is of great concern to many people. This paper discusses the forest resources of three major wood-producing countries of Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and the utilization of these resources in world markets. Because Indonesia is now the largest timber producer in the region, special emphasis is placed on the development of its forest products industry. Concern for the tropical forest and the effect of sustainable forestry development on the growth of the forest products industry, the economy, and the social environment are discussed.

  11. Orbital remote sensing - Space technology applications in south-east Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J.-P.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of remote sensing techniques in the developing countries of southeast Asia is reviewed. The use of the images for monitoring soil, water, and vegetation resources, in order to develop a national policy for conservation of the resources, is described. The remote sensing data are helpful in observing deforestation in southeast Asia; however, excessive cloud coverage does not allow accurate evaluation of the rice crop. The effects of the capabilities of the developing countries to process the data and remote sensing program of industrial countries on the future application of satellite imagery in developing countries are studied. The need for improved data banking and dissemination of the imagery is analyzed. Agreements on proprietary rights due to the improved ground resolution of orbital sensors are required. The designing of remote sensing equipment to meet the requirements of its users is discussed.

  12. Occurrence of and risk factors for Strongyloides stercoralis infection in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Vounatsou, Penelope; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The soil-transmitted nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis is one of the most-neglected of all neglected tropical diseases. It is globally distributed, favouring the humid, wet climates of the tropics and subtropics. Inadequate sanitary conditions promote the spread of S. stercoralis infection. In South-East Asia, many countries provide the ideal ecological and economic setting for high S. stercoralis infection rates. Yet, in most of these countries, little is known about the actual prevalence and distribution of S. stercoralis. One reason for this lack of knowledge pertains to the time- and resource-intensive diagnostic methods used to detect S. stercoralis infection. The Koga Agar culture method and the Baermann method are considered to be the best coprological diagnostic methods for field settings today. Both detect the parasite with high sensitivity. This sensitivity can be increased further by examining stool samples for several consecutive days, thereby increasing the chances of detecting low-intensity chronic infections. Diagnostic challenges, however, lead to the omission of S. stercoralis in studies of soil-transmitted helminths and few studies focus on S. stercoralis, specifically. These factors lead to an underreporting of the nematode's prevalence, not only in South-East Asia but worldwide. We have reviewed the scientific literature of the last 25 years and estimated country-wide prevalence rates for South-East Asia. We aim to summarise what is known today about the prevalence of S. stercoralis in South-East Asia, as well as to ascertain the risk factors and diagnostic methods most commonly applied. PMID:25795619

  13. Contracting private hospitals: experiences from Southeast and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Herberholz, Chantal; Supakankunti, Siripen

    2015-03-01

    In resource-scarce settings governments have increasingly looked at ways of engaging the private sector in achieving national health system goals. This study is a comparative analysis of institutional contracting for hospital services in three southeast and east Asian countries, namely Thailand, the Philippines and South Korea. In addition, the case of Singapore, where public hospitals are corporatized, is reviewed. Primary data were collected through in-depth-interviews and analysed under a triangulation approach. Institutional contracting is only used in three out of four countries. In these three countries, institutional contracting inter alia aims at increasing access to hospital services, although the scale of private hospital participation depends on contextual factors. Neither strategic provider selection mechanisms nor a preferred provider system is part of the institutional contracting models reviewed. In Thailand and the Philippines, performance-based rewards or sanctions have played a limited role so far and there is relatively little dialogue between contract parties, indicating that the contracting tool has not been used to the fullest extent possible and suggesting that capacity development especially regarding contract and relationship management is needed. Although there is virtually no information available about the cost of contracting, the findings of this study suggest that the potential of institutional contracting arrangements should be explored further to improve health system outcomes and thereby support countries in their quest for universal health coverage. PMID:25576007

  14. Timing of Cenozoic Basin Formation in Northern Sundaland, Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, K.K. )

    1994-07-01

    The present shorelines of northern Sundaland show preferential northwest-southeast elongation. This trend is parallel for subparallel to major faults and suture in this region. Continental wrench/shear basins developed on the western portion of this region and back-arc basins developed on the western portion of this region and back-arc basins in the rest of the region are also aligned to this trend. Different basin geometries and structural patterns among Cenozoic basins in northern Sundaland indicate different origins and/or timing of basin formation. Wrench faulting has played a significant role in the formation of these Cenozoic basins. The continued collision of the Indian subplate with the Eurasian plate during early Cenozoic has caused a redistribution of stress within this region. Zones of weakness have been reactivated or created with large lateral displacements by these changes, thus initiating the subsidence of these basins. The episodic initiation of Cenozoic basins may have begun as early as Jurassic and continued till Oligocene.

  15. Study provides data on active plate tectonics in southeast Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, P.; Rais, J.; Reigber, Ch.; Reinhart, E.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Le Pichon, X.; Kasser, M.; Suharto, P.; Majid, Dato'Abdul; Yaakub, Dato'Paduka Awang Haji Othman Bin Haji; Almeda, R.; Boonphakdee, C.

    A major geodynamic study has provided significant new information about the location of active plate boundaries in and around Southeast Asia, as well as deformation processes in the Sulawesi region of Indonesia and tectonic activity in the Philippine archipelago. Results also have confirmed the existence of the so-called Sunda Block, which appears to be rotating with respect to adjacent plates.The study, known as the Geodynamics of South and South-East Asia (GEODYSSEA) project, has been a joint venture of the European Commission and the Association of South- East Asian Nations. It began in 1991 and involved a large team of European and Asian scientists and technicians studying the complex geodynamic processes and natural hazards of the region from the Southeast Asia mainland to the Philippines to northern Australia. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and tectonically induced landslides endanger the lives of millions of people in the region, and the tectonic activity behind these natural hazards results from the convergence and collision of the Eurasian, Philippine, and Indo-Australian Plates at relative velocities of up to 10 cm per year.

  16. A review of the pleasing lacewing genus Dilar Rambur (Neuroptera, Dilaridae) from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xingyue; Winterton, Shaun L; Aspöck, Horst; Aspöck, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The lacewing family Dilaridae (pleasing lacewings) is poorly known in Southeast Asia, currently with only five described species. In this paper, we provide a revision of the species of the genus Dilar Rambur, 1838 from Southeast Asia. Eleven species of Dilar are recorded in this region, with seven species herein described as new to science, i.e. Dilar abnormis Zhang, Liu & Winterton, sp. nov., Dilar lineatus Zhang, Liu & Winterton, sp. nov., Dilar loeinensis Zhang, Liu, Winterton, sp. nov., Dilar ohli Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck, sp. nov., Dilar rotundatus Zhang, Liu & Winterton, sp. nov., Dilar sumatranus Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck, sp. nov., and Dilar zimmermannae Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck, sp. nov. Re-descriptions of Dilar grandis (Banks, 1931), and Dilar marmoratus (Banks, 1931) are also provided. Dilaridae are recorded in Indonesia (Sumatra), Myanmar, and northern Thailand for the first time. A key to the Dilar species from Southeast Asia is given. PMID:27394768

  17. Pyogenic liver abscess: Differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes, when possible, play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology. In this article, we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications. Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA), there are clear differences in the microbiological spectrum, which implies different risk factors and disease courses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PLA is predominantly seen in Southeast Asia, whereas, in Central Europe, PLA is typically caused by Escherichia coli, Streptococcus or Staphylococcus, and these patients are more likely to be older and to have a biliary abnormality or malignancy. K. pneumoniae patients are more likely to have diabetes mellitus. Control of septic spread is crucial in K. pneumoniae patients, whereas treatment of the underlying diseases is decisive in many Central European PLA patients. PMID:20503444

  18. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik; Norhana Selamat, Siti; Hanif Abd Rashid, Muhammad; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Jamian, Saifulnizan; Chee Kiong, Sia; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    Southeast Asia is a standout amongst the most presented districts to unnatural weather change dangers even they are not principle worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) maker, its discharge will get to be significant if there is no move made. CO2 wellsprings of Southeast Asia are mainly by fossil fuel through era of power and warmth generation, and also transportation part. The endeavors taken by these nations can be ordered into administrative and local level. This paper review the potential for carbon catch and capacity (CCS) as a part of the environmental change moderation system for the Malaysian power area utilizing an innovation appraisal structure. The country's recorded pattern of high dependence on fossil fuel for its power segment makes it a prime possibility for CCS reception. This issue leads to gradual increment of CO2 emission. It is evident from this evaluation that CCS can possibly assume a vital part in Malaysia's environmental change moderation methodology gave that key criteria are fulfilled. With the reason to pick up considerations from all gatherings into the earnestness of an Earth-wide temperature boost issue in Southeast Asia, assume that more efficient measures can be taken to effectively accomplish CO2 diminishment target.

  19. Micronutrient Fortification of Food in Southeast Asia: Recommendations from an Expert Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Gayer, Justine; Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies remain a significant public health issue in Southeast Asia, particularly in vulnerable populations, such as women of reproductive age and young children. An important nutrition-specific intervention to address micronutrient malnutrition is fortification of staple foods and condiments. In October 2013, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Southeast Asia Region held a workshop on micronutrient fortification of food in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective was to engage multiple stakeholders in a discussion on food fortification and its importance as a public health intervention in Southeast Asia, and to identify and address key challenges/gaps in and potential opportunities for fortification of foods in ASEAN countries. Key challenges that were identified include: “scaling up” and mobilizing sustainable support for fortification programs in the form of multi-stakeholder partnerships, effecting policy change to support mandatory fortification, long-term monitoring of the programs’ compliance and efficacy in light of limited resources, and increasing awareness and uptake of fortified products through social marketing campaigns. Future actions recommended include the development of terms of engagement and governance for multi-stakeholder partnerships, moving towards a sustainable business model and more extensive monitoring, both for effectiveness and efficacy and for enforcement of fortification legislation. PMID:25608937

  20. Micronutrient fortification of food in Southeast Asia: recommendations from an expert workshop.

    PubMed

    Gayer, Justine; Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies remain a significant public health issue in Southeast Asia, particularly in vulnerable populations, such as women of reproductive age and young children. An important nutrition-specific intervention to address micronutrient malnutrition is fortification of staple foods and condiments. In October 2013, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Southeast Asia Region held a workshop on micronutrient fortification of food in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective was to engage multiple stakeholders in a discussion on food fortification and its importance as a public health intervention in Southeast Asia, and to identify and address key challenges/gaps in and potential opportunities for fortification of foods in ASEAN countries. Key challenges that were identified include: "scaling up" and mobilizing sustainable support for fortification programs in the form of multi-stakeholder partnerships, effecting policy change to support mandatory fortification, long-term monitoring of the programs' compliance and efficacy in light of limited resources, and increasing awareness and uptake of fortified products through social marketing campaigns. Future actions recommended include the development of terms of engagement and governance for multi-stakeholder partnerships, moving towards a sustainable business model and more extensive monitoring, both for effectiveness and efficacy and for enforcement of fortification legislation. PMID:25608937

  1. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  2. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  3. Y chromosome analysis of dingoes and southeast asian village dogs suggests a neolithic continental expansion from Southeast Asia followed by multiple Austronesian dispersals.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brown, Sarah K; Stephens, Danielle; Pedersen, Niels C; Wu, Jui-Te; Berry, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    Dogs originated more than 14,000 BP, but the location(s) where they first arose is uncertain. The earliest archeological evidence of ancient dogs was discovered in Europe and the Middle East, some 5-7 millennia before that from Southeast Asia. However, mitochondrial DNA analyses suggest that most modern dogs derive from Southeast Asia, which has fueled the controversial hypothesis that dog domestication originated in this region despite the lack of supporting archeological evidence. We propose and investigate with Y chromosomes an alternative hypothesis for the proximate origins of dogs from Southeast Asia--a massive Neolithic expansion of dogs from this region that largely replaced more primitive dogs to the west and north. Previous attempts to test matrilineal findings with independent patrilineal markers have lacked the necessary genealogical resolution and mutation rate estimates. Here, we used Y chromosome genotypes, composed of 29 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and 5 single tandem repeats (STRs), from 338 Australian dingoes, New Guinea singing dogs, and village dogs from Island Southeast Asia, along with modern European breed dogs, to estimate the evolutionary mutation rates of Y chromosome STRs based on calibration to the independently known age of the dingo population. Dingoes exhibited a unique haplogroup characterized by a single distinguishing SNP mutation and 14 STR haplotypes. The age of the European haplogroup was estimated to be only 1.7 times older than that of the dingo population, suggesting an origin during the Neolithic rather than the Paleolithic (as predicted by the Southeast Asian origins hypothesis). We hypothesize that isolation of Neolithic dogs from wolves in Southeast Asia was a key step accelerating their phenotypic transformation, enhancing their value in trade and as cargo, and enabling them to rapidly expand and replace more primitive dogs to the West. Our findings also suggest that dingoes could have arrived in Australia

  4. Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the East Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in East Asia, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfall—the moisture flux convergence—over Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  5. Post-Jurassic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Seton, Maria; Dietmar Müller, R.; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The accretionary growth of Asia, linked to long-term convergence between Eurasia, Gondwana-derived blocks and the Pacific, resulted in a mosaic of terranes for which conflicting tectonic interpretations exist. Here, we propose solutions to a number of controversies related to the evolution of Sundaland through a synthesis of published geological data and plate reconstructions that reconcile both geological and geophysical constraints with plate driving forces. We propose that West Sulawesi, East Java and easternmost Borneo rifted from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, collided with an intra-oceanic arc at ~115 Ma and subsequently sutured to Sundaland by 80 Ma. Although recent models argue that the Southwest Borneo core accreted to Sundaland at this time, we use volcanic and biogeographic constraints to show that the core of Borneo was on the Asian margin since at least the mid Jurassic. This northward transfer of Gondwana-derived continental fragments required a convergent plate boundary in the easternmost Tethys that we propose gave rise to the Philippine Archipelago based on the formation of latest Jurassic-Early Cretaceous supra-subduction zone ophiolites on Halmahera, Obi Island and Luzon. The Late Cretaceous marks the shift from Andean-style subduction to back-arc opening on the east Asian margin. Arc volcanism along South China ceased by ~60 Ma due to the rollback of the Izanagi slab, leading to the oceanward migration of the volcanic arc and the opening of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS). We use the Apennines-Tyrrhenian system in the Mediterranean as an analogue to model this back-arc. Continued rollback detaches South Palawan, Mindoro and the Semitau continental blocks from the stable east Asian margin and transfers them onto Sundaland in the Eocene to produce the Sarawak Orogeny. The extrusion of Indochina and subduction polarity reversal along northern Borneo opens the South China Sea and transfers the Dangerous Grounds-Reed Bank southward to

  6. Population structure and population history of Anopheles dirus mosquitoes in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Walton, C; Handley, J M; Tun-Lin, W; Collins, F H; Harbach, R E; Baimai, V; Butlin, R K

    2000-06-01

    Separating the confounding effects of long-term population history from gene flow can be difficult. Here, we address the question of what inferences about gene flow can be made from mitochondrial sequence data in three closely related species of mosquitoes, Anopheles dirus species A, C, and D, from southeast Asia. A total of 84 sequences of 923 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene were obtained from 14 populations in Thailand, Myanmar, and Bangladesh. The genealogy of sequences obtained from two populations of AN: dirus C indicates no contemporary gene flow between them. The F(ST) value of 0.421 therefore probably represents a recent common history, perhaps involving colonization events. Anopheles dirus A and D are parapatric, yet no differentiation was seen either within or between species. The starlike genealogy of their haplotypes, smooth unimodal mismatch distributions, and excess of low frequency mutations indicate population expansion in An. dirus A and D. This, rather than widespread gene flow, explains their low within-species F(ST) values (0.018 and 0.022). The greater genetic diversity of An. dirus D suggests that expansion occurred first in species D and subsequently in species A. The current geographical separation and low hybrid fitness of these species also argue against ongoing interspecific gene flow. They suggest instead either historical introgression of mtDNA from An. dirus D into species A followed by independent range expansions, or a selective sweep of mtDNA that originated in An. dirus D. While not excluding contemporary gene flow, historical population processes are sufficient to explain the data in An. dirus A and D. The genealogical relationships between haplotypes could not be used to make inferences of gene flow because of extensive homoplasy due to hypervariable sites and possibly also recombination. However, it is concluded that this approach, rather than the use of fixation indices, is required in the future to understand

  7. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  8. The impact of disturbed peatlands on river outgassing in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wit, Francisca; Müller, Denise; Baum, Antje; Warneke, Thorsten; Pranowo, Widodo Setiyo; Müller, Moritz; Rixen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    River outgassing has proven to be an integral part of the carbon cycle. In Southeast Asia, river outgassing quantities are uncertain due to lack of measured data. Here we investigate six rivers in Indonesia and Malaysia, during five expeditions. CO2 fluxes from Southeast Asian rivers amount to 66.9 ± 15.7 Tg C per year, of which Indonesia releases 53.9 ± 12.4 Tg C per year. Malaysian rivers emit 6.2 ± 1.6 Tg C per year. These moderate values show that Southeast Asia is not the river outgassing hotspot as would be expected from the carbon-enriched peat soils. This is due to the relatively short residence time of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the river, as the peatlands, being the primary source of DOC, are located near the coast. Limitation of bacterial production, due to low pH, oxygen depletion or the refractory nature of DOC, potentially also contributes to moderate CO2 fluxes as this decelerates decomposition. PMID:26670925

  9. The impact of disturbed peatlands on river outgassing in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wit, Francisca; Müller, Denise; Baum, Antje; Warneke, Thorsten; Pranowo, Widodo Setiyo; Müller, Moritz; Rixen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    River outgassing has proven to be an integral part of the carbon cycle. In Southeast Asia, river outgassing quantities are uncertain due to lack of measured data. Here we investigate six rivers in Indonesia and Malaysia, during five expeditions. CO2 fluxes from Southeast Asian rivers amount to 66.9±15.7 Tg C per year, of which Indonesia releases 53.9±12.4 Tg C per year. Malaysian rivers emit 6.2±1.6 Tg C per year. These moderate values show that Southeast Asia is not the river outgassing hotspot as would be expected from the carbon-enriched peat soils. This is due to the relatively short residence time of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the river, as the peatlands, being the primary source of DOC, are located near the coast. Limitation of bacterial production, due to low pH, oxygen depletion or the refractory nature of DOC, potentially also contributes to moderate CO2 fluxes as this decelerates decomposition. PMID:26670925

  10. Salt intakes and salt reduction initiatives in Southeast Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Batcagan-Abueg, Ada Portia M; Lee, Jeanette J M; Chan, Pauline; Rebello, Salome A; Amarra, Maria Sofia V

    2013-01-01

    Increased dietary sodium intake is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The monitoring of population sodium intake is a key part of any salt reduction intervention. However, the extent and methods used for as-sessment of sodium intake in Southeast Asia is currently unclear. This paper provides a narrative synthesis of the best available evidence regarding levels of sodium intake in six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and describes salt reduction measures being undertaken in these countries. Electronic databases were screened to identify relevant articles for inclusion up to 29 February 2012. Reference lists of included studies and conference proceedings were also examined. Local experts and researchers in nutrition and public health were consulted. Quality of studies was assessed using a modified version of the Downs and Black Checklist. Twenty-five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Full texts of 19 studies including government reports were retrieved, with most studies being of good quality. In-sufficient evidence exists regarding salt intakes in Southeast Asia. Dietary data suggest that sodium intake in most SEA countries exceeded the WHO recommendation of 2 g/day. Studies are needed that estimate sodium intake using the gold standard 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The greatest proportion of dietary sodium came from added salt and sauces. Data on children were limited. The six countries had salt reduction initiatives that differed in specificity and extent, with greater emphasis on consumer education. PMID:24231008

  11. Where and How Are Roads Endangering Mammals in Southeast Asia's Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Lynam, Antony J.; Gaveau, David; Yap, Wei Lim; Lhota, Stanislav; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and overhunting are two major drivers of mammal population declines and extinctions in tropical forests. The construction of roads can be a catalyst for these two threats. In Southeast Asia, the impacts of roads on mammals have not been well-documented at a regional scale. Before evidence-based conservation strategies can be developed to minimize the threat of roads to endangered mammals within this region, we first need to locate where and how roads are contributing to the conversion of their habitats and illegal hunting in each country. We interviewed 36 experts involved in mammal research from seven Southeast Asian countries to identify roads that are contributing the most, in their opinion, to habitat conversion and illegal hunting. Our experts highlighted 16 existing and eight planned roads - these potentially threaten 21% of the 117 endangered terrestrial mammals in those countries. Apart from gathering qualitative evidence from the literature to assess their claims, we demonstrate how species-distribution models, satellite imagery and animal-sign surveys can be used to provide quantitative evidence of roads causing impacts by (1) cutting through habitats where endangered mammals are likely to occur, (2) intensifying forest conversion, and (3) contributing to illegal hunting and wildlife trade. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to identify specific roads threatening endangered mammals in Southeast Asia. Further through highlighting the impacts of roads, we propose 10 measures to limit road impacts in the region. PMID:25521297

  12. The impact of disturbed peatlands on river outgassing in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wit, Francisca; Müller, Denise; Baum, Antje; Warneke, Thorsten; Pranowo, Widodo Setiyo; Müller, Moritz; Rixen, Tim

    2015-12-01

    River outgassing has proven to be an integral part of the carbon cycle. In Southeast Asia, river outgassing quantities are uncertain due to lack of measured data. Here we investigate six rivers in Indonesia and Malaysia, during five expeditions. CO2 fluxes from Southeast Asian rivers amount to 66.9+/-15.7 Tg C per year, of which Indonesia releases 53.9+/-12.4 Tg C per year. Malaysian rivers emit 6.2+/-1.6 Tg C per year. These moderate values show that Southeast Asia is not the river outgassing hotspot as would be expected from the carbon-enriched peat soils. This is due to the relatively short residence time of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the river, as the peatlands, being the primary source of DOC, are located near the coast. Limitation of bacterial production, due to low pH, oxygen depletion or the refractory nature of DOC, potentially also contributes to moderate CO2 fluxes as this decelerates decomposition.

  13. Where and how are roads endangering mammals in Southeast Asia's forests?

    PubMed

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Lynam, Antony J; Gaveau, David; Yap, Wei Lim; Lhota, Stanislav; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and overhunting are two major drivers of mammal population declines and extinctions in tropical forests. The construction of roads can be a catalyst for these two threats. In Southeast Asia, the impacts of roads on mammals have not been well-documented at a regional scale. Before evidence-based conservation strategies can be developed to minimize the threat of roads to endangered mammals within this region, we first need to locate where and how roads are contributing to the conversion of their habitats and illegal hunting in each country. We interviewed 36 experts involved in mammal research from seven Southeast Asian countries to identify roads that are contributing the most, in their opinion, to habitat conversion and illegal hunting. Our experts highlighted 16 existing and eight planned roads - these potentially threaten 21% of the 117 endangered terrestrial mammals in those countries. Apart from gathering qualitative evidence from the literature to assess their claims, we demonstrate how species-distribution models, satellite imagery and animal-sign surveys can be used to provide quantitative evidence of roads causing impacts by (1) cutting through habitats where endangered mammals are likely to occur, (2) intensifying forest conversion, and (3) contributing to illegal hunting and wildlife trade. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to identify specific roads threatening endangered mammals in Southeast Asia. Further through highlighting the impacts of roads, we propose 10 measures to limit road impacts in the region. PMID:25521297

  14. Forest production predicted from satellite image analysis for the Southeast Asia region

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to demonstrate a new, cost-effective method to define the sustainable amounts of harvested wood products in Southeast Asian countries case studies, while avoiding degradation (net loss) of total wood carbon stocks. Satellite remote sensing from the MODIS sensor was used in the CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle model to map forest production for the Southeast Asia region from 2000 to 2010. These CASA model results have been designed to be spatially detailed enough to support carbon cycle assessments in different wooded land cover classes, e.g., open woodlands, wetlands, and forest areas. Results The country with the highest average forest net primary production (NPP greater than 950 g C m-2 yr-1) over the period was the Philippines, followed by Malaysia and Indonesia. Myanmar and Vietnam had the lowest average forest NPP among the region’s countries at less than 815 g C m-2 yr-1. Case studies from throughout the Southeast Asia region for the maximum harvested wood products amount that could be sustainably extracted per year were generated using the CASA model NPP predictions. Conclusions The method of using CASA model’s estimated annual change in forest carbon on a yearly basis can conservatively define the upper limit for the amount of harvested wood products that can be removed and still avoid degradation (net loss) of the total wood carbon stock over that same time period. PMID:24016254

  15. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Gongal, Gyanendra; Wright, Alice E.

    2011-01-01

    There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste) of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies. PMID:21991437

  16. Characterizing Aerosols over Southeast Asia using the AERONET Data Synergy Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Slutsker, Ilya; Welton, Ellsworth, J.; Chin, Mian; Kucsera, Thomas; Schmaltz, Jeffery E.; Diehl, Thomas; Singh, Ramesh P.; Boonjawat, Jariya; Snidvongs, Arond; Le, Huy V.

    2007-01-01

    Biomass burning, urban pollution and dust aerosols have significant impacts on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere over Asia. In order to better quanti@ these aerosol characteristics, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has established over 200 sites worldwide with an emphasis in recent years on the Asian continent - specifically Southeast Asia. A total of approximately 15 AERONET sun photometer instruments have been deployed to China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Sun photometer spectral aerosol optical depth measurements as well as microphysical and optical aerosol retrievals over Southeast Asia will be analyzed and discussed with supporting ground-based instrument, satellite, and model data sets, which are freely available via the AERONET Data Synergy tool at the AERONET web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). This web-based data tool provides access to groundbased (AERONET and MPLNET), satellite (MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, and OMI) and model (GOCART and back trajectory analyses) databases via one web portal. Future development of the AERONET Data Synergy Tool will include the expansion of current data sets as well as the implementation of other Earth Science data sets pertinent to advancing aerosol research.

  17. Public Health Risks of Multiple-Drug-Resistant Enterococcus spp. in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A.; Rahman, Sadequr

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci rank as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, such as urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, and endocarditis, in humans. These infections can be hard to treat because of the rising incidence of antibiotic resistance. Enterococci inhabiting nonhuman reservoirs appear to play a critical role in the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants. The spread of antibiotic resistance has become a major concern in both human and veterinary medicine, especially in Southeast Asia, where many developing countries have poor legislation and regulations to control the supply and excessive use of antimicrobials. This review addresses the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries and proposes infection control measures that should be applied to limit the spread of multiple-drug-resistant enterococci. PMID:26150452

  18. Revision of the genus Oxytelus Gravenhorst (Staphylinidae: Oxytelinae) in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lü, Liang; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Oxytelus species are widespread over all continents except Antarctica. Southeast Asia is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. In this paper, we review the Oxytelus species currently known from Southeast Asia. Seven species are described as new to science: O. castaneus sp. nov. (Vietnam), O. finitimus sp. nov. (Laos), O. grandiculus sp. nov. (Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand), O. insulanus sp. nov. (Malaysia and Indonesia), O. lompobatangensis sp. nov. and O. poecilopterus sp. nov. (Indonesia), and O. sublividus sp. nov. (Vietnam and Laos). Seven new synonymies are proposed: O. ruptus Fauvel = O. sublucidus Cameron, O. lucens Bernhauer = O. malaisei Scheerpeltz, O. puncticeps Kraatz = O. (Anotylus) micantoides Scheerpeltz, O. subferrugineus Cameron = O. kedirianus Cameron, O. megaceros Fauvel = O. kalisi Bernhauer, O. subincisus Cameron = O. fruhstorferi Cameron, O. antennalis Fauvel = O. cheesmani Bernhauer. Lectotypes are designated for the following names: O. armiger Fauvel, O. bellicosus Fauvel, O. discalis Cameron, O. gigantulus Fauvel, O. ginyuenensis Bernhauer, O. javanus Cameron, O. kalisi Bernhauer, O. kedirianus Cameron, O. lucens Bernhauer, O. lucidulus Cameron, O. mandibularis Cameron, O. megaceros Fauvel, O. nilgiriensis Cameron, O. subferrugineus Cameron, O. subincisus Cameron, O. sublucidus Cameron, O. subsculptus Cameron, O. antennalis Fauvel (New Caledonia, New Guinea and Australia), O. cheesmani Bernhauer (New Hebrides), O. cheesmanianus Cameron (Papua New Guinea), O. hingstoni Cameron (India), and O. tibetanus Bernhauer (China). The species O. (Anotylus) transversipennis Scheerpeltz is transferred to the genus Anotylus. Other than the new species, nine previously known species are redescribed, a key to 30 species and line drawings or color photographs of 42 species are provided. Thus, a total of 30 species are recorded from Southeast Asia. PMID:26250256

  19. Traditional therapies and the treatment of drug dependence in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C P; Heggenhougen, H K; Navaratnam, V

    1980-01-01

    Many countries in Southeast Asia have the experience of traditional treatments of drug dependence, or have healers who are extending traditional methods to meet contemporary needs. Some treatments, for example those used in some Buddhist monasteries in Thailand and clinics in Japan, rely upon the philosophical and religious traditions of the country; others come closer to faith healing and magic in their practices; and many use herbal preparations during detoxification and afterwards, as well as offering spiritual or secular therapy. This paper argues that careful evaluation be made of the methods and outcome of these traditional treatments of drug dependence and summarizes some of the evidence so far published. PMID:7211743

  20. Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Hugh

    2009-08-01

    It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-east Asia is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical mitigation strategies and research needs, and describes possible mitigation measures that need to be tested. These measures include providing alternative irrigation sources, various agronomic measures, use of soil amendments, growing hyperaccumulator plants, removing contaminated soil and using alternative cooking methods. PMID:19394085

  1. Mitragyna speciosa, a psychoactive tree from Southeast Asia with opioid activity.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Jessica E; Boyer, Edward W; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (Rubiaceae) is a tree that is commonly found in Southeast Asia. Leaves from this tree have been traditionally been used for both their stimulant properties as well as an opium substitute. The tree/leaves are currently illegal in four countries, but is currently legal and widely available in the United States. To date over 40 compounds have been isolated from the leaves. The major alkaloid found within the crude extract, mitragynine, has been the subject of many pharmacological studies. In addition to the pharmacological studies, two total syntheses of mitragynine have been published as well as general structure-activity relationships (SARs) with respect to opioid activity. PMID:21050173

  2. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Vegetation and Their Relationships with Climate in Southeast Asia Based on Three Satellite NDVI Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Piao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical vegetation plays an essential role for global biogeochemical cycles. An abundant literature focused on the vegetation dynamics in Amazon. It is shown that the Amazonian rainforest is strongly controlled by radiation, even during dry season. However, only few researches deal with tropical rainforest in Southeast Asia; the vegetation dynamics in Southeast Asia remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of vegetation in Southeast Asia with three independent satellite derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products (GIMMS AVHRR NDVI3g, SPOT, and MODIS) as well as the recently developed Sun Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF). We furthermore examined how climate drivers (precipitation, temperature and radiation) exert influences on the vegetation dynamics. We find that the three NDVI datasets are generally consistent with each other. At seasonal scale, NDVI decreases from the beginning to the end of the dry season; at interannual scale, dry season NDVI is positively correlated to precipitation but negatively correlated to radiation, while wet season NDVI is positively correlated to radiation. Compared to evergreen forests, deciduous forests have a larger NDVI decrease rate and more extended area with positive relationships between NDVI and precipitation during the dry season. SIF is lower during dry season than during wet season. Our results indicate that most forests in Southeast Asia, unlike in the Amazonian basin, are water-limited in the dry season but radiation-limited in the wet season. These results imply that droughts may have a stronger impact on forests in Southeast Asia than in Amazon.

  3. Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam Khetrapal

    2012-01-01

    Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-East Asia Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-East Asia Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015. PMID:23354135

  4. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997

    PubMed Central

    Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Gaveau, D. L. A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M.

    2016-01-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire’s radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan. PMID:27241616

  5. An outbreak of histoplasmosis among healthy young Japanese women after traveling to Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hideaki; Ogata, Yoshiko; Suguro, Hajime; Yokota, Soichiro; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Ishida-Okawara, Akiko; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Horino, Atsuko; Yamane, Kunikazu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Nagata, Noriyo; Hasegawa, Hideki; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Sata, Tetsutaro; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, is an endemic mycosis in many countries of the world except for Japan. Outbreaks of histoplasmosis among Japanese people are very rare and are mainly imported by travelers. We report an outbreak of histoplasmosis among healthy Japanese people who traveled to a resort area in Southeast Asia. Three young Japanese women traveled to Langkawi island, Malaysia and stayed on the island for five days without visiting caves, a known reservoir of H. capsulatum. All three individuals developed flu-like symptoms with multiple nodule shadows on chest X rays or chest CT scans at around ten days after their return to Japan. Serum samples obtained from the three subjects were positive for anti-Histoplasma antibody and specific PCR for H. capsulatum on lung biopsy specimens and the serum from one patient was positive. The clinical course of all three patients improved without the use of anti-fungal agents and no recurrence has been confirmed. Clinical attendants should consider histoplasmosis when they see patients with flu-like symptoms with abnormal chest X-rays after visiting H. capsulatum endemic areas, especially Southeast Asia. PMID:20190491

  6. The Radiative Impact of Smoke Aerosols on Clouds in Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Bhartia P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The impact of smoke aerosols generated from biomass burning activities in Southeast Asia on the total (direct and indirect) reflected solar radiation from clouds was investigated using satellite data. Narrowband measurements from UV to near-infrared wavelengths (from SeaWiFS and TOMS) were combined with broadband radiation measurements (from CERES). Using this information, we quantified how smoke aerosols change the cloud forcing spectrally and as a whole in the Southeast Asia region. In this region our results show that smoke is present over large areas of cloud-covered regions, and that the frequency of such occurrences is high in the boreal spring. Depending on the thickness of the smoke aerosol, the reflected solar radiation from clouds could he reduced by as much as 100 Watt/sq m, on average over the March 2000 data. We also found that the reduction in the reflectance of the clouds at 670 nm is large enough to lead to significant errors in cloud optical thickness retrievals from satellites such as AVHRR and MODIS.

  7. Air Quality and Climate Effects of Oil Palm Expansion in Southeast Asia 1990 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    The natural rainforests of Southeast Asia have endured large-scale losses over the last few decades, principally driven by logging and agroforestry activities, including rapid expansion of plantations of high-isoprene-emitting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trees at the expense of comparatively low-emitting natural dipterocarp rainforests. Satellite-derived estimates of land cover represent snapshots in time of this highly-dynamic landscape. We apply multiple observational datasets and a global carbon-chemistry-climate model (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) to quantify the magnitude of altered biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) fluxes in Southeast Asia and the resulting impacts on atmospheric chemical composition due to the past two decades of land cover change in the region. NASA ModelE2-YIBs includes a fully interactive land carbon cycle. Isoprene production is energetically coupled to photosynthesis. Time-slice simulations for the period spanning 1990 - 2010 are forced with monthly anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from the MACCity emissions inventory. Simulated tropospheric chemical composition is compared to observations, including fire-free formaldehyde columns, TES vertically-resolved ozone concentrations, and surface-level ozone measurements. We assess the contribution of land cover change-induced BVOC emission changes to regional ozone and aerosol pollution and provide the first estimate of the impacts on global climate.

  8. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined. PMID:25266041

  9. Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen. PMID:25850395

  10. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined. PMID:25266041

  11. Temporal change of EIA asymmetry revealed by a beacon receiver network in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Maruyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Nishioka, Michi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the temporal change of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) asymmetry, a multipoint satellite-ground beacon experiment was conducted along the meridional plane of the Thailand-Indonesia sector. The observation includes one station near the magnetic equator and four stations at off-equator latitudes. This is the first EIA asymmetry study with high spatial resolution using GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) observations in Southeast Asia. GRBR-total electron contents (TECs) from 97 polar-orbit satellite passes in March 2012 were analyzed in this study. Successive passes captured rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry, especially during geomagnetic disturbances. The penetrating electric fields that occur during geomagnetic disturbed days are not the cause of the asymmetry. Instead, high background TEC associated with an intense electric field empowers the neutral wind to produce severe asymmetry of the EIA. Such rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry was not seen during nighttime, when meridional wind mainly controlled the asymmetric structures. Additional data are necessary to identify the source of the variations, i.e., atmospheric waves. Precisely capturing the locations of the crests and the evolution of the asymmetry enhances understanding of the temporal change of EIA asymmetry at the local scale and leads to a future local modeling for TEC prediction in Southeast Asia.

  12. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  13. Helminth parasite species richness in rodents from Southeast Asia: role of host species and habitat.

    PubMed

    Palmeirim, Marta; Bordes, Frédéric; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Siribat, Praphaiphat; Ribas, Alexis; Morand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asia is a biodiversity hotspot that harbours many species of rodents, including some that live in close contact with humans. They host helminth parasites, some of which are of zoonotic importance. It is therefore important to understand the factors that influence the richness of the helminths parasitizing rodents. The specific objectives of this study were to evaluate rodent species as a factor determining helminth richness in rodent assemblages, to identify the major rodent helminth reservoir species and to explore the influence of habitat on helminth richness. We estimated helminth species richness using a large dataset of 18 rodent species (1,651 individuals) originating from Southeast Asia and screened for helminth parasites. The use of an unbiased estimator shows that the helminth species richness varies substantially among rodent species and across habitats. We confirmed this pattern by investigating the number of helminth species per individual rodent in all rodent species, and specifically in the two mitochondrial lineages Rattus tanezumi and R. tanezumi R3, which were captured in all habitats. PMID:25082015

  14. Modeling the Impact of Alternative Strategies for Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Amanda Y.; Pai, Madhukar; Salje, Henrik; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Deo, Sarang; Dowdy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Novel diagnostic tests hold promise for improving tuberculosis (TB) control, but their epidemiologic impact remains uncertain. Using data from the World Health Organization (2011–2012), we developed a transmission model to evaluate the deployment of 3 hypothetical TB diagnostic tests in Southeast Asia under idealized scenarios of implementation. We defined diagnostics by their sensitivity for smear-negative TB and proportion of patients testing positive who initiate therapy (“point-of-care amenability”), with tests of increasing point-of-care amenability having lower sensitivity. Implemented in the public sector (35% of care-seeking attempts), each novel test reduced TB incidence by 7%–9% (95% uncertainty range: 4%–13%) and mortality by 20%–22% (95% uncertainty range: 14%–27%) after 10 years. If also deployed in the private sector (65% of attempts), these tests reduced incidence by 13%–16%, whereas a perfect test (100% sensitivity and treatment initiation) reduced incidence by 20%. Annually detecting 20% of prevalent TB cases through targeted screening (70% smear-negative sensitivity, 85% treatment initiation) also reduced incidence by 19%. Sensitivity and point-of-care amenability are equally important considerations when developing novel diagnostic tests for TB. Novel diagnostics can substantially reduce TB incidence and mortality in Southeast Asia but are unlikely to transform TB control unless they are deployed actively and in the private sector. PMID:24100953

  15. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles. PMID:26068565

  16. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. PMID:24688871

  17. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Gaveau, D. L. A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M.

    2016-05-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire’s radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan.

  18. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997.

    PubMed

    Huijnen, V; Wooster, M J; Kaiser, J W; Gaveau, D L A; Flemming, J; Parrington, M; Inness, A; Murdiyarso, D; Main, B; van Weele, M

    2016-01-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire's radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan. PMID:27241616

  19. United States and environmental security: Deforestation and conflict in southeast Asia. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, P.T.

    1992-06-01

    In the post Cold War era, the East-West conflict may be succeeded by a new confrontation which pits an industrialized North against a developing South. In June 1992, world attention was fixed on the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This event marked a milestone in global environmental awareness; but just as the end of the Cold War has provided new opportunities for the US, the world is now faced with new sources of conflict which have advanced to the forefront of the national security debate. Among the new sources of conflict, environmental problems are rapidly becoming preeminent. Within national security debates, those environmental problems which respect no international boundary are of particular concern. Worldwide deforestation, and the related issues of global warming and the loss of biodiversity, represent a clear threat to national security. Two percent of the Earth's rainforests are lost each year; one 'football field' is lost each second. Deforestation has already led to conflict and instability within several regions of the world including Southeast Asia. The United States must recognize the character and dynamics of these new sources of conflict in order to successfully realize its policy aims in national security. The US should preempt conflict through cooperation and develop a shared concern for the environment throughout the world. The US military may play a key role in this effort. Rainforest, Deforestation, Tropical timber, Logging, Southeast Asia, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Laos, Japan Cambodia, Vietnam, Human rights, Plywood, Pulp, Paper, World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development.

  20. How to better link regional monsoon circulation to local hydroclimate for interpreting tree-ring chronologies in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, M.; Ummenhofer, C.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Asian summer monsoon, consisting of 3 major subsystems, is characterized by a distinct seasonal precipitation onset that affects the regions of India, the Indochina peninsula, and East Asia. Current monsoon indices for Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent capture the large-scale circulation patterns and, in turn, the hydro-climate of the specified area affected by the Asian Monsoon System. However, their skill in representing regional circulation features and links to the local hydro-climate are less understood. Here, we assessed the variability within the Dynamical Indian Monsoon Index, the East Asian Western North Pacific Index, and the South Asian Monsoon Index and their links to regional climate features over Southeast Asia, from inter-annual to decadal timescales, using various observations and reanalysis products at monthly resolution and an extended 1300-yr pre-industrial control run with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The monsoon indices in the model compared well with those in the reanalysis, with similar statistical properties. Furthermore, composites of precipitation, sea surface temperatures (SST), wind fields and moisture advection during years with an extreme monsoon index (i.e. top and bottom 10%) were explored for the three monsoon indices in the reanalyses and model, respectively. Composites demonstrate large-scale changes in Indo-Pacific SST, circulation, and moisture advection across Southeast Asia, consistent with effects on seasonal precipitation within the region as well as distinct Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals. Anomalies in the monsoon indices are also linked to drought occurrence across the region, using the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), a network of hydroclimatically sensitive tree-ring chronologies. Our analysis further investigates the paleo-climate of Southeast Asia through the CESM run to identify periods of anomalous Indo-Pacific SST and their effects on circulation

  1. Tracing the Austronesian footprint in Mainland Southeast Asia: a perspective from mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Peng, Min-Sheng; Quang, Huy Ho; Dang, Khoa Pham; Trieu, An Vu; Wang, Hua-Wei; Yao, Yong-Gang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-10-01

    As the relic of the ancient Champa Kingdom, the Cham people represent the major Austronesian speakers in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and their origin is evidently associated with the Austronesian diffusion in MSEA. Hitherto, hypotheses stemming mainly from linguistic and cultural viewpoints on the origin of the Cham people remain a welter of controversies. Among the points of dissension is the muddled issue of whether the Cham people arose from demic or cultural diffusion from the Austronesians. Addressing this issue also helps elucidate the dispersal mode of the Austronesian language. In the present study, we have analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region and coding-region sequence variations in 168 Cham and 139 Kinh individuals from Vietnam. Around 77% and 95% matrilineal components in the Chams and the Kinhs, respectively, could be assigned into the defined mtDNA haplogroups. Additionally, three common East Eurasian haplogroups B, R9, and M7 account for the majority (>60%) of maternal components in both populations. Entire sequencing of 20 representative mtDNAs selected from the thus far unclassified lineages, together with four new mtDNA genome sequences from Thailand, led to the identification of one new haplogroup M77 and helped to re-evaluate several haplogroups determined previously. Comparing the Chams with other Southeast Asian populations reveals that the Chams had a closer affinity with the Mon-Khmer populations in MSEA than with the Austronesian populations from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Further analyses failed to detect the potential homelands of the Chams in ISEA. Therefore, our results suggested that the origin of the Cham was likely a process of assimilation of massive local Mon-Khmer populations accompanied with language shift, thus indicating that the Austronesian diffusion in MSEA was mainly mediated by cultural diffusion, at least from the matrilineal genetic perspective, an observation in agreement with the hypothesis of the

  2. The Influence of Summertime Convection Over Southeast Asia on Water Vapor in the Tropical Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. S.; Fu, R.; Fueglistaler, S.; Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contributions of Southeast Asian convective source regions during boreal summer to water vapor in the tropical stratosphere are examined using Lagrangian trajectories. Convective sources are identified using global observations of infrared brightness temperature at high space and time resolution, and water vapor transport is simulated using advection-condensation. Trajectory simulations are driven by three different reanalysis data sets, GMAO MERRA, ERA-Interim, and NCEP/NCAR, to establish points of consistency and evaluate the sensitivity of the results to differences in the underlying meteorological fields. All ensembles indicate that Southeast Asia is a prominent boreal summer source of tropospheric air to the tropical stratosphere. Three convective source domains are identified within Southeast Asia: the Bay of Bengal and South Asian subcontinent (MON), the South China and Philippine Seas (SCS), and the Tibetan Plateau and South Slope of the Himalayas (TIB). Water vapor transport into the stratosphere from these three domains exhibits systematic differences that are related to differences in the bulk characteristics of transport. We find air emanating from SCS to be driest, from MON slightly moister, and from TIB moistest. Analysis of pathways shows that air detrained from convection over TIB is most likely to bypass the region of minimum absolute saturation mixing ratio over the equatorial western Pacific; however, the impact of this bypass mechanism on mean water vapor in the tropical stratosphere at 68 hPa is small 0.1 ppmv). This result contrasts with previously published hypotheses, and it highlights the challenge of properly quantifying fluxes of atmospheric humidity.

  3. A new urban landscape in East-Southeast Asia, 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Mertes, C. M.; Tatem, A. J.; Tan, B.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Graves, S. J.; Patel, N. N.; Horton, J. A.; Gaughan, A. E.; Rollo, J. T.; Schelly, I. H.; Stevens, F. R.; Dastur, A.

    2015-03-01

    East-Southeast Asia is currently one of the fastest urbanizing regions in the world, with countries such as China climbing from 20 to 50% urbanized in just a few decades. By 2050, these countries are projected to add 1 billion people, with 90% of that growth occurring in cities. This population shift parallels an equally astounding amount of built-up land expansion. However, spatially-and temporally-detailed information on regional-scale changes in urban land or population distribution do not exist; previous efforts have been either sample-based, focused on one country, or drawn conclusions from datasets with substantial temporal/spatial mismatch and variability in urban definitions. Using consistent methodology, satellite imagery and census data for >1000 agglomerations in the East-Southeast Asian region, we show that urban land increased >22% between 2000 and 2010 (from 155 000 to 189 000 km2), an amount equivalent to the area of Taiwan, while urban populations climbed >31% (from 738 to 969 million). Although urban land expanded at unprecedented rates, urban populations grew more rapidly, resulting in increasing densities for the majority of urban agglomerations, including those in both more developed (Japan, South Korea) and industrializing nations (China, Vietnam, Indonesia). This result contrasts previous sample-based studies, which conclude that cities are universally declining in density. The patterns and rates of change uncovered by these datasets provide a unique record of the massive urban transition currently underway in East-Southeast Asia that is impacting local-regional climate, pollution levels, water quality/availability, arable land, as well as the livelihoods and vulnerability of populations in the region.

  4. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use. PMID:26211507

  5. A taxonomic review of the centipede genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) in mainland Southeast Asia, with description of a new species from Laos.

    PubMed

    Siriwut, Warut; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The centipede genus Scolopendra in mainland Southeast Asia is reviewed taxonomically based on morphological characters, informed by a molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences from three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA). Eight nominal species of Scolopendra, namely Scolopendra morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1816, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, Scolopendra calcarata Porat, 1876, Scolopendra japonica Koch, 1878, Scolopendra pinguis Pocock, 1891, and Scolopendra dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, are redescribed together with some revision of type materials. Geographical variation in each species has been compiled with reference to samples that span their distribution ranges in Southeast Asia and some parts of neighbouring areas such as East Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Africa. Comparative study of traditional taxonomic characters from external morphology provides further information to distinguish some closely related species. Scolopendra cataracta Siriwut, Edgecombe & Panha, sp. n., is described from the southern part of Laos, with additional records in Thailand and Vietnam. The phylogenetic framework for Southeast Asian Scolopendra recognizes Scolopendra calcarata + Scolopendra pinguis, Scolopendra morsitans, and a Scolopendra subspinipes group that unites the other six species as the main clades. Within the Scolopendra subspinipes group, two monophyletic groups can be distinguished by having either slender or short, thick ultimate leg prefemora and different numbers of apical spines on the coxopleuron. Scolopendra arborea Lewis, 1982, is placed in subjective synonymy with Scolopendra dehaani. A survey of external morphology of the genital segments confirms its potential for improving species identification in Scolopendra. Some observations on biology and behaviour are recorded based on field surveys in this area. PMID:27408540

  6. A taxonomic review of the centipede genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) in mainland Southeast Asia, with description of a new species from Laos

    PubMed Central

    Siriwut, Warut; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The centipede genus Scolopendra in mainland Southeast Asia is reviewed taxonomically based on morphological characters, informed by a molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences from three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA). Eight nominal species of Scolopendra, namely Scolopendra morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1816, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, Scolopendra calcarata Porat, 1876, Scolopendra japonica Koch, 1878, Scolopendra pinguis Pocock, 1891, and Scolopendra dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, are redescribed together with some revision of type materials. Geographical variation in each species has been compiled with reference to samples that span their distribution ranges in Southeast Asia and some parts of neighbouring areas such as East Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Africa. Comparative study of traditional taxonomic characters from external morphology provides further information to distinguish some closely related species. Scolopendra cataracta Siriwut, Edgecombe & Panha, sp. n., is described from the southern part of Laos, with additional records in Thailand and Vietnam. The phylogenetic framework for Southeast Asian Scolopendra recognizes Scolopendra calcarata + Scolopendra pinguis, Scolopendra morsitans, and a Scolopendra subspinipes group that unites the other six species as the main clades. Within the Scolopendra subspinipes group, two monophyletic groups can be distinguished by having either slender or short, thick ultimate leg prefemora and different numbers of apical spines on the coxopleuron. Scolopendra arborea Lewis, 1982, is placed in subjective synonymy with Scolopendra dehaani. A survey of external morphology of the genital segments confirms its potential for improving species identification in Scolopendra. Some observations on biology and behaviour are recorded based on field surveys in this area. PMID:27408540

  7. Genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wasitthankasem, Rujipat; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Siripon, Nipaporn; Suya, Chutima; Chulothok, Phrutsada; Chaiear, Kasemporn; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Kanjana, Sawan; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Global burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated at 150 million individuals, or 3% of the world's population. The distribution of the seven major genotypes of HCV varies with geographical regions. Since Asia has a high incidence of HCV, we assessed the distribution of HCV genotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. From 588 HCV-positive samples obtained throughout Thailand, we characterized the HCV 5' untranslated region, Core, and NS5B regions by nested PCR. Nucleotide sequences obtained from both the Core and NS5B of these isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results were compared to the epidemiological data of HCV genotypes identified within Southeast Asian. Among the HCV subtypes characterized in the Thai samples, subtype 3a was the most predominant (36.4%), followed by 1a (19.9%), 1b (12.6%), 3b (9.7%) and 2a (0.5%). While genotype 1 was prevalent throughout Thailand (27-36%), genotype 3 was more common in the south. Genotype 6 (20.9%) constituted subtype 6f (7.8%), 6n (7.7%), 6i (3.4%), 6j and 6m (0.7% each), 6c (0.3%), 6v and 6xa (0.2% each) and its prevalence was significantly lower in southern Thailand compared to the north and northeast (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively). Within Southeast Asia, high prevalence of genotype 6 occurred in northern countries such as Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, while genotype 3 was prevalent in Thailand and Malaysia. Island nations of Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines demonstrated prevalence of genotype 1. This study further provides regional HCV genotype information that may be useful in fostering sound public health policy and tracking future patterns of HCV spread. PMID:25962112

  8. The lithosphere thermal structure of the Southeast Asia: constrained by Vs data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuanhai, Yu; Xiaobin, Shi; Qunshu, Tang; Xiaoqiu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. As we all know, the tectonic evolution is closely related to the deep thermal structure state. Therefore, an accurate estimation of lithosphere thermal structure and lithosphere thickness is important in extracting information on tectonics and geodynamics. Though the thermal regime could be calculated with the observed surface heat flow, there are many uncertainties in the calculated deep thermal state. In this study, we calculated the deep lithosphere thermal structure of Southeast Asia regions by employing an empirical relationship between Vs and temperature, from the calculated temperature-depth profiles, we can identify the base of the thermal lithosphere. The results show that the temperature contours at 80km depth is about 200-300°C higher in the rifted basins and oceanic basins such as Andaman Sea, Thailand Bay, Thailand Rift Basin, South China Sea than in the plateaus and subduction zones such as Khorat Plateau, Sumatra Island and Philippine Trench regions. Generally, the thermal state indicated by the temperature contours at 80 km depth is in agreement with those suggested by the observed surface heat flow. The temperature at 100 km and 200 km depth in Southeast Asia regions is 1450-1500°C and 1650-1780°C which suggest that the study regions might have a higher thermal state than other regions. Our results also show that the estimated thickness of the lithosphere are 85-95 km in the regions of Subduction and collision regions surrounding the study area such as Java trench system, Sumatra trench system, Indo-Asian collision suture zone, Taiwan orogenic belt, Luzon Island, Celebes Island and Northeast of Borneo and becomes smaller toward the South China Sea. In the South China

  9. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  10. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  11. Regional occurrence characteristics of ESF backscatter plumes observed with the VHF radar in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Baiqi; Li, Guozhu

    The development of the equatorial spread-F (ESF) plumes can be well recorded by steerable backscatter radars operated at and off the magnetic equator due to the fact that the vertically extended plume structures are tracers of magnetically north-south aligned larger scale structures. In this study, the temporal and spatial evolutions of ESF plasma plumes and their smaller scale longitudinal differences in Southeast Asia are investigated using the beam steering capability of the two radars, the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) (0.2ºS, 100.3ºE; dip lat 10.4ºS) and the Sanya VHF radar (18.4ºN, 109.6ºE; dip lat 12.8ºN) separated in longitude by ~1000 km. In the beam steering mode of operation, the scanned area at a height of 300 km covers approximately 360 km and 280 km in east-west direction for the EAR and the Sanya radar, respectively. Thus the beam steering measurements by the two radars provide a good spatial coverage, and can be used to study the occurrence and dynamics of equatorial plasma plumes in Southeast Asia and possible short longitude scale differences in their characteristics. We present observations of periodic backscatter plume structures with the EAR and Sanya radar during geomagnetic quiet days and examine the mechanism responsible for the generation of these structures. A tracing analysis on the onset locations of plasma plumes reveals spatially well-separated backscatter plumes, with a maximum east-west wavelength of about 1000 km, periodically generated in longitudes of Southeast Asia. The post-sunset backscatter plumes seen by the Sanya VHF radar are found to be due to the passage of sunset plumes initiated around the longitude of EAR. On the other hand, the EAR measurements show multiple plume structures that developed successively in the radar scanned area with east-west separation of ~50 km, with however, no sunset plasma plume over Sanya at times. This could indicate that the small scale waves, unlike the large scale wave structure

  12. Dual-band beacon experiment over Southeast Asia for ionospheric irregularity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watthanasangmechai, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Saito, A.; Saito, S.; Maruyama, T.; Tsugawa, T.; Nishioka, M.

    2013-12-01

    An experiment of dual-band beacon over Southeast Asia was started in March 2012 in order to capture and analyze ionospheric irregularities in equatorial region. Five GNU Radio Beacon Receivers (GRBRs) were aligned along 100 degree geographic longitude. The distances between the stations reach more than 500 km. The field of view of this observational network covers +/- 20 degree geomagnetic latitude including the geomagnetic equator. To capture ionospheric irregularities, the absolute TEC estimation technique was developed. The two-station method (Leitinger et al., 1975) is generally accepted as a suitable method to estimate TEC offsets of dual-band beacon experiment. However, the distances between the stations directly affect on the robustness of the technique. In Southeast Asia, the observational network is too sparse to attain a benefit of the classic two-station method. Moreover, the least-squares approch used in the two-station method tries too much to adjust the small scales of the TEC distribution which are the local minima. We thus propose a new technique to estimate the TEC offsets with the supporting data from absolute GPS-TEC from local GPS receivers and the ionospheric height from local ionosondes. The key of the proposed technique is to utilize the brute-force technique with weighting function to find the TEC offset set that yields a global minimum of RMSE in whole parameter space. The weight is not necessary when the TEC distribution is smooth, while it significantly improves the TEC estimation during the ESF events. As a result, the latitudinal TEC shows double-hump distribution because of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). In additions, the 100km-scale fluctuations from an Equatorial Spread F (ESF) are captured at night time in equinox seasons. The plausible linkage of the meridional wind with triggering of ESF is under invatigating and will be presented. The proposed method is successful to estimate the latitudinal TEC distribution from dual

  13. Genotypic Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wasitthankasem, Rujipat; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Siripon, Nipaporn; Suya, Chutima; Chulothok, Phrutsada; Chaiear, Kasemporn; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Kanjana, Sawan; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Global burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated at 150 million individuals, or 3% of the world’s population. The distribution of the seven major genotypes of HCV varies with geographical regions. Since Asia has a high incidence of HCV, we assessed the distribution of HCV genotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. From 588 HCV-positive samples obtained throughout Thailand, we characterized the HCV 5’ untranslated region, Core, and NS5B regions by nested PCR. Nucleotide sequences obtained from both the Core and NS5B of these isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results were compared to the epidemiological data of HCV genotypes identified within Southeast Asian. Among the HCV subtypes characterized in the Thai samples, subtype 3a was the most predominant (36.4%), followed by 1a (19.9%), 1b (12.6%), 3b (9.7%) and 2a (0.5%). While genotype 1 was prevalent throughout Thailand (27–36%), genotype 3 was more common in the south. Genotype 6 (20.9%) constituted subtype 6f (7.8%), 6n (7.7%), 6i (3.4%), 6j and 6m (0.7% each), 6c (0.3%), 6v and 6xa (0.2% each) and its prevalence was significantly lower in southern Thailand compared to the north and northeast (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively). Within Southeast Asia, high prevalence of genotype 6 occurred in northern countries such as Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, while genotype 3 was prevalent in Thailand and Malaysia. Island nations of Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines demonstrated prevalence of genotype 1. This study further provides regional HCV genotype information that may be useful in fostering sound public health policy and tracking future patterns of HCV spread. PMID:25962112

  14. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amnuaylojaroen, T.; Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kreasuwun, J.; Prasitwattanaseree, S.; Chantara, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.3 using Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) gas-phase chemistry and Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects), the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS) emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass-burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (FINNv1) model. WRF-Chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict the NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass-burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 30% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios averaged over the land areas of the model domain differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass-burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16

  15. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…

  16. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  17. Diversity of Aspergillus oryzae genotypes (RFLP) isolated from traditional soy sauce production within Malaysia and Southeast Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA fingerprinting was performed on 64 strains of Aspergillus oryzae and one strain of A. sojae isolated from soysauce factories within Malaysia and Southeast Asia that use primitive traditional methods in producing 'tamari type' Cantonese soy sauce. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each isol...

  18. Endangered Peoples of Southeast & East Asia: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.

    This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and East Asia and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie E.…

  19. Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region. PMID:24954129

  20. Heart Failure Clinical Trials in East and Southeast Asia: Understanding the Importance and Defining the Next Steps.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; Roessig, Lothar; Greenberg, Barry H; Sato, Naoki; Shinagawa, Kaori; Yeo, Daniel; Kwok, Bernard W K; Reyes, Eugenio B; Krum, Henry; Pieske, Burkert; Greene, Stephen J; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Kelly, Jacob P; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing global public health problem. In Asia, aging populations and recent increases in cardiovascular risk factors have contributed to a particularly high burden of HF, with outcomes that are poorer than those in the rest of the world. Representation of Asians in landmark HF trials has been variable. In addition, HF patients from Asia demonstrate clinical differences from patients in other geographic regions. Thus, the generalizability of some clinical trial results to the Asian population remains uncertain. In this article, we review differences in HF phenotype, HF management, and outcomes in patients from East and Southeast Asia. We describe lessons learned in Asia from recent HF registries and clinical trial databases and outline strategies to improve the potential for success in future trials. This review is based on discussions among scientists, clinical trialists, industry representatives, and regulatory representatives at the CardioVascular Clinical Trialist Asia Forum in Singapore on July 4, 2014. PMID:27256745

  1. Assessment of the fish resources of southeast Asia, with emphasis of the Banda and Arafura seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalzell, Paul; Pauly, Daniel

    Following a brief presentation of marine catch trends in Southeast Asia, some biological peculiarities of the stocks upon which these fisheries rely are discussed. Two empirical log- linear models are presented allowing rough estimation of potential yield of small pelagic fishes fish from primary production, and of demersal fish from mean water depth and primary production. These models are applied to the Banda and Arafura Seas, and the results compared with yield estimates from similar ecological areas, the Sulu Sea (Philippines) and Gulf of Papua. The standing stock and ecological production of mesopelagic fishes in the Banda Sea are also estimated. The implications for management of these findings are discussed, with emphasis on the strong east to west human population gradient of Indonesia.

  2. Interactions between biomass-burning aerosols and clouds over Southeast Asia: current status, challenges, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sayer, Andrew M; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Loftus, Adrian M; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Hsu, N Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chantara, Somporn

    2014-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols, clouds, and precipitation remain among the largest sources of uncertainty in the Earth's energy budget. Biomass-burning aerosols are a key feature of the global aerosol system, with significant annually-repeating fires in several parts of the world, including Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA in particular provides a "natural laboratory" for these studies, as smoke travels from source regions downwind in which it is coupled to persistent stratocumulus decks. However, SEA has been under-exploited for these studies. This review summarizes previous related field campaigns in SEA, with a focus on the ongoing Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) and results from the most recent BASELInE deployment. Progress from remote sensing and modeling studies, along with the challenges faced for these studies, are also discussed. We suggest that improvements to our knowledge of these aerosol/cloud effects require the synergistic use of field measurements with remote sensing and modeling tools. PMID:25085565

  3. Influence of Madden-Julian Oscillation on Southeast Asia rainfall extremes: Observations and predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Prince; Rahmat, Raizan; Cheong, Wee Kiong; Wallace, Emily

    2014-06-01

    The influence of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the rainfall distribution of Southeast Asia is studied using TRMM satellite-derived rainfall and rain gauge data. It is shown that convectively active (suppressed) phases of MJO can increase (decrease) the probability of extreme rain events over the land regions by about 30-50% (20-25%) during November-March season. The influence of MJO on localized rainfall extremes are also observed both in rainfall intensity and duration. The Met Office Global Seasonal forecasting system seasonal forecasting system is shown to reproduce the MJO influence on rainfall distribution well despite the model biases over land. Skills scores for forecasting 90th percentile extreme rainfall shows significant skills for convective phases. This study demonstrates the feasibility of deriving probabilistic forecasts of extreme rainfall at medium range.

  4. Violence, solace, and ritual: a case study from island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    George, K M

    1995-06-01

    Most headhunting traditions in island Southeast Asia link ritual violence to grief and mourning. Some of the more persuasive analyses of these practices pivot on notions of rage and catharsis, arguing that turbulent emotions motivate persons to take up cleansing acts of violence. This paper seeks a more complex understanding of how ritual may connect bereavement and violence through a look at case materials from highland Sulawesi (Indonesia). Ritual practices there suggest that the resolution of communal mourning is more significant than personal catharsis in motivating violence; that individual affect is refigured collectively as "political affect;" and that varied discursive forms, such as vows, songs, and noise mediate the ways in which people put grief behind them and resume their lives. Indeed, such discursive forms appear to be generative sites for violence and solace. PMID:7497734

  5. [Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].

    PubMed

    Streuli, Rolf A

    2008-01-01

    On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection. PMID:18399180

  6. Resilience and well-being among children of migrant parents in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia-a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N=1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment. PMID:22966930

  7. Reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serotypes in travelers returning from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Hakanen, A; Kotilainen, P; Huovinen, P; Helenius, H; Siitonen, A

    2001-01-01

    During 1995 to 1999, we collected 1,210 Salmonella isolates; 629 were from Finnish travelers returning from abroad. These isolates were tested for susceptibility by determining MICs to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and seven additional antimicrobial agents. From 1995 to 1999, the annual proportion of reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility (MIC > 0.125 microg/mL) among all travelers' isolates increased from 3.9% to 23.5% (p<0.001). The increasing trend was outstanding among the isolates from Southeast Asia; isolates from Thailand alone increased from 5.6% to 50.0% (p<0.001). The reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility was nonclonal in character and significantly associated with multidrug resistance. A point mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA was present in all isolates with reduced susceptibility. These data provide further evidence for the rapid spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens from one continent to another. PMID:11747728

  8. Problems and potential of researching epidemiological transition: examples from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D R

    1991-01-01

    The concept of epidemiological transition is now quite widely recognized, if not so widely accepted. The transition appears to progress at varying speeds and to different extents spatially; it seems that there can be considerable international, regional and local variations in its progress. The paper examines this contention in the case of a number of countries in Southeast Asia, principally Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand. Drawing on evidence from this region, the paper highlights the importance when researching epidemiological transition of the time period under consideration; socio-cultural variations; the nature and quality of data, and spatial scale. It makes some suggestions as to the potential of the concept of epidemiological transition in health care planning and development studies. PMID:1948152

  9. Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-east Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Graham, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-east Asia – and in particular the feminisation of these movements – suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents’ migration. PMID:27134570

  10. The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, P J; Ramanathan, V; Andreae, M O; Brenninkmeijer, C M; Campos, T; Cass, G R; Dickerson, R R; Fischer, H; de Gouw, J A; Hansel, A; Jefferson, A; Kley, D; de Laat, A T; Lal, S; Lawrence, M G; Lobert, J M; Mayol-Bracero, O L; Mitra, A P; Novakov, T; Oltmans, S J; Prather, K A; Reiner, T; Rodhe, H; Scheeren, H A; Sikka, D; Williams, J

    2001-02-01

    The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution levels were observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean toward the Intertropical Convergence Zone at about 6 degrees S. We show that agricultural burning and especially biofuel use enhance carbon monoxide concentrations. Fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning cause a high aerosol loading. The growing pollution in this region gives rise to extensive air quality degradation with local, regional, and global implications, including a reduction of the oxidizing power of the atmosphere. PMID:11161214

  11. Regional decline in growth rates of massive Porites corals in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Tanzil, Jani T I; Brown, Barbara E; Dunne, Richard P; Lee, Jen N; Kaandorp, Jaap A; Todd, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    This study reports the first well-replicated analysis of continuous coral growth records from warmer water reefs (mean annual sea surface temperatures (SST) >28.5 °C) around the Thai-Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Based on analyses of 70 colonies sampled from 15 reefs within six locations, region-wide declines in coral calcification rate (ca. 18.6%), linear extension rate (ca. 15.4%) and skeletal bulk density (ca. 3.9%) were observed over a 31-year period from 1980 to 2010. Decreases in calcification and linear extension rates were observed at five of the six locations and ranged from ca. 17.2-21.6% and ca. 11.4-19.6%, respectively, whereas decline in skeletal bulk density was a consequence of significant reductions at only two locations (ca. 6.9% and 10.7%). A significant link between region-wide growth rates and average annual SST was found, and Porites spp. demonstrated a high thermal threshold of ca. 29.4 °C before calcification rates declined. Responses at individual locations within the region were more variable with links between SST and calcification rates being significant at only four locations. Rates of sea temperature warming at locations in the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) (ca. 1.3 °C per decade) were almost twice those in the South China Sea (Pacific Ocean) (ca. 0.7 °C per decade), but this was not reflected in the magnitude of calcification declines at corresponding locations. Considering that massive Porites spp. are major reef builders around Southeast Asia, this region-wide growth decline is a cause for concern for future reef accretion rates and resilience. However, this study suggests that the future rates and patterns of change within the region are unlikely to be uniform or dependent solely on the rates of change in the thermal environment. PMID:23744603

  12. A decade of GPS in Southeast Asia: Resolving Sundaland motion and boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, W. J. F.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Haji Abu, S.; Promthong, Chaiwat; Subarya, C.; Sarsito, D. A.; Matheussen, S.; Morgan, P.; Spakman, W.

    2007-06-01

    A unique GPS velocity field that spans the entire Southeast Asia region is presented. It is based on 10 years (1994-2004) of GPS data at more than 100 sites in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Vietnam. The majority of the horizontal velocity vectors have a demonstrated global accuracy of ˜1 mm/yr (at 95% confidence level). The results have been used to (better) characterize the Sundaland block boundaries and to derive a new geokinematic model for the region. The rotation pole of the undeformed core of the Sundaland block is located at 49.0°N-94.2°E, with a clockwise rotation rate of 0.34°/Myr. With respect to both geodetically and geophysically defined Eurasia plate models, Sundaland moves eastward at a velocity of 6 ± 1 to 10 ± 1 mm/yr from south to north, respectively. Contrary to previous studies, Sundaland is shown to move independently with respect to South China, the eastern part of Java, the island of Sulawesi, and the northern tip of Borneo. The Red River fault in South China and Vietnam is still active and accommodates a strike-slip motion of ˜2 mm/yr. Although Sundaland internal deformation is general very small (less than 7 nanostrain/yr), important accumulation of elastic deformation occurs along its boundaries with fast-moving neighboring plates. In particular in northern Sumatra and Malaysia, inland-pointing trench-perpendicular residual velocities were detected prior to the megathrust earthquake of 26 December 2004. Earlier studies in Sumatra already showed this but underestimated the extent of the deformation zone, which reaches more than 600 km away from the trench. This study shows that only a regional Southeast Asia network spanning thousands of kilometers can provide a reference frame solid enough to analyze intraplate and interplate deformation in detail.

  13. Understanding spatio-temporal variation of vegetation phenology and rainfall seasonality in the monsoon Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Suepa, Tanita; Qi, Jiaguo; Lawawirojwong, Siam; Messina, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of remote sensing are considered to be the primary advantage in environmental studies. With long-term and frequent satellite observations, it is possible to monitor changes in key biophysical attributes such as phenological characteristics, and relate them to climate change by examining their correlations. Although a number of remote sensing methods have been developed to quantify vegetation seasonal cycles using time-series of vegetation indices, there is limited effort to explore and monitor changes and trends of vegetation phenology in the Monsoon Southeast Asia, which is adversely affected by changes in the Asian monsoon climate. In this study, MODIS EVI and TRMM time series data, along with field survey data, were analyzed to quantify phenological patterns and trends in the Monsoon Southeast Asia during 2001-2010 period and assess their relationship with climate change in the region. The results revealed a great regional variability and inter-annual fluctuation in vegetation phenology. The phenological patterns varied spatially across the region and they were strongly correlated with climate variations and land use patterns. The overall phenological trends appeared to shift towards a later and slightly longer growing season up to 14 days from 2001 to 2010. Interestingly, the corresponding rainy season seemed to have started earlier and ended later, resulting in a slightly longer wet season extending up to 7 days, while the total amount of rainfall in the region decreased during the same time period. The phenological shifts and changes in vegetation growth appeared to be associated with climate events such as EL Niño in 2005. Furthermore, rainfall seemed to be the dominant force driving the phenological changes in naturally vegetated areas and rainfed croplands, whereas land use management was the key factor in irrigated agricultural areas. PMID:26922262

  14. Region-wide synchrony and traveling waves of dengue across eight countries in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    van Panhuis, Willem G.; Choisy, Marc; Xiong, Xin; Chok, Nian Shong; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Lam, Sai K.; Chong, Chee K.; Lam, Fook C.; Phommasak, Bounlay; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Bouaphanh, Khamphaphongphane; Rekol, Huy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thai, Pham Quang; Duong, Tran Nhu; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Lun; Ng, Lee-Ching; Shi, Yuan; Tayag, Enrique A.; Roque, Vito G.; Lee Suy, Lyndon L.; Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Velasco, John Mark S.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Burke, Donald S.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus infection that causes epidemics of febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever across the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Annual epidemics are commonly observed, but there is substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity in intensity. A better understanding of this heterogeneity in dengue transmission could lead to improved epidemic prediction and disease control. Time series decomposition methods enable the isolation and study of temporal epidemic dynamics with a specific periodicity (e.g., annual cycles related to climatic drivers and multiannual cycles caused by dynamics in population immunity). We collected and analyzed up to 18 y of monthly dengue surveillance reports on a total of 3.5 million reported dengue cases from 273 provinces in eight countries in Southeast Asia, covering ∼107 km2. We detected strong patterns of synchronous dengue transmission across the entire region, most markedly during a period of high incidence in 1997–1998, which was followed by a period of extremely low incidence in 2001–2002. This synchrony in dengue incidence coincided with elevated temperatures throughout the region in 1997–1998 and the strongest El Niño episode of the century. Multiannual dengue cycles (2–5 y) were highly coherent with the Oceanic Niño Index, and synchrony of these cycles increased with temperature. We also detected localized traveling waves of multiannual dengue epidemic cycles in Thailand, Laos, and the Philippines that were dependent on temperature. This study reveals forcing mechanisms that drive synchronization of dengue epidemics on a continental scale across Southeast Asia. PMID:26438851

  15. Monsoon extremes and society over the past millennium on mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Fletcher, Roland; Wang, Shi-Yu Simon; Zottoli, Brian; Pottier, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The early 21st century has seen vigorous scientific interest in the Asian monsoon and significant development of paleo-proxies of monsoon strength. These include the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas - a 700-year, gridded reconstruction of hydroclimate derived from 327 tree ring records - and several long speleothem records from China and India. Similar progress has been made on the study of monsoon climate dynamics through re-analysis data products and General Circulation Model diagnostics. The story has emerged of a variable monsoon over the latter Holocene, with extended droughts and anomalously wet episodes that occasionally and profoundly influenced the course of human history. We focus on Southeast Asia where an anomalous period of unstable climate coincided with the demise of the capital of the Khmer Empire at Angkor between the 14th and the 16th centuries, and we suggest that protracted periods of drought and deluge rain events, the latter of which damaged Angkor's extensive water management systems, may have been a significant factor in the subsequent transfer of the political capital away from Angkor. The late 16th and early 17th century experienced climate instability and the collapse of the Ming Dynasty in China under a period of drought, while Tonkin experienced floods and droughts throughout the 17th century. The 18th century was a period of great turmoil across Southeast Asia, when all of the region's polities saw great unrest and rapid realignment during one of the most extended periods of drought of the past millennium. New paleo-proxy records and the incorporation of historical documentation will improve future analyses of the interaction between climate extremes, social behavior and the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate.

  16. Region-wide synchrony and traveling waves of dengue across eight countries in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    van Panhuis, Willem G; Choisy, Marc; Xiong, Xin; Chok, Nian Shong; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Lam, Sai K; Chong, Chee K; Lam, Fook C; Phommasak, Bounlay; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Bouaphanh, Khamphaphongphane; Rekol, Huy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thai, Pham Quang; Duong, Tran Nhu; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Lun; Ng, Lee-Ching; Shi, Yuan; Tayag, Enrique A; Roque, Vito G; Lee Suy, Lyndon L; Jarman, Richard G; Gibbons, Robert V; Velasco, John Mark S; Yoon, In-Kyu; Burke, Donald S; Cummings, Derek A T

    2015-10-20

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus infection that causes epidemics of febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever across the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Annual epidemics are commonly observed, but there is substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity in intensity. A better understanding of this heterogeneity in dengue transmission could lead to improved epidemic prediction and disease control. Time series decomposition methods enable the isolation and study of temporal epidemic dynamics with a specific periodicity (e.g., annual cycles related to climatic drivers and multiannual cycles caused by dynamics in population immunity). We collected and analyzed up to 18 y of monthly dengue surveillance reports on a total of 3.5 million reported dengue cases from 273 provinces in eight countries in Southeast Asia, covering ∼ 10(7) km(2). We detected strong patterns of synchronous dengue transmission across the entire region, most markedly during a period of high incidence in 1997-1998, which was followed by a period of extremely low incidence in 2001-2002. This synchrony in dengue incidence coincided with elevated temperatures throughout the region in 1997-1998 and the strongest El Niño episode of the century. Multiannual dengue cycles (2-5 y) were highly coherent with the Oceanic Niño Index, and synchrony of these cycles increased with temperature. We also detected localized traveling waves of multiannual dengue epidemic cycles in Thailand, Laos, and the Philippines that were dependent on temperature. This study reveals forcing mechanisms that drive synchronization of dengue epidemics on a continental scale across Southeast Asia. PMID:26438851

  17. On the spatial and temporal variability of ENSO precipitation and drought teleconnection in mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, T. A.; Lindgren, V.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Buckley, B. M.; Kummu, M.

    2015-11-01

    The variability in the hydroclimate over mainland Southeast Asia is strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, which has been linked to severe drought and floods that profoundly influence human societies and ecosystems alike. However, the spatial characteristics and long-term stationarity of ENSO's influence in the region are not well understood. We thus aim to analyse seasonal evolution and spatial variations in the effect of ENSO on precipitation over the period of 1980-2013, and long-term variation in the ENSO-teleconnection using tree-ring derived Palmer Drought Severity Indices (PDSI) that span from 1650-2004. We found that the majority of the study area is under the influence of ENSO, which has affected the region's hydroclimate over the majority (96 %) of the 355 year study period. Our results further indicate that there is a pattern of seasonal evolution of precipitation anomalies during ENSO. However, considerable variability in the ENSO's influence is revealed: the strength of ENSO's influence was found to vary in time and space, and the different ENSO events resulted in varying precipitation anomalies. Additional research is needed to investigate how this variation in ENSO teleconnection is influenced by other factors, such as the properties of the ENSO events and other ocean and atmospheric phenomena. In general, the high variability we found in ENSO teleconnection combined with limitations of current knowledge, suggests that the adaptation to extremes in hydroclimate in mainland Southeast Asia needs to go beyond "predict-and-control" and recognise both uncertainty and complexity as fundamental principles.

  18. Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. PMID:20624526

  19. Health and health-care systems in southeast Asia: diversity and transitions.

    PubMed

    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Phua, Kai Hong; Yap, Mui Teng; Pocock, Nicola S; Hashim, Jamal H; Chhem, Rethy; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Lopez, Alan D

    2011-01-29

    Southeast Asia is a region of enormous social, economic, and political diversity, both across and within countries, shaped by its history, geography, and position as a major crossroad of trade and the movement of goods and services. These factors have not only contributed to the disparate health status of the region's diverse populations, but also to the diverse nature of its health systems, which are at varying stages of evolution. Rapid but inequitable socioeconomic development, coupled with differing rates of demographic and epidemiological transitions, have accentuated health disparities and posed great public health challenges for national health systems, particularly the control of emerging infectious diseases and the rise of non-communicable diseases within ageing populations. While novel forms of health care are evolving in the region, such as corporatised public health-care systems (government owned, but operating according to corporate principles and with private-sector participation) and financing mechanisms to achieve universal coverage, there are key lessons for health reforms and decentralisation. New challenges have emerged with rising trade in health services, migration of the health workforce, and medical tourism. Juxtaposed between the emerging giant economies of China and India, countries of the region are attempting to forge a common regional identity, despite their diversity, to seek mutually acceptable and effective solutions to key regional health challenges. In this first paper in the Lancet Series on health in southeast Asia, we present an overview of key demographic and epidemiological changes in the region, explore challenges facing health systems, and draw attention to the potential for regional collaboration in health. PMID:21269685

  20. Vector control in some countries of Southeast Asia: comparing the vectors and the strategies.

    PubMed

    Meek, S R

    1995-04-01

    The use of information on malaria vector behaviour in vector control is discussed in relation to the area of Southeast Asia comprising Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The major vectors in the region are Anopheles dirus, An. minimus, An. maculatus and An. sundaicus, of which An. dirus is the most important. Options for vector control and the biological features of mosquitoes, which would make them amenable to control by these measures, are listed. The methods with the greatest potential for controlling each of the four vector species are described. Experiences of vector control by residual spraying, insecticide-treated nets and larva control and of personal protection against the four vectors are outlined, and it is noted that choice of control strategy is often determined by epidemiological, economic and political considerations, whilst entomological observations may help to explain failures of control and to indicate alternative strategies. Future research needs include basic entomological field studies using the most appropriate indicators to detect changes related to rapidly changing environmental conditions, such as loss of forest and climate change. Further studies of the efficacy of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, with greater attention to study design, are needed before it can be assumed that they will work in Southeast Asia. At the same time, research to improve sustainable utilization of nets is important, bearing in mind that nets are not the only means to control malaria and should not drain resources from supervision and training, which improve access to diagnosis and treatment of malaria and other diseases. Research is needed to make decisions on whether vector control is appropriate in different environments, and, if so, how to carry it out in different health systems. Researchers need to play a greater role in making operational research (entomological, epidemiological, social, economic and health systems research) of good quality

  1. A probabilistic assessment of volcanic ash hazard to aviation in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Whelley, Patrick; Taisne, Benoit; Newhall, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Southeast Asia is home to hundreds of active volcanoes, largely clustered over the island chains of the Philippines and Indonesia. The prominent large scale weather feature in this region is dominated by Monsoons. The prevailing winds during the monsoon seasons can drive volcanic ash clouds over the South China Sea. Since this region is a busy aviation corridor it is important to evaluate the risk to aviation operations. This study quantifies the long-term probability that this region will be adversely affected by volcanic ash, through calculating the probability of eruptions for a range of magnitudes as well as the trajectory of the resulting ash plumes. Approximately 750 active or potentially active volcanoes are identified in Southeast Asia. They are separated into five classes by their morphology and eruptive style. For each volcano class, the typical eruption magnitude and frequencies are determined. The volcanoes are further divided into 23 geographical zones and the likelihood of each magnitude eruption for all volcano zones is estimated. Dispersion modelling is employed to estimate the concentration and extent of volcanic ash plumes based on hypothetical eruptions of Volcano Explosivity Index of 3 to 8 and 3 years of historical meteorological data. Preliminary results show that in the next decade, there is a 30 to 60% chance that volcanic ash will affect any part of the air space above the South China Sea between 6096m to 10668m at a concentration exceeding 2mg/m3. Half of this region has a 43% or greater chance of containing more than 2mg/m3 of volcanic ash. This is largely in agreement with 30 years of observations, with the exception west of Sumatra, where more ash is predicted than has been observed. The findings in this study can be used to inform scenario planning and mitigation strategy for regional aviation industry.

  2. Constraints on total fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, Vincent; Wooster, Martin; Kaiser, Johannes; Gaveau, David; Flemming, Johannes; Parrington, Mark; Inness, Antje; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Main, Bruce; van Weele, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes in the south of Kalimantan, the southeastern provinces of Sumatra, and West Papua, the extent of the fires was greatly inflated by an extended period of drought associated with a particularly strong El Niño. In this contribution we provide an estimate of the total carbon released in these fires, making use of satellite observations of the fire's radiative power output as processed with GFAS, applied in the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS: http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/). The carbon emissions are further constrained with MOPITT atmospheric CO column measurements as well as unique on-site plume measurements on Kalimantan. We estimate the carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest over the maritime southeast Asian region since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997.

  3. Bioclimatic impacts of the 1994 smoke haze event in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Janet

    A smoke haze event of unprecedented magnitude which occurred in southeast Asia 1994 is statistically evaluated for its impact on regional and global climate using climatic and air quality data from Singapore, and by comparison with the better-known smoke pollution episode resulting from the Kuwait oil fires of 1991. Several local climatic parameters were found to be closely related to air quality on a daily basis. Mean data for the haze period in 1994 appeared to differ significantly from the long-term means for the same period in previous years, with the exception of daily mean air temperature and mean Global Solar Radiation (GSR). The latter is in spite of the inverse relationship between daily GSR and pollution levels. An ENSO-related influence on regional climate (masking some of the perceived regional impacts of the haze) is invoked to explain the apparent contradiction. The significance of the smoke haze at global scale is considered for its impact on the global carbon budget, especially due to the combustion of peat in the coastal lowlands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. The scarcity of available ecological data is regretted and recommendations are made for future cooperation over monitoring and research between scientists and government bodies from the countries in the southeast Asian region.

  4. Clinical characteristics and etiology of travelers' diarrhea among Korean travelers visiting South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Yong; Chung, Jin-Won; Chang, Kyu-Jin; You, Myung Hwan; Chai, Jin Sung; Kang, Young A; Kim, Seong-Han; Jeoung, Hyesook; Cheon, Doosung; Jeoung, Ahyong; Choi, Eun Suk

    2011-02-01

    The morbidity of travelers' diarrhea (TD) is still high. This study examined the incidence of common pathogens and characteristics of TD among Korean travelers who visited South-East Asian countries. We performed a prospective study involving 479 Korean travelers with diarrheal disease from February 2009 to April 2009 and stool samples were examined and questionnaire surveys were done after arrival. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was found in 36.0% of TD cases, as were the following: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in 27.0%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 13.1%, and Norovirus in 11.5%. The detected rate of classic TD was higher in men (P = 0.007), in patients who had a shorter duration trip (P = 0.023) and in patients who drank more than 1 liter of water per day (P = 0.037). Positive stool culture rates were higher in men (P = 0.005), in hospitalized patients (P = 0.013). and in those who consumed impure water or raw foods (P = 0.033). A higher severity of disease corresponded to a significantly higher culture positivity rate (P = 0.029). We should consider the possibility of other pathogens in addition to ETEC in patients with TD who visit South-East Asia. Travelers need to educate about risk factors associated with TD. PMID:21286009

  5. Maternal, neonatal, and child health in southeast Asia: towards greater regional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Acuin, Cecilia S; Khor, Geok Lin; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Achadi, Endang L; Htay, Thein Thein; Firestone, Rebecca; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-02-01

    Although maternal and child mortality are on the decline in southeast Asia, there are still major disparities, and greater equity is key to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We used comparable cross-national data sources to document mortality trends from 1990 to 2008 and to assess major causes of maternal and child deaths. We present inequalities in intervention coverage by two common measures of wealth quintiles and rural or urban status. Case studies of reduction in mortality in Thailand and Indonesia indicate the varying extents of success and point to some factors that accelerate progress. We developed a Lives Saved Tool analysis for the region and for country subgroups to estimate deaths averted by cause and intervention. We identified three major patterns of maternal and child mortality reduction: early, rapid downward trends (Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand); initially high declines (sustained by Vietnam but faltering in the Philippines and Indonesia); and high initial rates with a downward trend (Laos, Cambodia, and Myanmar). Economic development seems to provide an important context that should be coupled with broader health-system interventions. Increasing coverage and consideration of the health-system context is needed, and regional support from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations can provide increased policy support to achieve maternal, neonatal, and child health goals. PMID:21269675

  6. Bridging borders in Southeast Asia: the politics of HIV prevention for women.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, K

    1995-11-01

    Participants in a workshop on "Women, Family, and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Prevention," held in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in July 1995, developed a cross-border strategy for stemming the spread of the epidemic across Southeast Asia. Regional economic growth, new trade initiatives, and growing openness between countries are facilitating increased population movement among the neighboring countries of Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet Nam, and China's Yunnan Province. Workshop participants, representing all of these countries, agreed that AIDS prevention projects for Southeast Asian women work best in family and community settings. Although representatives from neighboring countries were impressed with Thailand's programs created for or initiated by commercial sex workers, they were pessimistic about the potential for replication in settings where prostitution is outlawed. Also remarkable to participants was the collective strength of Thai AIDS victims, who have implemented their own support strategies. Policy advocacy, including building intergovernmental relationships that foster collaboration, was considered an essential step to slowing the AIDS epidemic in the region. Creation of a health care workers' network within and between countries and formation of cross-border committees were also proposed. PMID:12347558

  7. Millennium Development Goal 1: poverty, hunger and decent work in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article considers three questions: 1) what progress has been made in achieving MDG1 targets?; 2) what challenges remain?; and 3) what more could and should be done? To examine these questions, the article assesses the progress of Southeast Asia in seeking to achieve MDG1. It argues that the region is 'on track' to achieve MDG 1 targets, although significant challenges such as inequality remain. Economic growth, significant structural change and incorporation into global value chains have contributed to MDG progress. However, this is a double-edged sword as exposure to global economic turbulence can increase. The longer-term reduction of poverty, inequality and social exclusion is a question of empowerment of local producers within value chains-a shift in economic power and control through pro-poor strategies strong enough to effect substantive structural change. The article outlines key concepts; identifies the main characteristics of Southeast Asian poverty; outlines what more needs to be done; and concludes by reprising the article's findings and weighing the prospects for 2010-15 and beyond. PMID:21584988

  8. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of selected popular foods consumed in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijuan; Lee, Davina Elizabeth Mei; Tan, Wei Jie Kevin; Ranawana, Dinesh Viren; Quek, Yu Chin Rina; Goh, Hui Jen; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-03-14

    The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of standard portion sizes of Southeast Asian traditional foods. A total of fifteen popular Southeast Asian foods were evaluated. Of these foods, three were soft drinks, while the other twelve were solid foods commonly consumed in this region. In total, forty-seven healthy participants (eighteen males and twenty-nine females) volunteered to consume either glucose at least twice or one of the fifteen test foods after a 10-12 h overnight fast. Blood glucose concentrations were analysed before consumption of the test food, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption, using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value of the test food as a percentage of each participant's average IAUC value, with glucose as the reference food. Among the fifteen foods tested, six belonged to low-GI foods (Ice Green Tea, Beehoon, Pandan Waffle, Curry Puff, Youtiao and Kaya Butter Toast), three belonged to medium-GI foods (Barley Drink, Char Siew Pau and Nasi Lemak), and the other six belonged to high-GI foods (Ice Lemon Tea, Chinese Carrot Cake, Chinese Yam Cake, Chee Cheong Fun, Lo Mai Gai and Pink Rice Cake). The GI and GL values of these traditional foods provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians on the optimal food choice for glycaemic control. Moreover, our dataset provides GI values of fifteen foods that were not previously tested extensively, and it presents values of foods commonly consumed in Southeast Asia. PMID:25716365

  9. Investigating the haze transport from 1997 biomass burning in Southeast Asia: its impact upon Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koe, Lawrence C. C.; Arellano, Avelino F.; McGregor, John L.

    The 1997 Indonesia forest fires was an environmental disaster of exceptional proportions. Such a disaster caused massive transboundary air pollution and indiscriminate destruction of biodiversity in the world. The immediate consequence of the fires was the production of large amounts of haze in the region, causing visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. Furthermore, fires of these magnitudes are potential contributors to global warming and climate change due to the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases and other pyrogenic products.The long-range transport of fire-related haze in the region is investigated using trajectories from the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Limited Area Model (DARLAM). Emission scenarios were constructed for hotspot areas in Sumatra and Kalimantan for the months of September and October 1997 to determine the period and fire locations most critical to Singapore. This study also examines some transport issues raised from field observations. Results show that fires in the coastal areas of southeast Sumatra and southwest Kalimantan can be potential contributors to transboundary air pollution in Singapore. Singapore was directly affected by haze from these areas whereas Kuala Lumpur was heavily affected by the haze coming from Sumatra. In most cases, Singapore was more affected by fires from Kalimantan than was Kuala Lumpur. This was mainly a result of the shifting of monsoons. The transition of monsoons resulted in weaker low-level winds and shifted convergence zones near to the southeast of Peninsular Malaysia. In addition to severe drought and massive fire activity in 1997, the timing of the monsoon transition has a strong influence on haze transport in the region.

  10. Aerosol chemical characteristics of a mega-city in Southeast Asia (Dhaka-Bangladesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Bauer, Heidi; Kassin, Karin; Mohammad Ullah, Shah; Puxbaum, Hans

    Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), organic acids, major inorganic ions and trace elements were determined in aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2001) in Dhaka (Bangladesh). Using the Fe content of the aerosol to reconstruct the aerosol mass from soil-type mineralic material, a mass balance of the Dhaka aerosol was achieved. From this follows that on the average around 76% of the aerosol is from soil-type material, around 18% of carbonaceous material, and around 6% soluble ions and trace elements (without iron) <0.3%. Enrichment factors (Fe as a reference element) indicated that coal fly ash is a likely main source for Cd, Pb and Zn in the Dhaka aerosol, while As appears to be of geogenic origin. Organic acids contributed only 0.72% C to OC and were much less abundant relative to OC than at European sites. The trace elements levels in Dhaka were much lower than at comparable Southeast Asian mega-cities (e.g. Lahore, Pakistan), but considerably higher than reported for European and US cities under present day conditions. The correlation between EC and OC was quite high ( R2=0.81) indicating a potential joint source of emission for carbonaceous aerosols. The EC/total carbon (TC) and K/EC ratios indicated that biomass combustion was not a main contributor to EC in Dhaka, which implicates that fossil fuel combustion is the major contributor to EC levels in the Dhaka aerosol. The differences in the EC/TC and K/EC ratios in the three mega-cities in Southeast Asia (data available from Dhaka, Bangladesh; Lahore, Pakistan; and Mumbai, India) indicate that the aerosol source mix in Southeast Asian cities varies considerably at a national or even regional scale.

  11. Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over East Asia by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over East Asia are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  12. Cancer epidemiology in mainland South-East Asia - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Attasara, Pattarawin; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Le, Tran Ngoan; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Nga; Raingsey, Prak Piseth; Sriamporn, Supannee; Sriplung, Hutcha; Srivanatanakul, Petcharin; Bui, Duc Tung; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The countries of mainland South-East Asia, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam, share a long history of interactions and many cultural similarities, as well as geographical contiguity. They therefore can be usefully examined as a group when considering measures for control of cancer and other non-communicable diseases. Liver cancer is consistently found at higher incidence than most other parts of Asia, with lung cancer as the other most important neoplasm in males. In females cervical and breast cancer about equally predominate, throughout. However, there are also major differences, particularly with regard to stomach and nasopharyngeal cancer, only found at relatively high incidence in Viet Nam. The present review was conducted to gather together registry data on cancer prevalence and epidemiological findings cited in PubMed in order to obtain as comprehensive picture as possible of the present status. It is hoped that future cooperation across the region will facilitate development of coordinated cancer control programs to reduce the burden. PMID:20553069

  13. Ethical reasoning in pandemic preparedness plans: Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Simon

    2011-10-01

    The emergence of H1N1 in 2009 shows that it is a mistake to regard the scenario of having to implement pandemic plans as merely hypothetical. This recent experience provides an opportunity to inquire into the current state of pandemic preparedness plans with regard to their ethical adequacy. One aspect that deserves consideration in this context is the disclosure of ethical reasoning. Accordingly, the following is an analysis of examples of pandemic plans and drafts of plans from Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. It is an analysis of the occurrence of explicit ethical reflection in these documents as well an inquiry into the related question of how ethical reflection can be understood as a constitutive element of ethical pandemic preparedness. In the analysis, different fields of ethical consideration concerning equity, personal rights and accountability are distinguished. There are both pragmatic and genuinely ethical reasons to explicitly address issues of these types in pandemic plans. The extent to which ethical language appears in the national plans in South East Asia and the Western Pacific suggests that there is limited awareness of ethical considerations, or at least insufficient ethical substantiation of pandemic action. The aim of the analysis is to show that further inclusion of ethical considerations into pandemic plans is ethically demanded. It is of particular significance that these considerations are formulated and remain discernible as instances of ethical deliberation. PMID:21929703

  14. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Huarong; Miller, Mark P.; Yang, Feng; Chan, Hon Ki; Gaubert, Philippe; Ades, Gary; Fischer, Gunter A

    2015-01-01

    Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations). These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica). The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  15. P wave tomography and anisotropy beneath Southeast Asia: Insight into mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhouchuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Wang, Liangshu

    2015-07-01

    Southeast Asia is surrounded by subduction zones resulting from the interactions of several lithospheric plates. Its evolution has been also influenced by active tectonics due to the Indo-Asian collision in the Cenozoic. In this study, we use a large number of arrival-time data of local and regional earthquakes to determine 3-D P wave tomography and azimuthal anisotropy in the mantle beneath SE Asia. High-velocity (high-V) anomalies representing the subducting slabs are clearly visible in the upper mantle and the mantle transition zone (MTZ). Low-velocity (low-V) zones with trench-normal anisotropy are revealed in the uppermost mantle, which indicate back-arc spreading or secondary mantle-wedge flow induced by the slab subduction. In contrast, trench-parallel anisotropy dominates in the deep upper mantle and reflects structures either in the subducting slab or in the upper mantle surrounding the slab. The trench-parallel anisotropy is also significant in the lower MTZ, which may contribute to shear wave splitting observations. A low-V body extending down to the lower mantle is visible under the Hainan volcano far away from the plate boundaries, suggesting that Hainan is a hot spot fed by a lower-mantle plume. The low-V body under Hainan is connected with low-V zones in the upper mantle under SE Tibet and Vietnam. Our P wave anisotropy results reflect significant mantle flow existing in the asthenosphere from SE Tibet to Hainan and further southwestward to Vietnam. The present study, especially the 3-D P wave anisotropy results, provides important new insight into mantle dynamics in SE Asia.

  16. Imaging 3D anisotropic upper mantle shear velocity structure of Southeast Asia using seismic waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Yuan, H.; French, S. W.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Ni, S.

    2011-12-01

    Southeast Asia as a special region in the world which is seismically active and is surrounded by active tectonic belts, such as the Himalaya collision zone, western Pacific subduction zones and the Tianshan- Baikal tectonic belt. Seismic anisotropic tomography can shade light on the complex crust and upper mantle dynamics of this region, which is the subject of much debate. In this study, we applied full waveform time domain tomography to image 3D isotropic and anisotropic upper mantle shear velocity structure of Southeast Asia. Three component waveforms of teleseismic and far regional events (15 degree ≤ Δ≤ 165 degree) with magnitude ranges from Mw6.0 to Mw7.0 are collected from 91 permanent and 438 temporary broadband seismic stations in SE Asia. Wavepackets of both fundamental and overtone modes, filtered between 60 and 400 sec, are selected automatically according to the similarity between data and synthetic waveforms (Panning & Romanowicz, 2006). Wavepackets corresponding to event-station paths that sample the region considered are weighted according to path redundancy and signal to noise ratio. Higher modes and fundamental mode wavepackets are weighted separately in order to enhance the contribution of higher modes which are more sensitive to deeper structure compared to the fundamental mode. Synthetic waveforms and broadband sensitivity kernels are computed using normal mode asymptotic coupling theory (NACT, Li & Romanowicz, 1995). As a starting model, we consider a global anisotropic upper mantle shear velocity model based on waveform inversion using the Spectral Element Method (Lekic & Romanowicz, 2011), updated for more realistic crustal thickness (French et al., 2011) as our starting model, we correct waveforms for the effects of 3D structure outside of the region, and invert them for perturbations in the 3D structure of the target region only. We start with waveform inversion down to 60sec and after several iterations, we include shorter period

  17. Ancient migration routes of Austronesian-speaking populations in oceanic Southeast Asia and Melanesia might mimic the spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Trejaut, Jean; Lee, Chien-Liang; Yen, Ju-Chen; Loo, Jun-Hun; Lin, Marie

    2011-02-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) are inherited uni-parentally from mother to daughter or from father to son respectively. Their polymorphism has initially been studied throughout populations of the world to demonstrate the "Out of Africa" hypothesis. Here, to correlate the distribution of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in different populations of insular Asia, we analyze the mtDNA information (lineages) obtained from genotyping of the hyper variable region (HVS I & II) among 1400 individuals from island Southeast Asia (ISEA), Taiwan and Fujian and supplemented with the analysis of relevant coding region polymorphisms. Lineages that best represented a clade (a branch of the genetic tree) in the phylogeny were further analyzed using complete genomic mtDNA sequencing. Finally, these complete mtDNA sequences were used to construct a most parsimonious tree which now constitutes the most up-to-date mtDNA dataset available on ISEA and Taiwan. This analysis has exposed new insights of the evolutionary history of insular Asia and has strong implications in assessing possible correlations with linguistic, archaeology, demography and the NPC distribution in populations within these regions. To obtain a more objective and balanced genetic point of view, slowly evolving biallelic Y single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) was also analyzed. As in the first step above, the technique was first applied to determine affinities (macro analysis) between populations of insular Asia. Secondly, sixteen Y short tandem repeats (Y-STR) were used as they allow deeper insight (micro analysis) into the relationship between individuals of a same region. Together, mtDNA and NRY allowed a better definition of the relational, demographic, cultural and genetic components that constitute the make up of the present day peoples of ISEA. Outstanding findings were obtained on the routes of migration that occurred along with the spread of NPC during the settlement of

  18. Mitochondrial DNA data indicate an introduction through Mainland Southeast Asia for Australian dingoes and Polynesian domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Boonyaprakob, Ukadej; Wilton, Alan; Tanabe, Yuichi; Savolainen, Peter

    2012-03-01

    In the late stages of the global dispersal of dogs, dingoes appear in the Australian archaeological record 3500 years BP, and dogs were one of three domesticates brought with the colonization of Polynesia, but the introduction routes to this region remain unknown. This also relates to questions about human history, such as to what extent the Polynesian culture was introduced with the Austronesian expansion from Taiwan or adopted en route, and whether pre-Neolithic Australia was culturally influenced by the surrounding Neolithic world. We investigate these questions by mapping the distribution of the mtDNA founder haplotypes for dingoes (A29) and ancient Polynesian dogs (Arc1 and Arc2) in samples across Southern East Asia (n = 424) and Island Southeast Asia (n = 219). All three haplotypes were found in South China, Mainland Southeast Asia and Indonesia but absent in Taiwan and the Philippines, and the mtDNA diversity among dingoes indicates an introduction to Australia 4600-18 300 years BP. These results suggest that Australian dingoes and Polynesian dogs originate from dogs introduced to Indonesia via Mainland Southeast Asia before the Neolithic, and not from Taiwan together with the Austronesian expansion. This underscores the complex origins of Polynesian culture and the isolation from Neolithic influence of the pre-Neolithic Australian culture. PMID:21900326

  19. Abrupt climate change in southeast tropical Africa influenced by Indian monsoon variability and ITCZ migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Russell, James M.

    2007-08-01

    The timing and magnitude of abrupt climate change in tropical Africa during the last glacial termination remains poorly understood. High-resolution paleolimnological data from Lake Tanganyika, Southeast Africa show that wind-driven seasonal mixing in the lake was reduced during the Younger Dryas, Inter-Allerød Cool Period, Older Dryas, and Heinrich Event 1, suggesting a weakened southwest Indian monsoon and a more southerly position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone over Africa during these intervals. These events in Lake Tanganyika, coeval with millennial and centennial-scale climate shifts in the high latitudes, suggest that changes in ITCZ location and Indian monsoon strength are important components of abrupt global climate change and that their effects are felt south of the equator in Africa. However, we observe additional events in Lake Tanganyika of equal magnitude that are not correlated with high-latitude changes, indicating the potential for abrupt climate change to originate from within tropical systems.

  20. Large-scale retreat and advance of shallow seas in Southeast Asia driven by mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Flament, Nicolas; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Gurnis, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Indonesian islands and surrounding region represent one of the most submerged, low-lying continental areas on Earth. Almost half of this region, known as Sundaland, is presently inundated by a shallow sea. The role of mantle convection in driving long-wavelength topography and vertical motion of the lithosphere in this region has largely been ignored when interpreting regional stratigraphic sections, despite a consensus that Southeast Asia presently situated on a "dynamic topography low" resulting from long-term post-Pangea subduction. However, dynamic topography is typically described as a temporally and spatially transient process, implying that Sundaland may have experienced significant vertical motions in the geological past, and thus must be considered when interpreting relative sea level changes and the paleogeographic indicators of advancing and retreating shallow seas. Although the present-day low regional elevation has been attributed to the massive volume of oceanic slabs sinking in the mantle beneath Southeast Asia, a Late Cretaceous to Eocene regional unconformity indicates that shallow seas retreated following regional flooding during the mid-Cretaceous sea level highstand. During the Eocene, less than one fifth of Sundaland was submerged, despite global sea level being ~200 m higher than at present. The regional nature of the switch from marine to terrestrial environments, that is out-of-sync with eustatic sea levels, suggests that broad mantle-driven dynamic uplift may have led to the emergence of Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. We use numerical forward modelling of plate tectonics and mantle convection, and compare the predicted trends of dynamic topography with evidence from regional paleogeography and eustasy to determine the extent to which mantle-driven vertical motions of the lithosphere have influenced regional basin histories in Southeast Asia. A Late Cretaceous collision of Gondwana-derived terranes with Sundaland choked

  1. Decadal-scale relationship between measurements of aerosols, land-use change, and fire over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J. B.; Lecoeur, E.

    2015-10-01

    A simultaneous analysis of 13 years of remotely sensed data of land cover, fires, precipitation, and aerosols from the MODIS, TRMM, and MISR satellites and the AERONET network over Southeast Asia is performed, leading to a set of robust relationships between land-use change and fire being found on inter-annual and intra-annual scales over Southeast Asia, reflecting the heavy amounts of anthropogenic influence over land use change and fires in this region of the world. First, we find that fires occur annually, but with a considerable amount of variance in their onset, duration, and intensity from year to year, and from two separate regions within Southeast Asia from each other. This variability is already partially understood from previous works, including the impacts of both inter-annually and intra-annually occurring influences such as the Monsoon and El-Nino events, but yet there are other as of yet unknown influences that also are found to strongly influence the results. Second, we show that a simple regression-model of the land-cover, fire, and precipitation data can be used to recreate a robust representation of the timing and magnitude of measured AOD from multiple measurements sources of this region using either 8-day (better for onset and duration) or monthly based (better for magnitude) measurements, but not daily measurements. We find that the reconstructed AOD matches the timing and intensity from AERONET measurements to within 70 to 90 % and the timing and intensity of MISR measurements from to within 50 to 95 %. This is a unique finding in this part of the world, since could-covered regions are large, yet the robustness of the model is still capable of holding over many of these regions, where otherwise no fires are observed and hence no emissions source contribution to AOD would otherwise be thought to occur. Third, we determine that while Southeast Asia is a source region of such intense smoke emissions, that it is also impacted by transport of smoke

  2. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as "FODMAPs" and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food com - monly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937

  3. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as “FODMAPs” and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food commonly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937

  4. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-01-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to

  5. Gravity Derived Moho Depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    East and Southeast Asia and Western Pacific have extreme topography and both the youngest and oldest oceanic basins in the world, and are ideal places to understand oceanic basin evolution and continent-ocean interactions. Crustal structure is critical to understand the regional geodynamic processes. We present our recent inversion of Moho depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific from satellite gravity data. Because the marginal basins have experienced different cooling histories, we perform thermal correction after the simple Bouguer correction based on the plate cooling model. The model parameters are tested by varying the input plate thickness and mantle temperature with 5 km and 50°C steps, respectively. The evaluation criteria of thermal correction is that the regions with similar water depths have similar Moho depths. We find the best-fit plate thickness and mantle temperature are 95 km and 1300°C, respectively. The Moho undulations are then estimated from residual Bouguer gravity based on the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Because the study area convers distinct geological settings, we implement two gravity inversion strategies. In the first strategy, we use a constant density contrast of 0.38 g/cm3 across the Moho and a reference depth of 25 km for the entire study area. Using just one density contrast results in an obvious shallow Moho in continental region. In the second strategy, the study area is divided into four blocks, each covering either the continents or oceans mainly. Moho depths range approximately between 5 and 65 km. The average Moho depths of continental and continental shelf domains are about 35 and 23 km, respectively. Moho depths beneath the marginal basins are averaged at about 16 km. This large mean Moho depth is attributed to numerous seamounts, volcanic chains and ridges, where the Moho depths can be up to ~35 km. We find that the density contrast across the Moho varies between 0.33 and 0.40 g/cm3, approximately 0.40 g/cm3 in

  6. Challenging Educational Injustice: "Grassroots" Privatisation in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of low-cost private schools "mushrooming" in poor areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and elsewhere, is now well-documented. Findings from research by the author's teams and others show that these schools are serving a majority (urban and peri-urban) or significant minority (rural) of the poor, including…

  7. Perceived Professional Development Needs of English-Speaking Evangelical Academic Deans in Africa and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study identified the perceived professional development needs of English-speaking evangelical theological school deans in Africa and Asia, as a basis for evaluating or creating professional development programs for these regions. It answered the question: What are the perceptions of the need for professional development prior to and after…

  8. Monitoring the Quality of Medicines: Results from Africa, Asia, and South America

    PubMed Central

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S.; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M.; Lukulay, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003–2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines. PMID:25897073

  9. Spiny frogs (Paini) illuminate the history of the Himalayan region and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Che, Jing; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Hu, Jian-Sheng; Yan, Fang; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Wake, David B; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-08-01

    Asian frogs of the tribe Paini (Anura: Dicroglossidae) range across several first-order tectono-morphological domains of the Cenozoic Indo-Asian collision that include the Tibetan Plateau, the Himalayas, and Indochina. We show how the tectonic events induced by the Indo-Asian collision affected the regional biota and, in turn, how the geological history of the earth can be viewed from a biological perspective. Our analysis of a concatenated dataset comprising four nuclear gene sequences of Paini revealed two main radiations, corresponding to the genera Nanorana (I) and Quasipaa (II). Five distinct clades are recognized: Tibetan plateau clade (I-1), Himalaya clade (I-2), environs of Himalaya-Tibetan plateau clade (I-3), South China clade (II-1), and Indochina clade (II-2). This pattern of relationships highlights the significance of geography in shaping evolutionary history. Building on our molecular dating, ancestral region reconstruction, and distributional patterns, we hypothesize a distinct geographic and climatic transition in Asia beginning in the Oligocene and intensifying in the Miocene; this stimulated rapid diversification of Paini. Vicariance explains species formation among major lineages within Nanorana. Dispersal, in contrast, plays an important role among Quasipaa, with the southern Chinese taxa originating from Indochina. Our results support the tectonic hypothesis that an uplift in the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region resulting from crustal thickening and lateral extrusion of Indochina occurred synchronously during the transition between Oligocene and Miocene in reaction to the Indo-Asian collision. The phylogenetic history of Paini illuminates critical aspects of the timing of geological events responsible for the current geography of Southeast Asia. PMID:20643945

  10. Hantavirus seropositivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge; Henttonen, Heikki; Tran, Annelise; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR where they were collected. Rodents were tested by serological methods that detect several hantaviruses, including pathogenic ones. Rodents with a seropositive status were more likely to be found near to agriculture on steep land, and also in environments with a high proportion of agriculture on steep land. These results suggest that in Southeast Asia, hantaviruses, which are often associated with generalist rodent species with a preference for agricultural land, may benefit from land conversion to agriculture. PMID:27246270

  11. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    been unrealisticably high. Until 1983 Southeast Asia presented a fairly united front on population policy matters. The momentous break occurred when the Malaysian Prime Minister announced to his current 15 million people a target of 70 million for Malaysia's population and followed this up with pronatalist policies in support of this goal. The key point in the context of this paper, is to emphasize that perceptions of national self-interest have led to the adoption of widely divergent policies in neighboring Malaysia and Singapore. Singapore is offering strong financial incentives for its socioeconomically disadvantaged groups to have fewer children. Malaysia's incentives to have more people will have most impact on the disadvantaged groups. There is little difference between Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam on fertility goals, and their perceptions of the problem appear similar. Malaysian population and ethnic policies have had a number of direct effects on Australia. It was ethnic politics that determined Malaysia's hard line attitude toward Vietnamese refugees. Australia's acceptance of large numbers of Vietnamese refugees probably resulted as much from the strong pressure applied by ASEAN nations to do so as from humanitarian grounds. Another aspect of Malaysian ethnic politics which has had direct repercussions on Australia is the discrimination against non-Malay students for places in Malaysian universities. PMID:12267174

  12. Monogeneans from Pangasiidae (Siluriformes) in Southeast Asia: IX. Two new species of Thaparocleidus Jain, 1952 (Ancylodiscoididae) from Pangasius mahakamensis.

    PubMed

    Pariselle, A; Lim, L H S; Lambert, A

    2005-12-01

    The examination of gill parasites from P. mahakamensis Pouyaud, Gustiano & Teugels, 2002 (Siluriformes, Pangasiidae) in Southeast Asia revealed the presence of three species of Monogenea. One (Thaparocleidus caecus (Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969)) had been previously described. The other two, belonging to Thaparocleidus Jain, 1952 (Monogenea, Ancylodiscoididae) as defined by Lim (1996) and Lim et al. (2001), are considered new species: T. pouyaudi n. sp. and T. teugelsi n. sp. PMID:16402564

  13. Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia from 2008 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Jantafong, Tippawan; Sangtong, Pradit; Saenglub, Wimontiane; Mungkundar, Chatthapon; Romlamduan, Narin; Lekchareonsuk, Chalermpol; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa

    2015-04-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) affects the swine industry worldwide. Annual surveillances taken from 2008 to 2013 revealed a 13.86% prevalence of PRRSVs in swine populations in Thailand. The selected positive samples were genetically characterized based on global systems and phylogenetic trees that were constructed using 967 ORF5 samples from this study, the collective sequences from Thailand and Southeast Asia and reference sequences. The results showed that both types I and II have been circulating in Thai swine and that genotype II was more prevalent than genotype I. Only type II was found in other countries in Southeast Asia. Type I PRRSVs from Thailand are clustered in subtype 1, clades A, D and H. Type II PRRSVs are topologically classified in lineage 1 and sublineages 5.1, 5.2 and 8.7, of which sublineage 8.7 was predominant, especially after 2010. PRRSVs in sublineage 8.7 are divided into two groups: classical NA and HP-PRRSV. An analysis of all HP-PRRSVs in Southeast Asia revealed four separate clades--A (SX2009-like), B (09HEN1-like), JXA1-like and GXFCH08-like--reflecting four different introductions of these viruses into Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. HP-PRRSV first appeared in Thailand and Cambodia in 2008, 2 years before the first epidemic outbreaks. Recently, the genetics of PRRSVs in Southeast Asia have become more diverse. Thus, PRRSV genetics must be continually characterized and phylogenetically analyzed using global systematic classifications to provide annual genetic information for PRRS control and vaccine selection. PMID:25704227

  14. A 50-m Forest Cover Map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and Its Application on Forest Fragmentation Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Dinh Duong, Nguyen; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×106 km2 (GlobCover) to 2.69×106 km2 (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity. PMID:24465714

  15. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Duong, Nguyen Dinh; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6) km(2) (GlobCover) to 2.69×10(6) km(2) (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity. PMID

  16. Cave Diplopoda of southern China with reference to millipede diversity in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Golovatch, Sergei I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The diversity of Diplopoda in caves of southern China is remarkably high, often 5–6 species per cave, consisting mostly of local endemics and presumed troglobionts. These are evidently biased to just a few lineages, mainly members of the orders Chordeumatida and Callipodida, the families Cambalopsidae (Spirostreptida) and Haplodesmidae (Polydesmida) or the genera Pacidesmus, Epanerchodus and Glenniea (all Polydesmida, Polydesmidae), Trichopeltis (Polydesmida, Cryptodesmidae), Dexmoxytes (Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae) and Hyleoglomeris (Glomerida, Glomeridae). All these taxa, especially the Paradoxosomatidae and Cambalopsidae (usually amounting to about 60% and 10% of the total species diversity in the Oriental fauna, respectively), are moderately to highly speciose across Southeast Asia, being largely epigean. However, the epigean Diplopoda of southern China are yet badly understudied, since much of the collecting and taxonomic exploration efforts still focus on cavernicoles. The Oriental Region is the only biogeographic realm globally that harbours all 16 orders of Diplopoda, of which 14 have already been encountered in China and/or the immediately adjacent parts of Indochina. Thus, China may actually prove to support no less than 1,000 millipede species of various origins, mainly Oriental and Palaearctic. PMID:26257536

  17. First Castorid (Mammalia, Rodentia) from the Middle Miocene of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Martin, Thomas; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2011-04-01

    Today and in the Tertiary, the geographical distribution of castorids is limited throughout all of the northern continents. Fossils of the Castoridae genus Steneofiber are abundant in many localities of Eurasia from the late Oligocene to Pliocene period. Recently, Steneofiber fossils were discovered in two localities of northern Thailand, Mae Moh and Chiang Muan coal mines, in layers of late middle Miocene age. These discoveries represent the first records of castorids from Southeast Asia and correspond to their southernmost known range. The focus of this study is to describe this new Thai species of Steneofiber and to define its wear stages from the molar occlusal surfaces by using micro-CT scan analysis. The CT scan technique permits the analysis of the virtual occlusal surface changes from wear, allowing easier comparison to related species of Steneofiber cheek teeth without destroying the teeth. The new species, Steneofiber siamensis n. sp., can be distinguished from the other species of Steneofiber by several distinct characters, longer mesostriid on p4, presence of premesostria and metastria on P4, which are smaller than most of the other known species. The occurrence of this new castorid also supports a subtropical to tropical paleoclimate for these two localities of northern Thailand.

  18. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, I

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617

  19. The key role of government in addressing the pandemic of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, Theodore H

    2015-04-01

    Micronutrient deficiency conditions are a major global public health problem. While the private sector has an important role in addressing this problem, the main responsibility lies with national governments, in cooperation with international agencies and donors. Mandatory fortification of basic foods provides a basic necessary intake for the majority and needs to be supported by provision of essential vitamin and mineral supplements for mothers and children and other high risk groups. Fortification by government mandate and regulation is essential with cooperation by private sector food manufacturers, and in the context of broader policies for poverty reduction, education and agricultural reform. Iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, folic acid, zinc, vitamin D and vitamin B12 are prime examples of international fortification experience achieved by proactive governmental nutrition policies. These are essential to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and their follow-up sustainable global health targets. National governmental policies for nutritional security and initiatives are essential to implement both food fortification and targeted supplementation policies to reduce the huge burden of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world. PMID:25856222

  20. Fifteen new species of the spider genus Pholcus (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingting; Zheng, Guo; Yao, Zhiyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen new species from six species groups of the genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 are described from Southeast Asia: Pholcus hinsonensis sp. nov. (male & female, Thailand) and P. tharnlodensis sp. nov. (male & female, Thailand) from the P. bidentatus species group; P. kottawagamaensis sp. nov. (male & female, Sri Lanka) from the P. ethagala species group; P. cenranaensis sp. nov. (male & female, Indonesia) and P. krachensis sp. nov. (male, Thailand) from the P. gracillimus species group; P. anaiensis sp. nov. (male, Indonesia), P. ballarini sp. nov. (male & female, Thailand), P. gou sp. nov. (male & female, Myanmar), P. wan sp. nov. (male & female, Thailand) and P. zhuchuandiani sp. nov. (male & female, Indonesia) from the P. halabala species group; P. chiangmaiensis sp. nov. (male & female, Thailand) and P. taptaoensis sp. nov. (male & female, Thailand) from the P. quinquenotatus species group; P. kaebyaiensis sp. nov. (male & female, Thailand), P. musensis sp. nov. (male & female, Thailand) and P. songkhonensis sp. nov. (male & female, Thailand) from the P. yichengicus species group. PMID:27395715

  1. Population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles aconitus in China and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Harbach, Ralph E; Walton, Catherine; He, Zhengbo; Zhong, Daibin; Yan, Guiyun; Butlin, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles aconitus is a well-known vector of malaria and is broadly distributed in the Oriental Region, yet there is no information on its population genetic characteristics. In this study, the genetic differentiation among populations was examined using 140 mtDNA COII sequences from 21 sites throughout Southern China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka. The population in Sri Lanka has characteristic rDNA D3 and ITS2, mtDNA COII and ND5 haplotypes, and may be considered a distinct subspecies. Clear genetic structure was observed with highly significant genetic variation present among population groups in Southeast Asia. The greatest genetic diversity exists in Yunnan and Myanmar population groups. All population groups are significantly different from one another in pairwise Fst values, except Northern Thailand with Central Thailand. Mismatch distributions and extremely significant F(s) values suggest that the populations passed through a recent demographic expansion. These patterns are discussed in relation to the likely biogeographic history of the region and compared to other Anopheles species. PMID:22982161

  2. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia using Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Suhardjono, S.; Harjadi, P.

    2013-12-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distrbition of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  3. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia from Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Suhardjono, Suhardjono; Harjadi, Prih

    2014-05-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distribution of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  4. Policy challenges and approaches for the conservation of mangrove forests in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Friess, Daniel A; Thompson, Benjamin S; Brown, Ben; Amir, A Aldrie; Cameron, Clint; Koldewey, Heather J; Sasmito, Sigit D; Sidik, Frida

    2016-10-01

    Many drivers of mangrove forest loss operate over large scales and are most effectively addressed by policy interventions. However, conflicting or unclear policy objectives exist at multiple tiers of government, resulting in contradictory management decisions. To address this, we considered four approaches that are being used increasingly or could be deployed in Southeast Asia to ensure sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. First, a stronger incorporation of mangroves into marine protected areas (that currently focus largely on reefs and fisheries) could resolve some policy conflicts and ensure that mangroves do not fall through a policy gap. Second, examples of community and government comanagement exist, but achieving comanagement at scale will be important in reconciling stakeholders and addressing conflicting policy objectives. Third, private-sector initiatives could protect mangroves through existing and novel mechanisms in degraded areas and areas under future threat. Finally, payments for ecosystem services (PES) hold great promise for mangrove conservation, with carbon PES schemes (known as blue carbon) attracting attention. Although barriers remain to the implementation of PES, the potential to implement them at multiple scales exists. Closing the gap between mangrove conservation policies and action is crucial to the improved protection and management of this imperiled coastal ecosystem and to the livelihoods that depend on them. PMID:27341487

  5. Hidden Drug Resistant HIV to Emerge in the Era of Universal Treatment Access in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Alexander; Kerr, Stephen J.; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Law, Matthew G.; Cooper, David A.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Wilson, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Universal access to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection is becoming more of a reality in most low and middle income countries in Asia. However, second-line therapies are relatively scarce. Methods and Findings We developed a mathematical model of an HIV epidemic in a Southeast Asian setting and used it to forecast the impact of treatment plans, without second-line options, on the potential degree of acquisition and transmission of drug resistant HIV strains. We show that after 10 years of universal treatment access, up to 20% of treatment-naïve individuals with HIV may have drug-resistant strains but it depends on the relative fitness of viral strains. Conclusions If viral load testing of people on ART is carried out on a yearly basis and virological failure leads to effective second-line therapy, then transmitted drug resistance could be reduced by 80%. Greater efforts are required for minimizing first-line failure, to detect virological failure earlier, and to procure access to second-line therapies. PMID:20544022

  6. Degraded lands worth protecting: the biological importance of Southeast Asia's repeatedly logged forests

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David P.; Larsen, Trond H.; Docherty, Teegan D. S.; Ansell, Felicity A.; Hsu, Wayne W.; Derhé, Mia A.; Hamer, Keith C.; Wilcove, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot of imperilled biodiversity, owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture. The degraded forests that remain after multiple rounds of intensive logging are often assumed to be of little conservation value; consequently, there has been no concerted effort to prevent them from being converted to oil palm. However, no study has quantified the biodiversity of repeatedly logged forests. We compare the species richness and composition of birds and dung beetles within unlogged (primary), once-logged and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. Logging had little effect on the overall richness of birds. Dung beetle richness declined following once-logging but did not decline further after twice-logging. The species composition of bird and dung beetle communities was altered, particularly after the second logging rotation, but globally imperilled bird species (IUCN Red List) did not decline further after twice-logging. Remarkably, over 75 per cent of bird and dung beetle species found in unlogged forest persisted within twice-logged forest. Although twice-logged forests have less biological value than primary and once-logged forests, they clearly provide important habitat for numerous bird and dung beetle species. Preventing these degraded forests from being converted to oil palm should be a priority of policy-makers and conservationists. PMID:20685713

  7. Soil-transmitted helminths of humans in Southeast Asia--towards integrated control.

    PubMed

    Jex, Aaron R; Lim, Yvonne A L; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Hotez, Peter J; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) pose significant public health challenges in many countries of Southeast Asia (SEA). Overall, approximately one-third of the world's cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm disease occur in the 11 major SEA countries. Various countries are at different stages in their response to controlling these diseases. For instance, in Malaysia and Thailand, the major burden of disease is confined to rural/remote, indigenous and/or refugee populations. In countries, such as Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Vietnam, the burden remains high, although extensive deworming programmes are underway and are yielding encouraging results. The present chapter reviews the current status of STH infections in SEA, identifies knowledge gaps and offers a perspective on the development of improved, integrated surveillance and control in this geographical region. It indicates that advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of these parasites, through the strategic use of molecular and predictive (e.g. geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS)) technologies, could readily underpin future research and control programmes. It is hoped that the gradual move towards integrated treatment/control programmes will assist substantially in decreasing the chronic disease burden linked to STHs, thus increasing human health and welfare, and supporting socio-economic growth and development in SEA countries. PMID:21295679

  8. The Role of DNA Barcodes in Understanding and Conservation of Mammal Diversity in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Charles M.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Ivanova, Natalia V.; Eger, Judith L.; Lim, Burton K.; Guillén-Servent, Antonio; Kruskop, Sergei V.; Mackie, Iain; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Southeast Asia is recognized as a region of very high biodiversity, much of which is currently at risk due to habitat loss and other threats. However, many aspects of this diversity, even for relatively well-known groups such as mammals, are poorly known, limiting ability to develop conservation plans. This study examines the value of DNA barcodes, sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, to enhance understanding of mammalian diversity in the region and hence to aid conservation planning. Methodology and Principal Findings DNA barcodes were obtained from nearly 1900 specimens representing 165 recognized species of bats. All morphologically or acoustically distinct species, based on classical taxonomy, could be discriminated with DNA barcodes except four closely allied species pairs. Many currently recognized species contained multiple barcode lineages, often with deep divergence suggesting unrecognized species. In addition, most widespread species showed substantial genetic differentiation across their distributions. Our results suggest that mammal species richness within the region may be underestimated by at least 50%, and there are higher levels of endemism and greater intra-specific population structure than previously recognized. Conclusions DNA barcodes can aid conservation and research by assisting field workers in identifying species, by helping taxonomists determine species groups needing more detailed analysis, and by facilitating the recognition of the appropriate units and scales for conservation planning. PMID:20838635

  9. El Nino and Health Risks from Landscape Fire Emissions in Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; Defries, Ruth S.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Kinney, Patrick L.; Randerson, James T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Chen, Yang; Faluvegi, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Emissions from landscape fires affect both climate and air quality. Here, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modelling to quantify health effects from fire emissions in southeast Asia from 1997 to 2006. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity owing to coupling between El Nino-induced droughts and anthropogenic land-use change. We show that during strong El Nino years, fires contribute up to 200 micrograms per cubic meter and 50 ppb in annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone surface concentrations near fire sources, respectively. This corresponds to a fire contribution of 200 additional days per year that exceed the World Health Organization 50 micrograms per cubic metre 24-hr PM(sub 2.5) interim target and an estimated 10,800 (6,800-14,300)-person (approximately 2 percent) annual increase in regional adult cardiovascular mortality. Our results indicate that reducing regional deforestation and degradation fires would improve public health along with widely established benefits from reducing carbon emissions, preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services.

  10. Harmonisation of food labelling regulations in Southeast Asia: benefits, challenges and implications.

    PubMed

    Kasapila, William; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2011-01-01

    In the globalised world of the 21st century, issues of food and nutrition labelling are of pre-eminent importance. Several international bodies, including the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation, are encouraging countries to harmonise their food and nutrition regulations with international standards, guidelines and recommendations such as those for Codex Alimentarius. Through harmonisation, these organisations envisage fewer barriers to trade and freer movement of food products between countries, which would open doors to new markets and opportunities for the food industry. In turn, increased food trade would enhance economic development and allow consumers a greater choice of products. Inevitably, however, embracing harmonisation brings along cost implications and challenges that have to be overcome. Moreover, the harmonisation process is complex and sporadic in light of the tasks that countries have to undertake; for example, updating legislation, strengthening administrative capabilities and establishing analytical laboratories. This review discusses the legislation and regulations that govern food and nutrition labelling in Southeast Asia, and highlights the discrepancies that exist in this regard, their origin and consequences. It also gives an account of the current status of harmonising labelling of pre-packaged foodstuffs in the region and explains the subsequent benefits, challenges and implications for governments, the food industry and consumers. PMID:21393103

  11. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Douglas, I

    1999-11-29

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617

  12. Earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution and fractal dimension in mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pailoplee, Santi; Choowong, Montri

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes highlighted the need for a more accurate understanding of earthquake characteristics in both regions. In this study, both the a and b values of the frequency-magnitude distribution (FMD) and the fractal dimension ( D C ) were investigated simultaneously from 13 seismic source zones recognized in mainland Southeast Asia (MLSEA). By using the completeness earthquake dataset, the calculated values of b and D C were found to imply variations in seismotectonic stress. The relationships of D C -b and D C -( a/ b) were investigated to categorize the level of earthquake hazards of individual seismic source zones, where the calibration curves illustrate a negative correlation between the D C and b values ( D c = 2.80 - 1.22 b) and a positive correlation between the D C and a/ b ratios ( D c = 0.27( a/ b) - 0.01) with similar regression coefficients ( R 2 = 0.65 to 0.68) for both regressions. According to the obtained relationships, the Hsenwi-Nanting and Red River fault zones revealed low-stress accumulations. Conversely, the Sumatra-Andaman interplate and intraslab, the Andaman Basin, and the Sumatra fault zone were defined as high-tectonic stress regions that may pose risks of generating large earthquakes in the future.

  13. Challenges in the clinical development requirements for the marketing authorization of new medicines in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kudrin, Alex

    2009-03-01

    A rapid growth of investment into clinical research and new drug development has manifested itself by an exponential increase of new products coming onto the worldwide market. The emerging pharmaceutical and biotech markets in Southeast Asia are believed to be extremely promising from a commercial point of view in the next decade. The unique position of the Asian market and the diversity in clinical research initiatives are linked with diverse regulatory requirements for clinical development and registration of new medicines. Some of these differences have an impact on timelines for marketing authorizations in South Korea, China, Thailand, Japan, Singapore, and other countries. One of the approaches to streamlining regulatory strategy in different countries is the initiation of multicountry international clinical trials trying to address requirements and allowing registration in several regional countries simultaneously. Increasing cooperation between South Asian countries in relation to regulatory requirements and clinical development will facilitate the registration of innovative medicines in this rapidly developing region of the world and enable improved cohesiveness between countries in a drug safety framework. PMID:19168433

  14. Anopheles species associations in Southeast Asia: indicator species and environmental influences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Southeast Asia presents a high diversity of Anopheles. Environmental requirements differ for each species and should be clarified because of their influence on malaria transmission potential. Monitoring projects collect vast quantities of entomological data over the whole region and could bring valuable information to malaria control staff but collections are not always standardized and are thus difficult to analyze. In this context studying species associations and their relation to the environment offer some opportunities as they are less subject to sampling error than individual species. Methods Using asymmetrical similarity coefficients, indirect clustering and the search of indicator species, this paper identified species associations. Environmental influences were then analysed through canonical and discriminant analysis using climatic and topographic data, land cover in a 3 km buffer around villages and vegetation indices. Results Six groups of sites characterized the structure of the species assemblage. Temperature, rainfall and vegetation factors all play a role. Four out of the six groups of sites based on species similarities could be discriminated using environmental information only. Conclusions Vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery proved very valuable with one variable explaining more variance of the species dataset than any other variable. The analysis could be improved by integrating seasonality in the sampling and collecting at least 4 consecutive days. PMID:23642279

  15. Re-analysis of data on the space radiation environment above southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, P. R.

    1989-11-01

    A new analysis was performed on the HRM-3 gamma ray detector data collected from Shuttle missions STS-41B, 41C, 41D, 41G, and 51A. The new analysis shows no evidence for the existence of enhanced levels of radiation in low-Earth orbit over South-East Asia (i.e., in the area bounded by longitudes 100 E to 190 E and latitudes 10 S to 15 N) as previously suggested. Variations in the detector count rates with geophysical location are shown to be consistent with the variation of the cosmic ray flux with geomagnetic latitude, and also show expected increases due to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer belt electrons. However, at times poor quantitative agreement is found between the expected positions of the SAS or outer electron belt, and the Shuttle's geophysical location on the occasions when high count rates were observed. It is believed that this lack of correlation is a result of the sensitivity of the trapped particle environment to geophysical position and magnetospheric activity.

  16. The Key Role of Government in Addressing the Pandemic of Micronutrient Deficiency Conditions in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency conditions are a major global public health problem. While the private sector has an important role in addressing this problem, the main responsibility lies with national governments, in cooperation with international agencies and donors. Mandatory fortification of basic foods provides a basic necessary intake for the majority and needs to be supported by provision of essential vitamin and mineral supplements for mothers and children and other high risk groups. Fortification by government mandate and regulation is essential with cooperation by private sector food manufacturers, and in the context of broader policies for poverty reduction, education and agricultural reform. Iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, folic acid, zinc, vitamin D and vitamin B12 are prime examples of international fortification experience achieved by proactive governmental nutrition policies. These are vital to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and their follow-up sustainable global health targets. National governmental policies for nutritional security and initiatives are essential to implement both food fortification and targeted supplementation policies to reduce the huge burden of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world. PMID:25856222

  17. El Niño and health risks from landscape fire emissions in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Kinney, Patrick L.; Randerson, James T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Chen, Yang; Faluvegi, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Emissions from landscape fires affect both climate and air quality1. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modeling to quantify health effects from fire emissions in Southeast Asia from 1997 to 2006. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity due to coupling between El Niño-induced droughts and anthropogenic land use change2,3. We show that during strong El Niño years, fires contribute up to 200 μg/m3 and 50 ppb in annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) surface concentrations near fire sources, respectively. This corresponds to a fire contribution of 200 additional days per year that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) 50 μg/m3 24-hour PM2.5 interim target (IT-2)4 and an estimated 10,800 (6,800–14,300) person (~2%) annual increase in regional adult cardiovascular mortality. Our results indicate that reducing regional deforestation and degradation fires would improve public health along with widely established benefits from reducing carbon emissions, preserving biodiversity, and maintaining ecosystem services. PMID:25379058

  18. Complexities at the intersection of tobacco control and trade liberalisation: evidence from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Drope, Jeffrey; Chavez, Jenina Joy

    2015-06-01

    For more than two decades, public health scholars and proponents have demonstrated concern about the negative effects of trade liberalisation on tobacco control policies. However, there is little theoretically-guided, empirical research across time and space that evaluates this relationship. Accordingly, we use one major region that has experienced rapid and significant recent liberalisation, Southeast Asia, and examine key tobacco control-relevant outcomes between 1999 and 2012. While we find a modest increase in regional trade in tobacco products in some countries, the effects on tobacco affordability and consumption are very mixed with no clear link to liberalisation. We argue that widespread penetration of the region by transnational tobacco firms is likely mitigating the effects of trade liberalisation. Notably, tobacco control policies have also generally improved across the region, part of which is likely the result of successful regional and global efforts by civil society, governments and intergovernmental organisations. The results suggest that scholars and public health proponents should move the focus away from narrow economic aspects of liberalisation toward specific issues that are more likely to affect tobacco control, such as intellectual property rights protections and investor-state dispute settlement. PMID:24500267

  19. Oil Palm expansion over Southeast Asia: land use change and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, S. J.; Heald, C. L.; Geddes, J.; Marlier, M. E.; Austin, K.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). Much of this expansion has come at the expense of natural forests and grasslands. Aircraft measurements from a 2008 campaign, OP3, found that oil palm plantations emit as much as 7 times more isoprene than nearby natural forests. Furthermore, SEA is a rapidly developing region, with increasing urban population, and growing air quality concerns. Thus, SEA represents an ideal case study to examine the impacts of land use change on air quality in the region, and whether those changes can be detected from satellite observations of atmospheric composition. We investigate the impacts of historical and future oil palm expansion in SEA using satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We examine the impact of palm plantations on surface-atmosphere processes (dry deposition, biogenic emissions). We show the sensitivity of air quality to current and future oil palm expansion scenarios, and discuss the limitations of current satellite measurements in capturing these changes. Our results indicate that while the impact of oil palm expansion on air quality can be significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space.

  20. Cancer epidemiology and control in peninsular and island South-East Asia - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Manan, Azizah Ab; Chow, Khuan Yew; Cornain, Santoso F; Devi, C R Beena; Triningsih, F X Ediati; Laudico, Adriano; Mapua, Cynthia A; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Noorwati, S; Nyunt, Kan; Othman, Nor Hayati; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sinuraya, Evlina Suzanna; Yip, Cheng Har; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment. PMID:20553070

  1. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

  2. Haze in Southeast Asia: Needed Local Actions for a Regional Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odihi, J. O.

    - Southeast Asia experienced disastrous haze episodes in 1997 and 1998 as a result of natural factors such as the El-Niño occurrence and its attendant drought, which aided desiccation and facilitated high combustibility of forest resources, and human activities such as widespread burning of forests in the lush tropical environment. The human factors that caused the haze are presented in this paper, and the conclusion is that Nature is not guilty. A comprehensive approach that tackles the root causes of the haze problem is suggested. Particularly, socioeconomic problems of the poor who use fire as part of their land management, promulgation and effective enforcement of environmental laws are needed on the one hand to reduce the frequency and magnitude of haze episodes in the future. On the other hand, education of the public on `safe' behavior during haze episodes is necessary to avert large scale haze-related disasters or to prevent haze from becoming instantly synonymous with disaster in the region.

  3. From BASE-ASIA Toward 7-SEAS: A Satellite-Surface Perspective of Boreal Spring Biomass-Burning Aerosols and Clouds in Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, William K.-M.; Li, Can; Gabriel, Philip M.; Ji, Qiang; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, E. Judd; Nguyen, Anh X.; Janjai, Serm; Lin, Neng-Huei; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Boonjawat, Jariya; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Fu, Joshua S.; Hansell, Richard A.; Sayer, Andrew M.; Gautam, Ritesh; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Goodloe, Colby S.; Miko, Laddawan R.; Shu, Peter K.; Loftus, Adrian M.; Huang, Jingfeng; Kim, Jin Young; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Pantina, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent field studies conducted by NASA's SMART-COMMIT (and ACHIEVE, to be operated in 2013) mobile laboratories, jointly with distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and MPLNET, http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and other contributing instruments over northern Southeast Asia. These three mobile laboratories, collectively called SMARTLabs (cf. http://smartlabs.gsfc.nasa.gov/, Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research & Testbed Laboratories) comprise a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that are pivotal in providing high spectral and temporal measurements, complementing the collocated spatial observations from various Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. A satellite-surface perspective and scientific findings, drawn from the BASE-ASIA (2006) field deployment as well as a series of ongoing 7-SEAS (2010-13) field activities over northern Southeast Asia are summarized, concerning (i) regional properties of aerosols from satellite and in situ measurements, (ii) cloud properties from remote sensing and surface observations, (iii) vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds, and (iv) regional aerosol radiative effects and impact assessment. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning, exhibits highly consistent spatial and temporal distribution patterns, with major variability arising from changes in the magnitude of the aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from the source regions, the tightly coupled-aerosolecloud system provides a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring the micro- and macro-scale relationships of the complex interactions. The climatic significance is presented through large-scale anti-correlations between aerosol and precipitation anomalies, showing spatial and seasonal variability, but their precise cause-and-effect relationships

  4. Continental and sea surface temperature variability in southeast Africa (Zambezi River region) since MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, I. S.; Tjallingii, R.; Wang, Y. V.; Mets, A.; van der Lubbe, J.; Brummer, G.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Schneider, R. R.; Schouten, S.

    2010-12-01

    At present, few paleoclimate records exist from the region of southeast Africa. The continental climate history of southeast Africa is of much interest since this region falls under the influence of both the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and Congo Air Boundary (CAB) and likely experienced considerably different hydrological conditions when glacial conditions prevailed. Likewise, the paleoceanographic history of the Mozambique Channel of the coast of southeast Africa is of much interest since mesoscale eddies (Agulhas rings) formed in this region transport and release warm and saline Indian Ocean waters into the South Atlantic influencing the buoyancy of Atlantic thermocline waters, deep-water formation, and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Sea surface temperatures (SST) of the southern Indian Ocean are additionally important for modulating precipitation in southeast Africa. Here, we utilize multiple organic (TEX86, BIT Index, MBT, CBT) and inorganic (XRF core scanning) geochemical proxies on a sediment core collected from near the Zambezi River (core 64PE304-80; -18.24 °S, 37.87 °E) to examine continental conditions within the Zambezi River catchment as well as the SST history of the Mozambique Channel. Throughout the ~38 kyr record of 64PE304-80, variations in the BIT Index, a proxy for marine vs. soil organic matter input, closely track changes in the log (Ca/Ti) ratio, a proxy for marine vs. lithogenic input. These records indicate increased lithogenic/soil OM contributions in the Late Pleistocene portion of the record whereas the Holocene is characterized by increased marine contributions. This pattern likely reflects closer proximity of the Zambezi river mouth and transport of terrestrial material to the coring site during the last glacial sea-level lowstand. A particularly interesting feature of these records is pronounced millennial-scale fluctuations occurring within Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 2 and 3, which posses a similar structure

  5. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Steven; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Nguyen-Mai, Huong; Harper, Sherilee

    2015-01-01

    The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science) were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer’s health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia. PMID:26501297

  6. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Steven; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Nguyen-Mai, Huong; Harper, Sherilee

    2015-10-01

    The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science) were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer's health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia. PMID:26501297

  7. Evolutionary and Ecological Dynamics of Transboundary Disease Caused by H5N1 Virus in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wei, K; Lin, Y; Xie, D

    2015-06-01

    Southeast Asia has been the breeding ground for many emerging diseases in the past decade, and it is in this region that new genetic variants of HPAI H5N1 viruses have been emerging. Cross-border movement of animals accelerates the spread of H5N1, and the changing environmental conditions also exert strong selective pressure on the viruses. The transboundary zoonotic diseases caused by H5N1 pose a serious and continual threat to global economy and public health. Here, we divided the H5N1 viruses isolated in Southeast Asia during 2003-2009 into four groups according to their phylogenetic relationships among HA gene sequences. Molecular evolution analysis suggests populations in expansion rather than a positive selection for group 2 and group 3, yet group 4 is under strong positive selection. Site 193 was found to be a potential glycosylation site and located in receptor-binding domain. Note that site 193 tends to appear in avian isolates instead of human strains. Population dynamics analysis reveals that the effective population size of infections in Southeast Asia has undergone three obvious increases, and the results are consistent with the epidemiological analysis. Ecological and phylogeographical analyses show that agro-ecological environments, migratory birds, domestic waterfowl, especially free-ranging ducks, are crucial in the occurrence, maintenance and spread of H5N1 virus. The epidemiological links between Indonesia and Suphanburi observed suggest that viruses in Indonesia were originated from multiple introductions. PMID:23952973

  8. The composition and variability of atmospheric aerosol over Southeast Asia during 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivitayanurak, W.; Palmer, P. I.; Barkley, M. P.; Robinson, N. H.; Coe, H.; Oram, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We use a nested version of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model to better understand the composition and variation of aerosol over Borneo and the broader Southeast Asian region in conjunction with aircraft and satellite observations. Our focus on Southeast Asia reflects the importance of this region as a source of reactive organic gases and aerosols from natural forests, biomass burning, and food and fuel crops. We particularly focus on July 2008 when the UK BAe-146 research aircraft was deployed over northern Malaysian Borneo as part of the ACES/OP3 measurement campaign. During July 2008 we find using the model that Borneo (defined as Borneo Island and the surrounding Indonesian islands) was a net exporter of primary organic aerosol (42 kT) and black carbon aerosol (11 kT). We find only 13% of volatile organic compound oxidation products partition to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), with Borneo being a net exporter of SOA (15 kT). SOA represents approximately 19% of the total organic aerosol over the region. Sulphate is mainly from aqueous-phase oxidation (68%), with smaller contributions from gas-phase oxidation (15%) and advection into the regions (14%). We find that there is a large source of sea salt, as expected, but this largely deposits within the region; we find that dust aerosol plays only a relatively small role in the aerosol burden. In contrast to coincident surface measurements over Northern Borneo that find a pristine environment with evidence for substantial biogenic SOA formation we find that the free troposphere is influenced by biomass burning aerosol transported from the northwest of the Island and further afield. We find several transport events during July 2008 over Borneo associated with elevated aerosol concentrations, none of which coincide with the aircraft flights. We use MODIS aerosol optical depths (AOD) data and the model to put the July campaign into a longer temporal perspective. We find that Borneo is where the model

  9. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nick; Moore, Tim; Crofts, Nick

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers.In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness.While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  10. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  11. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  12. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  13. Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Blurring Borders, Changing Balance. Routledge Research on Public and Social Policy in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically chart and comparatively assess the trend towards private higher education in South East Asia. Caught between conflicting imperatives of spiralling demand, and limited resources, the balance between public and private higher education systems in South East, South, and East Asia has shifted markedly. The…

  14. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  15. Pregnancy-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Alam, Nurul; Compaoré, Yacouba; Rossier, Clementine; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Jaeger, Fabienne; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Ansah, Akosua; Debpuur, Cornelius; Oduro, Abraham; Williams, John; Addei, Sheila; Gyapong, Margaret; Kukula, Vida A.; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Desai, Meghna; Moige, Hellen; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Ogwang, Sheila; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex; Oti, Samuel; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia; Price, Alison; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Collinson, Mark A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman A.; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Women continue to die in unacceptably large numbers around the world as a result of pregnancy, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Part of the problem is a lack of accurate, population-based information characterising the issues and informing solutions. Population surveillance sites, such as those operated within the INDEPTH Network, have the potential to contribute to bridging the information gaps. Objective To describe patterns of pregnancy-related mortality at INDEPTH Network Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia in terms of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and cause-specific mortality rates. Design Data on individual deaths among women of reproductive age (WRA) (15–49) resident in INDEPTH sites were collated into a standardised database using the INDEPTH 2013 population standard, the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) standard, and the InterVA model for assigning cause of death. Results These analyses are based on reports from 14 INDEPTH sites, covering 14,198 deaths among WRA over 2,595,605 person-years observed. MMRs varied between 128 and 461 per 100,000 live births, while maternal mortality rates ranged from 0.11 to 0.74 per 1,000 person-years. Detailed rates per cause are tabulated, including analyses of direct maternal, indirect maternal, and incidental pregnancy-related deaths across the 14 sites. Conclusions As expected, these findings confirmed unacceptably high continuing levels of maternal mortality. However, they also demonstrate the effectiveness of INDEPTH sites and of the VA methods applied to arrive at measurements of maternal mortality that are essential for planning effective solutions and monitoring programmatic impacts. PMID:25377328

  16. Carbon Flux Estimation in Southeast Asia using a Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Inversion System and Observational Data from Multiple Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, M.; Shirai, T.; Terao, Y.; Mukai, H.; Nomura, S.; Mohamad, M.; Jahaya, M. F.; Inoue, M.; Morino, I.; Yoshida, Y.; Uchino, O.; Zhuravlev, R.; Ganshin, A.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia is rich in tropical forest and biodiversity. Previous inversion studies show large inter-annual variability in the biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange attributable to climate anomalies. However, the magnitudes of estimated fluxes are significantly different among the inversions. On the other hand, land-use change has been accelerating the anthropogenic emissions. For the sustainable development in Southeast Asia under the on-going climate change, it is important to understand the biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and access the regional emissions. One of the reasons for the large uncertainty in flux estimate is a limited coverage of atmospheric observation against the large variety of ecosystems and the geographical complexity. Recently, the number of measurements has been increasing, including ground-based and satellite-based measurements. We estimated the regional CO2fluxes using a Eulerian-Lagrangian inverse modeling system and examined the characteristics of observational constraints and their impacts on the flux estimate in Southeast Asia. The results show that the temporal variations and source/sink strength of estimated regional fluxes are sensitive to the observational constraints. As a control run, we used the Observational Package (ObsPack) data product since 2001 as a global dataset of atmospheric CO2 measurement. In the addition to Bukit, Sumatra Island (BKT) in ObsPack, we included a stationary CO2 data at Danum Valley in Borneo Island (DMV) since late 2009. Compared to BKT, DMV shows a clear seasonal cycle. The inversion including DMV tends to increase the regional carbon sink in the second half of year. Remotely the aircraft measurements over Rarotonga (RTA) in the tropical Pacific Ocean see the signals from Southeast Asia through an atmospheric convection. The sensitivity test shows RTA impacts on the inter-annual variations of estimated flux, which might be associated with ENSO events. Since June 2009, Greenhouse gases Observing

  17. Teachers' Views Regarding Ways in Which the Intercultural Competence of Students Is Developed at an International School in Southeast Asia: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Gavin Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study is a mixed methods investigation of teachers' views regarding the ways in which the intercultural competence (ICC) of students is developed at an international school in Southeast Asia. To gather data for the study a survey was administered to approximately 90 teachers in the high school section of an international school in Asia to…

  18. Geomorphology and Geodynamics at Crustal Boundaries within Asia and Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The release of SRTM images by NASA over the past two years year has been greeted by foreign Earth scientist's as "NASA's gift to the World". The goodwill that this has engendered in parts of Africa. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, as scientists in those countries contemplated what many of them considered an unprovoked and unjustifiable US invasion of Iraq, cannot be underestimated. We have used SRTM images from Africa and India and elsewhere to examine aspects of tectonism, geodynamics and tsunami and earthquake hazards. Highlights of this research are itemized in this final report. One difficulty that has arisen is , of course, that the funding for the science lead the availability of the data by more than a year. and as a result many of the findings are as yet unpublished.

  19. Non-linear 3-D Born shear waveform tomography in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Mark P.; Cao, Aimin; Kim, Ahyi; Romanowicz, Barbara A.

    2012-07-01

    Southeast (SE) Asia is a tectonically complex region surrounded by many active source regions, thus an ideal test bed for developments in seismic tomography. Much recent development in tomography has been based on 3-D sensitivity kernels based on the first-order Born approximation, but there are potential problems with this approach when applied to waveform data. In this study, we develop a radially anisotropic model of SE Asia using long-period multimode waveforms. We use a theoretical 'cascade' approach, starting with a large-scale Eurasian model developed using 2-D Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory (NACT) sensitivity kernels, and then using a modified Born approximation (nBorn), shown to be more accurate at modelling waveforms, to invert a subset of the data for structure in a subregion (longitude 75°-150° and latitude 0°-45°). In this subregion, the model is parametrized at a spherical spline level 6 (˜200 km). The data set is also inverted using NACT and purely linear 3-D Born kernels. All three final models fit the data well, with just under 80 per cent variance reduction as calculated using the corresponding theory, but the nBorn model shows more detailed structure than the NACT model throughout and has much better resolution at depths greater than 250 km. Based on variance analysis, the purely linear Born kernels do not provide as good a fit to the data due to deviations from linearity for the waveform data set used in this modelling. The nBorn isotropic model shows a stronger fast velocity anomaly beneath the Tibetan Plateau in the depth range of 150-250 km, which disappears at greater depth, consistent with other studies. It also indicates moderate thinning of the high-velocity plate in the middle of Tibet, consistent with a model where Tibet is underplated by Indian lithosphere from the south and Eurasian lithosphere from the north, in contrast to a model with continuous underplating by Indian lithosphere across the entire plateau. The n

  20. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

    2016-07-01

    The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast

  1. Rice straw burning in Southeast Asia as a source of CO and COS to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ba Cuong; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Putaud, Jean-Philippe

    1994-08-01

    Atmospheric samples were collected during rice straw burning at four different locations in Viet Nam during the dry and wet seasons (March 1992, February 1993, and August 1992, respectively). The samples were analyzed for CO2, CO, and COS. The emission ratios relative to CO2 for rice straw burning during the dry season were comparable to those observed on samples collected during burning of savanna in Africa or forest in the United States. On the contrary, during the wet season the emission ratios for CO and COS relative to CO2 were 2 to 10 times higher. With these emission ratios and estimates of rice production from southeastern Asia, we estimated that burning of rice straw emits annually about 2.1 Tmol of CO (25 Tg C) and 0.6 Gmol of COS (0.02 Tg S) to the atmosphere. Taking into account these new results, CO and COS fluxes from biomass burning could be reevaluated by 5-21% and 10-67%, respectively, with regard to previous estimates of these gas emissions from all biomass burning activities.

  2. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located. PMID:26797812

  3. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of

  4. Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Much of the data resolution of the haploid non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) haplogroup O in East Asia are still rudimentary and could be an explanatory factor for current debates on the settlement history of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Here, 81 slowly evolving markers (mostly SNPs) and 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats were used to achieve higher level molecular resolution. Our aim is to investigate if the distribution of NRY DNA variation in Taiwan and ISEA is consistent with a single pre-Neolithic expansion scenario from Southeast China to all ISEA, or if it better fits an expansion model from Taiwan (the OOT model), or whether a more complex history of settlement and dispersals throughout ISEA should be envisioned. Results We examined DNA samples from 1658 individuals from Vietnam, Thailand, Fujian, Taiwan (Han, plain tribes and 14 indigenous groups), the Philippines and Indonesia. While haplogroups O1a*-M119, O1a1*-P203, O1a2-M50 and O3a2-P201 follow a decreasing cline from Taiwan towards Western Indonesia, O2a1-M95/M88, O3a*-M324, O3a1c-IMS-JST002611 and O3a2c1a-M133 decline northward from Western Indonesia towards Taiwan. Compared to the Taiwan plain tribe minority groups the Taiwanese Austronesian speaking groups show little genetic paternal contribution from Han. They are also characterized by low Y-chromosome diversity, thus testifying for fast drift in these populations. However, in contrast to data provided from other regions of the genome, Y-chromosome gene diversity in Taiwan mountain tribes significantly increases from North to South. Conclusion The geographic distribution and the diversity accumulated in the O1a*-M119, O1a1*-P203, O1a2-M50 and O3a2-P201 haplogroups on one hand, and in the O2a1-M95/M88, O3a*-M324, O3a1c-IMS-JST002611 and O3a2c1a-M133 haplogroups on the other, support a pincer model of dispersals and gene flow from the mainland to the islands which likely started during the late upper Paleolithic, 18,000 to 15

  5. Land cover characterization and mapping of continental southeast Asia using multi-resolution satellite sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Defourny, P.; Shrestha, Surendra

    2003-01-01

    Land use/land cover change, particularly that of tropical deforestation and forest degradation, has been occurring at an unprecedented rate and scale in Southeast Asia. The rapid rate of economic development, demographics and poverty are believed to be the underlying forces responsible for the change. Accurate and up-to-date information to support the above statement is, however, not available. The available data, if any, are outdated and are not comparable for various technical reasons. Time series analysis of land cover change and the identification of the driving forces responsible for these changes are needed for the sustainable management of natural resources and also for projecting future land cover trajectories. We analysed the multi-temporal and multi-seasonal NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data of 1985/86 and 1992 to (1) prepare historical land cover maps and (2) to identify areas undergoing major land cover transformations (called ‘hot spots’). The identified ‘hot spot’ areas were investigated in detail using high-resolution satellite sensor data such as Landsat and SPOT supplemented by intensive field surveys. Shifting cultivation, intensification of agricultural activities and change of cropping patterns, and conversion of forest to agricultural land were found to be the principal reasons for land use/land cover change in the Oudomxay province of Lao PDR, the Mekong Delta of Vietnam and the Loei province of Thailand, respectively. Moreover, typical land use/land cover change patterns of the ‘hot spot’ areas were also examined. In addition, we developed an operational methodology for land use/land cover change analysis at the national level with the help of national remote sensing institutions.

  6. On the structure of the lowermost mantle beneath the southwest Pacific, southeast Asia and Australasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, J.-M.; Shearer, P. M.

    1995-11-01

    The region of the lowermost mantle beneath the southwest Pacific, Australasia and southeast Asia (50°S-50°N and 80-190°E) has been studied using a wide variety of seismic techniques. We complement these studies with results obtained from long-period Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) data using a recently developed phase-stripping technique that permits the isolation of D″ reflections from the stronger neighbouring S and ScS signals. We identify patches with D″ reflections and areas where we cannot confidently determine the presence or absence of a D″ reflection. A synthesis of our results with other studies suggests that D″ varies dramatically through the region, generally thickening from 100-150 km in a central zone to about 300 km at the eastern and western margins. However, there are irregularities in this overall pattern, including areas where there seems to be little evidence for a D″ discontinuity. Inspection of waveform amplitudes shows considerable scatter in not only the D″ reflected phases, but also core-mantle boundary reflected phases. Experiments with synthetic seismograms for a variety of D″ models and the observed lateral variability through the region suggest that this is to be expected. Furthermore, ray-theory calculations for large-scale 3D Earth models predict significant variations (±30%) in S-wave amplitudes of lowermost mantle turning rays. Finally, we investigate possible correlations between lower-mantle velocity, flow and D″ thickness. We find some correlation between D″ thickness and lower-mantle velocities obtained from tomographic inversions, with a thin D″ layer in high-velocity regions and a thickening of the layer toward slower regions. The relationship between predicted lower-mantle flow and D″ thickness is less clear. These results are qualitatively consistent with thermal boundary layer predictions for D″, but do not preclude the possibility of compositionally distinct material in the layer.

  7. Modeling the Influences of Aerosols on Pre-Monsoon Circulation and Rainfall over Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D.; Sud, Y. C.; Oreopoulos, L.; Kim, K.-M.; Lau, W. K.; Kang, I.-S.

    2014-01-01

    We conduct several sets of simulations with a version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5, (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) equipped with a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme to understand the role of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) emissions in Southeast Asia (SEA) in the pre-monsoon period of February-May. Our experiments are designed so that both direct and indirect aerosol effects can be evaluated. For climatologically prescribed monthly sea surface temperatures, we conduct sets of model integrations with and without biomass burning emissions in the area of peak burning activity, and with direct aerosol radiative effects either active or inactive. Taking appropriate differences between AGCM experiment sets, we find that BBA affects liquid clouds in statistically significantly ways, increasing cloud droplet number concentrations, decreasing droplet effective radii (i.e., a classic aerosol indirect effect), and locally suppressing precipitation due to a deceleration of the autoconversion process, with the latter effect apparently also leading to cloud condensate increases. Geographical re-arrangements of precipitation patterns, with precipitation increases downwind of aerosol sources are also seen, most likely because of advection of weakly precipitating cloud fields. Somewhat unexpectedly, the change in cloud radiative effect (cloud forcing) at surface is in the direction of lesser cooling because of decreases in cloud fraction. Overall, however, because of direct radiative effect contributions, aerosols exert a net negative forcing at both the top of the atmosphere and, perhaps most importantly, the surface, where decreased evaporation triggers feedbacks that further reduce precipitation. Invoking the approximation that direct and indirect aerosol effects are additive, we estimate that the overall precipitation reduction is about 40% due to the direct effects of absorbing aerosols, which stabilize the atmosphere and reduce

  8. The Composition of Organic Aerosols in Southeast Asia During The 2006 Haze Episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, H.; Zielinska, B.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    The regional smoke haze in Southeast Asia is a recurring air pollution problem. Uncontrolled forest fires from land-clearing activities in Sumatra and Borneo, and to a lesser extent Malaysia, have occurred almost every dry season since the late 1990s. The smoke haze that took place in October 2006 shrouded an estimated 215,000 square miles of land on Indonesia's islands of Sumatra and Borneo, and persisted for several weeks. Satellite pictures showed numerous hotspots in both Sumatra and Kalimantan. The prevailing, South-Southwesterly, winds blew smoke from land and forest fires in central and south Sumatra to Singapore, affecting the regional air quality significantly and reducing atmospheric visibility. During this haze episode, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore to characterize the composition of organic aerosols, which usually account for a large fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM). A total of 17 PM samples were collected while the hazy atmospheric conditions persisted in Singapore, and subjected to accelerated solvent extraction with dichloromethane and acetone. The extracted compounds were grouped into three major fractions (n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polar organic compounds). More than 180 particulate-bound organic compounds were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In order to investigate the origin of organic species, the carbon preference indexes as well as diagnostic ratios were used. The compositional differences of organic aerosols between the haze- and non- haze periods will be presented. The atmospheric implications of the composition of organic aerosols of biomass burning origin will be discussed. Keywords: smoke haze, organic aerosols, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polar organic compounds

  9. Use of Expansion Factors to Estimate the Burden of Dengue in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is the most common arthropod-borne disease of humans and its geographical range and infection rates are increasing. Health policy decisions require information about the disease burden, but surveillance systems usually underreport the total number of cases. These may be estimated by multiplying reported cases by an expansion factor (EF). Methods and Findings As a key step to estimate the economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia (SEA), we projected dengue cases from 2001 through 2010 using EFs. We conducted a systematic literature review (1995–2011) and identified 11 published articles reporting original, empirically derived EFs or the necessary data, and 11 additional relevant studies. To estimate EFs for total cases in countries where no empirical studies were available, we extrapolated data based on the statistically significant inverse relationship between an index of a country's health system quality and its observed reporting rate. We compiled an average 386,000 dengue episodes reported annually to surveillance systems in the region, and projected about 2.92 million dengue episodes. We conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, simultaneously varying the most important parameters in 20,000 Monte Carlo simulations, and derived 95% certainty level of 2.73–3.38 million dengue episodes. We estimated an overall EF in SEA of 7.6 (95% certainty level: 7.0–8.8) dengue cases for every case reported, with an EF range of 3.8 for Malaysia to 19.0 in East Timor. Conclusion Studies that make no adjustment for underreporting would seriously understate the burden and cost of dengue in SEA and elsewhere. As the sites of the empirical studies we identified were not randomly chosen, the exact extent of underreporting remains uncertain. Nevertheless, the results reported here, based on a systematic analysis of the available literature, show general consistency and provide a reasonable empirical basis to adjust for

  10. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, S.; Berger, S. Dar; Chadha, S. S.; Singh, R. J.; Lal, P.; Tonsing, J.; Harries, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012—both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596

  11. Atmospheric PCDD/F measurement in Taiwan and Southeast Asia during Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuan, Ngo Thi; Chi, Kai Hsien; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chang, Moo Been; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Peng, Chi-Ming

    2013-10-01

    The international campaign of Dongsha Experiment was conducted in the northern Southeast Asian region during March-May 2010. To address the effects of long-range transport on the persistent organic pollutants and further understand the PCDD/F contamination in Vietnam, atmospheric PCDD/Fs were evaluated at a coastal station (Pingtung County, Sites A) in southern Taiwan, remote island station in South China Sea (Dongsha Island, Site B) and coastal station (Da Nang City, Site C) in central Vietnam during different sampling periods in this study. The measurements indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations were 1.01-27.4 fg I-TEQ/m3 (n = 22), 1.52-10.8 fg I-TEQ/m3 (n = 17) and 23.4-146 fg I-TEQ/m3 (n = 16) at Sites A, B and C, respectively, during different periods in 2010. In March 2010, an Asian dust storm (ADS) that originated in Gobi deserts eventually reached populated areas of East Asia, including Taiwan and the island in northern South China Sea. During the ADS episode, measurements made in southern Taiwan and South China Sea on 16 and 21 March 2010 indicate that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentration increased 6.5 and 6.9 times at Sites A and B, respectively. Furthermore, the significantly higher PCDD/F concentrations and contents in suspended particles (134-546 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP) were measured at Site C in the central Vietnam. In addition, the distribution of PCDD/F congeners measured in Central Vietnam was quite different from those measured at other stations with high PCDD distribution (>80%) especially in OCDD (>70%). During the Vietnam conflict, United States (US) forces had sprayed a greater volume of defoliant with higher PCDD/F contents than originally estimated. We consider that the high fraction of PCDDs observed in Vietnam probably originated as anthropogenic emission from specific source in Vietnam.

  12. Remotely Sensed Data Informs Red List Evaluations and Conservation Priorities in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Binbin V; Hughes, Alice C; Jenkins, Clinton N; Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List has assessed the global distributions of the majority of the world's amphibians, birds and mammals. Yet these assessments lack explicit reference to widely available, remotely-sensed data that can sensibly inform a species' risk of extinction. Our first goal is to add additional quantitative data to the existing standardised process that IUCN employs. Secondly, we ask: do our results suggest species of concern-those at considerably greater risk than hitherto appreciated? Thirdly, these assessments are not only important on a species-by-species basis. By combining distributions of species of concern, we map conservation priorities. We ask to what degree these areas are currently protected and how might knowledge from remote sensing modify the priorities? Finally, we develop a quick and simple method to identify and modify the priority setting in a landscape where natural habitats are disappearing rapidly and so where conventional species' assessments might be too slow to respond. Tropical, mainland Southeast Asia is under exceptional threat, yet relatively poorly known. Here, additional quantitative measures may be particularly helpful. This region contains over 122, 183, and 214 endemic mammals, birds, and amphibians, respectively, of which the IUCN considers 37, 21, and 37 threatened. When corrected for the amount of remaining natural habitats within the known elevation preferences of species, the average sizes of species ranges shrink to <40% of their published ranges. Some 79 mammal, 49 bird, and 184 amphibian ranges are <20,000km2-an area at which IUCN considers most other species to be threatened. Moreover, these species are not better protected by the existing network of protected areas than are species that IUCN accepts as threatened. Simply, there appear to be considerably more species at risk than hitherto appreciated. Furthermore, incorporating remote sensing data showing where habitat loss is prevalent changes the locations of

  13. Multi-model estimates of fire emissions and air quality degradation in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Kinney, P. L.; Shindell, D. T.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Like fossil fuel pollution, fire emissions affect both climate change and air quality. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modeling to quantify potential population exposure to particulate matter and ozone from fires in Southeast Asia from 1997 to 2007. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity due to El Niño-induced droughts and anthropogenic drivers. Though typically too wet to combust, increased sources of deforestation and degradation are enhancing the susceptibility of forests and underlying carbon-rich peat deposits to fire during drought, as documented in the extreme fires of the 1997-98 El Niño. Concerns of a positive feedback between fire activity and a warming climate would further increase the influence of fires on air quality degradation. Monthly fire emissions are estimated from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED version 3) and transported in two atmospheric models to assess population exposure. We show that during strong El Niño years, fires contribute to daily fine particulate matter and afternoon maximum ozone surface concentrations over 150 μg/m3 and 240 μg/m3, respectively. Exposure to these two types of pollutants increases mortality and hospital admissions from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, even at low concentrations. This fire pollutant burden corresponds to 200 added days per year exceeding the World Health Organization fine particulate matter guideline and exposes up to 50 million additional people to more than 25 days above the most extreme pollutant concentrations. Our results indicate that substantial health and economic co-benefits would result from reducing fires in locations where transported emissions lead to enhanced exposure to air pollution during high fire years.

  14. Coordinating research on neglected parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia through networking.

    PubMed

    Olveda, Remigio; Leonardo, Lydia; Zheng, Feng; Sripa, Banchob; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    The new dialogue between stakeholders, that is, scientists, research administrators and donors as well as the populations victimized by endemic infections, is initiating a virtuous circle leading to lower disease-burdens, improved public health and the mitigation of poverty. There is now general agreement that control activities need research collaboration to advance, while surveillance plays an increasingly important role in sustaining long-term relief. On the part of the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)), this has led to a new vision not only focused on general strengthening of research capabilities but also on furthering efforts to close the gap between research and control and bridge different branches of science. From its original, exclusive focus on schistosomiasis, RNAS(+) has expanded to include food-borne and soil-transmitted helminth infections as well. Its current repository of data on the distribution, prevalence and severity of these diseases is increasingly utilised by decision makers charged with epidemiological control in the endemic countries. Thanks to a more rapid translation of research results into control applications and the dissemination of data and new technology through networking, the overall situation is improving. Working as a virtual organisation of researchers and control officers in the endemic countries of Southeast Asia, RNAS(+) is playing an important role in this conversion. Its responsibilities are divided along disease lines into five main areas, but no serious, endemic disease is considered to be outside the network's sphere of interest. This chapter recounts some of the more important RNAS(+) accomplishments, pinpoints potential directions for future operations and highlights areas where research is most needed. PMID:20624528

  15. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  16. Remotely Sensed Data Informs Red List Evaluations and Conservation Priorities in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binbin V.; Hughes, Alice C.; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List has assessed the global distributions of the majority of the world’s amphibians, birds and mammals. Yet these assessments lack explicit reference to widely available, remotely-sensed data that can sensibly inform a species’ risk of extinction. Our first goal is to add additional quantitative data to the existing standardised process that IUCN employs. Secondly, we ask: do our results suggest species of concern—those at considerably greater risk than hitherto appreciated? Thirdly, these assessments are not only important on a species-by-species basis. By combining distributions of species of concern, we map conservation priorities. We ask to what degree these areas are currently protected and how might knowledge from remote sensing modify the priorities? Finally, we develop a quick and simple method to identify and modify the priority setting in a landscape where natural habitats are disappearing rapidly and so where conventional species’ assessments might be too slow to respond. Tropical, mainland Southeast Asia is under exceptional threat, yet relatively poorly known. Here, additional quantitative measures may be particularly helpful. This region contains over 122, 183, and 214 endemic mammals, birds, and amphibians, respectively, of which the IUCN considers 37, 21, and 37 threatened. When corrected for the amount of remaining natural habitats within the known elevation preferences of species, the average sizes of species ranges shrink to <40% of their published ranges. Some 79 mammal, 49 bird, and 184 amphibian ranges are <20,000km2—an area at which IUCN considers most other species to be threatened. Moreover, these species are not better protected by the existing network of protected areas than are species that IUCN accepts as threatened. Simply, there appear to be considerably more species at risk than hitherto appreciated. Furthermore, incorporating remote sensing data showing where habitat loss is prevalent changes the locations of

  17. Mitigating the impact of oil-palm monoculture on freshwater fishes in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Giam, Xingli; Hadiaty, Renny K; Tan, Heok Hui; Parenti, Lynne R; Wowor, Daisy; Sauri, Sopian; Chong, Kwek Yan; Yeo, Darren C J; Wilcove, David S

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic land-cover change is driving biodiversity loss worldwide. At the epicenter of this crisis lies Southeast Asia, where biodiversity-rich forests are being converted to oil-palm monocultures. As demand for palm oil increases, there is an urgent need to find strategies that maintain biodiversity in plantations. Previous studies found that retaining forest patches within plantations benefited some terrestrial taxa but not others. However, no study has focused on aquatic taxa such as fishes, despite their importance to human well-being. We assessed the efficacy of forested riparian reserves in conserving freshwater fish biodiversity in oil-palm monoculture by sampling stream fish communities in an oil-palm plantation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forested riparian reserves maintained preconversion local fish species richness and functional diversity. In contrast, local and total species richness, biomass, and functional diversity declined markedly in streams without riparian reserves. Mechanistically, riparian reserves appeared to increase local species richness by increasing leaf litter cover and maintaining coarse substrate. The loss of fishes specializing in leaf litter and coarse substrate decreased functional diversity and altered community composition in oil-palm plantation streams that lacked riparian reserves. Thus, a land-sharing strategy that incorporates the retention of forested riparian reserves may maintain the ecological integrity of fish communities in oil-palm plantations. We urge policy makers and growers to make retention of riparian reserves in oil-palm plantations standard practice, and we encourage palm-oil purchasers to source only palm oil from plantations that employ this practice. PMID:25800305

  18. Confronting the HIV, Tuberculosis, Addiction, and Incarceration Syndemic in Southeast Asia: Lessons Learned from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Bick, Joseph; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Bazazi, Alexander R; Ferro, Enrico; Copenhaver, Michael; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-09-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia, repressive drug laws have resulted in high rates of imprisonment in people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV (PLH), greatly magnifying the harm associated with HIV, tuberculosis, and addiction. We review findings from Malaysia's largest prison to describe the negative synergistic effects of HIV, tuberculosis, addiction, and incarceration that contribute to a 'perfect storm' of events challenging public and personal health and offer insights into innovative strategies to control these converging epidemics. The majority of PLH who are imprisoned in Malaysia are opioid dependent PWID. Although promoted by official policy, evidence-based addiction treatment is largely unavailable, contributing to rapid relapse and/or overdose after release. Similarly, HIV treatment in prisons and compulsory drug treatment centers is sometimes inadequate or absent. The prevalence of active tuberculosis is high, particularly in PLH, and over 80 % of prisoners and prison personnel are latently infected. Mandatory HIV testing and subsequent segregation of HIV-infected prisoners increases the likelihood of tuberculosis acquisition and progression to active disease, amplifying the reservoir of infection for other prisoners. We discuss strategies to control these intersecting epidemics including screening linked to standardized treatment protocols for all three conditions, and effective transitional programs for released prisoners. For example, recently introduced evidence-based interventions in prisons like antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy to treat latent tuberculosis infection, and methadone maintenance to treat opioid dependence, have markedly improved clinical care and reduced morbidity and mortality. Since introduction of these interventions in September 2012, all-cause and HIV-related mortality have decreased by 50.0 % and 75.7 %, respectively. We discuss the further deployment of these

  19. Zoonotic emerging infectious disease in selected countries in Southeast Asia: insights from ecohealth.

    PubMed

    Grace, Delia; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Lapar, M Lucila; Unger, Fred; Fèvre, Sonia; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Schelling, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Most emerging diseases of humans originate in animals, and zoonotic emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) threaten human, animal, and environment health. We report on a scoping study to assess actors, linkages, priorities, and needs related to management of these diseases from the perspective of key stakeholders in three countries in Southeast Asia. A comprehensive interview guide was developed and in-depth interviews completed with 21 key stakeholders in Vietnam, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia. We found numerous relevant actors with a predominance of public sector and medical disciplines. More capacity weaknesses than strengths were reported, with risk analysis and research skills most lacking. Social network analysis of information flows showed policy-makers were regarded as mainly information recipients, research institutes as more information providers, and universities as both. Veterinary and livestock disciplines emerged as an important "boundary-spanning" organization with linkages to both human health and rural development. Avian influenza was regarded as the most important zoonotic EID, perhaps reflecting the priority-setting influence of actors outside the region. Stakeholders reported a high awareness of the ecological and socioeconomic drivers of disease emergence and a demand for disease prioritization, epidemiological skills, and economic and qualitative studies. Evaluated from an ecohealth perspective, human health is weakly integrated with socioeconomics, linkages to policy are stronger than to communities, participation occurs mainly at lower levels, and equity considerations are not fully considered. However, stakeholders have awareness of ecological and social determinants of health, and a basis exists on which transdisciplinarity, equity, and participation can be strengthened. PMID:21174223

  20. From the mouths of babes: dental caries in infants and children and the intensification of agriculture in mainland Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Halcrow, S E; Harris, N J; Tayles, N; Ikehara-Quebral, R; Pietrusewsky, M

    2013-03-01

    Many bioarchaeological studies have established a link between increased dental caries prevalence and the intensification of agriculture. However, research in Southeast Asia challenges the global application of this theory. Although often overlooked, dental health of infants and children can provide a sensitive source of information concerning health and subsistence change. This article investigates the prevalence and location of caries in the dentition of infants and children (less than 15 years of age) from eight prehistoric mainland Southeast Asian sites collectively spanning the Neolithic to late Iron Age, during which time rice agriculture became an increasingly important subsistence mode. Caries prevalence varied among the sites but there was no correlation with chronological change. The absence of evidence of a decline in dental health over time can be attributed to the relative noncariogenicity of rice and retention of broad-spectrum subsistence strategies. No differences in caries type indicating differences in dental health were found between the sites, apart from the Iron Age site of Muang Sema. There was a higher prevalence of caries in the deciduous dentition than the permanent dentition, likely due to a cariogenic weaning diet and the higher sensitivity of deciduous teeth to decay. The level of caries in the permanent dentition suggests an increased reliance on less cariogenic foods during childhood, including rice. The absence of a temporal decline in dental health of infants and children strengthens the argument that the relationship between caries and agricultural intensification in Southeast Asia was more complex than the general model suggests. PMID:23359102

  1. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4%). The attack rate of traveler's diarrhea was 16.1%, with an incidence rate of 32.05 per 100 person months. Travelers' origin and destination countries significantly related to diarrhea risk. Oceanians had the highest risk (32.9%) and East Asians the lowest (2.6%). Vietnam and Indonesia were the highest risk destinations (19.3%). Other significant factors were youth, trip duration, number of countries visited, and frequently drinking beverages with ice. PMID:26123958

  2. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  3. Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Jerry; Hess, Tim; Daccache, Andre; Wheeler, Tim

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a serious threat to crop productivity in regions that are already food insecure. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of eight major crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is - 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of - 17% (wheat), - 5% (maize), - 15% (sorghum) and - 10% (millet) and across South Asia of - 16% (maize) and - 11% (sorghum) were estimated. No mean change in yield was detected for rice. The limited number of studies identified for cassava, sugarcane and yams precluded any opportunity to conduct a meta-analysis for these crops. Variation about the projected mean yield change for all crops was smaller in studies that used an ensemble of > 3 climate (GCM) models. Conversely, complex simulation studies that used biophysical crop models showed the greatest variation in mean yield changes. Evidence of crop yield impact in Africa and South Asia is robust for wheat, maize, sorghum and millet, and either inconclusive, absent or contradictory for rice, cassava and sugarcane.

  4. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

    2014-10-12

    Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30μg/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22°N and 95 to 107°E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

  5. Life-course predictors of ultrasonic heel measurement in a cross-sectional study of immigrant women from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, D S; Salant, T; Han, K L; Tran, P L

    2001-03-15

    Few studies address chronic disease risk for Southeast Asians in the United States. In 1999, the authors conducted a cross-sectional study of bone mineral density (BMD) estimated from ultrasonic calcaneal measurements in women born in Southeast Asia who then lived in Chicago, Illinois. The study addressed three questions: Do Southeast-Asian women have relatively low BMD? What factors before and after immigration are associated with BMD? Are factors that reflect the childhood/adolescent environment equally associated with BMD for postmenopausal and premenopausal women? An interviewer-administered bilingual questionnaire collected immigration, reproductive, and lifestyle data from 213 women (aged 20--80 years) born in Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos. The authors found that the estimated mean BMD of postmenopausal Southeast-Asian women was lower than the reference values for White women. Four summary indicators of childhood/adolescent environment were predictive of higher BMD: more years of education, earlier age at menarche, lower height, and coastal birth; these indicators were more strongly associated with BMD for premenopausal (multiple-partial R(2) = 0.21) than postmenopausal (R(2) = 0.06) women. Young-adult exposures (e.g., early first pregnancy and age at immigration) and proximal lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity, vegetarian diet, and betel nut use) were also assessed as potential predictors of BMD. PMID:11257066

  6. Reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations together drove species diversification of slipper orchids (Paphiopedilum) in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    South-East Asia covers four of the world's biodiversity hotspots, showing high species diversity and endemism. Owing to the successive expansion and contraction of distribution and the fragmentation by geographical barriers, the tropical flora greatly diversified in this region during the Tertiary, but the evolutionary tempo and mode of species diversity remain poorly investigated. Paphiopedilum, the largest genus of slipper orchids comprising nearly 100 species, is mainly distributed in South-East Asia, providing an ideal system for exploring how plant species diversity was shaped in this region. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of this genus with eight cpDNA regions and four low-copy nuclear genes. Discordance between gene trees and network analysis indicates that reticulate evolution occurred in the genus. Ancestral area reconstruction suggests that vicariance and long-distance dispersal together led to its current distribution. Diversification rate variation was detected and strongly correlated with the species diversity in subg. Paphiopedilum (~80 species). The shift of speciation rate in subg. Paphiopedilum was coincident with sea-level fluctuations in the late Cenozoic, which could have provided ecological opportunities for speciation and created bridges or barriers for gene flow. Moreover, some other factors (e.g. sympatric distribution, incomplete reproductive barriers and clonal propagation) might also be advantageous for the formation and reproduction of hybrid species. In conclusion, our study suggests that the interplay of reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations has promoted the diversification of the genus Paphiopedilum and sheds light into the evolution of Orchidaceae and the historical processes of plant species diversification in South-East Asia. PMID:25847454

  7. Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

    2014-05-01

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria

  8. New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei in Southeast Asia lead to updates in range, habitat and threats.

    PubMed

    Aylesworth, L; Lawson, J M; Laksanawimol, P; Ferber, P; Loh, T-L

    2016-04-01

    New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei from Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, along with recently published studies from India and Singapore, have greatly expanded the known range of H. mohnikei within Southeast Asia. These new records reveal novel habitat preferences and threats to H. mohnikei in the region. Although the global conservation status of H. mohnikei is classified as Data Deficient according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, new sightings indicate that this species is found in similar habitats and faces similar threats as other Hippocampus species that are considered Vulnerable. PMID:26840386

  9. First case of detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Spain by Real Time PCR in a traveller from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Ta, Tang Thuy-Huong; Salas, Ana; Ali-Tammam, Marwa; Martínez, María Del Carmen; Lanza, Marta; Arroyo, Eduardo; Rubio, Jose Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Previously, Plasmodium knowlesi was not considered as a species of Plasmodium that could cause malaria in human beings, as it is parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) macaques found in Southeast Asia. A case of infection by P. knowlesi is described in a Spanish traveller, who came back to Spain with daily fever after his last overseas travel, which was a six-month holiday in forested areas of Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2009. His P. knowlesi infection was detected by multiplex Real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by sequencing the amplified fragment. Using nested multiplex malaria PCR (reference method in Spain) and a rapid diagnostic test, the P. knowlesi infection was negative. This patient was discharged and asymptomatic when the positive result to P. knowlesi was reported. Prior to this case, there have been two more reports of European travellers with malaria caused by P. knowlesi, a Finnish man who travelled to Peninsular Malaysia during four weeks in March 2007, and a Swedish man who did a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. Taken together with this report of P. knowlesi infection in a Spanish traveller returning from Southeast Asia, this is the third case of P. knowlesi infection in Europe, indicating that this simian parasite can infect visitors to endemic areas in Southeast Asia. This last European case is quite surprising, given that it is an untreated-symptomatic P. knowlesi in human, in contrast to what is currently known about P. knowlesi infection. Most previous reports of human P. knowlesi malaria infections were in adults, often with symptoms and relatively high parasite densities, up to the recent report in Ninh Thuan province, located in the southern part of central Vietnam, inhabited mainly by the Ra-glai ethnic minority, in which all P. knowlesi infections were asymptomatic, co-infected with P. malariae, with low parasite densities and two of the three identified cases were very

  10. Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, James; Gallagher, Martin; Robinson, Niall; Gabey, Andrew; Dorsey, James; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Ryder, James; Nemitz, Eiko; Davies, Fay

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosol measurements over tropical rainforests are important in order to understand their sources and sinks, and hence the rainforests' influence on local and regional climate. To date, there have been no published studies in South-East Asia, which, compared to the African and South American continents, represents a unique mixture of tropical seas and islands. Aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-east Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Ultrafine particle fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to entrainment of particles into the growing mixed layer. In-canopy measurements were conducted at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1 - 20 µm) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. Number concentrations in this size range in the canopy understory correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5 - 1.0 µm) between above and below canopy showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites

  11. Public Health Hotspots Of Exposure To Air Pollution From Biomass Burning In Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; Defries, R. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Shindell, D. T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Kinney, P. L.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fire is one of the most significant instruments of land use change; forests and grasslands are burned to create and maintain agricultural fields or other anthropogenic landscapes. Although fire emissions have been studied for their climatic and atmospheric effects, less is known about their impact on global public health. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire emissions and atmospheric modeling to estimate exposure in Southeast Asia to particulate matter and ozone, which have a demonstrated detrimental health impact. Regional emissions can vary by a factor of twenty or more interannually due to the combined influence of prolonged drought conditions from El Nino, land use policies, and high fuel loads in tropical forests and peat. High fire years in the region, such as the 1997-1998 El Nino, can have a profound effect on global trace gas and aerosol loads. We conducted daily simulations of surface fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations for the 1997-2007 period using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2) within two atmospheric models: Harvard’s GEOS-CHEM and the NASA GISS Global Climate Model. The results from each model are compared and validated by field-based and remote sensing datasets. The public health risk from each pollutant is assessed with current air quality regulations published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our preliminary results demonstrate that regions experiencing substantial fire activity can increase the percentage of days per year exceeding WHO air quality guidelines by more than 20%. These anomalies are localized in regions close to burning centers, and more so for heavier pollutants like particulate matter. In addition, the population exposed to particulate matter and ozone above WHO guidelines can increase during high fire years by up to 70% and 50% over the decadal mean, respectively. Our results implicate fires as a serious public health risk to cardiovascular diseases, which the WHO estimates are a

  12. Variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm over East/Southeast Asia on the ENSO time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tie; Di, Yuelun; Qie, Kai

    2016-03-01

    The variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm on the ENSO time scales over East/Southeast Asia was investigated by using 17-year (1995-2011) lightning data from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and 14-year (1998-2011) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) precipitation feature data. In addition, ERA-Interim reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used to present related environmental characteristics. It was found that the response of lightning flash to ENSO events shows remarkable seasonal and regional variations. The regions of positive (negative) lightning anomaly are mainly located at both sides of 5°-20°N (5°-15°N) in El Niño (La Niña) spring and winter, and located north of the equator in summer and autumn. There is a significantly positive correlation between lightning anomaly and the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) over both East China and Indonesia during El Niño episodes, but no obvious correlation during La Niña episodes. The positive thunderstorm anomalies during El Niño periods are dispersed. The distribution of thunderstorm anomalies in La Niña summer and autumn is almost opposite to that in spring and winter. The correlation between thunderstorm anomaly and ONI is better over East China than that over Indonesia. In general, lightning variation follows thunderstorm intensity (number) variation over East China during El Niño (La Niña) episodes, and follows a combination of thunderstorm intensity and number variations over Indonesia on ENSO time scales. During ENSO time scales, variations of surface wind can be considered as one of the key factors to LAs. More lightning flashes present in the regions where warm moist flows intersection, and less in the regions where surface wind changes slightly or diverges. Dramatic lightning increases also occur with higher values of convective available potential energy (CAPE). In addition, higher (lower

  13. Central system of psychosocial support to the Czech victims affected by the tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-01-01

    The tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  14. Central System of Psychosocial Support to the Czech Victims Affected by the Tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-02-01

    The Tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  15. Observations of Aerosol Optical Properties over 15 AERONET Sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. D.; Lagrosas, N.; Uy, S. N.; Holben, B. N.; Dorado, S.; Tobias, V., Jr.; Anh, N. X.; Po-Hsiung, L.; Janjai, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Liew, S. C.; Lim, H. S.; Lestari, P.

    2014-12-01

    Mean column-integrated optical properties from ground sun photometers of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are studied to provide an overview of the characteristics of aerosols over the region as part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) mission. The 15 AERONET sites with the most available level 2 data products are selected from Thailand (Chiang Mai, Mukdahan, Songkhla and Silpakorn University), Malaysia (University Sains Malaysia), Laos (Vientiane), Vietnam (Bac Giang, Bac Lieu and Nha Trang), Taiwan (National Cheng Kung University and Central Weather Bureau Taipei), Singapore, Indonesia (Bandung) and the Philippines (Manila Observatory and Notre Dame of Marbel University). For all 15 sites, high angstrom exponent values (α>1) have been observed. Chiang Mai and USM have the highest mean Angstrom exponent indicating the dominance of fine particles that can be ascribed to biomass burning and urbanization. Sites with the lowest Angstrom exponent values include Bac Lieu (α=1.047) and Manila Observatory (α=1.021). From the average lognormal size distribution curves, Songkhla and NDMU show the smallest annual variation in the fine mode region, indicating the observed fine aerosols are local to the sites. The rest of the sites show high variation which could be due to large scale forcings (e.g., monsoons and biomass burnings) that affect aerosol properties in these sites. Both high and low single scattering albedo at 440 nm (ω0440) values are found in sites located in major urban areas. Silpakorn University, Manila Observatory and Vientiane have all mean ω0440 < 0.90. Singapore and CWB Taipei have ω0440 > 0.94. The discrepancy in ω0 suggests different types of major emission sources present in urban areas. The absorptivity of urban aerosols can vary depending on the strength of traffic emissions, types of fuel combusted and automobile engines used, and the effect of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season. High aerosol optical depth values (τa550

  16. Involvement of health professionals in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, S; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use is widely entrenched in the South-East Asia (SEA) Region leading to high morbidity and mortality in this region. Several studies revealed that tobacco use is widespread among youth and school children. Exposure to second-hand smoke was reported as around 50% or more in three countries - Myanmar (59.5%), Bangladesh (51.3%), and Indonesia (49.6%). Health profession students encompassing medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy disciplines, and even qualified health professionals are no exception from tobacco use. While they are regarded as role models in tobacco cessation programs, their tobacco addiction will carry a negative impact in this endeavour. A mere inquiry about the smoking status of patients and a brief advice by doctors or dentists increases quit rates and prompts those who have not thought about quitting to consider doing so. Evidence from some randomized trials suggests that advice from motivated physicians to their smoking patients could be effective in facilitating cessation of smoking. However, the low detection rate of smokers by many physicians and the small proportion of smokers who routinely receive advice from their physicians to quit have been identified as a matter of concern. This paper describes the role and issues of involvement of health professionals in tobacco control. Data from a variety of sources is used to assess the status. Although there are some differences, tobacco use is widespread among the students and health professional students. Exposure to second hand smoke is also a matter of concern. Tobacco-related problems and tobacco control cut across a vast range of health disciplines. Building alliances among the health professional associations in a vertical way will help synergize efforts, and obtain better outcomes from use of existing resources. Health professional associations in some countries in the SEA region have already taken the initiative to form coalitions at the national level to advance the tobacco control

  17. The occurrence of equatorial spread-F at conjugate stations in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinngam, Somjai; Supnithi, Pornchai; Rungraengwajiake, Sarawoot; Tsugawa, Takuya; Ishii, Mamoru; Maruyama, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the probability of equatorial spread-F (ESF) occurrence at the conjugate stations in Southeast Asia: Chiangmai station (CMU), Thailand, and Kototabang station (KTB), Indonesia, and near the magnetic equator, Chumphon station (CPN), Thailand, is presented. We analyze the ionogram data recorded by the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FM/CW) ionosondes for the periods of minimum solar activity from September 2008 to April 2009 and in the equinoctial months (March and April) from 2006 to 2013. The spread-F signatures are manually categorized into three types: the frequency spread-F (FSF), the range spread-F (RSF) and the mixed spread-F (MSF) and the monthly average percentage of the occurrence of each ESF type is presented. The results show that the percentage of RSF occurrence at CPN, which is located around the magnetic equator, is higher than at other stations and the RSF mostly occurs during the equinoctial months. On the other hand, the FSF occurrence at CMU and KTB, that are located in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively, are higher than at CPN. The RSF occurrence typically has the peaks before midnight, while the maximum occurrence rate of FSF is after midnight. Furthermore, the RSF onsets normally precede the FSF onsets by about 1-2 h. As the solar activity levels go up, the percentages of RSF occurrence increase, but the percentages of FSF tends to decrease. In addition, we compare the statistics of observed RSF occurrence with the prediction of the IRI-2012 model. The results show that the IRI model overestimates the observed RSF occurrence at all stations during most of the solar activity levels and seasons, except in June 2008 (21:00-03:00 LT), March 2011 (23:30-01:00 LT) and March 2013 (01:00-02:30 LT) when the IRI model underestimates our observations. However, the IRI model gives closer probability of RSF occurrence to our observed values at CPN, especially in equinoctial months and during the periods of medium solar

  18. Government Information and Information about Governments in Southeast Asia: A New Era? An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ch'ng Kim

    This paper on Southeast Asian government information and official publications (GIOPs) begins with a general overview of new ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) members (Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos, and Vietnam) as well as founding members (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore). Information technology (IT)…

  19. Forcing of wet phases in southeast Africa over the past 17,000 years.

    PubMed

    Schefuss, Enno; Kuhlmann, Holger; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Prange, Matthias; Pätzold, Jürgen

    2011-12-22

    Intense debate persists about the climatic mechanisms governing hydrologic changes in tropical and subtropical southeast Africa since the Last Glacial Maximum, about 20,000 years ago. In particular, the relative importance of atmospheric and oceanic processes is not firmly established. Southward shifts of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) driven by high-latitude climate changes have been suggested as a primary forcing, whereas other studies infer a predominant influence of Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures on regional rainfall changes. To address this question, a continuous record representing an integrated signal of regional climate variability is required, but has until now been missing. Here we show that remote atmospheric forcing by cold events in the northern high latitudes appears to have been the main driver of hydro-climatology in southeast Africa during rapid climate changes over the past 17,000 years. Our results are based on a reconstruction of precipitation and river discharge changes, as recorded in a marine sediment core off the mouth of the Zambezi River, near the southern boundary of the modern seasonal ITCZ migration. Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures did not exert a primary control over southeast African hydrologic variability. Instead, phases of high precipitation and terrestrial discharge occurred when the ITCZ was forced southwards during Northern Hemisphere cold events, such as Heinrich stadial 1 (around 16,000 years ago) and the Younger Dryas (around 12,000 years ago), or when local summer insolation was high in the late Holocene, that is, during the past 4,000 years. PMID:22193106

  20. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    PubMed

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  1. Trends in medical education: challenges and directions for need-based reforms of medical training in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Anwarul Azim; D'Souza, Urban; Rahman, Sayeeda

    2004-09-01

    Most medical schools, especially in South-East Asia, currently are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of educational experiences as the curricula have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The pedagogic shift from traditional approach to a need-based approach requires a fundamental change of the roles and commitments of educators, planners and policymakers. Teachers of health professional education in the region are to be well-informed of the trends and innovations and utilize these to increase relevance and quality of education to produce competent human resources for the region. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss innovative strategies and emerging trends, which have been successfully adopted by educators around the world for the reorientation of medical education to overcome existing traditions of educational planning, review and development and (ii) to highlight their implications and importance to initiate need-based reforms of medical training in South-East Asia. PMID:15470278

  2. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Salim, Mohammad A.; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E.; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; DeFries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013 – a non-drought year – Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated “very unhealthy”). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 ± 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 ± 12 Tg C), representing 5–10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000–2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands. PMID:25135165

  3. Homogeneous Population of the Brown Alga Sargassum polycystum in Southeast Asia: Possible Role of Recent Expansion and Asexual Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sze Wai; Cheang, Chi Chiu; Chirapart, Anong; Gerung, Grevo; Tharith, Chea; Ang, Put

    2013-01-01

    Southeast Asia has been known as one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. Repeated glacial cycles during Pleistocene were believed to cause isolation of marine taxa in refugia, resulting in diversification among lineages. Recently, ocean current was also found to be another factor affecting gene flow by restricting larval dispersal in animals. Macroalgae are unique in having mode of reproduction that differs from that of animals. Our study on the phylogeographical pattern of the brown macroalga Sargassum polycystum using nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2), plastidal RuBisCO spacer (Rub spacer) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-III (Cox3) as molecular markers revealed genetic homogeneity across 27 sites in Southeast Asia and western Pacific, in sharp contrast to that revealed from most animal studies. Our data suggested that S. polycystum persisted in single refugium during Pleistocene in a panmixia pattern. Expansion occurred more recently after the Last Glacial Maximum and recolonization of the newly flooded Sunda Shelf could have involved asexual propagation of the species. High dispersal ability through floating fronds carrying developing germlings may also contribute to the low genetic diversity of the species. PMID:24147050

  4. Trends in extreme daily rainfall and temperature in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific: 1961-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, M. J.; della-Marta, P. M.; Haylock, M. R.; Hennessy, K. J.; Nicholls, N.; Chambers, L. E.; Collins, D. A.; Daw, G.; Finet, A.; Gunawan, D.; Inape, K.; Isobe, H.; Kestin, T. S.; Lefale, P.; Leyu, C. H.; Lwin, T.; Maitrepierre, L.; Ouprasitwong, N.; Page, C. M.; Pahalad, J.; Plummer, N.; Salinger, M. J.; Suppiah, R.; Tran, V. L.; Trewin, B.; Tibig, I.; Yee, D.

    2001-03-01

    Trends in extreme daily temperature and rainfall have been analysed from 1961 to 1998 for Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. This 38-year period was chosen to optimize data availability across the region. Using high-quality data from 91 stations in 15 countries, significant increases were detected in the annual number of hot days and warm nights, with significant decreases in the annual number of cool days and cold nights. These trends in extreme temperatures showed considerable consistency across the region. Extreme rainfall trends were generally less spatially coherent than were those for extreme temperature. The number of rain days (with at least 2 mm of rain) has decreased significantly throughout Southeast Asia and the western and central South Pacific, but increased in the north of French Polynesia, in Fiji, and at some stations in Australia. The proportion of annual rainfall from extreme events has increased at a majority of stations. The frequency of extreme rainfall events has declined at most stations (but not significantly), although significant increases were detected in French Polynesia. Trends in the average intensity of the wettest rainfall events each year were generally weak and not significant.

  5. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, David L A; Salim, Mohammad A; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; DeFries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013--a non-drought year--Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated "very unhealthy"). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 ± 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 ± 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands. PMID:25135165

  6. Upper-mantle shear-wave structure under East and Southeast Asia from Automated Multimode Inversion of waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Q.-F.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new Sv-velocity model of the upper mantle under East and Southeast Asia constrained by the inversion of seismic waveforms recorded by broad-band stations. Seismograms from earthquakes occurred between 1977 and 2012 are collected from about 4786 permanent and temporary stations in the region whenever and wherever available. Automated Multimode Inversion of surface and multiple-S waveforms is applied to extract structural information from the seismograms, in the form of linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties. The equations are then solved for the seismic velocity perturbations in the crust and upper mantle with respect to a three-dimensional (3-D) reference model and a realistic crust. Major features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in East and Southeast Asia are identified in the resulting model. At lithospheric depth, low velocities can be seen beneath Tibet, whereas high velocities are found beneath cratonic regions, such as the Siberian, North China, Yangtze,) Tarim, and Dharwarand cratons. A number of microplates are mapped and the interaction with neighbouring plates is discussed. Slabs from the Pacific and Indian Oceans can be seen in the upper mantle. Passive marginal basins and subduction zones are also properly resolved.

  7. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Salim, Mohammad A.; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E.; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Defries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013 - a non-drought year - Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated ``very unhealthy''). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 +/- 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 +/- 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands.

  8. Global accumulation of tree-crops and its competition with forest loss and food security in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, A.; Mizoue, N.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tree-crops, which are the plants holding trunks for several decades and supply products in a form of fruits or resin, such as oil palm and natural rubber, comprises 5% of crop land of the world in 2008. While the expansion has been a major driver of forest loss and food security, a research on the process and proportion of tree-crops on global scale has been lacking. We examined the regional and temporal difference on the expansion process of the top five abundant tree-crops of the world while linking the trend of crop areas (for food production) and forest areas between 1960s and 2000s. We adopted FAOSTAT database and focused on globally abundant top-five tree crops (oil palm, rubber, coconuts, coffee, cocoa). Globally, notable proportional change of these five tree-crops on total crop lands was observed in Asia from 1.8% in 1961 to 5.2% in 2008. Regionally, it was Southeast Asia that exhibited the growth in the ratio of these five tree-crops on overall crop lands for the last half a century; from only one-tenth in 1961 to as much as one-fourth in 2008. While oil palm plantations are established in southern part of Southeast Asia, rubber plantations are being established in expense of traditional agricultural fields in northern Southeast Asia. We identified the tree-crops expansion has been increased in expense of agricultural areas (production for food) in Thailand from 1961 to 2008 (r = -0.828, P < 0.0001) and Myanmar from 1961 to 1989 (r = -0.741, P < 0.0001). The impacts of ongoing tree-crops expansion on food and wood security of the region need to be carefully monitored in terms of biodiversity, carbon storage, the local climate and the hydrological cycle. We proposed the suggestion the necessity of a new framework of protecting agricultural land from the expansion of tree-crops, especially oil palm and rubber.

  9. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The highly structured distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups suggests that current patterns of variation may be informative of past population processes. However, limited phylogenetic resolution, particularly of subclades within haplogroup K, has obscured the relationships of lineages that are common across Eurasia. Here we genotype 13 new highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a worldwide sample of 4413 males that carry the derived allele at M526, and reconstruct an NRY haplogroup tree with significantly higher resolution for the major clade within haplogroup K, K-M526. Although K-M526 was previously characterized by a single polytomy of eight major branches, the phylogenetic structure of haplogroup K-M526 is now resolved into four major subclades (K2a–d). The largest of these subclades, K2b, is divided into two clusters: K2b1 and K2b2. K2b1 combines the previously known haplogroups M, S, K-P60 and K-P79, whereas K2b2 comprises haplogroups P and its subhaplogroups Q and R. Interestingly, the monophyletic group formed by haplogroups R and Q, which make up the majority of paternal lineages in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas, represents the only subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q. PMID:24896152

  10. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-05-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration slightly increased. The

  11. Satellite time-series data for vegetation phenology detection and environmental assessment in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suepa, Tanita

    The relationship between temporal and spatial data is considered the major advantage of remote sensing in research related to biophysical characteristics. With temporally formatted remote sensing products, it is possible to monitor environmental changes as well as global climate change through time and space by analyzing vegetation phenology. Although a number of different methods have been developed to determine the seasonal cycle using time series of vegetation indices, these methods were not designed to explore and monitor changes and trends of vegetation phenology in Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA is adversely affected by impacts of climate change, which causes considerable environmental problems, and the increase in agricultural land conversion and intensification also adds to those problems. Consequently, exploring and monitoring phenological change and environmental impacts are necessary for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics and environmental change in this region. This research aimed to investigate inter-annual variability of vegetation phenology and rainfall seasonality, analyze the possible drivers of phenological changes from both climatic and anthropogenic factors, assess the environmental impacts in agricultural areas, and develop an enhanced visualization method for phenological information dissemination. In this research, spatio-temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were analyzed by using MODIS-EVI time series data over the period of 2001-2010. Rainfall seasonality was derived from TRMM daily rainfall rate. Additionally, this research assessed environmental impacts of GHG emissions by using the environmental model (DNDC) to quantify emissions from rice fields in Thailand. Furthermore, a web mapping application was developed to present the output of phenological and environmental analysis with interactive functions. The results revealed that satellite time-series data provided a great opportunity to study regional vegetation variability

  12. Combined observational and modeling efforts of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftus, Adrian; Tsay, Si-Chee; Nguyen, Xuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Low-level stratocumulus (Sc) clouds cover more of the Earth's surface than any other cloud type rendering them critical for Earth's energy balance, primarily via reflection of solar radiation, as well as their role in the global hydrological cycle. Stratocumuli are particularly sensitive to changes in aerosol loading on both microphysical and macrophysical scales, yet the complex feedbacks involved in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions remain poorly understood. Moreover, research on these clouds has largely been confined to marine environments, with far fewer studies over land where major sources of anthropogenic aerosols exist. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia (SEA) in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning (BB), exhibits highly consistent spatiotemporal distribution patterns, with major variability due to changes in aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from source regions, the transported BB aerosols often overlap with low-level Sc cloud decks associated with the development of the region's pre-monsoon system, providing a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring their complex micro- and macro-scale relationships. Compared to other locations worldwide, studies of springtime biomass-burning aerosols and the predominately Sc cloud systems over SEA and their ensuing interactions are underrepresented in scientific literature. Measurements of aerosol and cloud properties, whether ground-based or from satellites, generally lack information on microphysical processes; thus cloud-resolving models are often employed to simulate the underlying physical processes in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model has recently been enhanced with a triple-moment (3M) bulk microphysics scheme as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6 aerosol module. Because the aerosol burden not only affects cloud

  13. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  14. World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  15. An Overview of Regional Experiments on Biomass Burning Aerosols and Related Pollutants in Southeast Asia: From BASE-ASIA and the Dongsha Experiment to 7-SEAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Maring, Hal B.; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Fu, Joshua S.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lee, Chung-Te; Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, Jia-Lin; Hsu, Christina N.; Sayer, Andrew M.; Holben, Brent N.; Chu, Yu-Chi; Nguyen, Xuan Anh; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chen, Shui-Jen; Cheng, Man-Ting; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Peng, Chi-Ming; Schnell, Russell C.; Conway, Tom; Chang, Chang-Tang; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tsai, Ying I.; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Chang, Wei-Li; Huang, Shih-Jen; Lin, Tang-Huang; Liu, Gin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    By modulating the Earth-atmosphere energy, hydrological and biogeochemical cycles, and affecting regional-to-global weather and climate, biomass burning is recognized as one of the major factors affecting the global carbon cycle. However, few comprehensive and wide-ranging experiments have been conducted to characterize biomass-burning pollutants in Southeast Asia (SEA) or assess their regional impact on meteorology, the hydrological cycle, the radiative budget, or climate change. Recently, BASEASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and the 7-SEAS (7- South-East Asian Studies) Dongsha Experiment were conducted during the spring seasons of 2006 and 2010 in northern SEA, respectively, to characterize the chemical, physical, and radiative properties of biomass-burning emissions near the source regions, and assess their effects. This paper provides an overview of results from these two campaigns and related studies collected in this special issue, entitled Observation, modeling and impact studies of biomass burning and pollution in the SE Asian Environment. This volume includes 28 papers, which provide a synopsis of the experiments, regional weatherclimate, chemical characterization of biomass-burning aerosols and related pollutants in source and sink regions, the spatial distribution of air toxics (atmospheric mercury and dioxins) in source and remote areas, a characterization of aerosol physical, optical, and radiative properties, as well as modeling and impact studies. These studies, taken together, provide the first relatively complete dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the sourcesink region in the northern SEA, with particular emphasis on the marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere (LFT). The data, analysis and modeling included in these papers advance our present knowledge of source characterization of biomass-burning pollutants near the source regions as well as the physical and

  16. Climate and air quality impacts of altered BVOC fluxes from land cover change in Southeast Asia 1990 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Kandice; Yue, Xu; Unger, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale transformation of the natural rainforests of Southeast Asia in recent decades, driven primarily by logging and agroforestry activities, including rapid expansion of plantations of high-isoprene-emitting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trees at the expense of comparatively low-emitting natural dipterocarp rainforests, may have altered the prevailing regime of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) fluxes from this tropical region. Chemical processing of isoprene in the atmosphere impacts the magnitude and distribution of several short-lived climate forcers, including ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Consequently, modification of the fluxes of isoprene and other BVOCs from vegetation serves as a mechanism by which tropical land cover change impacts both air quality and climate. We apply satellite-derived snapshots of land cover for the period 1990 - 2010 to the NASA ModelE2-Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon-chemistry-climate model to quantify the impact of Southeast Asian land cover change on atmospheric chemical composition and climate driven by changes in isoprene emission. NASA ModelE2-YIBs features a fully interactive land carbon cycle and includes a BVOC emission algorithm which energetically couples isoprene production to photosynthesis. The time-slice simulations are nudged with large-scale winds from the GMAO reanalysis dataset and are forced with monthly anthropogenic and biomass burning reactive air pollution emissions from the MACCity emissions inventory. Relative to the year 1990, regional isoprene emissions in 2010 increased by 2.6 TgC/yr from the expansion of Southeast Asian oil palm plantations and decreased by 0.7 TgC/yr from the loss of regional dipterocarp rainforest. Considering only the impact of land-cover-change-induced isoprene emission changes in Southeast Asia over this period, we calculate a spatially heterogeneous impact on regional seasonal surface-level ozone concentrations (minimum: -1

  17. The Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling (SEACLID) / CORDEX Southeast Asia Project and The Results of Its Sensitivity Experiments of RegCM4 Cumulus and Ocean Fluxes Parameterization Schemes on Temperature and Extremes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Cruz, Faye; Narisma, Gemma; Dado, Julie; Van, Tan-Phan; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Trinh-Tuan, Long; Nguyen-Xuan, Thanh; Santisirisomboon, Jerasorn; Singhruck, Patama; Gunawan, Dodo; Aldrian, Edvin

    2015-04-01

    The Southeast Asia (SEA) region is one of the more vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change because of the large population exposed to climate-related hazards, mostly living in countries with low adaptive capabilities. In order to adequately prepare and adapt to these future climate change impacts, it is therefore crucial for high-resolution climate projections to be available for this region. The Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling/CORDEX Southeast Asia (SEACLID/CORDEX-SEA) project aims to provide these projections through a collaborative effort in regional climate downscaling. As a first step, model simulations with the 4th version of Regional Climate Model system (RegCM4) developed by International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) were performed for the SEA domain (80°E-145°E; 15°S-40°N) at 36 km spatial resolution, to determine an optimal configuration of the model for the region. Using the ECMWF ERA Interim data as boundary condition, a total of 18 sensitivity experiments were done with different cumulus parameterization and ocean flux schemes for the period of 1989-2008. In this study, the model's performance in simulating mean temperature is evaluated against APHRODITE, a gridded observed temperature dataset. Initial results showed that RegCM4 tends to enhance the cold bias from the boundary forcing. There is also a consistent cold bias among all simulations over the Tibetan plateau and Indochina, especially during the boreal winter. Consequently, simulations had the smallest biases during boreal summer. The correlation of the model with the observed data is high over the northern half of the region, in contrast with the low correlation over the southern half, which may be due to uncertainties in the APHRODITE dataset over this region. Consistent with the spatial analysis, the analysis of the regional means indicates an overall better performance of the MIT Emanuel scheme, in terms of seasonality and spatial distribution. The

  18. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association. PMID:24553081

  19. Selected TESOL Developments in A.I.D.'s Assistance to Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vent, Myron H.

    A description of the Regional English Language Center (RELC) and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO), which governs RELC and other educational projects either in operation or in advanced stages of planning, is presented. (Founding members of the Organization are Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore,…

  20. ICT in the Changing Landscape of Higher Education in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Kian-Sam; Songan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    As in the developed nations, developing countries in the Southeast Asian region increasingly are recognising the important role higher education plays in enhancing the human resources of a nation for promoting its development in a world of depleting natural resources. Advances and pervasiveness of ICT in the society mean that higher education…

  1. Migrant Parents and the Psychological Well-Being of Left-Behind Children in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P.

    2011-01-01

    Several million children currently live in transnational families, yet little is known about impacts on their health. We investigated the psychological well-being of left-behind children in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were drawn from the CHAMPSEA study. Caregiver reports from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to…

  2. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia detection and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus described in a monotypic genus as Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The symptoms of the disease include green-spotted chloro...

  3. Characterization and spatial distribution of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR mosaic 25m-resolution in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Nakazono, E.; Parwati, E.; Dien, V. T.; Oo, K. S.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate characteristics of mangrove forest types and to identify spatial distribution of mangrove forest based on ALOS PALSAR mosaic 25m- resolution in Southeast Asia. Methodology consists of collecting of ALOS PALSAR image for overall Southeast Asia region, preprocessing include converting DN to NRCS and filtering, collecting regions of interest of mangrove forest in Southeast Asia, plotting, characterization and classification. Result on this research we found characteristics of mangrove forest on HH values around -10.88 dB to -6.65 dB and on HV value around -16.49 dB to -13.26 dB. On polarization of HH which the highest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Preak Piphot River Cambodia, Thái Thủy Thai Binh Vietnam, and Vạn Ninh tp. Móng Cái Quảng Ninh Vietnam whereas the lowest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Thailand area. On polarization of HV which the highest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Preak Piphot River Cambodia, Sorong and Teluk Bintuni Indonesia whereas the lowest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Subang Indonesia, Giao Thiện Giao Thuỷ Nam Định, Vietnam and Puyu Mueng Satun Thailand. Based on characterization, we create a rule criteria for classification of mangrove areas and non mangrove area. Finally we found spatial distribution of mangrove forest based on ALOS PALSAR 25m-resolution in Southeast Asia.

  4. Design, construction and operation of a new filter approach for treatment of surface waters in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, R. J.

    1981-05-01

    A simple, inexpensive, and efficient method of water treatment for rural communities in Southeast Asia was developed using local materials as filter media. The filter utilizes coconut fiber and burnt rice husks in a two-stage filtering process designed as a gravityfed system without the need for backwashing, and eliminates in most cases the need of any chemicals. The first-stage filter with coconut fiber acts essentially as a substitute for the coagulation and sedimentation phases of conventional water-treatment plants. The second-stage filter, using burnt rice husks, is similar to slow sand filtration with the additional benefits of taste, color and odor removals through the absorption properties of the activated carbon in the medium. This paper reports on the design, construction costs, and operating results of several village size units in Thailand and in the Philippines.

  5. The Oldest Gibbon Fossil (Hylobatidae) from Insular Southeast Asia: Evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O. Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891–1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here. PMID:24914951

  6. The oldest gibbon fossil (Hylobatidae) from insular Southeast Asia: evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891-1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here. PMID:24914951

  7. Achievements of the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences in South-Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shahida; Begum, Ferdousi; Tank, Jaydeep; Chaudhury, Pushpa; Yasmin, Haleema; Dissanayake, Mangala

    2014-07-01

    Since 2008, the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences has contributed to ensuring the substitution of sharp curettage by manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and medical abortion in selected hospitals in participating countries of South-Southeast Asia. This initiative facilitated the registration of misoprostol in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and the approval of mifepristone for "menstrual regulation" in Bangladesh. The Pakistan Nursing Council agreed to include MVA and medical abortion in the midwifery curriculum. The Bangladesh Government has approved the training of nurses and paramedics in the use of MVA to treat incomplete abortion in selected cases. The Sri Lanka College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, in collaboration with partners, has presented a draft petition to the relevant authorities appealing for them to liberalize the abortion law in cases of rape and incest or when lethal congenital abnormalities are present. Significantly, the initiative has introduced or strengthened the provision of postabortion contraception. PMID:24743025

  8. Mapping Major Cropping Patterns in Southeast Asia from Modis Data Using Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, N. T.; Chen, C. F.; Cru, C. R.

    2012-07-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in the economy of Southeast Asia countries, especially Thailand and Vietnam. These two countries have been the largest rice suppliers in the world and played a critical role in global food security. Yearly rice crop monitoring to provide policymakers with information on rice growing areas is thus important to timely devise plans to ensure food security. This study aimed to develop an approach for regional mapping of cropping patterns from time-series MODIS data. Data were processed through three steps: (1) noise filtering of time-series MODIS NDVI data with wavelet transform, (2) image classification of cropping patterns using artificial neural networks (ANNs), and (3) classification accuracy assessment using ground reference data. The results by a comparison between classification map and ground reference data indicated the overall accuracy of 80.3% and Kappa coefficient of 0.76.

  9. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  10. The long winding road of opioid substitution therapy implementation in South-East Asia: challenges to scale up.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gary; Sharma, Mukta; Higgs, Peter

    2014-03-26

    The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users. Significance for public healthSeveral countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region can be commended for introducing opioid substitution therapy (OST) to address the ongoing HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Local evidence shows OST is an effective drug treatment approach in the Asian context given sufficient technical and institutional support. However, despite much progress, the number of OST dispensing sites and recipients remains totally inadequate in terms of impact upon the current HIV epidemic among PWID. Ongoing advocacy is needed if countries are to achieve the WHO's target of 40% of PWID being dosed with OST. Greater political commitment a strengthened policy environment, capacity building for OST clinics, lessening the criminalisation of drug use and promoting a public health response will give many more PWID access to OST and slow the advance of the HIV epidemic. PMID:25170509

  11. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  12. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Okello, Anna L.; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V.; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C.; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  13. Funding renal replacement therapy in southeast Asia: building public-private partnerships in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Morad, Zaki; Choong, Hui Lin; Tungsanga, Kriang; Suhardjono

    2015-05-01

    The provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in developing economies is limited by lack of financial and other resources. There are no national reimbursement policies for RRT in many countries in Asia. The Southeast Asia countries of Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia have adopted a strategy of encouraging public-private partnerships to increase the RRT rates in their respective countries. The private organizations include both for-profit and philanthropic bodies. The latter raise funds from ordinary citizens, corporations, and faith-based groups, as well as receive subsidies from the government to support RRT for patients in need. The kidney foundations of these countries play a leadership role in this public-private partnership. Many of the private organizations that support RRT are providers of treatment in addition to offering financial assistance to patients, with hemodialysis being the most frequently supported modality. Public-private partnership in funding RRT is sustainable over the long term with proper organization and facilitated by support from the government. PMID:25736214

  14. The variations of ionosphere critical frequency of E layer over the equatorial geomagnetic region in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenpankho, Prasert; Ishii, Mamoru; Supnithi, Pornchai

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the values of the critical frequency of the ionospheric E layer, foE, obtained at Chumphon ionospheric observatory station, Thailand. For a declining phase of the solar cycle 23 during the year 2005-2008 and an inclining phase of the solar cycle 24 during the year 2009-2013, the foE data have been used to investigate the foE variations over the equatorial geomagnetic region in Southeast Asia. A comparison between the observation data and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model has also been investigated and studied. The results show that the foE obtained from IRI 2012 model underestimates foE from Chumphon station especially during the period of 7-11 am and after 6 pm for each day and all seasons. As the results combining with the previous investigations, we suggest that the underestimation of ionospheric foE by IRI 2012 model is helpful for the correction and improvement of IRI model in an equatorial Asia region.

  15. Abrupt post-glacial climate events in West Asia and North Africa monsoon domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasse, Françoise; Van Campo, Elise

    1994-09-01

    Regions beyond the present or past penetration of the Indian and African monsoons have experienced several large and abrupt climatic fluctuations over the past 13 14C kyr. Pollen and lake records from West Asia (Western Tibet and Rajasthan), East Africa (Ethiopia) and West Africa (Western Sahara, Sahel and subequatorial Africa) were selected on the basis of chronological control, sensitivity of both site and environmental indicators to climate change, the continuity of the record, and interdisciplinary control of the palaeoclimatic interpretation. Conditions wetter than those of today prevailed during the early-mid-Holocene period, but major dry spells are recorded at all sites during the intervals ˜ 11.0-9.5 kyr BP, ˜ 8-7 kyr BP and 3-4 kyr BP. Several records also suggest dry events of minor amplitude around 6 kyr BP. Potential boundary forcings of insolation and sea surface and tropical land surface conditions are discussed. The solar radiation accounts for the general envelop of the post-glacial monsoon fluctuations, but explains neither the timing nor the amplitude of the short-term changes. In spite of apparent covariation between fluctuations in sea surface conditions in the North Atlantic and the monsoon record, no direct mechanism could be found relating the intensity of the oceanic thermohaline conveyor belt to the monsoon strength. Changes in tropical land surface conditions (soil moisture negative feedback, and changes in CH 4 production from wetlands) provide a more satisfactory hypothesis for explaining abrupt reversal events.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of hipposiderid bats from Southeast Asia and evidence of cryptic diversity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan W; Campbell, Polly; Kingston, Tigga; Zubaid, Akbar; Francis, Charles M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Old World leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideridae) are among the most widespread and ecologically diverse groups of insectivorous bats in the Old World tropics. However, phylogenetic relationships in Hipposideridae are poorly resolved at both the generic and species levels, and deep genetic divergence within several Southeast Asian species suggests that current taxonomy underestimates hipposiderid diversity in this region. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to conduct the first extensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of Southeast Asian hipposiderid bats. Inclusion of multiple samples per taxon allowed testing for evidence of evolutionarily distinct lineages within taxa currently defined as single species. In contrast to earlier phylogenies based on morphometrics, molecular data support monophyly of Hipposideros, but are ambiguous regarding the monophyly of Hipposideridae. With a few exceptions, molecular data also support currently recognized species groups classified by qualitative morphological characters. Widespread paraphyly and polyphyly within many currently recognized species of Hipposideros indicates that evolutionary diversity in the genus is underrepresented by current nomenclature. Comparison of available morphological and echolocation data suggest that both geographic isolation and ecological selection have contributed to the diversification of Southeast Asian hipposiderid bats. PMID:22079552

  17. The impact of monsoon outflow from India and Southeast Asia in the upper troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeren, H. A.; Lelieveld, J.; Roelofs, G. J.; Williams, J.; Fischer, H.; de Reus, M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Holzinger, R.; Schlager, H.; Klüpfel, T.; Bolder, M.; van der Veen, C.; Lawrence, M.

    2003-10-01

    A major objective of the Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) was to investigate long-range transport of pollutants (notably ozone precursor species). Here we present trace gas measurements from the DLR (German Aerospace Organization) Falcon aircraft in the eastern Mediterranean troposphere. Ten day backward trajectories and a coupled chemistry-climate model (ECHAM4) were used to study the nature and origin of pollution observed in the upper troposphere between 6 and 13 km altitude. We focus on a large pollution plume encountered over the eastern Mediterranean between 1 and 12 August originating in South Asia (India and Southeast Asia), referred to as the Asian plume, associated with the Asian Summer Monsoon. Vertical as well as longitudinal gradients of methane, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons including acetone, methanol, and acetonitrile, halocarbons, ozone and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) are presented, showing the chemical impact of the Asian plume compared to westerly air masses containing pollution from North America. The Asian plume is characterized by enhanced concentrations of biomass burning tracers (acetylene, methyl chloride, acetonitrile), notably from biofuel use. Concentrations of the new automobile cooling agent HFC-134a were significantly lower in the Asian plume than in air masses from North America. Relatively high levels of ozone precursors (CO, hydrocarbons) were found in both air masses, whereas lower ozone concentrations in the Asian plume suggest NOx-limited conditions. Consistently, ECHAM model simulations indicate that the expected future increase of NOx-emissions in Asia enhances the photochemical ozone production in the Asian plume. The size and location of the Asian plume near the tropopause provides an important potential for pollution transport into the lowermost stratosphere. We present observations indicative of Asian pollution transport into the lower stratosphere.

  18. The impact of monsoon outflow from India and Southeast Asia in the upper troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeren, H. A.; Lelieveld, J.; Roelofs, G. J.; Williams, J.; Fischer, H.; de Reus, M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Holzinger, R.; Schlager, H.; Klüpfel, T.; Bolder, M.; van der Veen, C.; Lawrence, M.

    2003-05-01

    A major objective of the Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) was to investigate long-range transport of pollutants (notably ozone precursor species). Here we present trace gas measurements from the DLR (German Aerospace Organization) Falcon aircraft in the eastern Mediterranean troposphere. Ten day backward trajectories and a coupled chemistry-climate model (ECHAM4) were used to study the nature and origin of pollution observed in the upper troposphere between 6 and 13 km altitude. We focus on a large pollution plume encountered over the eastern Mediterranean between 1 and 12 August originating in South Asia (India and Southeast Asia), referred to as the Asian plume, associated with the Asian Summer Monsoon. Vertical as well as longitudinal gradients of methane, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons including acetone, methanol, and acetonitrile, halocarbons, ozone and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) are presented, showing the chemical impact of the Asian plume compared to westerly air masses containing pollution from North America. The Asian plume is characterized by enhanced concentrations of biomass burning tracers (acetylene, methyl chloride, acetonitrile), notably from biofuel use. Concentrations of the new automobile cooling agent HFC-134a were significantly lower in the Asian plume than in air masses from North America. Relatively high levels of ozone precursors (CO, hydrocarbons) were found in both air masses, whereas lower ozone concentrations in the Asian plume suggest NOx-limited conditions. Consistently, ECHAM model simulations indicate that the expected future increase of NOx-emissions in Asia enhances the photochemical ozone production in the Asian plume. The size and location of the Asian plume near the tropopause provides an important potential for pollution transport into the lowermost stratosphere. We present observations indicative of Asian pollution transport into the lower stratosphere.

  19. Orientalism(s), World Geography Textbooks, and Temporal Paradox: Questioning Representations of Southwest Asia and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagumny, Lisa; Richey, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this critical discourse analysis of six high-school world geography textbooks, we explore how constructions and representations of North Africa and Southwest Asia have served to reinforce Orientalist discourse in formal curriculum. Visual and written representations in these textbooks were overwhelmingly confounded by a traditional/modern…

  20. Vaccination in Southeast Asia--reducing meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia with new and existing vaccines.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Alice; Morris, Denise E; Clarke, Stuart C

    2014-07-16

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis are leading causes of vaccine-preventable diseases such as meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia. Although there has been much progress in the introduction of vaccines against these pathogens, access to vaccines remains elusive in some countries. This review highlights the current S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, and N. meningitidis immunization schedules in the 10 countries belonging to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Epidemiologic studies may be useful for informing vaccine policy in these countries, particularly when determining the cost-effectiveness of introducing new vaccines. PMID:24907487

  1. Quality of vaccination services and social demand for vaccinations in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Streefland, P. H.; Chowdhury, A. M.; Ramos-Jimenez, P.

    1999-01-01

    For immunization to be effective in the long run as a major global disease control intervention it is important to provide good quality vaccination services. Studies carried out in three countries in Asia (Bangladesh, India, and the Philippines) and two countries in Africa (Ethiopia and Malawi), and reported on in this article, document the fact that parents are willing to invest considerable effort in having their children vaccinated; however, there are a number of serious shortcomings in the quality of the routine vaccination services and strains are apparent at the interface between the vaccination providers and the users. These shortcomings are detracting from the sustainability of routine vaccination programmes and are promoting the growth of pools of nonimmunized and partially immunized children. To safeguard the continued operation and to enhance the coverage of routine vaccination programmes it is crucial that these difficulties be addressed. PMID:10534895

  2. Testing baseline stability of some neutron monitors in Europe, Africa, and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Ygbuhay, R. C.

    2013-06-01

    For six decades, the global network of neutron monitors (NMs) has provided a continuous stream of very valuable data to the heliophysics community, leading to many insights into the myriad modes of charged particle transport in the tangled magnetic fields that permeate the 3D heliosphere. Earlier, Ahluwalia and Ygbuhay (2012) reported on the drifts in some high latitude NM counting rates in the American zone. We continue our enquiry by testing the stability of the counting rate baselines of some NMs operating in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The data from these detectors have been extremely valuable for the short-term time variation studies, but caution is advised in using the data for long-term studies from NMs with baselines that are drifting for cause(s) unknown.

  3. Polyphyly of Asian Tree Toads, Genus Pedostibes Günther, 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Description of a New Genus from Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Grismer, L. Lee; Zachariah, Anil; Brown, Rafe M.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tree Toad genus Pedostibes, as currently understood, exhibits a conspicuously disjunct distribution, posing several immediate questions relating to the biogeography and taxonomy of this poorly known group. The type species, P. tuberculosus and P. kempi, are known only from India, whereas P. hosii, P. rugosus, and P. everetti are restricted to Southeast Asia. Several studies have shown that these allopatric groups are polyphyletic, with the Indian Pedostibes embedded within a primarily South Asian clade of toads, containing the genera Adenomus, Xanthophryne, and Duttaphrynus. Southeast Asian Pedostibes on the other hand, are nested within a Southeast Asian clade, which is the sister lineage to the Southeast Asian river toad genus Phrynoidis. We demonstrate that Indian and Southeast Asian Pedostibes are not only allopatric and polyphyletic, but also exhibit significant differences in morphology and reproductive mode, indicating that the Southeast Asian species’ are not congeneric with the true Pedostibes of India. As a taxonomic solution, we describe a new genus, Rentapia gen. nov. to accommodate the Southeast Asian species. PMID:26788854

  4. Polyphyly of Asian Tree Toads, Genus Pedostibes Günther, 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Description of a New Genus from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kin Onn; Grismer, L Lee; Zachariah, Anil; Brown, Rafe M; Abraham, Robin Kurian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tree Toad genus Pedostibes, as currently understood, exhibits a conspicuously disjunct distribution, posing several immediate questions relating to the biogeography and taxonomy of this poorly known group. The type species, P. tuberculosus and P. kempi, are known only from India, whereas P. hosii, P. rugosus, and P. everetti are restricted to Southeast Asia. Several studies have shown that these allopatric groups are polyphyletic, with the Indian Pedostibes embedded within a primarily South Asian clade of toads, containing the genera Adenomus, Xanthophryne, and Duttaphrynus. Southeast Asian Pedostibes on the other hand, are nested within a Southeast Asian clade, which is the sister lineage to the Southeast Asian river toad genus Phrynoidis. We demonstrate that Indian and Southeast Asian Pedostibes are not only allopatric and polyphyletic, but also exhibit significant differences in morphology and reproductive mode, indicating that the Southeast Asian species' are not congeneric with the true Pedostibes of India. As a taxonomic solution, we describe a new genus, Rentapia gen. nov. to accommodate the Southeast Asian species. PMID:26788854

  5. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Talbott, K; Brown, M

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues. PMID:12321720

  6. Management of healthcare waste: developments in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Kühling, Jan-Gerd; Pieper, Ute

    2012-09-01

    In many Southeast Asian countries, significant challenges persist with regard to the proper management and disposal of healthcare waste. The amount of healthcare waste in these countries is continuously increasing as a result of the expansion of healthcare systems and services. In the past, healthcare waste, if it was treated at all, was mainly incinerated. In the last decade more comprehensive waste management systems were developed for Southeast Asian countries and implementation started. This also included the establishment of alternative healthcare waste treatment systems. The developments in the lower-middle-income countries are of special interest, as major investments are planned. Based upon sample projects, a short overview of the current development trends in the healthcare waste sector in Laos, Indonesia and Vietnam is provided. The projects presented include: (i) Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (development of the national environmental health training system to support the introduction of environmental health standards and improvement of healthcare waste treatment in seven main hospitals by introducing steam-based treatment technologies); (ii) Indonesia (development of a provincial-level healthcare waste-management strategy for Province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and introduction of an advanced waste treatment system in a tertiary level hospital in Makassar); and (iii) Vietnam (development of a healthcare waste strategy for five provinces in Vietnam and a World Bank-financed project on healthcare waste in Vietnam). PMID:22993139

  7. Culture and mental health of women in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    NIAZ, UNAIZA; HASSAN, SEHAR

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of cultural factors on mental health of South Asian women. Marked gender discrimination in South Asia has led to second class status of women in society. Their mobility, work, self-esteem and self-image, in fact their worth and identity, seem to depend upon the male members of a patriarchal society. Women's lack of empowerment and both financial and emotional dependence have restricted their self-expression and choices in life. This, along with family, social and work pressures, has a definite impact on women's mental health. PMID:16946955

  8. The Zimba, the Portuguese, and other cannibals in late sixteenth-century Southeast Africa.

    PubMed

    Allina, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Portuguese accounts of cannibalism in sixteenth-century southeast Africa reflect important but mostly unrecognised elements of the region's political and cultural history. The article analyses descriptions of the Zimba cannibals in Ethiopia Oriental, written by the Portuguese priest Joo dos Santos. Dos Santos's evidence figures significantly in scholarship for this period, and while many historians include his colourful descriptions of cannibalism, none has taken them seriously, largely dismissing them as a product of European myth-making. In focusing on the question of cannibalism, the article asks not whether the Zimba ate human flesh, nor why they might have, but how dos Santos came to believe that they did. Early modern European cultural outlooks had a role in producing such accounts, but the argument here focuses on how claims of cannibalism reflected African, rather than European, perspectives. Such claims were a vernacular expression of beliefs about, and critiques of, political power in the threatening and unsettled political environment of the time. In transmitting descriptions of cannibalism from African informants, dos Santos acted as an unwitting vehicle for this vernacular critique, conveying its meaning quite imperfectly to his readers. PMID:22026025

  9. Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy

    1963-01-01

    The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

  10. El Niño timings and rainfall extremes in India, Southeast Asia and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    1999-05-01

    Whereas some El Niño years are known to be associated with droughts in some parts of the globe, notably India, other El Niños do not seem to be effective. Recently, it was observed that Unambiguous ENSOW (El Niño years, in which the Southern Oscillation Index minima and Pacific sea surface temperature maxima occurred in the middle of the calendar year) were better associated with droughts. This association was checked for rainfalls in South Asia and China. Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and East Asia (comprising of the People's Republic of China and adjacent regions, including India) showed a good association of Unambiguous ENSOW events with droughts. Thailand, Malaysia and the whole Philippines showed some association; but the northwest Philippines showed opposite results. To find a rational for this criterion, it was checked whether such events were in any way related to the timings of the El Niño events. In general, El Niños active during the main rainy season (June-September for all India's summer monsoon rainfall) were better associated with droughts. But some events did not fit this pattern. Also, many years not having El Niños were associated with droughts. Thus, the El Niño relationship is not clear-cut and predictions based on the same alone are likely to go wrong more often than not, as in the case of the recent El Niño (1997).

  11. Women are key players in the economies of East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B; Mason, A

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the East-West Center's Program on Population investigated the links between population change and economic growth in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. This document discusses the findings pertaining to women's changing marriage and childbearing patterns, education attainment, and labor force participation as well as changes in family life. In eastern and southeastern Asia, women are delaying marriage and having fewer children as a result of their overwhelming acceptance of modern contraception. Concurrently, women's secondary school enrollment has increased dramatically since 1960, and women have accounted for steadily increasing proportions of total labor force growth. Economic development has led to fewer women employed in agriculture and more in clerical positions. Women continue to be marginalized in low-paying manufacturing jobs and to lose these jobs more frequently than do men. Women's labor force participation continues to be dependent upon their child care responsibilities, but women are beginning to combine both activities with the help of live-in grandparents. Women have made an important contribution to economic growth in Asia. Policies should address job discrimination against married women, wage discrimination, the problems faced by young women who leave home for employment in the manufacturing and service sectors, and the lack of child care facilities. PMID:12293729

  12. Ancient jades map 3,000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsiao-Chun; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Bellwood, Peter; Nguyen, Kim Dung; Bellina, Bérénice; Silapanth, Praon; Dizon, Eusebio; Santiago, Rey; Datan, Ipoi; Manton, Jonathan H

    2007-12-11

    We have used electron probe microanalysis to examine Southeast Asian nephrite (jade) artifacts, many archeologically excavated, dating from 3000 B.C. through the first millennium A.D. The research has revealed the existence of one of the most extensive sea-based trade networks of a single geological material in the prehistoric world. Green nephrite from a source in eastern Taiwan was used to make two very specific forms of ear pendant that were distributed, between 500 B.C. and 500 A.D., through the Philippines, East Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and peninsular Thailand, forming a 3,000-km-diameter halo around the southern and eastern coastlines of the South China Sea. Other Taiwan nephrite artifacts, especially beads and bracelets, were distributed earlier during Neolithic times throughout Taiwan and from Taiwan into the Philippines. PMID:18048347

  13. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. PMID:16828209

  14. Ancient jades map 3,000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Hsiao-Chun; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Bellwood, Peter; Nguyen, Kim Dung; Bellina, Bérénice; Silapanth, Praon; Dizon, Eusebio; Santiago, Rey; Datan, Ipoi; Manton, Jonathan H.

    2007-01-01

    We have used electron probe microanalysis to examine Southeast Asian nephrite (jade) artifacts, many archeologically excavated, dating from 3000 B.C. through the first millennium A.D. The research has revealed the existence of one of the most extensive sea-based trade networks of a single geological material in the prehistoric world. Green nephrite from a source in eastern Taiwan was used to make two very specific forms of ear pendant that were distributed, between 500 B.C. and 500 A.D., through the Philippines, East Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and peninsular Thailand, forming a 3,000-km-diameter halo around the southern and eastern coastlines of the South China Sea. Other Taiwan nephrite artifacts, especially beads and bracelets, were distributed earlier during Neolithic times throughout Taiwan and from Taiwan into the Philippines. PMID:18048347

  15. Resilience and Well-Being Among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia—a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment. PMID:22966930

  16. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-01

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures. PMID:25275329

  17. Workshop on Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chea, Sokkosal; Cheng, Yi-bing; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Hafy, Zen; Kawichai, Surinda; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Nam, Nguyen Tran; Ooi, Mong How; Wolbers, Marcel; Zeng, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The South East Asia Infectious Disease Clinical Research Network convened subject matter experts at a workshop to make consensus recommendations for study design of a clinical trial for use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). HFMD is a highly contagious emerging infection among children in the region, a small proportion of whom develop neurologic and cardiopulmonary complications with high case-fatality rates. The use of IVIg for treatment of severe disease is widespread and a part of local, national, and international guidelines, but no clinical evidence warrants the use of this drug, which is expensive and has potentially serious side effects. During a 2-day workshop in March 2014, a group of HFMD experts reviewed the current evidence related to use of IVIg in HFMD and discussed potential study design, feasibility, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample size, primary and secondary endpoints, and subsidiary studies for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PMID:25531166

  18. Implant dentistry in undergraduate dental curricula in South-East Asia: forum workshop at the University of Hong Kong, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 19-20 November 2010.

    PubMed

    Lang, Niklaus P; Bridges, Susan M; Lulic, Martina

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports on the discussions arising from a 2-day forum on implant dentistry education in South-East Asia. The 10 institutions present represented undergraduate and postgraduate dental curricula from seven countries, including Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, the Philippines, and Singapore. While not aiming to reach consensus as in other such conferences, the outcome was positive in establishing realistic goals in university education in implant dentistry for curriculum leaders and developers. PMID:25426784

  19. Alocanthedon, a new subgenus of Chalicodoma from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S; Gonzalez, Victor H

    2011-01-01

    A new subgenus, Alocanthedon Engel and Gonzalez subgen. n., is described for five species of unusual Southeast Asian bees in the genus Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau (Megachilinae: Megachilini). The subgenus is most noteworthy for the deep postgenal depression or furrow in males (bordered outwardly near the base of the mandible by a protuberant, thick lamella) and the presence of a dense patch of black setae posteriorly in the forewing medial cell (except in one species) [resembling the dense patch of setae among the submarginal cells of Thrinchostoma Saussure (Halictidae: Halictinae: Halictini)]. The subgenus is characterized and distinguished from the related Callomegachile Michener. A key to the following five species presently included in the subgenus is provided: Chalicodoma aterrimum (Smith), Chalicodoma atratiforme (Meade-Waldo) comb. n., Chalicodoma memecylonae Engel sp. n., Chalicodoma odontophorum Engel sp. n., and Chalicodoma apoicola Engel sp. n.Chalicodoma (Callomegachile) atratiforme sininsulae (Cockerell) is newly placed in synonymy with C. (C.) fulvipenne (Smith). Species have been collected from Memecylaceae (Myrtales) and Fabaceae (Fabales). The phylogenetic relationships of Alocanthedon among other Megachilini are briefly elaborated upon. PMID:21747670

  20. Alocanthedon, a new subgenus of Chalicodoma from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Michael S.; Gonzalez, Victor H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new subgenus, Alocanthedon Engel and Gonzalez subgen. n., is described for five species of unusual Southeast Asian bees in the genus Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau (Megachilinae: Megachilini). The subgenus is most noteworthy for the deep postgenal depression or furrow in males (bordered outwardly near the base of the mandible by a protuberant, thick lamella) and the presence of a dense patch of black setae posteriorly in the forewing medial cell (except in one species) [resembling the dense patch of setae among the submarginal cells of Thrinchostoma Saussure (Halictidae: Halictinae: Halictini)]. The subgenus is characterized and distinguished from the related Callomegachile Michener. A key to the following five species presently included in the subgenus is provided: Chalicodoma aterrimum (Smith), Chalicodoma atratiforme (Meade-Waldo) comb. n., Chalicodoma memecylonae Engel sp. n., Chalicodoma odontophorum Engel sp. n., and Chalicodoma apoicola Engel sp. n. Chalicodoma (Callomegachile) atratiforme sininsulae (Cockerell) is newly placed in synonymy with C. (C.) fulvipenne (Smith). Species have been collected from Memecylaceae (Myrtales) and Fabaceae (Fabales). The phylogenetic relationships of Alocanthedon among other Megachilini are briefly elaborated upon. PMID:21747670

  1. Neorickettsia sennetsu as a Neglected Cause of Fever in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Sabine; Phuklia, Weerawat; Turner, Gareth D H; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Chansamouth, Vilada; Dumler, Stephen J; Ferguson, David J P; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Neorickettsia sennetsu infection is rarely recognized, with less than 100 globally reported patients over the last 50 years. The disease is thought to be contracted by eating raw fish, a staple of many South-East Asian cuisines. In 2009, the first patient with sennetsu was identified in the Lao PDR (Laos), raising the question as to how common this organism and related species are in patients presenting with fever. We investigated the frequency of N. sennetsu infection at hospitals in diverse areas of Laos. Consenting febrile hospital inpatients from central (Vientiane: n = 1,013), northern (Luang Namtha: n = 453) and southern (Salavan: n = 171) Laos were screened by PCR for N. sennetsu, if no previous positive direct diagnostic test was available. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed to differentiate between N. sennetsu, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. To allow more detailed studies of N. sennetsu, culture was successfully established using a reference strain (ATCC VR-367), identifying a canine-macrophage cell line (DH82) to be most suitable to visually identify infection. After screening, N. sennetsu was identified and sequence confirmed in four (4/1,637; 0.2%) Lao patients. Despite the previously identified high seroprevalence of N. sennetsu antibodies in the Lao population (~17%), acute N. sennetsu infection with sufficient clinical signs to prompt hospitalization appears to be rare. The reservoir, zoonotic cycle and pathogenicity of N. sennetsu remain unclear and require further investigations. PMID:26158273

  2. Tackling the malaria problem in the South-East Asia Region: Need for a change in policy?

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Kaushik; Ganguly, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is largely neglected in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. Malaria in the SEAR exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as “forest malaria” and malaria due to migration across international borders. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticides, malaria control efforts in the SEAR face a steep challenge. Indirect man-made factors such as climate change, as well as direct man-made factors such as the circulation of counterfeit drugs have added to the problem. Increased monitoring, surveillance, pharmacovigilance as well as cross-border collaboration are required to address these problems. Regional networking and data-sharing will keep all stakeholders updated about the status of various malaria control programmes in the SEAR. Cutting-edge technologies such as GIS/GPS (geographical information system/global positioning system) systems and mobile phones can provide information in “real-time”. A holistic and sustained approach to malaria control by integrated vector management (IVM) is suggested, in which all the stakeholder countries work collaboratively as a consortium. This approach will address the malaria problem in a collective manner so that malaria control can be sustained over time. PMID:23481050

  3. Population genetic structure of Oryza sativa in East and Southeast Asia and the discovery of elite alleles for grain traits

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Xiaojing; Giang Tran Thi, Thu; Mawuli Edzesi, Wisdom; Liang, Lijun; Liu, Qiangming; Liu, Erbao; Wang, Yang; Qiang, Sheng; Liu, Linglong; Hong, Delin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotypes of 532 rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions collected from East and Southeast Asia and detected abundant genetic diversity within the population. We identified 6 subpopulations and found a tendency towards directional evolution in O. sativa from low to high latitudes, with levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the 6 subpopulations ranging from 10 to 30 cM. We then investigated the phenotypic data for grain length, grain width, grain thickness and 1,000-grain weight over 4 years. Using a genome-wide association analysis, we identified 17 marker-trait associations involving 14 SSR markers on 12 chromosome arms, and 8 of the 17 associations were novel. The elite alleles were mined based on the phenotypic effects of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These elite alleles could be used to improve target traits through optimal cross designs, with the expected results obtained by pyramiding or substituting the elite alleles per QTL (independent of possible epistatic effects). Together, these results provide an in-depth understanding of the genetic diversity pattern among rice-grain traits across a broad geographic scale, which has potential use in future research work, including studies related to germplasm conservation and molecular breeding by design. PMID:26059752

  4. Simulating the transport and chemical evolution of biomass burning pollutants originating from Southeast Asia during 7-SEAS/2010 Dongsha experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Fu, Joshua S.; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Gao, Yang; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Wang, Jia-Lin; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Tang-Huang; Thongboonchoo, Narisara; Chen, Wei-Chen

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to simulate the transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosol originating from Southeast Asia (SEA) during the Dongsha Experiment conducted from March 2010 to April 2010. Transport pathways were reanalyzed and steering flow in the mid-latitude areas and anticyclones in low-latitude areas were found to control the transport of BB plume after it was injected to a high atmosphere. For the 12 simulated and observed events at Mt. Lulin (2862 m MSL; 23°28‧07″ N, 120°52‧25″ E), the 72 h backward trajectories were all tracked back to southern China and northern Indochina, which were the locations of the largest BB fire activities in SEA. Chemical evolutions of BB pollutants along the moving trajectories showed that organic matter was always the dominant component in PM2.5, consistent with the observations at both near-source regions and Mt. Lulin. For nitrogen species, nearly all NOx molecules oxidized into HNO3, NO3-, PAN, and PANX in fires or near fires. The synchronic consumption of NOx, SO2, and NH3 explained the production of the major components of inorganic salts. In the moving BB plume, sulfate concentration increased with decreased nitrate concentration. Ratios of ammonium to PM2.5 and elemental carbon to PM2.5 remained nearly constant because additional sources were lacking.

  5. Effects of the spatial repellent metofluthrin on landing rates of outdoor biting anophelines in Cambodia, Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Charlwood, J D; Nenhep, S; Protopopoff, N; Sovannaroth, S; Morgan, J C; Hemingway, J

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria in Southeast Asia is a major problem. The fact that many people become infected with malaria when they are outside has prompted the development of 'spatial' rather than topical repellents. The respective effects of one or four slow-release emanators of metofluthrin, a pyrethroid, were tested in Pailin, Pursat and Koh Kong, Cambodia. Numbers of mosquitoes counted in outdoor landing catches when one or four emanators were suspended close to the collector were compared with control collections. In Pailin, the effects of emanators on catches in Furvela tent traps and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps suspended underneath houses were also investigated. Rate ratios were used to determine differences. A total of 29 255 mosquitoes were collected over 2934 h of landing collections, 87 nights of tent trapping and 81 nights of light trap capture. In Pailin, landing rates were reduced by 48% by a single emanator and by 67% by four emanators (P < 0.001). Similar reductions were observed in the number of mosquitoes collected in tent traps and the number of anophelines only collected in light traps. Results were similar in Pursat, but, for unknown reasons, those in Koh Kong showed no difference between control and metofluthrin collections (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that although the product can produce a significant effect, it requires further improvement. PMID:26991881

  6. Towards Global Simulation of Irrigation in a Land Surface Model: Multiple Cropping and Rice Paddy in Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land use significantly influences the surface water and energy balances. Effects of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes include repartitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes, an increase in net radiation, and an increase in soil moisture and runoff. We are working on representing irrigation practices in continental- to global-scale land surface simulation in NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Because agricultural practices across the nations are diverse, and complex, we are attempting to capture the first-order reality of the regional practices before achieving a global implementation. This study focuses on two issues in Southeast Asia: multiple cropping and rice paddy irrigation systems. We first characterize agricultural practices in the region (i.e., crop types, growing seasons, and irrigation) using the Global data set of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000) dataset. Rice paddy extent is identified using remote sensing products. Whether irrigated or rainfed, flooded fields need to be represented and treated explicitly. By incorporating these properties and processes into a physically based land surface model, we are able to quantify the impacts on the simulated states and fluxes.

  7. Pleistocene paleoenvironmental reconstructions and mammalian evolution in South-East Asia: focus on fossil faunas from Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougard, C.; Montuire, S.

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian faunal studies have provided various clues for a better reconstruction of hominid Quaternary paleoenvironments. In this work, two methods were used: (1) the cenogram method, based on a graphical representation of the mammalian community structure, and (2) the species richness of murine rodents to estimate climatic parameters. These methods were applied to Middle and Late Pleistocene mammalian faunas of South-East Asia, from South China to Indonesia. Special emphasis was laid on a fauna from north-east Thailand dated back to approximately 170,000 years (i.e. a glacial period). This Thai fauna seems characteristic of a slightly open forested environment intermediate between those of present-day central Myanmar and the northern part of South China. In the Thai fauna, the occurrence of both cool-loving mammalian taxa, currently living further north, and species of larger body size than their living counterparts, indicates cooler and probably drier climatic conditions than present-day climates in Thailand. These results are quite consistent with Middle Pleistocene palynological records from South China and eastern Java. From other less well-documented Pleistocene faunas, taken into account in this work, humid climatic conditions of interglacial periods were revealed from large mammalian taxa.

  8. A high-resolution and multi-year emissions inventory for biomass burning in Southeast Asia during 2001-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yusheng; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emissions from forest fires, agricultural waste burning, and peatland combustion contain large amounts of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and observation data, and spatiotemporal variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution and multi-year emissions inventory for BB in Southeast Asia (SEA) during 2001-2010. The 1-km grid was effective for quantifying emissions from small-sized fires that were frequently misinterpreted by coarse grid data due to their large smoothed pixels. The average annual BB emissions in SEA during 2001-2010 were 277 Gg SO2, 1125 Gg NOx, 55,388 Gg CO, 3831 Gg NMVOC, 553 Gg NH3, 324 Gg BC, 2406 Gg OC, 3832 Gg CH4, 817,809 Gg CO2, and 99 Gg N2O. Emissions were high in western Myanmar, Northern Thailand, eastern Cambodia, northern Laos, and South Sumatra and South Kalimantan of Indonesia. Emissions from forest burning were the dominant contributor to the total emissions among all land types. The spatial pattern of BB emissions was consistent with that of the burned areas. In addition, BB emissions exhibited similar temporal trends from 2001 to 2010, with strong interannual and intraannual variability. Interannual and intraannual emission peaks were seen during 2004, 2007, 2010, and January-March and August-October, respectively.

  9. The Centipede Genus Scolopendra in Mainland Southeast Asia: Molecular Phylogenetics, Geometric Morphometrics and External Morphology as Tools for Species Delimitation

    PubMed Central

    Siriwut, Warut; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak

    2015-01-01

    Seven Scolopendra species from the Southeast Asian mainland delimited based on standard external morphological characters represent monophyletic groups in phylogenetic trees inferred from concatenated sequences of three gene fragments (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA) using Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Geometric morphometric description of shape variation in the cephalic plate, forcipular coxosternite, and tergite of the ultimate leg-bearing segment provides additional criteria for distinguishing species. Colouration patterns in some Scolopendra species show a high degree of fit to phylogenetic trees at the population level. The most densely sampled species, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, has three subclades with allopatric distributions in mainland SE Asia. The molecular phylogeny of S. pinguis Pocock, 1891, indicated ontogenetic colour variation among its populations. The taxonomic validation of S. dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, S. japonica Koch, 1878, and S. dehaani Brandt, 1840, each a former subspecies of S. subspinipes Leach, 1814 sensu Lewis, 2010, as full species was supported by molecular information and additional morphological data. Species delimitation in these taxonomically challenging animals is facilitated by an integrative approach that draws on both morphology and molecular phylogeny. PMID:26270342

  10. Modelling Climate Change Impacts on the Seasonality of Water Resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Pham Quy; Sakata, Masahiro; Vinh, Tran Quoc

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in mainland Southeast Asia was assessed using downscaled global climate models coupled with the SWAT model. The results indicated that temperature and evapotranspiration will increase in all months of future years. The area could warm as much as 3.4°C in the 2090s, with an increase of annual evapotranspiration of up to 23% in the same period. We found an increase in the seasonality of precipitation (both an increase in the wet season and a decrease in the dry season). The greatest monthly increase of up to 29% and the greatest monthly decrease of up to 30% are expected in the 2090s. As a result, decreases in dry season discharge and increases in wet season discharge are expected, with a span of ±25% for the highest monthly changes in the 2090s. This is expected to exacerbate the problem of seasonally uneven distribution of water resources: a large volume of water in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season, a pattern that indicates the possibility of more frequent floods in the wet season and droughts in the dry season. PMID:25243206

  11. Seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jiayuan; Wen, Lianxing

    2014-08-01

    We constrain seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones near the Earth’s core-mantle boundary (CMB) beneath Southeast Asia. We first determine the average shear-velocity structure near the CMB in the region based on travel-time analysis of S, ScS, P and ScP phases. We then map seismic scattering in the lowermost mantle using the PKP precursors observed at the USArray. The inferred average shear-velocity perturbations in the lowermost 200 km of the mantle range from about -6% to 6%, and exhibit a complex geographic distribution of alternate low- and high-velocity patches adjacent to each other, surrounded by a high-velocity anomaly in the south. The inferred strong seismic scatterers exhibit a crescent shape distributed from the South China Sea to the Maluku Islands and coincide with the westernmost low-velocity patch, suggesting that the strong scatterers represent ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs). We suggest that the seismic structure in the region likely results from a complex interaction between a downwelling and a low-velocity region near the CMB. The downwelling (the high-velocity patches) displaces the low-velocity region into many low-velocity patches and pushes the ULVZs to the edge of the low-velocity region.

  12. A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe.

    PubMed

    Rootsi, Siiri; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovic, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina; Fedorova, Sardana A; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Osipova, Ludmila P; Stoneking, Mark; Lin, Alice A; Ferak, Vladimir; Parik, Jüri; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard

    2007-02-01

    A large part of Y chromosome lineages in East European and East Asian human populations belong to haplogroup (hg) NO, which is composed of two sister clades N-M231 and O-M175. The O-clade is relatively old (around 30 thousand years (ky)) and encompasses the vast majority of east and Southeast Asian male lineages, as well as significant proportion of those in Oceanian males. On the other hand, our detailed analysis of hg N suggests that its high frequency in east Europe is due to its more recent expansion westward on a counter-clock northern route from inner Asia/southern Siberia, approximately 12-14 ky ago. The widespread presence of hg N in Siberia, together with its absence in Native Americans, implies its spread happened after the founder event for the Americas. The most frequent subclade N3, arose probably in the region of present day China, and subsequently experienced serial bottlenecks in Siberia and secondary expansions in eastern Europe. Another branch, N2, forms two distinctive subclusters of STR haplotypes, Asian (N2-A) and European (N2-E), the latter now mostly distributed in Finno-Ugric and related populations. These phylogeographic patterns provide evidence consistent with male-mediated counter-clockwise late Pleistocene-Holocene migratory trajectories toward Northwestern Europe from an ancestral East Asian source of Paleolithic heritage. PMID:17149388

  13. Habitat fragmentation alters the properties of a host-parasite network: rodents and their helminths in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge; Pilosof, Shai; Claude, Julien; Krasnov, Boris R; Cosson, Jean-François; Chaval, Yannick; Ribas, Alexis; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Blasdell, Kim; Herbreteau, Vincent; Dupuy, Stéphane; Tran, Annelise

    2015-09-01

    1. While the effects of deforestation and habitat fragmentation on parasite prevalence or richness are well investigated, host-parasite networks are still understudied despite their importance in understanding the mechanisms of these major disturbances. Because fragmentation may negatively impact species occupancy, abundance and co-occurrence, we predict a link between spatiotemporal changes in habitat and the architecture of host-parasite networks. 2. For this, we used an extensive data set on 16 rodent species and 29 helminth species from seven localities of South-East Asia. We analysed the effects of rapid deforestation on connectance and modularity of helminth-parasite networks. We estimated both the degree of fragmentation and the rate of deforestation through the development of land uses and their changes through the last 20 to 30 years in order to take into account the dynamics of habitat fragmentation in our statistical analyses. 3. We found that rapid fragmentation does not affect helminth species richness per se but impacts host-parasite interactions as the rodent-helminth network becomes less connected and more modular. 4. Our results suggest that parasite sharing among host species may become more difficult to maintain with the increase of habitat disturbance. PMID:25777342

  14. Modelling climate change impacts on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Giang, Pham Quy; Toshiki, Kosuke; Sakata, Masahiro; Kunikane, Shoichi; Vinh, Tran Quoc

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in mainland Southeast Asia was assessed using downscaled global climate models coupled with the SWAT model. The results indicated that temperature and evapotranspiration will increase in all months of future years. The area could warm as much as 3.4(°)C in the 2090 s, with an increase of annual evapotranspiration of up to 23% in the same period. We found an increase in the seasonality of precipitation (both an increase in the wet season and a decrease in the dry season). The greatest monthly increase of up to 29% and the greatest monthly decrease of up to 30% are expected in the 2090 s. As a result, decreases in dry season discharge and increases in wet season discharge are expected, with a span of ± 25% for the highest monthly changes in the 2090 s. This is expected to exacerbate the problem of seasonally uneven distribution of water resources: a large volume of water in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season, a pattern that indicates the possibility of more frequent floods in the wet season and droughts in the dry season. PMID:25243206

  15. Forest fires and environmental haze in Southeast Asia: using the 'stakeholder' approach to assign costs and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Quah, E; Johnston, D

    2001-10-01

    The 'seasonal haze' problem is one which afflicts large parts of Southeast Asia in years of drought. The major cause is forest, bush and field fires in the states of Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia, and to a lesser extent in Sabah, Sarawak, and other parts of Malaysia. Almost all of these fires now seem preventable, since they are intentionally set to clear land for cultivation. Theoretically, the government authorities at central, provincial and local levels in these countries should be responsible for controlling activities in their territory. In practice, however, air pollution control through regulatory policies and practices is extraordinarily difficult to implement and maintain in a situation of this kind in developing countries, especially at a time of crippling economic setbacks. Moreover, the establishment of legal liability, through an international tribunal or otherwise, hardly seems a politically feasible course of action for the government of an affluent 'victim state' such as Singapore. Faith in the usual solutions--science, regulation, law and diplomacy--is weakened by one's sense of current realities. The purpose of this paper is to review the issues and suggested responses, the cost implications of each, the responsibilities as well as entitlements that might apply to the various stakeholders, and the special role of Singapore as an affluent 'victim state'. We also discuss the incentive mechanisms that would be needed to manage forest fires. PMID:11721597

  16. A Delay Differential Equation Model for Dengue Fever Transmission in Selected Countries of South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakdanupaph, Werapong; Moore, Elvin J.

    2009-08-01

    Dengue Fever is a dangerous viral disease that is transmitted by female Aedes mosquitoes and is common in more than 100 countries in the world and in all countries of South-East Asia. Mathematical models of Dengue Fever transmission are useful for studying the causes of the spread of the disease and to try to develop methods for reducing the spread of the disease. In this paper, a mathematical model for Dengue fever is analyzed consisting of a system of four nonlinear differential equations with two time delays. The model includes infected humans, infectious humans, infected mosquitoes and infectious mosquitoes. The model has disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. The asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points are studied analytically. The Matlab computer program is used to obtain numerical solutions of the model for both zero and nonzero time delays for a range of parameter values. It is found that for some reasonable estimates of parameter values the endemic equilibrium point is asymptotically stable, but the approach to equilibrium is very slow, suggesting that this equilibrium point may not be of practical importance for these parameter values. Some comparisons are made between the model results and the actual data for Dengue Fever in Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

  17. The Centipede Genus Scolopendra in Mainland Southeast Asia: Molecular Phylogenetics, Geometric Morphometrics and External Morphology as Tools for Species Delimitation.

    PubMed

    Siriwut, Warut; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak

    2015-01-01

    Seven Scolopendra species from the Southeast Asian mainland delimited based on standard external morphological characters represent monophyletic groups in phylogenetic trees inferred from concatenated sequences of three gene fragments (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA) using Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Geometric morphometric description of shape variation in the cephalic plate, forcipular coxosternite, and tergite of the ultimate leg-bearing segment provides additional criteria for distinguishing species. Colouration patterns in some Scolopendra species show a high degree of fit to phylogenetic trees at the population level. The most densely sampled species, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, has three subclades with allopatric distributions in mainland SE Asia. The molecular phylogeny of S. pinguis Pocock, 1891, indicated ontogenetic colour variation among its populations. The taxonomic validation of S. dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, S. japonica Koch, 1878, and S. dehaani Brandt, 1840, each a former subspecies of S. subspinipes Leach, 1814 sensu Lewis, 2010, as full species was supported by molecular information and additional morphological data. Species delimitation in these taxonomically challenging animals is facilitated by an integrative approach that draws on both morphology and molecular phylogeny. PMID:26270342

  18. Quantifying the legacy of the Chinese Neolithic on the maternal genetic heritage of Taiwan and Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Andreia; Eng, Ken Khong; Rito, Teresa; Cavadas, Bruno; Bulbeck, David; Gandini, Francesca; Pala, Maria; Mormina, Maru; Hudson, Bob; White, Joyce; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Saidin, Mokhtar; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin B; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    There has been a long-standing debate concerning the extent to which the spread of Neolithic ceramics and Malay-Polynesian languages in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) were coupled to an agriculturally driven demic dispersal out of Taiwan 4000 years ago (4 ka). We previously addressed this question using founder analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region sequences to identify major lineage clusters most likely to have dispersed from Taiwan into ISEA, proposing that the dispersal had a relatively minor impact on the extant genetic structure of ISEA, and that the role of agriculture in the expansion of the Austronesian languages was therefore likely to have been correspondingly minor. Here we test these conclusions by sequencing whole mtDNAs from across Taiwan and ISEA, using their higher chronological precision to resolve the overall proportion that participated in the "out-of-Taiwan" mid-Holocene dispersal as opposed to earlier, postglacial expansions in the Early Holocene. We show that, in total, about 20% of mtDNA lineages in the modern ISEA pool result from the "out-of-Taiwan" dispersal, with most of the remainder signifying earlier processes, mainly due to sea-level rises after the Last Glacial Maximum. Notably, we show that every one of these founder clusters previously entered Taiwan from China, 6-7 ka, where rice-farming originated, and remained distinct from the indigenous Taiwanese population until after the subsequent dispersal into ISEA. PMID:26875094

  19. The Burden of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Moi Lin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Madriaga, Gilbert

    2015-06-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in Southeast Asia was performed on 41 studies out of the initially identified 14 089 records. The pooled prevalence of overall HAIs was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2%-10.8%), whereas the pooled incidence density of HAI was 20 cases per 1000 intensive care unit-days. The pooled incidence density of ventilator-associated pneumonia, central line-associated bloodstream infection, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection was 14.7 per 1000 ventilator-days (95% CI, 11.7-17.7), 4.7 per 1000 catheter-days (95% CI, 2.9-6.5), and 8.9 per 1000 catheter-days (95% CI, 6.2-11.7), respectively. The pooled incidence of surgical site infection was 7.8% (95% CI, 6.3%-9.3%). The attributed mortality and excess length of stay in hospitals of infected patients ranged from 7% to 46% and 5 to 21 days, respectively. PMID:25676799

  20. Tackling the malaria problem in the South-East Asia Region: need for a change in policy?

    PubMed

    Bharati, Kaushik; Ganguly, N K

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is largely neglected in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. Malaria in the SEAR exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as "forest malaria" and malaria due to migration across international borders. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticides, malaria control efforts in the SEAR face a steep challenge. Indirect man-made factors such as climate change, as well as direct man-made factors such as the circulation of counterfeit drugs have added to the problem. Increased monitoring, surveillance, pharmacovigilance as well as cross-border collaboration are required to address these problems. Regional networking and data-sharing will keep all stakeholders updated about the status of various malaria control programmes in the SEAR. Cutting-edge technologies such as GIS/GPS (geographical information system/global positioning system) systems and mobile phones can provide information in "real-time". A holistic and sustained approach to malaria control by integrated vector management (IVM) is suggested, in which all the stakeholder countries work collaboratively as a consortium. This approach will address the malaria problem in a collective manner so that malaria control can be sustained over time. PMID:23481050

  1. Checkerboard Patterns, Interspecific Competition, and Extinction: Lessons from Distribution Patterns of Tarsiers (Tarsius) and Slow Lorises (Nycticebus) in Insular Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nekaris, K. A. I.

    2010-01-01

    Tarsiers (Tarsius) and slow lorises (Nycticebus) are the only extant nocturnal primates occurring in Southeast Asia. Harcourt (1999) hypothesized that in insular Southeast Asia, slow lorises and tarsiers showed a checkerboard distribution on 12 small (<12,000 km2) islands, i.e., only one or the other occurs, and attributed this to extreme levels of competition between these 2 largely faunivorous primates. Further, he predicted slow lorises were able to persist on smaller islands than tarsiers. We re-evaluated these findings using an expanded dataset including 49 islands where tarsiers or slow lorises occur. Tarsiers and slow lorises live on islands of similar size (median size of ca. 300–900 km2), and both taxa inhabit an equal proportion of small, medium, and large islands. On small islands within their area of sympatry tarsiers occur on 1 island, slow lorises on 8, both genera on 3, and we can assume they have become extinct from 11 small islands since the Last Glacial Maximum. Sizes of islands where tarsiers or slow lorises have become extinct do not differ from islands where they are still extant. We show that slow lorises occur on more islands in insular Southeast Asia than perhaps previously assumed, but these islands are not smaller on average than islands where tarsiers occur. A checkerboard distribution between these taxa is not evident. More studies are needed at the macroecological level to assess the importance of biogeographic history in explaining their present-day distribution patterns. PMID:21212813

  2. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of caecilians from Southeast Asia (Amphibia, Gymnophiona, Ichthyophiidae), with special reference to high cryptic species diversity in Sundaland.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi; Yong, Hoi-Sen; Ahmad, Norhayati; Yambun, Paul; Belabut, Daicus M; Sudin, Ahmad; Hamidy, Amir; Orlov, Nikolai L; Ota, Hidetoshi; Yoshikawa, Natsuhiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Shimada, Tomohiko

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and estimated the history of species diversification and character evolution in two ichthyophiid genera: Caudacaecilia and Ichthyophis. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of 67 samples from 33 localities in Southeast Asia from 3840-bp sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cyt b genes using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods. The Southeast Asian samples formed a well-supported clade differentiated from a South Asian sample. The Southeast Asian clade was divided into two subclades, one containing samples from South China, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, and Java. The other consisted of samples from Borneo and the Philippines. Neither Caudacaecilia nor Ichthyophis was monophyletic, nor did samples with or without light stripes lateral to the body form clades. We found several distinct sympatric lineages and undescribed species, especially from Sundaland. PMID:22387289

  3. Re-analysis of data on the space radiation environment above south-east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, P. R.

    1989-11-01

    A new analysis was performed on the hand held HRM 3 gamma ray detector data collected from Shuttle missions STS-41B, 41C, 41D, 41G, and 51A. The new analysis shows no evidence for the existence of enhanced levels of radiation in low Earth orbit over South East Asia (i.e., in the area bounded by longitudes 100 to 190 deg east and latitudes 10 deg south to 15 deg north) as previously suggested. Variation in the detector count rates with geographical location are shown to be consistent with the variation of the cosmic ray flux with geomagnetic latitude, and also show expected increases due to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer belt electrons. However, at times poor quantitative agreement is found between the expected positions of the SAA or outer electron belt, and the Shuttle's geographical location on the occasions when high count rates were observed. It is believed that this lack of correlation is a result of the sensitivity of the trapped particle environment to geographical position and magnetospheric activity.

  4. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

  5. Chemistry of Forest Fires and Regional Haze with Emphasis on Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radojevic, M.

    - The current state of knowledge regarding the chemistry of forest fires and regional haze is reviewed. More than 100 compounds have been identified in wood smoke and many of these have also been observed in field studies. Products of biomass combustion can have different environmental effects: CO2 and CH4 may contribute to global warming, NOx and SO2 could contribute to rainwater acidity, whereas smoke particles and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could affect human health. Also, photochemical reactions of primary emissions from biomass fires can lead to the production of secondary pollutants such as O3. Regional haze episodes caused by forest fires have occurred in SE Asia on several occasions during the 1990s and the reported studies of these episodes are reviewed. Only total suspended particles (TSP) were determined in the earlier studies, and more comprehensive chemical investigations have only emerged during the more recent episodes, notably those of 1997 and 1998. To date, most of the measurements have centred on criteria pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM10), however, other pollutants (e.g., VOCs, PAHs) have also been determined in certain studies. Rainwater analyses suggest that forest fires do not have a major acidifying effect because dissolved acidic gases (e.g., SO2) are neutralised by alkaline substances (e.g., Ca, Mg, K) that are also emitted by forest fires. There is a need for further laboratory and field studies in order to investigate important pollutant transformation mechanisms.

  6. Vegetation controls on weathering intensity during the last deglacial transition in southeast Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivory, Sarah J.; McGlue, Michael M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Cohen, Andrew S.; Vincens, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Tropical climate is rapidly changing, but the effects of these changes on the geosphere are unknown, despite a likelihood of climatically-induced changes on weathering and erosion. The lack of long, continuous paleo-records prevents an examination of terrestrial responses to climate change with sufficient detail to answer questions about how systems behaved in the past and may alter in the future. We use high-resolution records of pollen, clay mineralogy, and particle size from a drill core from Lake Malawi, southeast Africa, to examine atmosphere-biosphere-geosphere interactions during the last deglaciation (~18–9 ka), a period of dramatic temperature and hydrologic changes. The results demonstrate that climatic controls on Lake Malawi vegetation are critically important to weathering processes and erosion patterns during the deglaciation. At 18 ka, afromontane forests dominated but were progressively replaced by tropical seasonal forest, as summer rainfall increased. Despite indication of decreased rainfall, drought-intolerant forest persisted through the Younger Dryas (YD) resulting from a shorter dry season. Following the YD, an intensified summer monsoon and increased rainfall seasonality were coeval with forest decline and expansion of drought-tolerant miombo woodland. Clay minerals closely track the vegetation record, with high ratios of kaolinite to smectite (K/S) indicating heavy leaching when forest predominates, despite variable rainfall. In the early Holocene, when rainfall and temperature increased (effective moisture remained low), open woodlands expansion resulted in decreased K/S, suggesting a reduction in chemical weathering intensity. Terrigenous sediment mass accumulation rates also increased, suggesting critical linkages among open vegetation and erosion during intervals of enhanced summer rainfall. This study shows a strong, direct influence of vegetation composition on weathering intensity in the tropics. As climate change will likely impact

  7. Vegetation controls on weathering intensity during the last deglacial transition in southeast Africa.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Sarah J; McGlue, Michael M; Ellis, Geoffrey S; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Cohen, Andrew S; Vincens, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Tropical climate is rapidly changing, but the effects of these changes on the geosphere are unknown, despite a likelihood of climatically-induced changes on weathering and erosion. The lack of long, continuous paleo-records prevents an examination of terrestrial responses to climate change with sufficient detail to answer questions about how systems behaved in the past and may alter in the future. We use high-resolution records of pollen, clay mineralogy, and particle size from a drill core from Lake Malawi, southeast Africa, to examine atmosphere-biosphere-geosphere interactions during the last deglaciation (∼ 18-9 ka), a period of dramatic temperature and hydrologic changes. The results demonstrate that climatic controls on Lake Malawi vegetation are critically important to weathering processes and erosion patterns during the deglaciation. At 18 ka, afromontane forests dominated but were progressively replaced by tropical seasonal forest, as summer rainfall increased. Despite indication of decreased rainfall, drought-intolerant forest persisted through the Younger Dryas (YD) resulting from a shorter dry season. Following the YD, an intensified summer monsoon and increased rainfall seasonality were coeval with forest decline and expansion of drought-tolerant miombo woodland. Clay minerals closely track the vegetation record, with high ratios of kaolinite to smectite (K/S) indicating heavy leaching when forest predominates, despite variable rainfall. In the early Holocene, when rainfall and temperature increased (effective moisture remained low), open woodlands expansion resulted in decreased K/S, suggesting a reduction in chemical weathering intensity. Terrigenous sediment mass accumulation rates also increased, suggesting critical linkages among open vegetation and erosion during intervals of enhanced summer rainfall. This study shows a strong, direct influence of vegetation composition on weathering intensity in the tropics. As climate change will likely

  8. Vegetation Controls on Weathering Intensity during the Last Deglacial Transition in Southeast Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ivory, Sarah J.; McGlue, Michael M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Cohen, Andrew S.; Vincens, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Tropical climate is rapidly changing, but the effects of these changes on the geosphere are unknown, despite a likelihood of climatically-induced changes on weathering and erosion. The lack of long, continuous paleo-records prevents an examination of terrestrial responses to climate change with sufficient detail to answer questions about how systems behaved in the past and may alter in the future. We use high-resolution records of pollen, clay mineralogy, and particle size from a drill core from Lake Malawi, southeast Africa, to examine atmosphere-biosphere-geosphere interactions during the last deglaciation (∼18–9 ka), a period of dramatic temperature and hydrologic changes. The results demonstrate that climatic controls on Lake Malawi vegetation are critically important to weathering processes and erosion patterns during the deglaciation. At 18 ka, afromontane forests dominated but were progressively replaced by tropical seasonal forest, as summer rainfall increased. Despite indication of decreased rainfall, drought-intolerant forest persisted through the Younger Dryas (YD) resulting from a shorter dry season. Following the YD, an intensified summer monsoon and increased rainfall seasonality were coeval with forest decline and expansion of drought-tolerant miombo woodland. Clay minerals closely track the vegetation record, with high ratios of kaolinite to smectite (K/S) indicating heavy leaching when forest predominates, despite variable rainfall. In the early Holocene, when rainfall and temperature increased (effective moisture remained low), open woodlands expansion resulted in decreased K/S, suggesting a reduction in chemical weathering intensity. Terrigenous sediment mass accumulation rates also increased, suggesting critical linkages among open vegetation and erosion during intervals of enhanced summer rainfall. This study shows a strong, direct influence of vegetation composition on weathering intensity in the tropics. As climate change will likely

  9. Evolutionary dynamics and biogeography of Musaceae reveal a correlation between the diversification of the banana family and the geological and climatic history of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Steven B; Vandelook, Filip; De Langhe, Edmond; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik; Vandenhouwe, Ines; Swennen, Rony

    2016-06-01

    Tropical Southeast Asia, which harbors most of the Musaceae biodiversity, is one of the most species-rich regions in the world. Its high degree of endemism is shaped by the region's tectonic and climatic history, with large differences between northern Indo-Burma and the Malayan Archipelago. Here, we aim to find a link between the diversification and biogeography of Musaceae and geological history of the Southeast Asian subcontinent. The Musaceae family (including five Ensete, 45 Musa and one Musella species) was dated using a large phylogenetic framework encompassing 163 species from all Zingiberales families. Evolutionary patterns within Musaceae were inferred using ancestral area reconstruction and diversification rate analyses. All three Musaceae genera - Ensete, Musa and Musella - originated in northern Indo-Burma during the early Eocene. Musa species dispersed from 'northwest to southeast' into Southeast Asia with only few back-dispersals towards northern Indo-Burma. Musaceae colonization events of the Malayan Archipelago subcontinent are clearly linked to the geological and climatic history of the region. Musa species were only able to colonize the region east of Wallace's line after the availability of emergent land from the late Miocene onwards. PMID:26832306

  10. Structural styles in rift basins: Interpretation methodology and examples from Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, E.A.; Brennan, P.A.; Hook, S.C. )

    1994-07-01

    The authors present graphical solutions to the extensional fault-related folding equations of Xiao and Suppe (1992), simplifying the prediction of normal fault location or rollover geometry from subsurface data. These equations also predict the extent of bed thinning and elongation in hanging wall strata. They have derived new equations that relate change in fault slip across a fault bend to fault geometry. Applying these equations in seismic interpretation makes it easier to (1) construct balanced cross-sections, (2) account for the slip observed, and (3) determine the growth history of extensional fault-related folds. They have applied these concepts to several southeast Asian rift basins in Malaysia, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Thailand. These basins were formed by early Tertiary crustal extension, producing rollover structures in which sediment supply generally did not keep up with subsidence. These under-filled, internally drained depressions periodically contained lakes, providing the environment for deposition of organic-rich strata that ultimately became hydrocarbon source rock. Typically, the main basin bounding faults dip 35-55[degrees] near their upper terminations and flatten to become subhorizontal. Synthetic and antithetic secondary faults are usually present. Late compaction faulting often propagates upward from major extensional faults and may reactivate the upper portions of these faults. In many basins, late compression produced inversion structures. By applying the concepts of extensional fault-related folding to these basins, they can (1) explain observed geometries, (2) predict poorly imaged geometries, (3) predict the location of source and reservoir facies, and (4) determine the timing of faulting relative to deposition of source and reservoir rocks.

  11. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  12. Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Scott; Rampal, Krishna G; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Roda, Sandy M; Succop, Paul; Menrath, William; Chen, Chin K; Adebamowo, Eugenious O; Agbede, Oluwole A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Shinde, Rana M; Yu, Jiefei

    2009-10-01

    In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to