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  1. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  2. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cover colors will be as follows : CHINA aqua E/YST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST § SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA...remaining 14 national MP’s from New South Wales and Victoria. Both Mr Howard and Mr Sinclair blamed the split on the Queenslanders . Mr Sinclair’s...report are as follows: The SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT (SEV) will be titled EAST ASIA/SOUTHEAST ASIA (SEA). The JAPAN REPORT (JAR) will be titled EAST

  3. The Plasmodium vivax in China: decreased in local cases but increased imported cases from Southeast Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Xiao, Huihui; Zhang, Li; Yan, He; Feng, Xinyu; Fang, Wen; Xia, Zhigui

    2015-03-05

    Currently the local P. vivax was sharply decreased while the imported vivax malaria increased in China. Despite Southeast Asia was still the main import source of vivax malaria, the trend of Africa become serious, especially for west and central Africa. Herein we have clarified the trend of P. vivax in China from 2004-2012, and made some analysis for the differences of imported vivax back from different regions. There are significantly different of P. vivax between Southeast Asia and Africa, also the difference was observed for different regions in Africa. Additionally, we have explored the possibility for the difference of the P. vivax between migrant workers back from west and central Africa and the prevalence of local population. This reminds us that surveillance and training should be strengthened by medical staffs on the imported P. vivax cases reported especially from west and central Africa, in order to reduce the risk of malaria reintroduction and, specific tools should be developed, as well as the epidemiological study to avoid the misdiagnosis such as P. ovale and P. vivax.

  4. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    126199 JPRS- SEA -87-027 25 FEBRUARY 1987 Southeast Asia Report DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT’ Ä Approved for pubi’> ro’^ase; Distribution Uülimiied...Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS- SEA -87-027 25 FEBRUARY 1987 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS AUSTRALIA Energy Minister...Senator Evans said there had been some renewal of exploration drilling in the Northwest shelf and the Timor Sea areas since prices firmed to more than

  5. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    126192 JPRS- SEA -87-040 19 MARCH 1987 DISTRIBUTION STATf; Distribution Unruled ;v7 A Southeast Asia Report 19980616 021 FBIS FOREIGN...Arlington, Virginia 22201. SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT JPRS- SEA -87-040 19 MARCH 1987 CONTENTS AUSTRALIA National Party Official Urges Ending Federal...forces. New Zealand’s defense minister, Mr O’Flynn, has welcomed the contract as a major step forward in Trans- Tasman defense cooperation. [Text

  6. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    209098 JPRS- SEA -87-080 16 JUNE 1987 #■■■■■ !■■■■! \\lIPf/ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS tit East Asia Southeast Asia JBKC...of interest to readers of this report are as follows: The SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT ( SEA ) will be titled EAST AS IA/SOUTHEAST ASIA ( SEA ). The JAPAN...Virginia 22161. JPRS- SEA -87-080 16 JUNE 1987 EAST ASIA SOUTHEAST ASIA CONTENTS INTER-ASIAN LAOS Pacific Forum Offers Fiji Aid, No Recognition (AFP

  7. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates can infect diverse mosquito vectors of Southeast Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Brandyce; Miller, Becky; Burton, Timothy A.; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Men, Sary; Sovannaroth, Siv; Fay, Michael P.; Miotto, Olivo; Gwadz, Robert W.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites are rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia, yet nothing is known about their transmission. This knowledge gap and the possibility that these parasites will spread to Africa endanger global efforts to eliminate malaria. Here we produce gametocytes from parasite clinical isolates that displayed artemisinin resistance in patients and in vitro, and use them to infect native and non-native mosquito vectors. We show that contemporary artemisinin-resistant isolates from Cambodia develop and produce sporozoites in two Southeast Asian vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus, and the major African vector, Anopheles coluzzii (formerly Anopheles gambiae M). The ability of artemisinin-resistant parasites to infect such highly diverse Anopheles species, combined with their higher gametocyte prevalence in patients, may explain the rapid expansion of these parasites in Cambodia and neighbouring countries, and further compromise efforts to prevent their global spread. PMID:26485448

  8. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    006033 JPRS- SEA -85- 1 33 3 0 A u g u st 1 9 8 5 Southeast Asia Report Appro^d tor pwfeM« tttoaa», 19980729 130 FBIS k W1C QUALITY...Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS- SEA -85-133 30 August 1985 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS AUSTRALIA Labor...40 Years of Electricity Service (VNA, 2 Aug 85) 137 139 140 141 -f- JPRS- SEA -85-133 30 August 1985 AUSTRALIA LABOR SENATOR CALLS FOR END

  9. New Confrontations in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Ton That

    1978-01-01

    Examines political, social, and economic developments in Southeast Asia under Communist forces which conquered Southeast Asia after the American disengagement. Topics discussed include refugees, Vietnamese who have chosen to live in exile, civil administration in Vietnam, Sino-Soviet relations, and predictions about the future of Southeast Asia.…

  10. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  11. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  12. Systematics and biogeography of the Hylarana frog (Anura: Ranidae) radiation across tropical Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Lauren A; Prendini, Elizabeth; Kraus, Fred; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    We present an inclusive molecular phylogeny for Hylarana across its global distribution, utilizing two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene regions for 69 of the 97 currently described species. We use phylogenetic methods to test monophyly of Hylarana, determine relationships among ten putative subgenera, identify major clades, reconstruct biogeographic history, and estimate continental dispersal dates. Results support Hylarana as a monophyletic group originating approximately 26.9MYA and comprising eight clades that partly correspond to currently described subgenera plus two new groups. The African and Australasian species each form clades embedded within a paraphyletic Southeast Asian group. We estimate that Africa and Australasia were colonized by Hylarana s.l. from SE Asia approximately 18.7 and 10.8MYA, respectively. Biogeographic reconstructions also support three separate colonization events in India from Southeast Asia. Examination of museum specimens identified morphological characters useful for delineating subgenera and species. We herein elevate all supported subgenera to genus rank and formally describe two new genera to produce a revised taxonomy congruent with our new phylogenetic and biogeographic findings.

  13. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    September 1985 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS AUSTRALIA Briefs i Oil Exploration Talks With SRV j- New Helicopters for Navy LAOS MALAYSIA 2...the People of Malaysia , 5 Aug 85) 24 USNO, Berjaya Bosses Step Down (N. V. Raman; THE STAR, 24 Jun 85) 26 Chemical Warfare Studies for...SAN PATHET LAO in Lao 21 Jun 85 p A5] 12597 CSO: 4206/148 15 JPRS-SEA-85-136 4 September 1985 MALAYSIA MUSLIM RADICAL GROUP UNDER PROBE Kuala

  14. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-17

    Indonesia ," according to Sukarno, must be nationalism, "neither Javanese nationalism, nor Sumatran nationalism, nor the nationalism of Borneo, or of...1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-SEA-87-038 17 MARCH 1987 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA LAOS ’Extremist...Assistance (Tran Ngoc Chuc; TAP CHI HOAT DONG KHOA HOC, Dec 86) 113 /9987 d - INDONESIA •EXTREMIST’ ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL UNDERGOING

  15. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  16. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-29

    even mystical. When pressed the Middle Forces will emerge. Unorganized, it will consolidate (although we shouldn t press our luck too far on that...195012 JPRS-SEA-87-062 29 APRIL 1987 Southeast Asia Report ty< ’ T ~ T ;;"rTnrT ^yZfTjZ-^v "]£ Approved ic; wtshlic celnos.s; Distnbuüon ü...in English Mar 87 pp 8-14 « t «i*: [Text] following," S*. * translation of thei ’opening speech delivered by Secretary of the Council of State u

  17. Securing Sub-Saharan Africa’s Maritime Environment: Lessons Learned from the Caribbean and Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    United States, but engagement ranged from begrudging or reluctant participation to 79 Jorge ...85 Jorge Rodriguez Beruff and Gerardo Cordero, “The Caribbean: The ‘Third Border’ and the War...Anti-Piracy Initiatives in Southeast Asia; Policy Formulation and the Coastal State Responses,” 491–2. 156 Bradford, 499–500. 157 Jovito Tamayo , “PCG

  18. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  19. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers.

  20. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-17

    aqua EAST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST £ SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA pink WEST EUROPE ivory AFRICA (SUB...established with a view to improving technical knowledge. Then unified accounting was set up, particularly on behalf of the cadres who go out to...has reduced their number from 23 to 11, etc. In terms of management, through accounting and financial planning, it is possible to ascertain the

  1. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-12

    South - East Asia unloading dollars in the expectation that the US currency will fall still further. In Tokyo, the US dollar closed at 222.10 yen after a...consideration of the fact that South - East Asia, despite the concept of Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN), is still a zone of...at McMurdo and South Pole, I accepted in microseconds and waited some months with impatience. Christchurch, in New Zealand’s South Island, is the US

  2. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Deficit With Malaysia Reported 16 Sumarlin Tries To Allay Concern About Foreign Debts 16 ’Four Tigers’ Move To Take Advantage of Lower Production...Southeast Asia MALAYSIA National Front Wants Legislators To Declare Stand 22 Mahathir Meets With New UMNO Leaders 22 MP Datuk Abdullah Urges Uniting...Japan, but after exten- sive explanation by the Indonesian side, their opposition changed into acceptance. /08309 Trade Deficit With Malaysia

  3. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-23

    interests of socialism and peace and stability in the region and the world over." /12913 CSO: 4209/663 PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KAMPUCHEA KAMPUCHEA...will be further strengthened and developed for the social development of each country and for peace and stability in the region and the world. [Text...contributed to the safeguarding of peace and stability in Indochina, Southeast Asia and the world. We are very proud of these successes and consider

  4. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  5. ESP in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Tony, Ed.

    Seven conference papers discuss English language training and political development in Asia, including language project design and evaluation, counterparting, sustainability, appropriate technology, and languages and the politics of development. Papers included are: "Linguistic and Cultural Considerations of Writing ELT Texts for Use in…

  6. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-12

    publications may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS...may be addressed to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-SEA-87-035 12 MARCH 1987 SOUTHEAST...Facing Aquino (Nick T. Enciso ; MANILA BULLETIN, 16 Feb 87) ... Defense Ministry Trims, Replaces CHDF Units I (MANILA BULLETIN, 12 Feb 87) • 1 1 1

  7. Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-16

    Specialist in Asian Affairs Emma Chanlett-Avery Specialist in Asian Affairs Ben Dolven Section Research Manager Mark E. Manyin Specialist in Asian...Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...those terrorists and militants who would also use violence, or the threat of violence, to promote such a cause. 2 Daljit Singh ,”The Terrorist Threat

  8. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    restored throughout South - east Asia unless the Cambodian problem is resolved through the Un resolutions and the declaration of the International...August, VONADK says that between 15 and 29 August, DK forces on the Pailin, Kompong Chhnang, Moung-Pursat, Kon Kong Leu, South Sisophon, and East ...Proposal (Editorial; ANG PAHAYAGANG MALAYA, 31 Jul 85) &u South Cotabato Tribe ’Surrenders’ in Land Fight (ANG PAHAYAGANG MALAYA, 31 Jul 85

  9. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  10. Fake artesunate in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Newton, P; Proux, S; Green, M; Smithuis, F; Rozendaal, J; Prakongpan, S; Chotivanich, K; Mayxay, M; Looareesuwan, S; Farrar, J; Nosten, F; White, N J

    2001-06-16

    Artesunate is a key antimalarial drug in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southeast Asia. We investigated the distribution of counterfeit artesunate tablets by use of the validated, simple, and inexpensive Fast Red TR dye technique. We also aimed to identify distinguishing characteristics of the fake drugs. Of 104 shop-bought "artesunate" samples from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, 38% did not contain artesunate. Characteristics such as cost and physical appearance of the tablets and packaging reliably predicted authenticity. The illicit trade in counterfeit antimalarials is a great threat to the lives of patients with malaria. The dye test will assist national malaria control authorities in urgently needed campaigns to stop this murderous trade.

  11. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51–46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ∼63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic–modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ∼50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. PMID:22908291

  12. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

    2012-09-04

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51-46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ~63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic-modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ~50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia.

  13. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    PubMed

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  14. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  15. Environment in southeast Asia. Problems and policies

    SciTech Connect

    Panayotou, T. )

    1993-11-01

    Most Southeast Asian countries experienced a rapid growth of population during the postwar period due to medical and technological advances and major improvements in public health services. This population growth, coupled with rapidly increasing economic activity, has increased the pressure on the Southeast Asian resource base and given rise to new environmental problems. This article reviews the state of the environment in Southeast Asia, identifies the causes of environmental degradation, and proposes policy reforms for improved environmental management. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  16. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    During the same period , capital flight from Brazil amounted to $18.7 billion and from Venezuela $30.5 billion. In Asia, capital flight from South...up to Bank Indonesia. "We are merely implementers," said Ronny Suyanto. W. Kidarsa said that Bank Indonesia’s plans to end the tight money period ...34 Kidarsa stated. He hoped that bankers will continue to be selective in providing credit after the tight money period ends. To revive the sluggish economy

  17. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-03

    exchange programme between the two countries, together with Workers Asia- yone Central Body Secretary U Nyunt Thein and Central Executive Committee...The delegation then proceeded to the National Museum at 11 am. In the evening, Vice-Chairman of the Workers Asiayone Central Body U Kyi Thein hosted...now as a sociopolitical organization in terms of unity and integrity. Tonny said that since the " Group of 17" is a problem of the central office it

  18. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Economic Management 7 PASASON Sees Need for Enterprises To Adopt Capitalist Expertise 7 MALAYSIA Mahathir Hands Over $100,000 to PLO 9 Libyan...Diplomats in Malaysia Spearhead Asia-Pacific ’Offensive’ 9 Mahathir Warns Japanese Investors About ’Western Media Distortion’ 10 Negotiations To...9604 JPRS-SEA-88-033 10 August 1988 FIJI Study of Nation’s Leadership 42130148a Kuala Lumpur UTUSAN MALAYSIA in Malay 2 Jun 88 p 6 [Article by

  19. Whither a Common Security for Southeast Asia?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    protect the job opportunities by repatriating foreign workers immediately set off a chain reaction with an adverse impact on Indonesia, who has up to...34China threat" being a unifying factor that could encourage greater Southeast Asian integration. These included Zara Dian (1994)4 and Dana Dillion...and Southeast Asia - Into the 21st Century, edited by Richard Grant, Washington D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1993. 4 Zara

  20. JPRS Report, East Asia; Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-10

    the temple as a tourist attraction, Thai TAMROniA JPRS-SEA-91-029 CAMBODIA 10 December 1991 tourism officials came to check on the site where the...6 4 North Sulawesi 6 5 7 6 Central Sulawesi 4 3 4 3 Southeast Sulawesi 4 4 4 4 South Sulawesi 23 21 23 21 Bali 8 7 8 7 West Nusa Tenggara 7...minister of tourism , post, and telecommunications, inaugurated the operation of the 53,000 SST’s under PBH I, which is centered at the Gambir STO

  1. Women of Southeast Asia. Occasional Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Esterik, Penny, Ed.

    Nine chapters emphasizing religious, domestic, and economic aspects of women in Southeast Asia are presented. In an introductory chapter, Penny Van Esterik discusses women and Buddhism, societal and domestic roles, occupational patterns, research on women in Southeast Asia, and Southeast Asia's past and future. In chapter 2, "Buddhism,…

  2. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  3. Boundary Concepts and Practices in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Borders in Southeast Asia are largely insecure boundaries that were established by colonial administrations to stabilized spheres of influence or...mark internal administrative divisions. They were not designed to withstand international pressures . Sovereignty was not defined in a strict territorial

  4. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    21 Climate .... .. .. .... ...... .............. 21 Vegetation. . .... .. .. .................... 25...their area and causes the build-up of estuaries where they empty into the sea. CUMATE The climate of Southeast Asia is characterized by regional...region. A striking exception is the drý zone of central Burma, parts of which receive less than 630 mm of rain. The climate of Sumatra, Borneo, and

  5. Southeast Asia Report, No. 1317

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    development projects but other countries in Asia, Latin America, and Europe are doing the same. Even in Malaysia the construction of hospitals has...546,801,000,000 rupiah; in agriculture, including estate agriculture, animal husbandry,, and food production, 504,788,000,000 rupiah; in...delicious food for any reason? Will they eat? And which rice- field will they eat? Let’s use our heads to think a little. 9884 CSO: 4206/92 17 NEW

  6. Southeast Asia Report. No. 1316

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-25

    Soviet Union had: moved its naval base 2400 miles closer to New Zea- land with a base in South - east Asia, where previously...Hunt’s Penrod 78 rig to New Zealand. And the Australian giant BHP has pulled out of a consortium with a licence area south - east of the Maui...licence areas off the South Island east coast, is likely to make a decision soon on hiring a rig to start its drilling pro- gramme early neext year

  7. Influence: The New Weapon in the Battle for Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    interests. With the emergence of terrorist groups, bombings in Bali , Philippines, Thailand and Jakarta, and al-Qaeda affiliated links in Southeast...CSIS Southeast Asia Initiative, December 2008. 8. 18 Colloquium Brief, Contending Perspective : Southeast Asia and American Views on the Rising China...Contending Perspective : Southeast Asia and American Views on the Rising China, U.S. Army War College, Singapore, 22–24 August 2005. 33 Center for

  8. Petroleum systems, resources of Southeast Asia, Australasia

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.

    1997-12-15

    The Southeast Asia-Australasia region has over 100 productive petroleum systems ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pliocene. Plate tectonics have played a fundamental role in controlling the distribution and character of the region`s petroleum systems. There is a clear division between those systems on the Eurasian plate and those on the Indo-Australian plate. The distribution of significant oil and gas resources is highly concentrated in just a few chrono-stratigraphic units. Early Tertiary Paleogene source rocks account for over 50% of the region`s in-place petroleum resources. This article summarizes the region`s systems and resources, and compares and contrasts some of their essential elements in Southeast Asia and Australasia. With average production of 3.2 million b/d of oil and 18 bscfd of gas, the region accounts for almost 6% of world oil and gas production.

  9. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Rolling Thunder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-03-28

    PJ.CitF Tactical Evaluation Center ProJect CBECO Prepared by Southeast Asia Team ProJect CBECO (This pap is Unclassified) APPROVED FBI PUBLIC...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) HQ PACAF Directorate, Tactical Evaluation CHECO Division 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  10. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. METHODS: The literature searching for the reports on Zika virus in Southeast Asia was done using standard database PubMed and the re-analysis and summarization on the reports was done. RESULTS: A limited number of reports have addressed Zika virus disease in Southeast Asia, but it is has been confirmed that a problem already exists. Individual case reports and outbreaks of Zika virus have been confirmed in Southeast Asia. Several reports have also described patients becoming infected after visiting Southeast Asia. In addition, the concurrent circulation of Zika virus with other arboviruses has been confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: As a tropical region with a high prevalence of arboviral diseases, the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia is a major concern. It is essential for local medical personnel to recognize this disease. Given the status of Southeast Asia as a globally important tourist destination, continuous updates on the status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia are required and should be incorporated into global health advisories regarding travel. PMID:27336445

  11. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  12. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  13. The large terrestrial carnivore guild in Quaternary Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louys, Julien

    2014-07-01

    Much of Southeast Asia's large terrestrial carnivores appeared, evolved and disappeared from the region for reasons that remain poorly understood. Two of the most significant extinctions are represented by the charismatic Pleistocene megacarnivores Pachycrocuta and Pliocrocuta. Southeast Asia hosts the last populations of these species globally. Their persistence in southern China until the late Pleistocene suggests their extinction was not tied to that of the machairodont cats, which like the rest of the world became extinct sometime in the early Pleistocene in this region. Instead the disappearance of the hyenids is probably related to climate change and deteriorating environmental conditions. There is some evidence that the wolf and domesticated dog first appeared in Southeast Asia, although confirmation of this awaits more detailed fossil records. There does not appear to be a large carnivore guild turnover of the same scale or time as recorded in Europe and Africa, although an extinction event in the late Pleistocene is provisionally recorded. Environmental changes and fluctuating sea levels have had a unique impact on the region's large carnivore guild. Several large carnivores from Java show unique genetic and morphological variations, and this could potentially be related to the connection between Java and the Indochinese mainland sometime during the middle Pleistocene. The effects of islands on the large carnivores are complicated and at times contradictory. Nevertheless, periods of isolation of large carnivores on Java, Sumatra and Borneo from the continent had impacts on both extinctions and speciations, with at least one well documented endemic large carnivore evolving in Sundaland (Sunda clouded leopard). Hunting and deforestation ongoing since the mid- to late Holocene means that many extant members of the large carnivore guild are at high risk of extinction.

  14. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  15. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... Winds--Asia business forum (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia...

  16. The Tertiary tectonics of the southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Honza, Eiichi )

    1990-06-01

    Most of the terranes in eastern Asia appear to be relics of arcs, oceanic islands, and subduction complexes. They have collided and accreted from the inner (northwestern) side in China since the Silurian. They are characterized by three stages of Pacific and Tethys evolution. The first collision is related to the Pacific domain in the Permian in which these movements are not clearly reconstructed. The second collision is related to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. The third is related to closure of the Neo-Tethys and the subsequent collision of India in the Tertiary. Southeast Asia is in one of the most enigmatic plate boundaries in the world, forming many small plates, collisions, and consumptions. This complication is also suggested to be a result of the northward movement of Australia since its break-up from Gondwanaland in the Cretaceous. During their evolution, most of them have associated with arcs. These arcs also have formed superimpositions on the older exotic blocks of terranes. They are reconstructed on the base of the regular duration on the formation of arcs and backarc basins, which can be seen in the Western Pacific Arc Chain.

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  18. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  19. On The Trail of Disease in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maxmen, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Infectious disease research is blossoming in cities like Bangkok, as local clinicians and scientists delve into the surrounding muddy tropics of Southeast Asia to learn about endemic pathogens. PMID:19153251

  20. Foodborne Intestinal Flukes in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, a total of 59 species of foodborne intestinal flukes have been known to occur in humans. The largest group is the family Heterophyidae, which constitutes 22 species belonging to 9 genera (Centrocestus, Haplorchis, Heterophyes, Heterophyopsis, Metagonimus, Procerovum, Pygidiopsis, Stellantchasmus, and Stictodora). The next is the family Echinostomatidae, which includes 20 species in 8 genera (Artyfechinostomum, Acanthoparyphium, Echinochasmus, Echinoparyphium, Echinostoma, Episthmium, Euparyphium, and Hypoderaeum). The family Plagiorchiidae follows the next containing 5 species in 1 genus (Plagiorchis). The family Lecithodendriidae includes 3 species in 2 genera (Phaneropsolus and Prosthodendrium). In 9 other families, 1 species in 1 genus each is involved; Cathaemaciidae (Cathaemacia), Fasciolidae (Fasciolopsis), Gastrodiscidae (Gastrodiscoides), Gymnophallidae (Gymnophalloides), Microphallidae (Spelotrema), Neodiplostomidae (Neodiplostomum), Paramphistomatidae (Fischoederius), Psilostomidae (Psilorchis), and Strigeidae (Cotylurus). Various types of foods are sources of human infections. They include freshwater fish, brackish water fish, fresh water snails, brackish water snails (including the oyster), amphibians, terrestrial snakes, aquatic insects, and aquatic plants. The reservoir hosts include various species of mammals or birds.The host-parasite relationships have been studied in Metagonimus yokogawai, Echinostoma hortense, Fasciolopsis buski, Neodiplostomum seoulense, and Gymnophalloides seoi; however, the pathogenicity of each parasite species and host mucosal defense mechanisms are yet poorly understood. Clinical aspects of each parasite infection need more clarification. Differential diagnosis by fecal examination is difficult because of morphological similarity of eggs. Praziquantel is effective for most intestinal fluke infections. Continued efforts to understand epidemiological significance of intestinal fluke infections, with

  1. Tidal dynamics in the Southeast Asia seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Quang-Hung; Xu, Haihua; Praveen, Veluthedathekuzhiyil; Tkalich, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The Southeast Asia seas (SEAS) are the most complicated water body that connects two of the largest oceans of the Earth, the Pacific and the Indian. Surface elevation and volume transport of the SEAS are predominantly governed by ocean fluxes and tidal forces. A numerical model of tides in the SEAS has been developed using the Semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian Finite-Element (SELFE) model. Bathymetry is derived from Jeppesen's C-MAP product and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans One Minute Grid (GEBCO1). An unstructured triangular mesh has been generated to better resolve the irregular coastlines. Tide potential is considered over the entire domain as well as at the open boundaries, and is corrected to account for volume transport. The surface elevation and current agree well with tide records and ADCP measurement, as well as are consistent with results from tidal prediction softwares (TotalTide, MIKE21 and FES2012). The model estimates of seasonal fluxes in the SEAS are similar to previous studies.

  2. Early hominin biogeography in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Larick, Roy; Ciochon, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia covers Eurasia's tropical expanse of continental shelf and active subduction zones. Cutting between island landmasses, Wallace's Line separates Sunda and the Eastern Island Arc (the Arc) into distinct tectonic and faunal provinces. West of the line, on Sunda, Java Island yields many fossils of Homo erectus. East of the line, on the Arc, Flores Island provides one skeleton and isolated remains of Homo floresiensis. Luzon Island in the Philippines has another fossil hominin. Sulawesi preserves early hominin archeology. This insular divergence sets up a unique regional context for early hominin dispersal, isolation, and extinction. The evidence is reviewed across three Pleistocene climate periods. Patterns are discussed in relation to the pulse of global sea-level shifts, as well as regional geo-tectonics, catastrophes, stegodon dispersal, and paleogenomics. Several patterns imply evolutionary processes typical of oceanic islands. Early hominins apparently responded to changing island conditions for a million-and-a-half years, likely becoming extinct during the period in which Homo sapiens colonized the region.

  3. Fires and Thick Smoke Across Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Vehicles and power plants are not the only sources of air pollution and greenhouses gases: fires contribute, too. In the Northern Hemisphere spring, which is the end of dry season across much of Southeast Asia, thousands of fires burn each year as people clear cropland and pasture in anticipation of the upcoming wet (growing) season. Intentional fires also escape people's control and burn into adjacent forest. The smoke from these fires crosses the Pacific Ocean, affecting climate far away. This dramatic photo-like image of fires and smoke in Southeast Asia was captured on April 2, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite. MODIS detected hundreds, possibly thousands of fires (marked in red), burning in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and China. Thick smoke hides nearly all of Laos, where the highest concentration of fires is located. In southern China and northern Vietnam, the smoke has sunk into the valleys that crisscross the mountainous terrain; only the highest ridgelines, which appear dark green, emerge from the blanket of smoke. The smoke sails above a bank of clouds at upper right as a dingy, yellowish haze. Fires have been burning in the region for more than month, as shown by the high carbon monoxide levels observed by NASA's MOPITT sensor during March 2007. In addition to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, fires produce tiny particles of incompletely burned, or charred, carbon. According to research published in mid-March 2007 in the Journal of Geophysical Research, significant amounts of this black carbon travel across the Pacific Ocean to North America at altitudes above 2 kilometers. In spring 2004, between 25-35 gigatons (roughly 55 to 77 million pounds) of black carbon crossed the Pacific and entered skies over western North America between March 26 and April 25; nearly 75 percent of it came from Asia. (Smoke and other pollution have no respect for borders; for example, scientists have also

  4. Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

    1992-05-01

    While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people.

  5. The frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Whelley, Patrick L; Newhall, Christopher G; Bradley, Kyle E

    There are ~750 active and potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of volcanic explosivity index 3 (VEI 3) and smaller pose mostly local hazards while eruptions of VEI ≥ 4 could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. We classify Southeast Asian volcanoes into five groups, using their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history and degassing style. Because the eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained, we assume that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories. Eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic class serve as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. From known and proxy eruptive histories, we estimate that decadal probabilities of VEI 4-8 eruptions in Southeast Asia are nearly 1.0, ~0.6, ~0.15, ~0.012, and ~0.001, respectively.

  6. Malaria in the WHO Southeast Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kondrashin, A V

    1992-09-01

    Malaria endemic countries in the southeast Asia region include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Population movement and rapid urbanization, both largely caused by unemployment, and environmental deterioration change the malaria pattern. They also increase the incidence of drug-resistant malaria, especially resistance to 4-aminoquinolines. In India, Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the density and distribution of tribals, and, in southern Thailand, rubber tappers have the highest malaria incidence rate (46.29%). Since the population is young and the young are highly sensitive to malaria infection, the region has low community immunity. High malaria priority areas are forests, forested hills, forest fringe areas, developmental project sites, and border areas. High risk groups include infants, young children, pregnant women, and mobile population groups. Malaria incidence is between 2.5-2.8 million cases, and the slide positivity rate is about 3%. P. falciparum constitutes 40% for all malaria cases. In 1988 in India, there were 222 malaria deaths. Malaria is the 7th most common cause of death in Thailand. 3 of the 19 Anopheline species are resistant to at least 1 insecticide, particularly DDT. Posteradication epidemics surfaced in the mid-1970s. Malaria control programs tend to use the primary health care and integration approach to malaria control. Antiparasite measures range from a single-dose of an antimalarial to mass drug administration. Residual spraying continues to be the main strategy of vector control. Some other vector control measures are fish feeding on mosquito larvae, insecticide impregnated mosquito nets, and repellents. Control programs also have health education activities. India allocates the highest percentage of its total health budget to malaria control (21.54%). Few malariology training programs exist in the region. Slowly processed surveillance data limit the countries' ability to

  7. Toxicity test method development in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Use of aquatic toxicity tests is relatively new in southeast Asia. As part of the ASEAN-Canada Cooperative Programme on Marine Science -- Phase 2, which includes development of marine environmental criteria, a need for tropical toxicity data was identified. A step-wise approach was used for test method development (simple, acute tests and easily measured endpoints first, then more complex short-term chronic methods), for test specific selection (using species found throughout the region first, and then considering species with narrower geographic distribution), and for integration of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) practices into all laboratory activities. Development of test protocols specifically for tropical species included acute and chronic toxicity tests with marine fish, invertebrates and algae. Criteria for test species selection will be reviewed. Method development was based on procedures and endpoints already widely used in North America and Europe (e.g., 96-h LC50 with fish), but adapted for use with tropical species. For example, a bivalve larval development test can use the same endpoints but the duration is only 24 hours. Test method development included research on culture and holding procedures, determination of test conditions (e.g., duration, test containers), and identification of appropriate endpoints. Acute tests with fish and invertebrates were developed first. The next step was development of short-term chronic tests to measure phytoplankton growth, bivalve and echinoderm embryo or larval development, and larval fish growth. The number of species and types of tests was increased in a staged approach, as laboratories became better equipped and personnel gained practical experience. In most cases, method development coincided with training workshops to introduce the principles of toxicity testing.

  8. Redirecting Student Interests: Africa and Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Lincoln C.

    Suggestions for students preparing for foreign study in Asia and Africa are presented. It is noted that cooperation and peace may be linked to developing successful programs in the non-Western world. The brief time that students spend in the host country enables the student to describe what the foreign values seem to be, but probably without…

  9. The Growing Prospects for Maritime Security Cooperation in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    vast revenues in such industries as fishing, hydrocarbon extrac- tion, and tourism . In fact, more than 60 percent of Southeast Asians today live in or...Kuala Lumpur Bangkok Phnom Penh Hanoi Vientiane Rangoon (Yangon) Timor Sipadan, Litagan Is. Penang Celebes Bali Borneo Java Sumatra Spratly Islands...international maritime trade was a target. Finally, the 12 October triple bombing in Bali proved that Southeast Asia was on the front lines of

  10. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  11. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  12. Multicentre studies of insecticide-treated durable wall lining in Africa and South-East Asia: entomological efficacy and household acceptability during one year of field use

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a primary method of malaria vector control, but its potential impact is constrained by several inherent limitations: spraying must be repeated when insecticide residues decay, householders can tire of the annual imposition and campaign costs are recurrent. Durable lining (DL) can be considered an advanced form of long-lasting IRS where insecticide is gradually released from an aesthetically attractive wall lining material to provide vector control for several years. A multicentre trial was carried out in Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Mali, South Africa and Vietnam to assess the feasibility, durability, bioefficacy and household acceptability of DL, compared to conventional IRS or insecticide-treated curtains (LLITCs), in a variety of operational settings. Methods This study was conducted in 220 households in traditional rural villages over 12-15 months. In all sites, rolls of DL were cut to fit house dimensions and fixed to interior wall surfaces (usually with nails and caps) by trained teams. Acceptability was assessed using a standardized questionnaire covering such topics as installation, exposure reactions, entomology, indoor environment, aesthetics and durability. Bioefficacy of interventions was evaluated using WHO cone bioassay tests at regular intervals throughout the year. Results The deltamethrin DL demonstrated little to no decline in bioefficacy over 12-15 months, supported by minimal loss of insecticide content. By contrast, IRS displayed a significant decrease in bioactivity by 6 months and full loss after 12 months. The majority of participants in DL households perceived reductions in mosquito density (93%) and biting (82%), but no changes in indoor temperature (83%). Among those households that wanted to retain the DL, 73% cited protective reasons, 20% expressed a desire to keep theirs for decoration and 7% valued both qualities equally. In Equatorial Guinea, when offered a choice of vector control product at

  13. The human causes of deforestation in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kummer, D.M.; Turner, B.L. II )

    1994-05-01

    The recurrent pattern of deforestation in southeast Asia is that of large scale logging for exports followed by agricultural expansion. The apparent difference between global and regional or local causes of land use, such as in SE Asia, has become a central theme in the emerging global change agenda. This article illustrates the significance of regional variation for understanding one example of land cover change, tropical deforestation, focusing on the Philippines, and using mathematical modeling. The commonalities of this case with other in SE Asia are discussed. 43 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  15. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Project RED HORSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-09-01

    It 0,Il 1IC1I lll Examination of C’urrentI,,,,,,,,[ I prations IIR / IE IP𔃻 0 R IT - PROJECT RED HORSE 1 SEPTEMBER 1969 HQ PACAF Directorate...3 CHAPTER II RED HORSE ORGANIZATIONS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA .................. 5 Introduction...RED HORSE Combat Defense Teams....................... ...... 59 III. 555th CES (HR) Projects...................................... 62 IV. 820th CES

  16. Southeast Asia: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This bibliography, which contains approximately 500 citations dated between 1952 and 1972, is one of a series on various areas of the world. Countries included in this bibliography on Southeast Asia are: Australia, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia and Singapore, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, Viet-Nam, Western Samoa and the…

  17. Migrant workers spreading HIV in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    1996-10-21

    Interruption of the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) across southeast Asian borders by legal and illegal migrant laborers is a major concern of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ASEAN intends to move immediately to implement regional projects focused on education, information sharing, and improved surveillance. HIV transmission from laborers from poorer countries in search of jobs in economically booming regions underscores the global nature of the AIDS problem. Malaysia, for example, has over 1 million illegal workers. Moreover, many legal guest workers who enter Malaysia with letters from a physician stating they are not HIV-infected have falsified documents.

  18. Health and social welfare of expatriates in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Gollogly, James G

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Vietnam War and increasing tourism to Asia, there has been ongoing reverse migration of Westerners to Southeast Asia. Some, but not all, have pensions and modest assets. Some acquire a locals spouse and raise a second family. Many of those who arrived early are now aging rapidly and are depleting their financial resources. Health problems become socio/economic threats. None of the Asian target countries that attract reverse migrants have adequate health care and social safety nets that are available to them. The usual health care safety nets expected in western countries do not cover their nationals in a foreign country. This essay discusses these problems as seen from the perspective of two practicing physicians in Southeast Asia.

  19. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. V. Genus Aedes, Subgenus Diceromyia Theobald in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-01-01

    Diceromyia) in Southeast Asia 19 paratype, NB681, from an island in the Chao Phraya River , Pak Kret, No&ha- buri, THAILAND, 16 June 1964, light trap... River (3 miles inland), Palawan and 1 from Cape Melville, Balabac to this species or Heimnannia scintillans Ludlow. Mattingly (1957: 3 2) states the

  20. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.

  1. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  2. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events.

  3. Islam in South and Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-08

    dynamics of Islam in Asia should help inform United States’ policy to develop respect between America and Muslim peoples, to foster economic policies to...encourage development of open societies, to support education in Muslim states, and to identify and prioritize terrorist sanctuaries in order to...history of Islam see Karen Armstrong, Islam: A Short History (New York: The Modern Library , 2002). 2 Vartan Gregorian, Islam: A Mosaic Not a Monolith

  4. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  5. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN, No. 1, January 1989 %

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 xmcQuiim Brazil ) 1 East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 1 January...regions. Tobacco accounts for 17 percent of the area and 32 percent of the yield. Jute accounts for 14 percent of the yield. Coconuts account for 90...Besides this, Seaprodex helped the Nam Can joint ven- ture import 558 generators of various sizes, 458 "may thuy" [ water machines] of various

  6. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: Tap Chi Cong San, No. 6, June 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 3 East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 6, June 1990...1980, volume 1, page 10] According to President Ho, confidence in the masses was one of the basic qualities of communists. That was one of the...34 "Riches could not seduce him, poverty and suf- fering could not change him, and military power could not force him to submit." He resolutely overcame

  7. Ecospaces occupied by Homo erectus and Homo sapiens in insular Southeast Asia in the Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Volmer, Rebekka; Bruch, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Hominins migrated to the islands of the Sunda Shelf multiple times. At least two immigration events are evident, an early immigration of Homo erectus in the late Early Pleistocene and a second immigration of Homo sapiens during the Late Pleistocene. Regional environments changed considerably in the Pleistocene. Expansion patterns among hominins are at least co-determined by their ecologies and environmental change. We examine these expansion patterns on the basis of habitat reconstructions. Mammalian communities provide a geographically extensive record and permit to assess hominin ecospaces. Although chronological resolution is low, they represent the most complete record of habitat changes associated with hominin expansion patterns. In order to reconstruct and compare hominin ecospaces on a quantitative scale, we set up a reference sample consisting of mammalian communities of 117 national parks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The diversity of such communities is assessed by ecological profiling of specialized herbivore taxa. Moreover, datasets on climate and vegetation correlate with the diversity structure of such specialized herbivore communities. Reconstructing the diversity structure of communities at key sites in Pleistocene Southeast Asia permits to infer features of the climatic and vegetation framework associated with different hominin taxa. Our results show that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens did not occupy similar ecospaces. The ecospace of Homo erectus is characterized by comparatively low diversity among frugivorous and folivorous taxa, while obligate grazers are part of the assemblages. Specialized herbivore communities with such a diversity structure occur at present in East Africa, while they are absent in Southeast Asia. In the reference sample, this type of ecospace corresponds to seasonal wetlands. Although Homo sapiens still inhabits this type of environment in Southeast Asia, his ecospace is wider. Homo sapiens is associated with

  8. Five New Species of Uranotaenia from Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-06-01

    Scientifigue et Technique Outre-Mer, Paris ABSTRACT-Five new species of Uranotaeniu from Southeast Asia are de- scribed: rampae from Cambodia, South...according to SEAMP standards. Uranotaenia rampae , n. sp. ADULT: This is a member of a group of closely related species which includes the following...basolaterally directed teeth. U. rampae differs from all the above in the adult stage by the absence of pale scaling on all abdominal terga except tV

  9. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. VNAF Improvement and Modernization Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-02-05

    3) SOUTHEAST ASIA >, SPECIAL HANDLING REQUIRED ,, NOT RELEASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS GROUP-IThe infoRati contained T n this document Excluded from...automatic downgradingwill not be disclosed to foreign nationals and declassification.or their representatives , , * K717.413-78 2008910238 -- 1970 c...contained in M AE .BAthis document will not be disclosed to foreign nationals L or their represen tatives. Project CHECO 7th AF, DOACI K717.413-78

  10. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions.

  11. Projections of agricultural droughts in the Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the most populated regions in the world, which falls among the food insecure regions. Droughts during the monsoon season hamper crop growth and food production. During the last few decades, rainfall in the monsoon season has been erratic leading to some of the most wide spread droughts in the region. Severity, areal extents, and frequency of droughts are analyzed using the observed data for the period of 1951-2007. Results indicate that frequency of severe drought increased in the Southeast Asia during the recent decades (1980-2007). To assess the variability of hydrologic and agricultural drought in the region, runoff and soil moisture were simulated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The model simulated drought variability was compared with drought simulated by the CMIP5 models during the historic period (1951-2005). Most of the CMIP5 models show increased frequency of severe agricultural droughts in the region under the projected future climate. Increased agricultural droughts in the Southeast Asia may put enormous pressure on the efforts towards achieving food security in the region.

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program... AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 7 Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program. In order to adapt the provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program... AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 7 Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program. In order to adapt the provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast...

  14. Influence of Biomass Burning Aerosols on Southeast Asia Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Bar-Or, Rotem; Wang, Chien

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning activities in Southeast Asia have become a major concern of general public as well as governments in the region. This is because that aerosols emitted from such fires can cause long-lasting haze events under favorite weather conditions in downwind locations such as Singapore, degrading air quality and causing human health issues. In order to improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in Southeast Asia, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a smoke aerosol module to conduct multi-year simulations covering the period from 2002 to 2014, driven by the biomass burning emissions from the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) version 1.5. To attribute the aerosol influences over various target regions to specific fire locations, we have also partitioned aerosols emitted from five major fire regions of Southeast Asia in the simulations. Based on the simulation results, we have examined the influences of various meteorological regimes on the aerosol transport and wet removal. We find that the transport and scavenging of biomass burning aerosols are strongly modulated by the Southeast Asian monsoon wind field and precipitation. We also identified that in the past decade, smoke aerosols are responsible for a substantial fraction of low visibility events in the major metropolitan areas of the region: 35% in Bangkok, 25% in Kuala Lumpur, 16% in Singapore, and 22% in Jakarta. The fires in the Indochina peninsula account for the largest percentage of the total fire enhancement to PM2.5 in Bangkok (98.9%), and fires in Sumatra were the major contributor in Kuala Lumpur (49%), Singapore (39%), and Jakarta (48%).

  15. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the ‘Austronesian expansion,’ which began 4,000–5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

  16. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

    2014-08-19

    Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the 'Austronesian expansion,' which began 4,000-5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia.

  17. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-04

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region.

  18. Navjot's nightmare revisited: logging, agriculture, and biodiversity in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilcove, David S; Giam, Xingli; Edwards, David P; Fisher, Brendan; Koh, Lian Pin

    2013-09-01

    In 2004, Navjot Sodhi and colleagues warned that logging and agricultural conversion of Southeast Asia's forests were leading to a biodiversity disaster. We evaluate this prediction against subsequent research and conclude that most of the fauna of the region can persist in logged forests. Conversely, conversion of primary or logged forests to plantation crops, such as oil palm, causes tremendous biodiversity loss. This loss is exacerbated by increased fire frequency. Therefore, we conclude that preventing agricultural conversion of logged forests is essential to conserving the biodiversity of this region. Our analysis also suggests that, because Southeast Asian forests are tightly tied to global commodity markets, conservation payments commensurate with combined returns from logging and subsequent agricultural production may be required to secure long-term forest protection.

  19. Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Mathilde; Tatard, Caroline; Chaval, Yannick; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Buchy, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across Southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia), between 2009 to 2010. Human isolates were also obtained from localities close to where rodents were sampled. The prevalence of Leptospira infection was assessed by real-time PCR using DNA extracted from rodent kidneys, targeting the lipL32 gene. Sequencing rrs and secY genes, and Multi Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on DNA extracted from rat kidneys for Leptospira isolates molecular typing. Four species were detected in rodents, L. borgpetersenii (56% of positive samples), L. interrogans (36%), L. kirschneri (3%) and L. weilli (2%), which were identical to human isolates. Mean prevalence in rodents was approximately 7%, and largely varied across localities and habitats, but not between rodent species. The two most abundant Leptospira species displayed different habitat requirements: L. interrogans was linked to humid habitats (rice fields and forests) while L. borgpetersenii was abundant in both humid and dry habitats (non-floodable lands). Conclusion/Significance L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii species are widely distributed amongst rodent populations, and strain typing confirmed rodents as reservoirs for human leptospirosis. Differences in habitat requirements for L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii supported differential transmission modes. In Southeast Asia, human infection risk is not only restricted to activities taking place in wetlands and rice fields as is commonly accepted, but should also include tasks such as forestry work, as well as the hunting and preparation of rodents for consumption, which

  20. To strengthen and refresh: herbal therapy in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Van Esterik, P

    1988-01-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia herbal tonic drinks are a long established part of the health adaptation system of both rural and urban households. A recent study on infant feeding practices in urban poor households revealed a differential use of postpartum herbal tonics in Bangkok, Thailand and Semarang, Indonesia. This paper explores the cultural meaning of this difference between comparable groups of mothers, focussing on the colonial and neocolonial development of the medical systems, the transmission of knowledge about herbal therapies, and how the tonics fit into the food-drug classification system in both countries.

  1. Present-day stress field of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, Mark; Morley, Chris; King, Rosalind; Hillis, Richard; Coblentz, David; Hall, Robert

    2010-02-01

    It is now well established that ridge push forces provide a major control on the plate-scale stress field in most of the Earth's tectonic plates. However, the Sunda plate that comprises much of Southeast Asia is one of only two plates not bounded by a major spreading centre and thus provides an opportunity to evaluate other forces that control the intraplate stress field. The Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Sunda plate is usually considered to be controlled by escape tectonics associated with India-Eurasia collision. However, the Sunda plate is bounded by a poorly understood and complex range of convergent and strike-slip zones and little is known about the effect of these other plate boundaries on the intraplate stress field in the region. We compile the first extensive stress dataset for Southeast Asia, containing 275 A-D quality (177 A-C) horizontal stress orientations, consisting of 72 stress indicators from earthquakes (located mostly on the periphery of the plate), 202 stress indicators from breakouts and drilling-induced fractures and one hydraulic fracture test within 14 provinces in the plate interior. This data reveals that a variable stress pattern exists throughout Southeast Asia that is largely inconsistent with the Sunda plate's approximately ESE absolute motion direction. The present-day maximum horizontal stress in Thailand, Vietnam and the Malay Basin is predominately north-south, consistent with the radiating stress patterns arising from the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, the present-day maximum horizontal stress is primarily oriented NW-SE in Borneo, a direction that may reflect plate-boundary forces or topographic stresses exerted by the central Borneo highlands. Furthermore, the South and Central Sumatra Basins exhibit a NE-SW maximum horizontal stress direction that is perpendicular to the Indo-Australian subduction front. Hence, the plate-scale stress field in Southeast Asia appears to be controlled by a combination of Himalayan

  2. Fiscal space for health spending in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the availability of fiscal space in the context of health spending and the challenges and constraints in raising additional resources for health given the macroeconomic situations, in the ten countries of the South-East Asia region (SEAR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Using a variety of secondary data, the analysis indicates that there are differences among the SEAR countries with respect to the various indicators of fiscal space. While the aid situation is under control, there are concerns regarding public debt, fiscal deficit, and revenues. Based on the findings, this article proposes ways forward for each of the countries in the coming years.

  3. HIV-1 variants in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsuchie, H; Saraswathy, T S; Sinniah, M; Vijayamalar, B; Maniar, J K; Monzon, O T; Santana, R T; Paladin, F J; Wasi, C; Thongcharoen, P

    1995-01-01

    HIV spread in South and South-East Asia is most alarming, and genetic variability of HIV-1 is an important consideration in vaccine development. In this study, we examined the third variable (V3) region of env gene of HIV-1 variants prevalent in Thailand, Malaysia, India, and the Philippines. By phylogenetic tree analyses, an HIV-1 variant from an injecting drug user (IDU) in Thailand belonged to subtype B, and HIV-1 variants from 2 IDUs in Malaysia were classified into 2 subtypes, B and E. One HIV-1 variant from a male homosexual in the Philippines belonged to subtype B. Out of 8 HIV-1 variants from sexually transmitted disease patients in India, 7 belonged to subtype C, and one to subtype A. Although the total number of individuals examined in this study was limited, 4 HIV-1 subtypes were found in South and South-East Asia and large international movements of HIV-1-infected individuals in this region could induce global dissemination of these HIV-1 variants.

  4. Documentation for the Southeast Asia seismic hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Haller, Kathleen; Dewey, James; Luco, Nicolas; Crone, Anthony; Lidke, David; Rukstales, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project originated in response to the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M9.2) and the resulting tsunami that caused significant casualties and economic losses in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. During the course of this project, several great earthquakes ruptured subduction zones along the southern coast of Indonesia (fig. 1) causing additional structural damage and casualties in nearby communities. Future structural damage and societal losses from large earthquakes can be mitigated by providing an advance warning of tsunamis and introducing seismic hazard provisions in building codes that allow buildings and structures to withstand strong ground shaking associated with anticipated earthquakes. The Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project was funded through a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)—Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System to develop seismic hazard maps that would assist engineers in designing buildings that will resist earthquake strong ground shaking. An important objective of this project was to discuss regional hazard issues with building code officials, scientists, and engineers in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The code communities have been receptive to these discussions and are considering updating the Thailand and Indonesia building codes to incorporate new information (for example, see notes from Professor Panitan Lukkunaprasit, Chulalongkorn University in Appendix A).

  5. Hunter-gatherers in southeast Asia: from prehistory to the present.

    PubMed

    Higham, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Anatomically modern hunter-gatherers expanded from Africa into Southeast Asia at least 50,000 years ago, where they probably encountered and interacted with populations of Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis and the recently discovered Denisovans. Simulation studies suggest that these hunter-gatherers may well have followed a coastal route that ultimately led to the settlement of Sahul, while archaeology confirms that they also crossed significant seas and explored well into the interior. They also adapted to marked environmental changes that alternated between relatively cool and dry conditions and warmer, wetter interludes. During the former, the sea fell by up to 120 m below its present level, which opened up a vast low-lying area known as Sundaland. Three principal alignments can be identified: the first involved the occupation of rock shelters in upland regions, the second has identified settlement on broad riverine floodplains, and the last concentrated on the raised beaches formed from about five millennia ago when the sea level was elevated above its present position. This cultural sequence was dislocated about 4 kya when rice and millet farmers infiltrated the lowlands of Southeast Asia ultimately from the Yangtze River valley. It is suggested that this led to two forms of interaction. In the first, the indigenous hunter-gatherers integrated with intrusive Neolithic communities and, while losing their cultural identity, contributed their genes to the present population of Southeast Asia. In the second, hunter-gatherers withdrew to rainforest refugia and, through selective pressures inherent in such an environment, survived as the small-bodied, dark-skinned humans found to this day in the Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand, and the Andaman Islands. Beyond the impact of expansive rice farmers in Melanesia and Australia, hunter-gatherers continued to dominate until they encountered European settlement.

  6. Overseas Educational Developments, 1981: Mexico, South America, Southeast Asia. A World Higher Education Communique Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Educational developments in Mexico, South America, and Southeast Asia are covered in five seminar papers. In addition, country educational profiles are presented on Mexico, Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. In "International Students from Southeast Asia," John F. Brohm considers the following…

  7. More Than We Bargained For: The Impact of Consumer Culture in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Katherine T.

    Advertising by multinational corporations in Southeast Asia is generating a growing resistance to its perceived role in creating a "consumer culture" damaging to indigenous values systems. Critics of advertising in Southeast Asia argue that when multinational advertisers or their multinational advertising agencies move into this foreign…

  8. Taxonomy of the Leptogenys modiglianii species group from southeast Asia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae)

    PubMed Central

    Arimoto, Kôichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Leptogenys breviloba sp. n., Leptogenys curva sp. n., Leptogenys itoi sp. n., Leptogenys kanaoi sp. n., Leptogenys malayana sp. n., and Leptogenys modiglianii Emery, 1900 are described from southeast Asia. The Leptogenys modiglianii species group is proposed on the basis of similarities among the six species. An identification key to species in this group from southeast Asia is provided. PMID:28331387

  9. Hoabinhian: a pebble-tool complex with early plant associations in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Gorman, C F

    1969-02-14

    The term "Hoabinhian" has been applied to "mesolithic" assemblages from all parts of mainland Southeast Asia. Recent excavation in north Thailand has yielded the first associated carbon-14 dates and provided evidence for the early (about 7000 B. C.) domestication of plants in Southeast Asia.

  10. Collaborating to conserve large mammals in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Robert; Chutipong, Wanlop; Seuaturien, Naret

    2006-10-01

    Depressed mammal densities characterize the interior of many Southeast Asian protected areas, and are the result of commercial and subsistence hunting. Local people are part of this problem but can participate in solutions through improved partnerships that incorporate local knowledge into problem diagnosis. The process of involving local people helps build a constituency that is more aware of its role (positive and negative) in a protected area and generates site-specific conservation assessments for management planning. We illustrate the practical details of initiating such a partnership through our work in a Thai wildlife sanctuary. Many protected areas in Southeast Asia present similar opportunities. In local workshops, village woodsmen were led through ranking exercises to develop a spatially explicit picture of 20-year trends in the abundance of 31 mammal species and to compare species-specific causes for declines. Within five taxonomic groups, leaf monkeys (primates), porcupines (rodents), tigers (large carnivores), civets (small carnivores), and elephants (ungulates) had declined most severely (37-74%). Commercial hunting contributed heavily to extensive population declines for most species, and subsistence hunting was locally significant for some small carnivores, leaf monkeys, and deer. Workshops thus clarified which species were at highest risk of local extinction, where the most threatened populations were, and causes for these patterns. Most important, they advanced a shared problem definition, thereby unlocking opportunities for collaboration. As a result, local people and sanctuary managers have increased communication, initiated joint monitoring and patrolling, and established wildlife recovery zones. Using local knowledge has limitations, but the process of engaging local people promotes collaborative action that large mammals in Southeast Asia need.

  11. A Cenozoic tectonic model for Southeast Asia - microplates and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.A.

    1995-04-01

    A computer-assisted Cenozoic tectonic model was built for Southeast Asia and used to construct 23 base maps, 2 to 6 million years apart. This close temporal spacing was necessary to constrain all the local geometric shifts in a consistent and geologically feasible fashion. More than a hundred individual blocks were required to adequately treat Cenozoic microplate processes at a basic level. The reconstructions show tectonic evolution to be characterized by long periods of gradual evolution, interrupted by brief, widespread episodes of reorganization in fundamental plate geometries and kinematics. These episodes are triggered by major collisions, or by accumulation of smaller changes. The model takes into account difficulties inherent in the region. The Pacific and Indo-Australian plates and their predecessors have driven westward and northward since the late Paleozoic, towards each other and the relatively stationary backstop of Asia. Southeast Asia is therefore the result of a long-lived, complex process of convergent tectonics, making it difficult to reconstruct tectonic evolution as much of the continental margin and sea floor spreading record was erased. In addition, the region has been dominated by small-scale microplate processes with short time scales and internal deformation, taking place in rapidly evolving and more ductile buffer zones between the major rigid plate systems. These plate interaction zones have taken up much of the relative motion between the major plates. Relatively ephemeral crustal blocks appear and die within the buffer zones, or accrete to and disperse from the margins of the major plate systems. However, such microplate evolution is the dominant factor in Cenozoic basin evolution. This detailed testonic model aids in comprehension and prediction of basin development, regional hydrocarbon habitat, and petroleum systems.

  12. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia.

  13. Population and society in twentieth-century Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C

    1994-09-01

    The historical demographic analysis in this article is a revision of a paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest Regional Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in 1988 at the University of Oregon. The author takes the view that fertility has remained high in the Southeast Asian region due to the dynamics of colonialism and the reinforcement of traditional society. Industrialization, urbanization, and advancing education was not favored by colonial policy. The shift to planting cash crops was labor-intensive work which reinforced large families. The fertility decline after the 1960s is attributed to population pressure and the lower limits of land and production per family. Incentives for smaller families are identified as the expansion of mass education, increased consumer aspirations, and opportunities for modern sector employment. The impact of population growth is viewed as multidimensional and indicative of the conflicts between resources, obligations, and aspirations. The historical record in Southeast Asia reveals a population shortage and the risk of losing the minimum supply of labor necessary for a subsistence economy. Traditional local authorities were in need of men for waging war and producing an economic surplus. Colonial administrators imported cheap labor. As mortality declined and population increased, the societal response was migration, usually to frontier areas. New zones of wet rice production were created in lower Burma, central Siam, and Cochin China due to increased demand. Other survival strategies are identified as infinite land subdivision and multiple job holding in the off-season. Densely populated areas appeared to have lower fertility. Over the past 20 years the strategy appears to have been lower fertility coupled with acceptance of family planning, higher female educational attainment, and higher age at marriage. Southeast Asian patterns are considered indicative of the impact of wars, crises, and economic change on

  14. The Security Environment in Southeast Asia and Australia, 1995-2010.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    Singapore and penetration by Chinese traders coming south from Yunan is opening the country to market economics and other influences. If Myanmar does...ary 1994: Obviously, the South China Sea islands, which encompass some important sea lanes of communications , have strategic importance. In...modernization 41 China and Southeast Asia 43 South China Sea: potential for conflict 45 Southeast Asian sea lanes 57 Islam in Southeast Asia

  15. Early Modern Humans and Morphological Variation in Southeast Asia: Fossil Evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling‘s cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3. PMID:25849125

  16. Introduction: revisiting the "negrito" hypothesis: a transdisciplinary approach to human prehistory in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Endicott, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The "negrito" hypothesis predicts that a shared phenotype among various contemporary groups of hunter-gatherers in Southeast Asia--dark skin, short stature, tight curly hair--is due to common descent from a region-wide, pre-Neolithic substrate of humanity. The alternative is that their distinctive phenotype results from convergent evolution. The core issues of the negrito hypothesis are today more relevant than ever to studies of human evolution, including the out-of-Africa migration, admixture with Denisovans, and the effects of environment and ecology on life-history traits. Understanding the current distribution of the negrito phenotype dictates a wide-ranging remit for study, including the articulation of the relationship between foragers and farmers in the present, the development of settled agriculture in the mid-Holocene, and terminal Pleistocene population expansions. The consensus reached by the contributors to this special double issue of Human Biology is that there is not yet conclusive evidence either for or against the negrito hypothesis. Nevertheless, the process of revisiting the problem will benefit the knowledge of the human prehistory of Southeast Asia. Whether the term negrito accurately reflects the all-encompassing nature of the resulting inquiry is in itself questionable, but the publication of this double issue is testament to the enduring ability of this hypothesis to unite disparate academic disciplines in a common purpose.

  17. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  18. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, M; Bhattacharya, S K; Narain, J P

    2012-04-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia.

  19. A review of parasitic zoonoses in a changing Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Sripa, Banchob; Attwood, Stephen; Newton, Paul N

    2011-11-24

    Parasitic zoonoses are common and widely distributed in the Southeast Asian region. However, the interactions between parasites, hosts and vectors are influenced by environmental, socio-cultural and livestock production changes that impact on the distribution, prevalence and severity of disease. In this review we provide an update on new knowledge in the context of ongoing changes for the food-borne pig associated zoonoses Taenia solium and Trichinella spp., the food-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, the water-borne trematodes Schistosoma spp., the vector-borne zoonotic protozoa Plasmodium knowlesi and Leishmania spp. and the soil-borne zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. These various changes need to be considered when assessing or developing regional control programs or devising new research initiatives in a changing SE Asia.

  20. Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, J S; Chua, K B; Daniels, P W; Eaton, B T; Field, H E; Hall, R A; Halpin, K; Johansen, C A; Kirkland, P D; Lam, S K; McMinn, P; Nisbet, D J; Paru, R; Pyke, A T; Ritchie, S A; Siba, P; Smith, D W; Smith, G A; van den Hurk, A F; Wang, L F; Williams, D T

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV.

  1. Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, J. S.; Chua, K. B.; Daniels, P. W.; Eaton, B. T.; Field, H. E.; Hall, R. A.; Halpin, K.; Johansen, C. A.; Kirkland, P. D.; Lam, S. K.; McMinn, P.; Nisbet, D. J.; Paru, R.; Pyke, A. T.; Ritchie, S. A.; Siba, P.; Smith, D. W.; Smith, G. A.; van den Hurk, A. F.; Wang, L. F.; Williams, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV. PMID:11485641

  2. Simulating Land-Cover Change in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B.; Sen, Omer L.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Ziegler, Alan D.

    2012-05-01

    We used the conversion of land use and its effects (CLUE-s) model to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia (MMSEA), a region in the midst of transformation due to rapid intensification of agriculture and expansion of regional trade markets. Simulated changes affected approximately 10 % of the MMSEA landscape between 2001 and 2025 and 16 % between 2001 and 2050. Roughly 9 % of the current vegetation, which consists of native species of trees, shrubs, and grasses, is projected to be replaced by tree plantations, tea, and other evergreen shrubs during the 50 years period. Importantly, 4 % of this transition is expected to be due to the expansion of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis), a tree plantation crop that may have important implications for local-to-regional scale hydrology because of its potentially high water consumption in the dry season.

  3. The terrestrial carbon budget of South and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervarich, Matthew; Shu, Shijie; Jain, Atul K.; Arneth, Almut; Canadell, Josep; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Houghton, Richard A.; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charles; Patra, Prabir; Poulter, Ben; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Beni; Viovy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zeng, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Accomplishing the objective of the current climate policies will require establishing carbon budget and flux estimates in each region and county of the globe by comparing and reconciling multiple estimates including the observations and the results of top-down atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) inversions and bottom-up dynamic global vegetation models. With this in view, this study synthesizes the carbon source/sink due to net ecosystem productivity (NEP), land cover land use change (E LUC), fires and fossil burning (E FIRE) for the South Asia (SA), Southeast Asia (SEA) and South and Southeast Asia (SSEA = SA + SEA) and each country in these regions using the multiple top-down and bottom-up modeling results. The terrestrial net biome productivity (NBP = NEP - E LUC - E FIRE) calculated based on bottom-up models in combination with E FIRE based on GFED4s data show net carbon sinks of 217 ± 147, 10 ± 55, and 227 ± 279 TgC yr-1 for SA, SEA, and SSEA. The top-down models estimated NBP net carbon sinks were 20 ± 170, 4 ± 90 and 24 ± 180 TgC yr-1. In comparison, regional emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels were 495, 275, and 770 TgC yr-1, which are many times higher than the NBP sink estimates, suggesting that the contribution of the fossil fuel emissions to the carbon budget of SSEA results in a significant net carbon source during the 2000s. When considering both NBP and fossil fuel emissions for the individual countries within the regions, Bhutan and Laos were net carbon sinks and rest of the countries were net carbon source during the 2000s. The relative contributions of each of the fluxes (NBP, NEP, E LUC, and E FIRE, fossil fuel emissions) to a nation’s net carbon flux varied greatly from country to country, suggesting a heterogeneous dominant carbon fluxes on the country-level throughout SSEA.

  4. Human Rights in Southeast Asia: Choosing a Path for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    95-E- 60 c. I NATIONAL DEFENSE UNWERSrN NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE IilUMAN RIGHTS N SOUTHEAST ASIA CHOOSING A PATH FOR THE UNITED STATES CORE COURSE...COVERED 00-00-1995 to 00-00-1995 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Human Rights in Southeast Asia Choosing a Path for the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 HUMAN RIGHTS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA CHOOSIXG A PATH

  5. Muslim refugees in Southeast Asia, the Malaysian response.

    PubMed

    Dorall, R F

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between

  6. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  7. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of Southeast Asia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated means of 21.6 billion barrels of oil and 299 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 22 provinces of southeast Asia.

  8. CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Fricke, Brian A; Bansal, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

  9. Siamopithecus eocaenus, a late Eocene anthropoid primate from Thailand: its contribution to the evolution of anthropoids in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Ducrocq, S

    1999-06-01

    Dental remains of a late Eocene anthropoid primate from Thailand, Siamopithecus eocaenus, have been recently reported; complete description and comparisons of this material are given here. Siamopithecus displays several derived dental features that suggest close phylogenetic affinities among the Thai species, the Burmese Pondaungia, and the North African and Omani propliopithecines Aegyptopithecus and Moeripithecus. The geographic origin of anthropoid primates cannot be securely determined at present, but the available fossil record indicates that faunal exchanges between Africa and Southeast Asia were very probable during the Eocene, and that direct relationships between Asian and African anthropoid primates can be inferred.

  10. Three new species of Bolbochromus Boucomont (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae, Bolboceratinae) from Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Lin; Yang, Ping-Shih; Krikken, Jan; Wang, Chuan-Chan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the Oriental bolboceratine genus Bolbochromus Boucomont 1909, Bolbochromus minutus Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Thailand), Bolbochromus nomurai Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Vietnam), and Bolbochromus malayensis Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Malaysia), are described from continental Southeast Asia with diagnoses, distributions, remarks and illustrations. The genus is discussed with emphasis on continental Southeast Asia. A key to species known from Indochina and Malay Penisula is presented. An annotated checklist of Bolbochromus species is presented. PMID:23794858

  11. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Michael B; Mosites, Emily M; Tian, Mu; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Mokhdad, Ali H; Meller, Margaret; Ochiai, Rion L; Walson, Judd L

    2014-06-01

    Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of

  12. Arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Southeast Asia region.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Naidu, R; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2009-04-01

    The adverse impact of groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) on humans has been reported worldwide, particularly in Asian countries. In this study, we present an overview of the As crisis in the Southeast Asian region where groundwater is contaminated with naturally occurring As and where contamination has become more widespread in recent years. In this region more than 100 million people are estimated to be at risk from groundwater As contamination, and some 700,000 people are known so far to have been affected by As-related diseases. Despite investments exceeding many millions of dollars, there are still substantial knowledge gaps about the prevalence and impact of As, notably in its epidemiology, temporal variations, social factors, patient identification, treatment, etc. Arsenic-affected people in the affected regions also face serious social problems. Of major concern is the fact that many researchers from different countries have been conducting research in SE Asia region but with a lack of coordination, thus duplicating their work. There is an urgent need to coordinate these various studies to ensure better delivery of research outcomes. Further research is needed to improve field testing and monitoring of drinking water sources, and to develop new treatments for chronic As toxicity and new sources of safe drinking water.

  13. Lessons learned about opportunistic infections in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2008-07-01

    Southeast Asia is a region where the number of people infected with HIV/AIDS is one of the fastest growing in the world. Tuberculosis (TB) has grown along with the HIV epidemic. TB is not only the most common AIDS-defining illness but is also the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients. Cryptococcosis (meningitis or disseminated) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. Cryptococcal meningitis is the first in the differential diagnosis considered with meningeal irritation. Penicillosis, a unique systemic mycosis, is an important emerging public health problem and has been classified as an AIDS defining illness in endemic areas like Thailand. Pneumocystis carinii (jiroveci) pneumonia has been one of the most important opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. Among parasitic infections, cryptosporidiosis is the most common intestinal protozoan infection relating to diarrhea in AIDS patients and toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic infection of the nervous system with a substantial incidence, up to 14.8%. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis has a lower prevalence compared to other opportunistic infections. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of opportunistic infections has significantly reduced in the past few years. Subsequently, the phenomena of immune restoration inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in AIDS patients has been reported in this region as a result of HAART.

  14. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  15. Predawn plasma bubble cluster observed in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Tsunoda, Roland; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Supnithi, Pornchai; Ishii, Mamoru; Yatini, Clara

    2016-06-01

    Predawn plasma bubble was detected as deep plasma depletion by GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) network and in situ measurement onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F15 (DMSPF15) satellite and was confirmed by sparse GPS network in Southeast Asia. In addition to the deep depletion, the GPS network revealed the coexisting submesoscale irregularities. A deep depletion is regarded as a primary bubble. Submesoscale irregularities are regarded as secondary bubbles. Primary bubble and secondary bubbles appeared together as a cluster with zonal wavelength of 50 km. An altitude of secondary bubbles happened to be lower than that of the primary bubble in the same cluster. The observed pattern of plasma bubble cluster is consistent with the simulation result of the recent high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model. This event is only a single event out of 76 satellite passes at nighttime during 3-25 March 2012 that significantly shows plasma depletion at plasma bubble wall. The inside structure of the primary bubble was clearly revealed from the in situ density data of DMSPF15 satellite and the ground-based GRBR total electron content.

  16. The Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2013-08-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of Southeast Asia have given rise to numerous controversies which include the accretionary history of Sundaland and the enigmatic tectonic origin of the Proto South China Sea. We assimilate a diversity of geological and geophysical observations into a new regional plate model, coupled to a global model, to address these debates. Our approach takes into account terrane suturing and accretion histories, the location of subducted slabs imaged in mantle tomography in order to constrain the opening and closure history of paleo-ocean basins, as well as plausible absolute and relative plate velocities and tectonic driving mechanisms. We propose a scenario of rifting from northern Gondwana in the Late Jurassic, driven by northward slab pull, to detach East Java, Mangkalihat, southeast Borneo and West Sulawesi blocks that collided with a Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zone in the mid Cretaceous and subsequently accreted to the Sunda margin (i.e. southwest Borneo core) in the Late Cretaceous. In accounting for the evolution of plate boundaries, we propose that the Philippine Sea Plate originated on the periphery of Tethyan crust forming this northward conveyor. We implement a revised model for the Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zones to reconcile convergence rates, changes in volcanism and the obduction of ophiolites. In our model the northward margin of Greater India collides with the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc at ∼53 Ma, followed by continent-continent collision closing the Shyok and Indus-Tsangpo suture zones between ∼42 and 34 Ma. We also account for the back-arc opening of the Proto South China Sea from ∼65 Ma, consistent with extension along east Asia and the emplacement of supra-subduction zone ophiolites presently found on the island of Mindoro. The related rifting likely detached the Semitau continental fragment from east China, which accreted to northern Borneo in the mid Eocene, to account for the Sarawak Orogeny

  17. The Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2014-04-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of Southeast Asia have given rise to numerous controversies that include the accretionary history of Sundaland and the enigmatic tectonic origin of the proto-South China Sea. We assimilate a diversity of geological and geophysical observations into a new regional plate model, coupled to a global model, to address these debates. Our approach takes into account terrane suturing and accretion histories, the location of subducted slabs imaged in mantle tomography in order to constrain the evolution of regional subduction zones, as well as plausible absolute and relative plate velocities and tectonic driving mechanisms. We propose a scenario of rifting from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, driven by northward slab pull from north-dipping subduction of Tethyan crust beneath Eurasia, to detach East Java, Mangkalihat, southeast Borneo and West Sulawesi blocks that collided with a Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zone in the mid-Cretaceous and subsequently accreted to the Sunda margin (i.e., southwest Borneo core) in the Late Cretaceous. In accounting for the evolution of plate boundaries, we propose that the Philippine Sea plate originated on the periphery of Tethyan crust forming this northward conveyor. We implement a revised model for the Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zones to reconcile convergence rates, changes in volcanism and the obduction of ophiolites. In our model the northward margin of Greater India collides with the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc at ∼53 Ma, followed by continent-continent collision closing the Shyok and Indus-Tsangpo suture zones between ∼42 and 34 Ma. We also account for the back-arc opening of the proto-South China Sea from ∼65 Ma, consistent with extension along east Asia and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites presently found on the island of Mindoro. The related rifting likely detached the Semitau continental fragment from South China, which accreted to northern Borneo in

  18. Southeast Asia: A Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries. Occasional Publication Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald Clay, Ed.; And Others

    Southeast Asian library resources primarily for the humanities and social sciences are listed in this bibliography that is one of a series. The volume furnishes a basic and balanced bibliography on all the countries of Southeast Asia, of manageable size for the undergraduate library. Selections include: 1) few works in languages other than…

  19. Regional Quality Assurance Activity in Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Its Characteristics and Driving Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umemiya, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the characteristics and driving forces of regional quality assurance activity in Southeast Asia, which has been actively promoted in recent years by the ASEAN University Network, an organisation for higher education under the auspices of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). There are now more collaborative…

  20. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  1. Writing the Pentecostal History of Africa, Asia and Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the writing of Pentecostal history and in particular, the biases and presuppositions associated with it. The problem of sources and the neglect of the important role of indigenous ("native") workers in the historiography of Pentecostalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America is the main focus. It refutes the idea of an…

  2. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  3. Soil and groundwater remediation: Asia, Oceania, and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P.M.; Islandar, I.K.

    1999-11-01

    This book covers information on metals, radionuclides, other inorganics, pesticides, and other anthropogenic organic compounds in soil environments in Asia, Oceania, and Africa. It addresses the current status and future prospects on soil and groundwater pollution and the remediation strategies for years to come.

  4. Countering Transnational Terrorism in Southeast Asia with Respect to Terrorism in Indonesia and the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    domination of provincial administration by outsiders (typically Javanese ) with disregard for local culture (especially in Papua), and anger at...ASIA WITH RESPECT TO TERRORISM IN INDONESIA AND THE PHILIPPINES by Asep Chaerudin December 2003 Thesis Advisor: Gaye Christofferson...Transnational Terrorism in Southeast Asia with Respect to Terrorism in Indonesia and the Philippines 6. AUTHOR(S) Asep Chaerudin 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7

  5. Changing Roles of the United States and Japan in the Security of Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    232. San Francisco: Institute For Contemporary Studies, 1983. 18. Hardgrove, Erwin , C. Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the Politics of the...Francisco: The Asia Foundation, 1992. 70. Neher , Clark D. Southeast Asia in the New International Era. p. 95. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991

  6. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  7. Trends in new species discovery of Orthoptera (Insecta) from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming Kai; Choi, Jihea; Shankar, Nivedita

    2017-03-02

    The orthopterans are diverse insects and play important roles in the ecosystem as well as having "love-hate relationship" with humans. Documentation of diversity in Southeast Asia has long history but remains incomplete. Using information of type specimens and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, we investigated the following questions on new species discovery for the region, specifically: (1) How are new species discoveries of orthopterans distributed in Southeast Asia? (2) How have new species discoveries changed with time? (3) How do new species discoveries relate to the countries of the type depositories? We found that new species discoveries, relative to sampling, are fragmentary in Southeast Asia and changes with different time periods. We also find type depositories tightly linked to the human (colonial) history of Southeast Asian countries. We provide some recommendations and hope that this can help to accelerate the study of orthopteran diversity in the region.

  8. Reconstructing Demography and Social Behavior During the Neolithic Expansion from Genomic Diversity Across Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vallée, François; Luciani, Aurélien; Cox, Murray P

    2016-12-01

    Archaeology, linguistics, and increasingly genetics are clarifying how populations moved from mainland Asia, through Island Southeast Asia, and out into the Pacific during the farming revolution. Yet key features of this process remain poorly understood, particularly how social behaviors intersected with demographic drivers to create the patterns of genomic diversity observed across Island Southeast Asia today. Such questions are ripe for computer modeling. Here, we construct an agent-based model to simulate human mobility across Island Southeast Asia from the Neolithic period to the present, with a special focus on interactions between individuals with Asian, Papuan, and mixed Asian-Papuan ancestry. Incorporating key features of the region, including its complex geography (islands and sea), demographic drivers (fecundity and migration), and social behaviors (marriage preferences), the model simultaneously tracks a full suite of genomic markers (autosomes, X chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and Y chromosome). Using Bayesian inference, model parameters were determined that produce simulations that closely resemble the admixture profiles of 2299 individuals from 84 populations across Island Southeast Asia. The results highlight that greater propensity to migrate and elevated birth rates are related drivers behind the expansion of individuals with Asian ancestry relative to individuals with Papuan ancestry, that offspring preferentially resulted from marriages between Asian women and Papuan men, and that in contrast to current thinking, individuals with Asian ancestry were likely distributed across large parts of western Island Southeast Asia before the Neolithic expansion.

  9. Reconstructing Demography and Social Behavior During the Neolithic Expansion from Genomic Diversity Across Island Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Vallée, François; Luciani, Aurélien; Cox, Murray P.

    2016-01-01

    Archaeology, linguistics, and increasingly genetics are clarifying how populations moved from mainland Asia, through Island Southeast Asia, and out into the Pacific during the farming revolution. Yet key features of this process remain poorly understood, particularly how social behaviors intersected with demographic drivers to create the patterns of genomic diversity observed across Island Southeast Asia today. Such questions are ripe for computer modeling. Here, we construct an agent-based model to simulate human mobility across Island Southeast Asia from the Neolithic period to the present, with a special focus on interactions between individuals with Asian, Papuan, and mixed Asian–Papuan ancestry. Incorporating key features of the region, including its complex geography (islands and sea), demographic drivers (fecundity and migration), and social behaviors (marriage preferences), the model simultaneously tracks a full suite of genomic markers (autosomes, X chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and Y chromosome). Using Bayesian inference, model parameters were determined that produce simulations that closely resemble the admixture profiles of 2299 individuals from 84 populations across Island Southeast Asia. The results highlight that greater propensity to migrate and elevated birth rates are related drivers behind the expansion of individuals with Asian ancestry relative to individuals with Papuan ancestry, that offspring preferentially resulted from marriages between Asian women and Papuan men, and that in contrast to current thinking, individuals with Asian ancestry were likely distributed across large parts of western Island Southeast Asia before the Neolithic expansion. PMID:27683274

  10. Cloud Cover and Wildfire Variations in Vietnam and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasko, K.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring fires from space is constrained by cloud cover, particularly in tropical regions. Cloud cover-fire variations were assessed using the CERES SSF1Deg and MODIS active fire (MCD14ML) products in Vietnam and Southeast Asia. Twelve years (2003-2014) of data have been analyzed spatially and temporally at four spatial scales: a) country level; b). 1x1 degree scale; c). land cover type; d). regions. Country-level results suggested Vietnam having the highest monthly cloud cover (72.37%) followed by Cambodia (69.69%), Laos (67.64%), Thailand (67.58%), and Myanmar (59.90%). Strong negative correlation between cloud cover and MODIS active fires has been observed during the biomass burning months (Jan-Apr). Of the different countries, Vietnam also had the lowest monthly fire detections. Pixel by pixel spatial correlation at 1x1 degree suggested negative fire-cloud relationships over the Red River Delta of Vietnam, the forests of northern Laos, and agriculture-dominated peninsulas of Thailand and Myanmar. Among the different land cover types, the average monthly cloud cover varied between 64% - 66%. Further, results from daily data showed the Red River Delta to have consistently more cloud cover (20-40% more) than the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam, with fewer fire detections in the former than the latter. The study highlights potential fire under-detection due to clouds. Our results highlight spatial and temporal variations in cloud-fire relationships and the difficulty of using optical data for fire detection and characterization in persistently cloudy regions.

  11. The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Walters, Dylan; Horton, Susan; Siregar, Adiatma Yudistira Manogar; Pitriyan, Pipit; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mathisen, Roger; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Rudert, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    Rates of exclusive breastfeeding are slowly increasing, but remain suboptimal globally despite the health and economic benefits. This study estimates the costs of not breastfeeding across seven countries in Southeast Asia and presents a cost-benefit analysis of a modeled comprehensive breastfeeding strategy in Viet Nam, based on a large programme. There have been very few such studies previously for low- and middle-income countries. The estimates used published data on disease prevalence and breastfeeding patterns for the seven countries, supplemented by information on healthcare costs from representative institutions. Modelling of costs of not breastfeeding used estimated effects obtained from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Modelling of cost-benefit for Viet Nam used programme data on costs combined with effects from a large-scale cluster randomized breastfeeding promotion intervention with controls. This study found that over 12 400 preventable child and maternal deaths per year in the seven countries could be attributed to inadequate breastfeeding. The economic benefits associated with potential improvements in cognition alone, through higher IQ and earnings, total $1.6 billion annually. The loss exceeds 0.5% of Gross National Income in the country with the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rate (Thailand). The potential savings in health care treatment costs ($0.3 billion annually) from reducing the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia could help offset the cost of breastfeeding promotion. Based on the data available and authors' assumptions, investing in a national breastfeeding promotion strategy in Viet Nam could result in preventing 200 child deaths per year and generate monetary benefits of US$2.39 for every US$1, or a 139% return on investment. These encouraging results suggest that there are feasible and affordable opportunities to accelerate progress towards achieving the Global Nutrition Target for exclusive breastfeeding by 2025.

  12. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  13. Elimination of Kala-Azar from the Southeast Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Dash, Aditya Prasad

    2017-01-23

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), popularly known as kala-azar, is essentially a disease of poverty. Kala-azar is caused by a parasite, Leishmania donovani Recent review indicates that worldwide 98 countries are endemic for kala-azar. Approximately 0.2-0.4 million new VL cases occur each year worldwide. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan, and Sudan. This trend is slowly changing due to the progress in kala-azar elimination in southeast Asia, where Bangladesh has reported an average of some 600 new cases in 2014-2015. With the advancement in our knowledge about the disease and development of tools to diagnose and treat VL, it was considered that elimination of kala-azar was possible from India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The three countries signed a memorandum of understanding in 2005 for collaboration. Miltefosine is the first ever oral drug developed to treat VL, which was later replaced by lipid amphotericin B. The main components of the strategy are early diagnosis using rK39 strip test and complete treatment utilizing miltefosine for 28 days. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or pyrethroids were deployed for vector control. There was much to be desired for better performance of the vector control activity. Pharmacovigilance and monitoring of drug resistance were the weakest part of the program. In the post-elimination phase, surveillance reinforced by active case finding will of a crucial factor for sustainability of the elimination. A strong political will is required to ensure elimination of kala-azar from the Indian subcontinent and its sustainability in the post-elimination phase.

  14. The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Dylan; Horton, Susan; Siregar, Adiatma Yudistira Manogar; Pitriyan, Pipit; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mathisen, Roger; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Rudert, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Rates of exclusive breastfeeding are slowly increasing, but remain suboptimal globally despite the health and economic benefits. This study estimates the costs of not breastfeeding across seven countries in Southeast Asia and presents a cost-benefit analysis of a modeled comprehensive breastfeeding strategy in Viet Nam, based on a large programme. There have been very few such studies previously for low- and middle-income countries. The estimates used published data on disease prevalence and breastfeeding patterns for the seven countries, supplemented by information on healthcare costs from representative institutions. Modelling of costs of not breastfeeding used estimated effects obtained from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Modelling of cost-benefit for Viet Nam used programme data on costs combined with effects from a large-scale cluster randomized breastfeeding promotion intervention with controls. This study found that over 12 400 preventable child and maternal deaths per year in the seven countries could be attributed to inadequate breastfeeding. The economic benefits associated with potential improvements in cognition alone, through higher IQ and earnings, total $1.6 billion annually. The loss exceeds 0.5% of Gross National Income in the country with the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rate (Thailand). The potential savings in health care treatment costs ($0.3 billion annually) from reducing the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia could help offset the cost of breastfeeding promotion. Based on the data available and authors’ assumptions, investing in a national breastfeeding promotion strategy in Viet Nam could result in preventing 200 child deaths per year and generate monetary benefits of US$2.39 for every US$1, or a 139% return on investment. These encouraging results suggest that there are feasible and affordable opportunities to accelerate progress towards achieving the Global Nutrition Target for exclusive breastfeeding by 2025. PMID:27107295

  15. Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rhett D; Sreekar, Rachakonda; Brodie, Jedediah F; Brook, Sarah; Luskin, Matthew; O'Kelly, Hannah; Rao, Madhu; Scheffers, Brett; Velho, Nandini

    2016-10-01

    Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting-tolerant species. To document hunting impacts on vertebrate populations regionally, we conducted an extensive literature review, including papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Evidence from multiple sites indicated animal populations declined precipitously across the region since approximately 1980, and many species are now extirpated from substantial portions of their former ranges. Hunting is by far the greatest immediate threat to the survival of most of the region's endangered vertebrates. Causes of recent overhunting include improved access to forests and markets, improved hunting technology, and escalating demand for wild meat, wildlife-derived medicinal products, and wild animals as pets. Although hunters often take common species, such as pigs or rats, for their own consumption, they take rarer species opportunistically and sell surplus meat and commercially valuable products. There is also widespread targeted hunting of high-value species. Consequently, as currently practiced, hunting cannot be considered sustainable anywhere in the region, and in most places enforcement of protected-area and protected-species legislation is weak. The international community's focus on cross-border trade fails to address overexploitation of wildlife because hunting and the sale of wild meat is largely a local issue and most of the harvest is consumed in villages, rural towns, and nearby cities. In addition to improved enforcement, efforts to engage hunters and manage wildlife populations through sustainable hunting practices are urgently needed. Unless there is a step change in efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation to sustainable levels, the

  16. Towards improved diagnosis of zoonotic trematode infections in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Humans in Southeast Asia are at risk for at least 70 species of food-borne and water-borne trematodes, including blood flukes, intestinal flukes, liver flukes and lung flukes, which are shared with a great variety of animals. Co-infection with several other zoonotic trematodes is pervasive, and hence differential diagnosis represents a major challenge. Many zoonotic trematodes are commonly overlooked, leading to unreliable prevalence data, underappreciation of their veterinary and public health burden and impact, and general neglect with respect to treatment and control. Additionally, many eggs are indistinguishable by microscopy. For example, failure to address this diagnostic dilemma has resulted in overestimation of Clonorchis sinensis prevalence and underestimation of minute intestinal flukes. Test insensitivity is becoming a problem of prime interest as surveillance is gaining in importance and various control programmes now regularly register progress. Hence, the likelihood of underestimating the true burden of disease is growing in well-controlled areas when the faecal egg excretion among infected individuals approaches zero. While antibody testing has ultimate sensitivity, its use as a test of cure remains contentious. On the other hand, employing faecal egg detection as the diagnostic 'gold' standard makes many positive antibody test results (incorrectly) appear false. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics could solve this dilemma, but more experience is needed and costs must be brought down to permit large-scale use of this approach. The future development of virtual microscopy to be used for diagnosis of parasitic infections in the field could make ordinary microscopy obsolete by electronically capturing specimens at point-of-contact in remote areas.

  17. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 25 publications from 19 countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, and Venezuela. Topics include the environment, women's role, and household consumption and expenditures. The publication of an…

  18. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  19. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers.

  20. A predominantly indigenous paternal heritage for the Austronesian-speaking peoples of insular Southeast Asia and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Capelli, C; Wilson, J F; Richards, M; Stumpf, M P; Gratrix, F; Oppenheimer, S; Underhill, P; Pascali, V L; Ko, T M; Goldstein, D B

    2001-02-01

    Modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Oceania in one of the first dispersals out of Africa. The resulting temporal overlap of modern and archaic humans-and the apparent morphological continuity between them-has led to claims of gene flow between Homo sapiens and H. erectus. Much more recently, an agricultural technology from mainland Asia spread into the region, possibly in association with Austronesian languages. Using detailed genealogical study of Y chromosome variation, we show that the majority of current Austronesian speakers trace their paternal heritage to Pleistocene settlers in the region, as opposed to more-recent agricultural immigrants. A fraction of the paternal heritage, however, appears to be associated with more-recent immigrants from northern populations. We also show that the northern Neolithic component is very unevenly dispersed through the region, with a higher contribution in Southeast Asia and a nearly complete absence in Melanesia. Contrary to claims of gene flow (under regional continuity) between H. erectus and H. sapiens, we found no ancestral Y chromosome lineages in a set of 1,209 samples. The finding excludes the possibility that early hominids contributed significantly to the paternal heritage of the region.

  1. Doctor-Patient Communication in Southeast Asia: A Different Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative…

  2. Rickettsial Infections in Southeast Asia: Implications for Local Populace and Febrile Returned Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W.; Murray, Ronan J.; Graves, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsial infections represent a major cause of non-malarial febrile illnesses among the residents of Southeast Asia and returned travelers from that region. There are several challenges in recognition, diagnosis, and management of rickettsioses endemic to Southeast Asia. This review focuses on the prevalent rickettsial infections, namely, murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi), scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae. Information on epidemiology and regional variance in the prevalence of rickettsial infections is analyzed. Clinical characteristics of main groups of rickettsioses, unusual presentations, and common pitfalls in diagnosis are further discussed. In particular, relevant epidemiologic and clinical aspects on emerging spotted fever group rickettsiae in the region, such as Rickettsia honei, R. felis, R. japonica, and R. helvetica, are presented. Furthermore, challenges in laboratory diagnosis and management aspects of rickettsial infections unique to Southeast Asia are discussed, and data on emerging resistance to antimicrobial drugs and treatment/prevention options are also reviewed. PMID:24957537

  3. Cysticercosis/taeniasis endemicity in Southeast Asia: Current status and control measures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Wei; Ito, Akira; Ai, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Acosta, Luz P; Lee Willingham Iii, Arve

    2017-01-01

    The parasitic zoonoses cysticercosis/taeniasis is among the 17 major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) identified by the WHO as a focus for research and control. It is caused by a larval stage (cysticercus) infection of Taenia solium tapeworm in both humans and pigs. Cysticercosis occurs in many resource-poor countries, especially those with warm and mild climates in the regions of Latin America (LA), Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The prevalence of human cysticercosis is marked in those areas where individuals are traditionally keen to consume raw or insufficiently cooked pork and/or where the husbandry of pigs is improper. The worldwide burden of cysticercosis is unclear and notably, large-scale control initiatives are lacking in all regions. This review focuses on the current endemic status of cysticercosis caused by T. solium infection in both humans and pigs living in 13 Southeast Asian countries. We will also emphasize epidemiological data as well as prevention and control of human neurocysticercosis.

  4. The clinical impact of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia and the potential for future spread.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, Charles J; White, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Artemisinins are the most rapidly acting of currently available antimalarial drugs. Artesunate has become the treatment of choice for severe malaria, and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the foundation of modern falciparum malaria treatment globally. Their safety and tolerability profile is excellent. Unfortunately, Plasmodium falciparum infections with mutations in the 'K13' gene, with reduced ring-stage susceptibility to artemisinins, and slow parasite clearance in patients treated with ACTs, are now widespread in Southeast Asia. We review clinical efficacy data from the region (2000-2015) that provides strong evidence that the loss of first-line ACTs in western Cambodia, first artesunate-mefloquine and then DHA-piperaquine, can be attributed primarily to K13 mutated parasites. The ring-stage activity of artemisinins is therefore critical for the sustained efficacy of ACTs; once it is lost, rapid selection of partner drug resistance and ACT failure are inevitable consequences. Consensus methods for monitoring artemisinin resistance are now available. Despite increased investment in regional control activities, ACTs are failing across an expanding area of the Greater Mekong subregion. Although multiple K13 mutations have arisen independently, successful multidrug-resistant parasite genotypes are taking over and threaten to spread to India and Africa. Stronger containment efforts and new approaches to sustaining long-term efficacy of antimalarial regimens are needed to prevent a global malaria emergency.

  5. Pollution monitoring in Southeast Asia using biomarkers in the mytilid mussel Perna viridis (Mytilidae: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S; Lam, P K S

    2005-01-01

    Mytilid mussels have been extensively used in marine pollution monitoring programmes in temperate regions of the world although widespread subtropical representatives such as Perna viridis have only comparatively recently been utilised to monitor the sublethal effects of pollution in Southeast Asia. P. viridis is considered a subtropical equivalent of the temperate Mytilus sp. and has considerable potential for pollution monitoring throughout its geographical range. This paper reviews the current status of biomarkers in P. viridis and provides some recommendations on biological-effects monitoring to facilitate the assessment of coastal pollution in Southeast Asia.

  6. Piracy in Southeast Asia: A Growing Threat to the United States’ Vital Strategic and Commercial Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    BIN LADIN’S AL-QA-IDA TERRORIST ORGANIZATION AND THE ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISTS IN THE SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES AND INDONESIA . DISCUSSION: SOUTHEAST ASIA...CAMOUFLAGE, ABU SAYYAF, ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM, SPRATLY ISLANDS, INDONESIA , PHILIPPINES, SINGAPORE STRAITS, NPA, MNLF, MILF, RAMZI AHMED YOUSEF...Islamic fundamentalists in the southern Philippines and Indonesia . Discussion: Southeast Asia has been a breeding ground and haven for maritime piracy

  7. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44–0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while

  8. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44-0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥ 0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while designing

  9. Simulation of surface temperature in Southeast Asia during the Southeast Asian southwest monsoon using RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jing Xiang; Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tay, Tze Wei; Liew, Ju Neng; Tangang, Fredolin

    2015-09-01

    The performance of RegCM4 in simulating the surface temperature in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the Southeast Asian southwest monsoon using six different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs) was assessed in this study using the model output from the Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling/ Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment Southeast Asia (SEACLID/CORDEX-SEA) project. The simulated surface temperatures were evaluated against the surface temperature from the CRU observation dataset from year 1990 to 2008. The assessment shows that all the simulations produced an overall cold bias in SEA. The cold bias is the strongest in the mountain region of west Papua, followed by that over the north-eastern region of Thailand. Generally, the cold bias over the maritime continent is found to be much weaker compared to that of Indo-China mainland. As the bias is not unique to any simulations, the bias simulated is not very much CPSs dependence. It is also noticed that the model has the tendency to underestimate the maximum surface temperature (Tmax) explaining the systematic cold bias produced by the model. Also, the model tends to overestimate the minimum surface temperature (Tmin). The overestimation of Tmin is slightly higher over the maritime continent, explaining the weaker cold bias in surface temperature observed over that area. Through assessing the simulations bias and the simulated spatial pattern agreement, we noticed that the reasonable choice of CPS to be used has to have Emanuel set on land when the simulation of southwest monsoon surface temperature is concerned. Nevertheless, the ensemble standard deviation calculated across all the simulations reveals that th e surface temperature over SEA is less sensitive to the choice of CPS used, especially at the maritime continent. Comparatively, the surface temperature over Indo-China mainland is more sensitive to the choice of CPS used.

  10. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  11. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2016-01-12

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation.

  12. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  13. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Daniel R.; Friess, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation. PMID:26712025

  14. Chinese Dialects in Southeast Asia. Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 7 No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leok Har Chan

    This paper discusses the dialects of the Chinese people who have settled in various countries of Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Burma, Thailand, Laos, North and South Vietnam, and the Khmer Republic. Data are first given regarding the area in general. The data are then broken down according to individual…

  15. Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate…

  16. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nghiem, Le T. P.; Soliman, Tarek; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Tan, Hugh T. W.; Evans, Theodore A.; Mumford, John D.; Keller, Reuben P.; Baker, Richard H. A.; Corlett, Richard T.; Carrasco, Luis R.

    2013-01-01

    Harmful non-indigenous species (NIS) impose great economic and environmental impacts globally, but little is known about their impacts in Southeast Asia. Lack of knowledge of the magnitude of the problem hinders the allocation of appropriate resources for NIS prevention and management. We used benefit-cost analysis embedded in a Monte-Carlo simulation model and analysed economic and environmental impacts of NIS in the region to estimate the total burden of NIS in Southeast Asia. The total annual loss caused by NIS to agriculture, human health and the environment in Southeast Asia is estimated to be US$33.5 billion (5th and 95th percentile US$25.8–39.8 billion). Losses and costs to the agricultural sector are estimated to be nearly 90% of the total (US$23.4–33.9 billion), while the annual costs associated with human health and the environment are US$1.85 billion (US$1.4–2.5 billion) and US$2.1 billion (US$0.9–3.3 billion), respectively, although these estimates are based on conservative assumptions. We demonstrate that the economic and environmental impacts of NIS in low and middle-income regions can be considerable and that further measures, such as the adoption of regional risk assessment protocols to inform decisions on prevention and control of NIS in Southeast Asia, could be beneficial. PMID:23951120

  17. Biomedical Library Management and Legislation in Developing Countries in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodman, Estelle

    Many problems in developing biomedical library services for the emerging nations of Southeast Asia remain amenable only to legislation; however, IFLA seems particularly well situated to assist in these tasks. Of the numerous political and technical problems to be overcome, first and foremost are the difficulties involved in the simple transmission…

  18. The Publishing of Library and Information Science Journals in Southeast Asia--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeow-fei, Jaffe Yee

    This paper presents an overview of the present state of the publishing activities of library and information science journals in Southeast Asia, focusing on format, circulation/readership, quality, and editorial focus. It also highlights some of the important titles from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, Vietnam,…

  19. Collections Care in Southeast Asia: Conservation and the Need for the Creation of Micro-Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, John F.

    For a variety of reasons, collection care in Southeast Asia, especially in the northern regions, is fraught with many difficult challenges. Climates that are unfriendly to paper-based materials, poor economies, war, and civil unrest, are just a few of the reasons that librarians and archivists find it extremely difficult to ensure the survival of…

  20. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  1. Dengue in Southeast Asia: epidemiological characteristics and strategic challenges in disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Eng-Eong; Gubler, Duane J

    2009-01-01

    Dengue emerged as a public health burden in Southeast Asia during and following the Second World War and has become increasingly important, with progressively longer and more frequent cyclical epidemics of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite this trend, surveillance for this vector-borne viral disease remains largely passive in most Southeast Asian countries, without adequate laboratory support. We review here the factors that may have contributed to the changing epidemiology of dengue in Southeast Asia as well as challenges of disease prevention. We also discuss a regional approach to active dengue virus surveillance, focusing on urban areas where the viruses are maintained, which may be a solution to limited financial resources since most of the countries in the region have developing economies. A regional approach would also result in a greater likelihood of success in disease prevention since the large volume of human travel is a major factor contributing to the geographical spread of dengue viruses.

  2. High resolution population distribution maps for Southeast Asia in 2010 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Andrea E; Stevens, Forrest R; Linard, Catherine; Jia, Peng; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Spatially accurate, contemporary data on human population distributions are vitally important to many applied and theoretical researchers. The Southeast Asia region has undergone rapid urbanization and population growth over the past decade, yet existing spatial population distribution datasets covering the region are based principally on population count data from censuses circa 2000, with often insufficient spatial resolution or input data to map settlements precisely. Here we outline approaches to construct a database of GIS-linked circa 2010 census data and methods used to construct fine-scale (∼100 meters spatial resolution) population distribution datasets for each country in the Southeast Asia region. Landsat-derived settlement maps and land cover information were combined with ancillary datasets on infrastructure to model population distributions for 2010 and 2015. These products were compared with those from two other methods used to construct commonly used global population datasets. Results indicate mapping accuracies are consistently higher when incorporating land cover and settlement information into the AsiaPop modelling process. Using existing data, it is possible to produce detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for Southeast Asia. The 2010 and 2015 datasets produced are freely available as a product of the AsiaPop Project and can be downloaded from: www.asiapop.org.

  3. Doctor-patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    PubMed

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D F; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-03-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative study based on principles of grounded theory. Twenty residents and specialists and 20 patients of a low or high educational level were interviewed in internal medicine outpatient clinics of an Indonesian teaching hospital and two affiliated hospitals. During 26 weeks we engaged in an iterative interview and coding process to identify emergent factors. Patients were generally dissatisfied with doctors' communication style. The doctors indicated that they did not deliberately use a one-way style. Communication style appeared to be associated with characteristics of Southeast Asian culture, the health care setting and medical education. Doctor-patient communication appeared to be affected by cultural characteristics which fell into two broad categories representing key features of Southeast Asian culture, "social distance" and "closeness of relationships", and to characteristics categorized as "specific clinical context". Consideration of these characteristics could be helpful in promoting the use of a partnership communication style.

  4. Development Planning in Southeast Asia: Role of the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoong, Yip Yat, Ed.

    The first volume in a series of three, this report relates the in-depth studies of development planning in four Southeast Asian countries: Singapore, Malaysia, South Vietnam, and the Philippines. The studies examined the ways in which universities are assisting and can assist more in the formulation and implementation of national development plans…

  5. The New Arrivals from Southeast Asia: Getting To Know Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Betsy E.

    1983-01-01

    Identifies differences between the cultures of Southeast Asian countries and those of the United States that could cause misunderstanding in American schools. Differences in communication, schooling, and values are pointed out, and the influence of social factors and the impact of teachers' activities and attitudes are discussed. (RH)

  6. Scientific and Technical Information: Impetus for Development in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Szarina

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of trends in scientific publications of Southeast Asian countries revealed a high degree of knowledge dependence on English publications from the United States and the United Kingdom. Discusses the use of scientific and technical information as a catalyst to accelerate knowledge production, distribution, and industrialization in Southeast…

  7. Linking Young Astronomers in Southeast Asia: The SEAYAC Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisio Sese, Rogel Mari

    2015-08-01

    The importance of involving young astronomers in developing astronomy cannot be overemphasized. This is very much true in areas where astronomy is still an emerging and minor field, such as in the Southeast Asian (SEA) region. However, recent years have seen a sudden spark of interest in developing professional astronomy within SEA, primarily for young astronomers and students. This was especially highlighted during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy. In this presentation, we introduce the Southeast Asian Young Astronomers Collaboration (SEAYAC), a recently formed organization that aims to provide a venue for professional and personal interaction for young astronomers in the SEA region. Here we present the background and rationale behind the formation of SEAYAC, its current status as well as planned future activities aimed at developing collaborations between young astronomers in the SEA region. We will also discuss the problems and challenges being faced by SEAYAC as well as its future plan of actions.

  8. Reassessment of stable continental regions of Southeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic-hazard assessments of the central and eastern United States (CEUS) require estimates of the size of the largest possible earthquake (Mmax). In most of the CEUS, sparse historical seismicity does not provide a record of moderate and large earthquakes that is sufficient to constrain Mmax. One remedy for the insufficient catalog is to combine the catalog of moderate to large CEUS earthquakes with catalogs from other regions worldwide that are tectonically analogous to the CEUS (stable continental regions, or SCRs). After the North America SCR, the largest contribution of earthquakes to this global SCR catalog comes from a Southeast Asian SCR that extends from Indochina to southeasternmost Russia. Integration and interpretation of recently published geological and geophysical results show that most of these Southeast Asian earthquakes occurred in areas exposing abundant alkaline igneous rocks and extensional faults, both of Neogene age (last 23 million years). The implied Neogene extension precludes classification of the areas as SCR crust. The extension also reduces the number of moderate and large Southeast Asian historical earthquakes that are available to constrain CEUS Mmax by 86 percent, from 43 to six.

  9. Burden of Disease from Rising Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Koplitz, Shannon N; Jacob, Daniel J; Sulprizio, Melissa P; Myllyvirta, Lauri; Reid, Colleen

    2017-02-07

    Southeast Asia has a very high population density and is on a fast track to economic development, with most of the growth in electricity demand currently projected to be met by coal. From a detailed analysis of coal-fired power plants presently planned or under construction in Southeast Asia, we project in a business-as-usual scenario that emissions from coal in the region will triple to 2.6 Tg a(-1) SO2 and 2.6 Tg a(-1) NOx by 2030, with the largest increases occurring in Indonesia and Vietnam. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model show large resulting increases in surface air pollution, up to 11 μg m(-3) for annual mean fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in northern Vietnam and up to 15 ppb for seasonal maximum 1 h ozone in Indonesia. We estimate 19 880 (11 400-28 400) excess deaths per year from Southeast Asian coal emissions at present, increasing to 69 660 (40 080-126 710) by 2030. 9000 of these excess deaths in 2030 are in China. As Chinese emissions from coal decline in coming decades, transboundary pollution influence from rising coal emissions in Southeast Asia may become an increasing issue.

  10. Stone artifacts and hominins in island Southeast Asia: new insights from Flores, eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark W; Brumm, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This study reexamines the current understanding of Pleistocene stone-artifact assemblages in island Southeast Asia. A differentiation has long been made between assemblages of large-sized "core tools" and assemblages of small-sized "flake tools." "Core tool" assemblages are often argued to be the handiwork of early hominin species such as Homo erectus, while small-sized "flake tool" assemblages have been attributed to Homo sapiens. We argue that this traditional Southeast Asian perspective on stone tools assumes that the artifacts recovered from a site reflect a complete technological sequence. Our analyses of Pleistocene-age artifact assemblages from Flores, Indonesia, demonstrate that large pebble-based cores and small flake-based cores are aspects of one reduction sequence. We propose that the Flores pattern applies across island Southeast Asia: large-sized "core tool" assemblages are in fact a missing element of the small-sized flake-based reduction sequences found in many Pleistocene caves and rock-shelters. We conclude by discussing the implications of this for associating stone-artifact assemblages with hominin species in island Southeast Asia.

  11. Cholera outbreaks in South and Southeast Asia: descriptive analysis, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Babu, Giridhara R; Tang, Weiming; Banerjee, Barnali; Mahapatra, Umakanta; Das, Aritra

    2014-01-01

    We conducted descriptive analysis of available information regarding the epidemiology of cholera outbreaks in South and Southeast Asia during 2003-2012. Information from 58 articles, 8 reports, and World Health Organization databases were analyzed. Overall, 113 cholera outbreaks were studied in South and Southeast Asia during the past 10 years. The majority of the outbreaks (69%) occurred in Southeast Asia, including India (52%). The highest number of outbreaks was observed in 2004 (25.7%). The most commonly identified source was contaminated water: however, in some countries, the spread of cholera was facilitated via contaminated seafood (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, and Singapore). Several genotypes and phenotypes of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, were identified in the outbreaks, including V. cholerae O1 El Tor (Ogawa and Inaba) and V. cholerae O139. The emergence of multidrug-resistant V. cholerae strains was a major concern. Cholera-related mortality was found to be low across the outbreaks, except in Orissa, India (currently Odisha) during 2007, where the case fatality rate was 8.6%. Potential limitations included underreporting, discrepancies, possible exclusion of nonindexed reports, and incomprehensive search terms. The provision of safe water and proper sanitation appear to be critical for the control of further spread of cholera in South Asian and Southeast Asian regions.

  12. Systematic Review of HIV Drug Resistance in the World Health Organization Southeast Asia Region

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Andrew B.; Hong, Steven Y.; Srikantiah, Padmini; Abeyewickreme, Iyanthi; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Jordan, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, 3.5 million people were living with HIV in the World Health Organization (WHO) Southeast Asia Region (SEAR), giving this region the greatest burden of HIV after Africa. Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in over 717,000 benefitting from it at the end of 2010. A systematic review of studies of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in SEAR published between 2000 and 2011 was performed. Of 10 studies of transmitted HIVDR in recently infected patients, all but two reported low levels (<5%) of transmitted HIVDR. Of 23 studies of HIVDR in pre-treatment populations initiating ART, three reported moderate levels (5–15%) of HIVDR and 20 reported low levels. Amongst 17 studies of acquired HIVDR, levels of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance ranged from 52%–92% and 43%–100%, respectively amongst those with virological failure. Overall, data included in this review suggest that currently recommended first- and second-line regimens are appropriate for the cohorts studied. However, data were only available from two of 11 SEAR countries and studies largely examined urban populations. Results are unlikely to be representative of the region. Studies lacked standardized methods which greatly limit comparability of data and their use for public health and ART program planning. Routine, standardized and nationally representative HIVDR surveillance should be strongly encouraged in SEAR to best characterize population-level HIVDR. National-level HIVDR surveillance data may be used to optimize delivery of HIV care and treatment and minimize emergence of population-level HIVDR, thus promoting the long-term efficacy and durability of available first- and second-line ART regimens. PMID:24002200

  13. Realities of Revolutionary Violence in Southeast Asia: Challenges and Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    compassion of the cal groups. As a result, the army in Javanese . Filipinos, with more particular became the custodian of In- democratic values but little...no single cultural or political the key transit point between the Pacific legacy comparable to the Chinese (or and Indian oceans. Not surprisingly, the...I’Sinic’) legacy in Northeast Asia. China’s United States and the Soviet Union have culture and social structure penetrated invested money and

  14. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues.

  15. Change in tropical forest cover of Southeast Asia from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stibig, H.-J.; Achard, F.; Carboni, S.; Raši, R.; Miettinen, J.

    2014-01-01

    The study assesses the extent and trends of forest cover in Southeast Asia for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2010 and provides an overview on the main causes of forest cover change. A systematic sample of 418 sites (10 km × 10 km size) located at the one-degree geographical confluence points and covered with satellite imagery of 30 m resolution is used for the assessment. Techniques of image segmentation and automated classification are combined with visual satellite image interpretation and quality control, involving forestry experts from Southeast Asian countries. The accuracy of our results is assessed through an independent consistency assessment, performed from a subsample of 1572 mapping units and resulting in an overall agreement of >85% for the general differentiation of forest cover versus non-forest cover. The total forest cover of Southeast Asia is estimated at 268 Mha in 1990, dropping to 236 Mha in 2010, with annual change rates of 1.75 Mha (∼0.67%) and 1.45 Mha (∼0.59%) for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2010, respectively. The vast majority of forest cover loss (∼2 / 3 for 2000-2010) occurred in insular Southeast Asia. Complementing our quantitative results by indicative information on patterns and on processes of forest change, obtained from the screening of satellite imagery and through expert consultation, respectively, confirms the conversion of forest to cash crops plantations (including oil palm) as the main cause of forest loss in Southeast Asia. Logging and the replacement of natural forests by forest plantations are two further important change processes in the region.

  16. Change in tropical forest cover of Southeast Asia from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stibig, H.-J.; Achard, F.; Carboni, S.; Raši, R.; Miettinen, J.

    2013-08-01

    The study assesses the extent and trends of forest cover in Southeast Asia for the period 1990-2000-2010 and provides an overview on the main drivers of forest cover change. A systematic sample of 418 sites (10 km × 10 km size) located at the one-degree geographical confluence points and covered with satellite imagery of 30 m resolution is used for the assessment. Techniques of image segmentation and automated classification are combined with visual satellite image interpretation and quality control, involving forestry experts from Southeast Asian countries. The accuracy of our results is assessed through an independent consistency assessment, performed from a subsample of 1572 mapping units and resulting in an overall agreement of > 85% for the general differentiation of forest cover vs. non-forest cover. The total forest cover of Southeast Asia is estimated at 268 Mha in 1990, dropping to 236 Mha in 2010, with annual change rates of 1.75 Mha (~0.67% and 1.45 Mha (~0.59%) for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2010, respectively. The vast majority of forest cover loss (~2/3 for 2000-2010) occurred in insular Southeast Asia. Combining the change patterns visible from satellite imagery with the output of an expert consultation on the main drivers of forest change highlights the high pressure on the region's remaining forests. The conversion of forest cover to cash crop plantations (e.g. oil palm) is ranked as the dominant driver of forest change in Southeast Asia, followed by selective logging and the establishment of tree plantations.

  17. Assessing the trend of HIV/AIDS mortality rate in Asia and North Africa: an application of latent growth models.

    PubMed

    Zayeri, F; Talebi Ghane, E; Borumandnia, N

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major global health challenge. This study evaluates the change of HIV/AIDS mortality rates in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010 using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. HIV/AIDS mortality rates were derived from the GBD database from 1990 to 2010, for 52 countries in Asia and North Africa. First, a Latent Growth Model was employed to assess the change in AIDS mortality rate over time in six different regions of Asia, and also the change in AIDS mortality rate over time for males and females in Asia and North Africa. Finally, Latent Growth Mixture Models (LGMMs) were applied to identify distinct groups in which countries within each group have similar trends over time. Our results showed that increase in mortality rate over time for males is about three times greater than for females. The highest and lowest trend of AIDS mortality rates were observed in South-East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions, respectively. The LGMM allocated most countries in the South and South-East region into two classes with the highest trend of AIDS mortality rates. Although the HIV/AIDS mortality rates are decreasing in some countries and clusters, the general trend in the Asian continent is upwards. Therefore, it is necessary to provide programmes to achieve the goal of access to HIV prevention measures, treatment, care, and support for high-risk groups, especially in countries with a higher trend of AIDS mortality rates.

  18. A Regional Decision Support Scheme for Pest Risk Analysis in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Soliman, T; MacLeod, A; Mumford, J D; Nghiem, T P L; Tan, H T W; Papworth, S K; Corlett, R T; Carrasco, L R

    2016-05-01

    A key justification to support plant health regulations is the ability of quarantine services to conduct pest risk analyses (PRA). Despite the supranational nature of biological invasions and the close proximity and connectivity of Southeast Asian countries, PRAs are conducted at the national level. Furthermore, some countries have limited experience in the development of PRAs, which may result in inadequate phytosanitary responses that put their plant resources at risk to pests vectored via international trade. We review existing decision support schemes for PRAs and, following international standards for phytosanitary measures, propose new methods that adapt existing practices to suit the unique characteristics of Southeast Asia. Using a formal written expert elicitation survey, a panel of regional scientific experts was asked to identify and rate unique traits of Southeast Asia with respect to PRA. Subsequently, an expert elicitation workshop with plant protection officials was conducted to verify the potential applicability of the developed methods. Rich biodiversity, shortage of trained personnel, social vulnerability, tropical climate, agriculture-dependent economies, high rates of land-use change, and difficulties in implementing risk management options were identified as challenging Southeast Asian traits. The developed methods emphasize local Southeast Asian conditions and could help support authorities responsible for carrying out PRAs within the region. These methods could also facilitate the creation of other PRA schemes in low- and middle-income tropical countries.

  19. A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stibig, H.-J.; Belward, A.S.; Roy, P.S.; Rosalina-Wasrin, U.; Agrawal, S.; Joshi, P.K.; ,; Beuchle, R.; Fritz, S.; Mubareka, S.; Giri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Our aim was to produce a uniform ‘regional’ land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia based on ‘sub-regional’ mapping results generated in the context of the Global Land Cover 2000 project.Location  The ‘region’ of tropical and sub-tropical South and Southeast Asia stretches from the Himalayas and the southern border of China in the north, to Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south, and from Pakistan in the west to the islands of New Guinea in the far east.Methods  The regional land-cover map is based on sub-regional digital mapping results derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data for the years 1998–2000. Image processing, digital classification and thematic mapping were performed separately for the three sub-regions of South Asia, continental Southeast Asia, and insular Southeast Asia. Landsat TM images, field data and existing national maps served as references. We used the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for coding the sub-regional land-cover classes and for aggregating the latter to a uniform regional legend. A validation was performed based on a systematic grid of sample points, referring to visual interpretation from high-resolution Landsat imagery. Regional land-cover area estimates were obtained and compared with FAO statistics for the categories ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’.Results  The regional map displays 26 land-cover classes. The LCCS coding provided a standardized class description, independent from local class names; it also allowed us to maintain the link to the detailed sub-regional land-cover classes. The validation of the map displayed a mapping accuracy of 72% for the dominant classes of ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’; regional area estimates for these classes correspond reasonably well to existing regional statistics.Main conclusions  The land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia provides a synoptic view of the distribution of land cover of tropical and sub

  20. The Need for More Earthquake Science in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions within SE Asia have as great a density of active seismic structures as does the western US - Sumatra, Myanmar, Bangladesh, New Guinea and the Philippines come first to mind. Much of Earth's release of seismic energy in the current millennium has, in fact, come from these regions, with great losses of life and livelihoods. Unfortunately, the scientific progress upon which seismic-risk reduction in SE Asia ultimately depends has been and continues to be slow. Last year at AGU, for example, I counted 57 talks about the M6 Napa earthquake. In contrast, I can't recall hearing any talk on a SE Asian M6 earthquake at any venue in the past many years. In fact, even M7+ earthquakes often go unstudied. Not uncommonly, the region's earthquake scientists face high financial and political impediments to conducting earthquake research. Their slow speed in the development of scientific knowledge doesn't bode well for speedy progress in the science of seismic hazards, the sine qua non for substantially reducing seismic risk. There are two basic necessities for the region to evolve significantly from the current state of affairs. Both involve the development of regional infrastructure: 1) Data: Robust and accessible geophysical monitoring systems would need to be installed, maintained and utilized by the region's earth scientists and their results shared internationally. Concomitantly, geological mapping (sensu lato) would need to be undertaken. 2) People: The training, employment, and enduring support of a new, young, international corps of earth scientists would need to accelerate markedly. The United States could play an important role in achieving the goal of significant seismic risk reduction in the most seismically active countries of SE Asia by taking the lead in establishing a coalition to robustly fund a multi-decadal program that supports scientists and their research institutions to work alongside local expertise.

  1. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades.

  2. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  3. The forest products industry in southeast Asia: An emphasis on Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, E.T. . School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries); Atmawidjaja, R. . Faculty of Forestry); Achmadi, S.S. . Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science)

    1993-05-01

    Wood production has increased rapidly in Southeast Asia in recent years. Harvesting intensity has also increased dramatically. To such an extent that the destruction of the tropical rainforest is of great concern to many people. This paper discusses the forest resources of three major wood-producing countries of Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and the utilization of these resources in world markets. Because Indonesia is now the largest timber producer in the region, special emphasis is placed on the development of its forest products industry. Concern for the tropical forest and the effect of sustainable forestry development on the growth of the forest products industry, the economy, and the social environment are discussed.

  4. Forest cover of insular Southeast Asia mapped from recent satellite images of coarse spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Stibig, Hans-Jürgen; Malingreau, Jean-Paul

    2003-11-01

    The study provides an example of mapping tropical forest cover from SPOT-Vegetation satellite images of coarse spatial resolution (1 km) for the subregion of insular Southeast Asia. A satellite image mosaic has been generated from satellite images acquired for the period 1998 to 2000. Forest cover has been mapped by unsupervised digital classification. The mapping result has then been compared to selected forest maps from the subregion, demonstrating the potential to provide basic information on forest area extent and distribution, but also on massive forest cover change in the subregional context. Forest area estimates derived from the map for the subregion have been found comparable to those compiled by FAO. The results indicate that many of the remaining tropical forests in Southeast Asia, rich in timber resources and biodiversity, may be lost in the near future if deforestation continues at present or previous rates.

  5. Forest contraction in north equatorial Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Bird, Michael I; Bull, Ian D; Creed, Frances; Bryant, Charlotte; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Paz, Victor

    2010-08-31

    Today, insular Southeast Asia is important for both its remarkably rich biodiversity and globally significant roles in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Despite the fundamental importance of environmental history for diversity and conservation, there is little primary evidence concerning the nature of vegetation in north equatorial Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period (LGP). As a result, even the general distribution of vegetation during the Last Glacial Maximum is debated. Here we show, using the stable carbon isotope composition of ancient cave guano profiles, that there was a substantial forest contraction during the LGP on both peninsular Malaysia and Palawan, while rainforest was maintained in northern Borneo. These results directly support rainforest "refugia" hypotheses and provide evidence that environmental barriers likely reduced genetic mixing between Borneo and Sumatra flora and fauna. Moreover, it sheds light on possible early human dispersal events.

  6. Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart D; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-09-01

    It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, metacestodes of T. solium, T. hydatigena and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent immune-mediated interactions. Here, we describe the biological and epidemiological implications of Taenia competition and propose that interspecific competition has a moderating effect on the transmission dynamics of T. solium in the region. Furthermore, we argue that this competitive ecological scenario should be considered in future research and surveillance activities examining T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Southeast Asia.

  7. The low-FODMAP diet in the management of functional dyspepsia in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Victoria P

    2017-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder in East and Southeast Asia where subjects experience post prandial fullness/bloating, early satiety, belching, epigastric pain, and/or burning. A subset of patients with FD experience triggers exclusively related to meals, defined as the post prandial distress syndrome in the Rome IV guidelines. There is significant overlap of symptoms and implicated pathogenic factors with another common functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and in fact, a significant proportion of subjects have FD/IBS overlap. The introduction of the low-FODMAP diet has changed the paradigm of treatment for IBS. Like IBS, dietary management appears to be important to patients with FD and clinicians treating the condition. This review aims to examine the current role of diet in the management of FD in East and Southeast Asia, with an exploration of the likely efficacy and mechanisms of action of the low-FODMAP diet in this region.

  8. Biomass burning aerosols and the low-visibility events in Southeast Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Bar-Or, Rotem Z.; Wang, Chien

    2017-01-23

    Fires including peatland burning in Southeast Asia have become a major concern to the general public as well as governments in the region. This is because aerosols emitted from such fires can cause persistent haze events under certain weather conditions in downwind locations, degrading visibility and causing human health issues. In order to improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in Southeast Asia, we have used surface visibility and particulate matter concentration observations, supplemented by decade-long (2003 to 2014) simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a fire aerosol module, driven bymore » high-resolution biomass burning emission inventories. We find that in the past decade, fire aerosols are responsible for nearly all events with very low visibility (< 7 km). Fire aerosols alone are also responsible for a substantial fraction of low-visibility events (visibility  < 10 km) in the major metropolitan areas of Southeast Asia: up to 39 % in Bangkok, 36 % in Kuala Lumpur, and 34 % in Singapore. Biomass burning in mainland Southeast Asia accounts for the largest contribution to total fire-produced PM2.5 in Bangkok (99 %), while biomass burning in Sumatra is a major contributor to fire-produced PM2.5 in Kuala Lumpur (50 %) and Singapore (41 %). To examine the general situation across the region, we have further defined and derived a new integrated metric for 50 cities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): the haze exposure day (HED), which measures the annual exposure days of these cities to low visibility (< 10 km) caused by particulate matter pollution. It is shown that HEDs have increased steadily in the past decade across cities with both high and low populations. Fire events alone are found to be responsible for up to about half of the total HEDs. Our results suggest that in order to improve the overall air quality in

  9. Biomass burning aerosols and the low-visibility events in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Bar-Or, Rotem Z.; Wang, Chien

    2017-01-01

    Fires including peatland burning in Southeast Asia have become a major concern to the general public as well as governments in the region. This is because aerosols emitted from such fires can cause persistent haze events under certain weather conditions in downwind locations, degrading visibility and causing human health issues. In order to improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in Southeast Asia, we have used surface visibility and particulate matter concentration observations, supplemented by decade-long (2003 to 2014) simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a fire aerosol module, driven by high-resolution biomass burning emission inventories. We find that in the past decade, fire aerosols are responsible for nearly all events with very low visibility (< 7 km). Fire aerosols alone are also responsible for a substantial fraction of low-visibility events (visibility < 10 km) in the major metropolitan areas of Southeast Asia: up to 39 % in Bangkok, 36 % in Kuala Lumpur, and 34 % in Singapore. Biomass burning in mainland Southeast Asia accounts for the largest contribution to total fire-produced PM2.5 in Bangkok (99 %), while biomass burning in Sumatra is a major contributor to fire-produced PM2.5 in Kuala Lumpur (50 %) and Singapore (41 %). To examine the general situation across the region, we have further defined and derived a new integrated metric for 50 cities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): the haze exposure day (HED), which measures the annual exposure days of these cities to low visibility (< 10 km) caused by particulate matter pollution. It is shown that HEDs have increased steadily in the past decade across cities with both high and low populations. Fire events alone are found to be responsible for up to about half of the total HEDs. Our results suggest that in order to improve the overall air quality in Southeast Asia

  10. ASEAN Standby Force: Taking Southeast Asia Security to the Next Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    regional community environment. These forums have addressed issues including the Asian financial crisis, food and energy security, human trafficking ...enforcement assets would enable the ASF to address drug trafficking and human trafficking issues effectively. Relevant civilian expertise could be...Perils of Incoherence: ASEAN, Myanmar and the Avoidable Failures of Human Rights Socialization?,” Contempory Southeast Asia 34, no.1(April 2012):1

  11. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amnuaylojaroen, T.; Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kreasuwun, J.; Prasitwattanaseree, S.; Chantara, S.

    2014-04-01

    In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.3 using MOZART gas-phase chemistry and GOCART aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects), the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS) emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINNv1) model. WRF-chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 20% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16%, respectively, when comparing the March biomass burning period to December with low biomass burning emissions. The simulations show that none of the anthropogenic emission inventories are better than the

  12. Last Flight from Saigon. USAF Southeast Asia Monograph Series, Volume IV, Monograph 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Foreword T h e Southeast Asia Monograph Series is designed and dedicated to telling the story of USAF‘s participation in the Vietnam War. This...cannot and will not. . .conceive all plans.. . design all programs. . .execute all the decisions. . .and undertake all the defense of the free...situation demanded it, for any of the last three options, especially for Option 4, a ground security force of US Marines could 9 be brought in by

  13. Terrorism in Southeast Asia: A Growing Challenge to Regional Peace, Security and U.S. Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    Abdullah Ahmad Badawi , “has vowed to cut down on corruption and improve education”71 – two root causes of terrorism. SINGAPORE Formerly a British Crown...Security and Political Developments, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies; (Singapore, July 24, 2003),8. 7 Ray S. Cline and Yonah Alexander , Terrorism as...eastAsia.asp>. Internet. Accessed 7 October 2003. Cline, Ray S. and Yonah Alexander . Terrorism as State-Sponsored Covert Warfare. Virginia: Hero

  14. The United States, Japan, and Australia: Security Linkages to Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    instructions , searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information...diplomatic strategies designed to keep all great powers involved in regional affairs while insuring none dominates. Moreover, because of all the great...aid plan for Southeast Asia to combat terrorism. Support and training would be provided for border control, WMD surveillance, and efforts to

  15. OPERATION RANCH HAND. The Air Force and Herbicides in Southeast Asia, 1961-1971

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Gulfport Seabee Center; interior of Johnston Island bunker where dioxin cannisters were stored ....... 187 x Maps Page Southeast Asia...the Special DDT Flight, as it was then known, was transferred to Langley AFB . During the next twelve years, the Special Aerial Spray Flight, a name it...were selected from those on hand at Pope AFB , North Carolina. The six planes were sent to Olmsted AFB , Pennsylvania, for the installation of MC-1

  16. Comparison of seasonal variation between anthropogenic and natural emission inventory and Satellite observation in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, G.; Lalitaporn, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since the economic growth of the countries in Southeast Asia is significantly rapid, the emission of air pollutant from the anthropogenic activity, such as industry, power generation and transportation is rapidly increasing. Moreover, biomass burning due to unsuitable agricultural management, deforestation and expansion of farmland are discharging large amount of pollutants, such as Carbon monoxide, volatile organic compound and particulate matter. Especially, the particulate matter from biomass burning causes the serious haze pollution in surrounding area in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, the biomass fuel used for cooking at residential sector discharges harmful pollutants including a particulate matter, and causes the adverse health impact to people on indoor and outdoor. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of emission inventory for Southeast Asia region by comparing with satellite observation data in order to improve the accuracy of the impact assessment of air pollution by regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF and CMAQ). As an emission inventory data, we used our original regional emission inventory for Southeast Asia region developed from detail transportation and industry data sets as well as a several existing emission inventories. As satellite observation data, the vertical column density of NO2, Particulate matter and Carbon monoxide obtained by various satellite, such as GOME, GOME2, SCIAMACY, OMI and so on. As a result of comparisons between satellite observation and emission inventories from 1996 to 2011, in the case of anthropogenic emission, seasonal variation was comparatively well in agreement with the seasonal variation of satellite data. However, the uncertainty of the seasonal variation was large on several large cities. In the case of emission from biomass burning, the seasonal variation was clear, but inter-annual variation was also large due to large scale climate condition.

  17. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  18. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  19. Micronutrient Fortification of Food in Southeast Asia: Recommendations from an Expert Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Gayer, Justine; Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies remain a significant public health issue in Southeast Asia, particularly in vulnerable populations, such as women of reproductive age and young children. An important nutrition-specific intervention to address micronutrient malnutrition is fortification of staple foods and condiments. In October 2013, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Southeast Asia Region held a workshop on micronutrient fortification of food in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective was to engage multiple stakeholders in a discussion on food fortification and its importance as a public health intervention in Southeast Asia, and to identify and address key challenges/gaps in and potential opportunities for fortification of foods in ASEAN countries. Key challenges that were identified include: “scaling up” and mobilizing sustainable support for fortification programs in the form of multi-stakeholder partnerships, effecting policy change to support mandatory fortification, long-term monitoring of the programs’ compliance and efficacy in light of limited resources, and increasing awareness and uptake of fortified products through social marketing campaigns. Future actions recommended include the development of terms of engagement and governance for multi-stakeholder partnerships, moving towards a sustainable business model and more extensive monitoring, both for effectiveness and efficacy and for enforcement of fortification legislation. PMID:25608937

  20. Taxonomic study of the genus Promalactis Meyrick, 1908 from Southeast Asia (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxia; Du, Zhaohui; Li, Houhun

    2013-01-01

    The genus Proinalactis Meyrick, 1908 is reviewed in Southeast Asia. Twenty-seven new species are described based on the specimens collected in Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Burma, Philippines. The new species include P. alveiformis sp. nov., P. angusta sp. nov., P. bruneiensis sp. nov., P. conicispinalis sp. nov., P. ellipsoidea sp. nov., P. exiliprocessa sp. nov., P. extumida sp. nov., P. fascisetacea sp. nov., P. flagellaris sp. nov., P. foraininulata sp. nov., P. fortijuxtalis sp. nov., P. lancea sp. nov., P. latuncata sp. nov., P. longisaccata sp. nov., P. lophacantha sp. nov., P. medispinata sp. nov., P. palmifolia sp. nov., P. pectinifera sp. nov., P.sectoralis sp. nov., P. semiovata sp. nov., P. sinualis sp. nov., P. spinosicostalis sp. nov., P. strena sp. nov., P. superimposita sp. nov., P. truncatapicalis sp. nov., P. undulata sp. nov. and P. vulvida sp. nov. Promalactis parasuzukiella Wang, 2006 and P. simniliflora Wang, 2006 are recorded from Southeast Asia for the first time. Three species described by Lvovsky are fully redescribed. Images of adults and genitalia are provided, along with a check list of 71 species from Southeast Asia.

  1. Pyogenic liver abscess: differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2010-05-28

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes, when possible, play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology. In this article, we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications. Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA), there are clear differences in the microbiological spectrum, which implies different risk factors and disease courses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PLA is predominantly seen in Southeast Asia, whereas, in Central Europe, PLA is typically caused by Escherichia coli, Streptococcus or Staphylococcus, and these patients are more likely to be older and to have a biliary abnormality or malignancy. K. pneumoniae patients are more likely to have diabetes mellitus. Control of septic spread is crucial in K. pneumoniae patients, whereas treatment of the underlying diseases is decisive in many Central European PLA patients.

  2. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik; Norhana Selamat, Siti; Hanif Abd Rashid, Muhammad; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Jamian, Saifulnizan; Chee Kiong, Sia; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    Southeast Asia is a standout amongst the most presented districts to unnatural weather change dangers even they are not principle worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) maker, its discharge will get to be significant if there is no move made. CO2 wellsprings of Southeast Asia are mainly by fossil fuel through era of power and warmth generation, and also transportation part. The endeavors taken by these nations can be ordered into administrative and local level. This paper review the potential for carbon catch and capacity (CCS) as a part of the environmental change moderation system for the Malaysian power area utilizing an innovation appraisal structure. The country's recorded pattern of high dependence on fossil fuel for its power segment makes it a prime possibility for CCS reception. This issue leads to gradual increment of CO2 emission. It is evident from this evaluation that CCS can possibly assume a vital part in Malaysia's environmental change moderation methodology gave that key criteria are fulfilled. With the reason to pick up considerations from all gatherings into the earnestness of an Earth-wide temperature boost issue in Southeast Asia, assume that more efficient measures can be taken to effectively accomplish CO2 diminishment target.

  3. Micronutrient fortification of food in Southeast Asia: recommendations from an expert workshop.

    PubMed

    Gayer, Justine; Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-19

    Micronutrient deficiencies remain a significant public health issue in Southeast Asia, particularly in vulnerable populations, such as women of reproductive age and young children. An important nutrition-specific intervention to address micronutrient malnutrition is fortification of staple foods and condiments. In October 2013, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Southeast Asia Region held a workshop on micronutrient fortification of food in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective was to engage multiple stakeholders in a discussion on food fortification and its importance as a public health intervention in Southeast Asia, and to identify and address key challenges/gaps in and potential opportunities for fortification of foods in ASEAN countries. Key challenges that were identified include: "scaling up" and mobilizing sustainable support for fortification programs in the form of multi-stakeholder partnerships, effecting policy change to support mandatory fortification, long-term monitoring of the programs' compliance and efficacy in light of limited resources, and increasing awareness and uptake of fortified products through social marketing campaigns. Future actions recommended include the development of terms of engagement and governance for multi-stakeholder partnerships, moving towards a sustainable business model and more extensive monitoring, both for effectiveness and efficacy and for enforcement of fortification legislation.

  4. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae in South and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Yang; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Khan, Erum; Suwantarat, Nuntra; Ghafur, Abdul; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and Enterobacteriaceae, are escalating global public health threats. We review the epidemiology and prevalence of these carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among countries in South and Southeast Asia, where the rates of resistance are some of the highest in the world. These countries house more than a third of the world's population, and several are also major medical tourism destinations. There are significant data gaps, and the almost universal lack of comprehensive surveillance programs that include molecular epidemiologic testing has made it difficult to understand the origins and extent of the problem in depth. A complex combination of factors such as inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, overstretched health systems, and international travel (including the phenomenon of medical tourism) probably led to the rapid rise and spread of these bacteria in hospitals in South and Southeast Asia. In India, Pakistan, and Vietnam, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have also been found in the environment and community, likely as a consequence of poor environmental hygiene and sanitation. Considerable political will and effort, including from countries outside these regions, are vital in order to reduce the prevalence of such bacteria in South and Southeast Asia and prevent their global spread.

  5. A review of the pleasing lacewing genus Dilar Rambur (Neuroptera, Dilaridae) from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xingyue; Winterton, Shaun L; Aspöck, Horst; Aspöck, Ulrike

    2016-04-20

    The lacewing family Dilaridae (pleasing lacewings) is poorly known in Southeast Asia, currently with only five described species. In this paper, we provide a revision of the species of the genus Dilar Rambur, 1838 from Southeast Asia. Eleven species of Dilar are recorded in this region, with seven species herein described as new to science, i.e. Dilar abnormis Zhang, Liu & Winterton, sp. nov., Dilar lineatus Zhang, Liu & Winterton, sp. nov., Dilar loeinensis Zhang, Liu, Winterton, sp. nov., Dilar ohli Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck, sp. nov., Dilar rotundatus Zhang, Liu & Winterton, sp. nov., Dilar sumatranus Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck, sp. nov., and Dilar zimmermannae Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck, sp. nov. Re-descriptions of Dilar grandis (Banks, 1931), and Dilar marmoratus (Banks, 1931) are also provided. Dilaridae are recorded in Indonesia (Sumatra), Myanmar, and northern Thailand for the first time. A key to the Dilar species from Southeast Asia is given.

  6. Comparative genomics of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, Asia, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Aleisha R; Van Domselaar, Gary; Stroika, Steven; Walker, Matthew; Kent, Heather; Tarr, Cheryl; Talkington, Deborah; Rowe, Lori; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Dahourou, Georges Anicet; Boncy, Jacques; Smith, Anthony M; Mabon, Philip; Petkau, Aaron; Graham, Morag; Gilmour, Matthew W; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clinical isolates from the Haiti outbreak and recent global travelers returning to the United States showed indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints. To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenies for whole-genome sequences and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the Haiti outbreak strain is genetically related to strains originating in India and Cameroon. However, because no identical genetic match was found among sequenced contemporary isolates, a definitive genetic origin for the outbreak in Haiti remains speculative.

  7. A comparison of bone mineral densities and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Ye, Ziliang; Lu, Jingjing; Lu, Haili; Guan, Liping; Teng, Zhihai; Gao, Shangzhi; Li, Mingyi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare bone mineral densities (BMDs) and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students, in order to provide a certain reference enhancing college students' physical fitness.A total of 1694 Chinese college students (294 men and 1400 women, aged 18-22 years) and 250 Southeast Asia college students (148 men and 102 women, aged 19-22 years) were included in the study. Weight, height, and body mass index were measured anthropometrically. BMD values were determined by ultrasound bone densitometer and body composition was determined by body composition analyzer.Southeast Asia college students were overweight than Chinese college students (250 vs 1694) (P < 0.05). Chinese college students had a significantly lower body weight, fat mass, lean tissue mass, lean body weight, estimation of bone mass, protein, and metabolic rate but higher BMD at the calcaneus compared with Southeast Asia college students (P < 0.05 for all parameters). However, body water, intracellular fluid, and extracellular fluid were not significantly different between Chinese college students and Southeast Asia college students (P > 0.01 for all parameters).The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that Chinese college students had a higher BMD but lower body composition than Southeast Asia college students, which may be associated with genes, diet, exercise, and other factors.

  8. Y chromosome analysis of dingoes and southeast asian village dogs suggests a neolithic continental expansion from Southeast Asia followed by multiple Austronesian dispersals.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brown, Sarah K; Stephens, Danielle; Pedersen, Niels C; Wu, Jui-Te; Berry, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    Dogs originated more than 14,000 BP, but the location(s) where they first arose is uncertain. The earliest archeological evidence of ancient dogs was discovered in Europe and the Middle East, some 5-7 millennia before that from Southeast Asia. However, mitochondrial DNA analyses suggest that most modern dogs derive from Southeast Asia, which has fueled the controversial hypothesis that dog domestication originated in this region despite the lack of supporting archeological evidence. We propose and investigate with Y chromosomes an alternative hypothesis for the proximate origins of dogs from Southeast Asia--a massive Neolithic expansion of dogs from this region that largely replaced more primitive dogs to the west and north. Previous attempts to test matrilineal findings with independent patrilineal markers have lacked the necessary genealogical resolution and mutation rate estimates. Here, we used Y chromosome genotypes, composed of 29 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and 5 single tandem repeats (STRs), from 338 Australian dingoes, New Guinea singing dogs, and village dogs from Island Southeast Asia, along with modern European breed dogs, to estimate the evolutionary mutation rates of Y chromosome STRs based on calibration to the independently known age of the dingo population. Dingoes exhibited a unique haplogroup characterized by a single distinguishing SNP mutation and 14 STR haplotypes. The age of the European haplogroup was estimated to be only 1.7 times older than that of the dingo population, suggesting an origin during the Neolithic rather than the Paleolithic (as predicted by the Southeast Asian origins hypothesis). We hypothesize that isolation of Neolithic dogs from wolves in Southeast Asia was a key step accelerating their phenotypic transformation, enhancing their value in trade and as cargo, and enabling them to rapidly expand and replace more primitive dogs to the West. Our findings also suggest that dingoes could have arrived in Australia

  9. Timing of Cenozoic Basin Formation in Northern Sundaland, Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, K.K. )

    1994-07-01

    The present shorelines of northern Sundaland show preferential northwest-southeast elongation. This trend is parallel for subparallel to major faults and suture in this region. Continental wrench/shear basins developed on the western portion of this region and back-arc basins developed on the western portion of this region and back-arc basins in the rest of the region are also aligned to this trend. Different basin geometries and structural patterns among Cenozoic basins in northern Sundaland indicate different origins and/or timing of basin formation. Wrench faulting has played a significant role in the formation of these Cenozoic basins. The continued collision of the Indian subplate with the Eurasian plate during early Cenozoic has caused a redistribution of stress within this region. Zones of weakness have been reactivated or created with large lateral displacements by these changes, thus initiating the subsidence of these basins. The episodic initiation of Cenozoic basins may have begun as early as Jurassic and continued till Oligocene.

  10. History and evolution of HPAI viruses in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent; Sims, Leslie; Lubroth, Juan; Kahn, Sarah; Domenech, Joseph; Begnino, Carolyn

    2006-10-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recognized as a serious viral disease of poultry since 1878. The number of outbreaks of this disease globally has increased in the past 10 years culminating in 2004 with the unprecedented outbreak of H5N1 HPAI involving nine countries in East and South East Asia. Apart from the geographical extent of this outbreak and apparent rapid spread, this epidemic has a number of unique features, among which is the carriage of highly pathogenic AI viruses by asymptomatic domestic waterfowl. When this disease first emerged it was recognized almost simultaneously in a number of countries for the first time. This created considerable concern among both veterinary and public health authorities especially as the virus was also shown to cause fatal disease in humans. This article brings together a range of information on H5N1 HPAI viruses in Asia that were collected by FAO during the past year through field projects and explores possible reasons for the emergence of the disease in late 2003 and early 2004. Key epidemiological features of the disease in different Asian countries are described in an attempt to look for, and where possible, explain similarities and differences. This includes assessment of factors that could have contributed to the spread of the disease. Molecular aspects of the viruses are examined to assess relationships between isolates from different locations and times so as to gain insights into the origins of viruses in various countries. It is apparent that the coincidence and grouping of the reports declaring the outbreaks of HPAI did not truly reflect the time course of disease emergence, which was widespread well before the outbreak. The factors that could have led to a change from infection to emergence of widespread disease in 2003-2004 are discussed. There are still some questions that remain unanswered regarding the origins of the 2004 outbreak. This article does not provide answers to all of these, but

  11. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  12. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  13. Post-Jurassic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Seton, Maria; Dietmar Müller, R.; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The accretionary growth of Asia, linked to long-term convergence between Eurasia, Gondwana-derived blocks and the Pacific, resulted in a mosaic of terranes for which conflicting tectonic interpretations exist. Here, we propose solutions to a number of controversies related to the evolution of Sundaland through a synthesis of published geological data and plate reconstructions that reconcile both geological and geophysical constraints with plate driving forces. We propose that West Sulawesi, East Java and easternmost Borneo rifted from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, collided with an intra-oceanic arc at ~115 Ma and subsequently sutured to Sundaland by 80 Ma. Although recent models argue that the Southwest Borneo core accreted to Sundaland at this time, we use volcanic and biogeographic constraints to show that the core of Borneo was on the Asian margin since at least the mid Jurassic. This northward transfer of Gondwana-derived continental fragments required a convergent plate boundary in the easternmost Tethys that we propose gave rise to the Philippine Archipelago based on the formation of latest Jurassic-Early Cretaceous supra-subduction zone ophiolites on Halmahera, Obi Island and Luzon. The Late Cretaceous marks the shift from Andean-style subduction to back-arc opening on the east Asian margin. Arc volcanism along South China ceased by ~60 Ma due to the rollback of the Izanagi slab, leading to the oceanward migration of the volcanic arc and the opening of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS). We use the Apennines-Tyrrhenian system in the Mediterranean as an analogue to model this back-arc. Continued rollback detaches South Palawan, Mindoro and the Semitau continental blocks from the stable east Asian margin and transfers them onto Sundaland in the Eocene to produce the Sarawak Orogeny. The extrusion of Indochina and subduction polarity reversal along northern Borneo opens the South China Sea and transfers the Dangerous Grounds-Reed Bank southward to

  14. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-27

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  15. Risk of Potentially Rabid Animal Exposure among Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Gautret, Philippe; Kashino, Wataru; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Charoenpong, Prangthip; Ponam, Thitiya; Sibunruang, Suda; Phumratanaprapin, Weerapong; Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-01-01

    Background Each year millions of travelers visit Southeast Asia where rabies is still prevalent. This study aimed to assess the risk of rabies exposure, i.e., by being bitten or licked by an animal, among travelers in Southeast Asia. The secondary objective was to assess their attitudes and practices related to rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings Foreign travelers departing to the destination outside Southeast Asia were invited to fill out the study questionnaire in the departure hall of Bangkok International Airport. They were asked about their demographic profile, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparations, their possible exposure and their practices related to rabies during this trip. From June 2010 to February 2011, 7,681 completed questionnaires were collected. Sixty-two percent of the travelers were male, and the median age was 32 years. 34.0% of the participants were from Western/Central Europe, while 32.1% were from East Asia. Up to 59.3% had sought health information before this trip. Travel clinics were the source of information for 23.6% of travelers. Overall, only 11.6% of the participants had completed their rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis, and 15.3% had received only 1–2 shots, while 73.1% had not been vaccinated at all. In this study, the risk of being bitten was 1.11 per 100 travelers per month and the risk of being licked was 3.12 per 100 travelers per month. Among those who were bitten, only 37.1% went to the hospital to get post exposure treatment. Travelers with East Asian nationalities and longer duration of stay were significantly related to higher risk of animal exposure. Reason for travel was not related to the risk of animal exposure. Conclusions Travelers were at risk of being exposed to potentially rabid animals while traveling in Southeast Asia. Many were inadequately informed and unprepared for this life-threatening risk. Rabies prevention advice should be included in every pre-travel visit. PMID:23029598

  16. Education - An Obstacle to Development? Reflections on the Political Function of Education in Asia and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanf, Theodor; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Article attempted to summarize criticisms, supplemented them on the basis of empirical research, and lay the foundation for this general thesis: Formal education in Africa and Asia tends to impede economic growth and promote political instability. (Author/RK)

  17. Where and How Are Roads Endangering Mammals in Southeast Asia's Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Lynam, Antony J.; Gaveau, David; Yap, Wei Lim; Lhota, Stanislav; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and overhunting are two major drivers of mammal population declines and extinctions in tropical forests. The construction of roads can be a catalyst for these two threats. In Southeast Asia, the impacts of roads on mammals have not been well-documented at a regional scale. Before evidence-based conservation strategies can be developed to minimize the threat of roads to endangered mammals within this region, we first need to locate where and how roads are contributing to the conversion of their habitats and illegal hunting in each country. We interviewed 36 experts involved in mammal research from seven Southeast Asian countries to identify roads that are contributing the most, in their opinion, to habitat conversion and illegal hunting. Our experts highlighted 16 existing and eight planned roads - these potentially threaten 21% of the 117 endangered terrestrial mammals in those countries. Apart from gathering qualitative evidence from the literature to assess their claims, we demonstrate how species-distribution models, satellite imagery and animal-sign surveys can be used to provide quantitative evidence of roads causing impacts by (1) cutting through habitats where endangered mammals are likely to occur, (2) intensifying forest conversion, and (3) contributing to illegal hunting and wildlife trade. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to identify specific roads threatening endangered mammals in Southeast Asia. Further through highlighting the impacts of roads, we propose 10 measures to limit road impacts in the region. PMID:25521297

  18. The impact of disturbed peatlands on river outgassing in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wit, Francisca; Müller, Denise; Baum, Antje; Warneke, Thorsten; Pranowo, Widodo Setiyo; Müller, Moritz; Rixen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    River outgassing has proven to be an integral part of the carbon cycle. In Southeast Asia, river outgassing quantities are uncertain due to lack of measured data. Here we investigate six rivers in Indonesia and Malaysia, during five expeditions. CO2 fluxes from Southeast Asian rivers amount to 66.9±15.7 Tg C per year, of which Indonesia releases 53.9±12.4 Tg C per year. Malaysian rivers emit 6.2±1.6 Tg C per year. These moderate values show that Southeast Asia is not the river outgassing hotspot as would be expected from the carbon-enriched peat soils. This is due to the relatively short residence time of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the river, as the peatlands, being the primary source of DOC, are located near the coast. Limitation of bacterial production, due to low pH, oxygen depletion or the refractory nature of DOC, potentially also contributes to moderate CO2 fluxes as this decelerates decomposition. PMID:26670925

  19. Forest production predicted from satellite image analysis for the Southeast Asia region

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to demonstrate a new, cost-effective method to define the sustainable amounts of harvested wood products in Southeast Asian countries case studies, while avoiding degradation (net loss) of total wood carbon stocks. Satellite remote sensing from the MODIS sensor was used in the CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle model to map forest production for the Southeast Asia region from 2000 to 2010. These CASA model results have been designed to be spatially detailed enough to support carbon cycle assessments in different wooded land cover classes, e.g., open woodlands, wetlands, and forest areas. Results The country with the highest average forest net primary production (NPP greater than 950 g C m-2 yr-1) over the period was the Philippines, followed by Malaysia and Indonesia. Myanmar and Vietnam had the lowest average forest NPP among the region’s countries at less than 815 g C m-2 yr-1. Case studies from throughout the Southeast Asia region for the maximum harvested wood products amount that could be sustainably extracted per year were generated using the CASA model NPP predictions. Conclusions The method of using CASA model’s estimated annual change in forest carbon on a yearly basis can conservatively define the upper limit for the amount of harvested wood products that can be removed and still avoid degradation (net loss) of the total wood carbon stock over that same time period. PMID:24016254

  20. Salt intakes and salt reduction initiatives in Southeast Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Batcagan-Abueg, Ada Portia M; Lee, Jeanette J M; Chan, Pauline; Rebello, Salome A; Amarra, Maria Sofia V

    2013-01-01

    Increased dietary sodium intake is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The monitoring of population sodium intake is a key part of any salt reduction intervention. However, the extent and methods used for as-sessment of sodium intake in Southeast Asia is currently unclear. This paper provides a narrative synthesis of the best available evidence regarding levels of sodium intake in six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and describes salt reduction measures being undertaken in these countries. Electronic databases were screened to identify relevant articles for inclusion up to 29 February 2012. Reference lists of included studies and conference proceedings were also examined. Local experts and researchers in nutrition and public health were consulted. Quality of studies was assessed using a modified version of the Downs and Black Checklist. Twenty-five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Full texts of 19 studies including government reports were retrieved, with most studies being of good quality. In-sufficient evidence exists regarding salt intakes in Southeast Asia. Dietary data suggest that sodium intake in most SEA countries exceeded the WHO recommendation of 2 g/day. Studies are needed that estimate sodium intake using the gold standard 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The greatest proportion of dietary sodium came from added salt and sauces. Data on children were limited. The six countries had salt reduction initiatives that differed in specificity and extent, with greater emphasis on consumer education.

  1. Where and how are roads endangering mammals in Southeast Asia's forests?

    PubMed

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Lynam, Antony J; Gaveau, David; Yap, Wei Lim; Lhota, Stanislav; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and overhunting are two major drivers of mammal population declines and extinctions in tropical forests. The construction of roads can be a catalyst for these two threats. In Southeast Asia, the impacts of roads on mammals have not been well-documented at a regional scale. Before evidence-based conservation strategies can be developed to minimize the threat of roads to endangered mammals within this region, we first need to locate where and how roads are contributing to the conversion of their habitats and illegal hunting in each country. We interviewed 36 experts involved in mammal research from seven Southeast Asian countries to identify roads that are contributing the most, in their opinion, to habitat conversion and illegal hunting. Our experts highlighted 16 existing and eight planned roads - these potentially threaten 21% of the 117 endangered terrestrial mammals in those countries. Apart from gathering qualitative evidence from the literature to assess their claims, we demonstrate how species-distribution models, satellite imagery and animal-sign surveys can be used to provide quantitative evidence of roads causing impacts by (1) cutting through habitats where endangered mammals are likely to occur, (2) intensifying forest conversion, and (3) contributing to illegal hunting and wildlife trade. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to identify specific roads threatening endangered mammals in Southeast Asia. Further through highlighting the impacts of roads, we propose 10 measures to limit road impacts in the region.

  2. Characterizing Aerosols over Southeast Asia using the AERONET Data Synergy Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Slutsker, Ilya; Welton, Ellsworth, J.; Chin, Mian; Kucsera, Thomas; Schmaltz, Jeffery E.; Diehl, Thomas; Singh, Ramesh P.; Boonjawat, Jariya; Snidvongs, Arond; Le, Huy V.

    2007-01-01

    Biomass burning, urban pollution and dust aerosols have significant impacts on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere over Asia. In order to better quanti@ these aerosol characteristics, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has established over 200 sites worldwide with an emphasis in recent years on the Asian continent - specifically Southeast Asia. A total of approximately 15 AERONET sun photometer instruments have been deployed to China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Sun photometer spectral aerosol optical depth measurements as well as microphysical and optical aerosol retrievals over Southeast Asia will be analyzed and discussed with supporting ground-based instrument, satellite, and model data sets, which are freely available via the AERONET Data Synergy tool at the AERONET web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). This web-based data tool provides access to groundbased (AERONET and MPLNET), satellite (MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, and OMI) and model (GOCART and back trajectory analyses) databases via one web portal. Future development of the AERONET Data Synergy Tool will include the expansion of current data sets as well as the implementation of other Earth Science data sets pertinent to advancing aerosol research.

  3. Public Health Risks of Multiple-Drug-Resistant Enterococcus spp. in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sui Mae; Rahman, Sadequr

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci rank as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, such as urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, and endocarditis, in humans. These infections can be hard to treat because of the rising incidence of antibiotic resistance. Enterococci inhabiting nonhuman reservoirs appear to play a critical role in the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants. The spread of antibiotic resistance has become a major concern in both human and veterinary medicine, especially in Southeast Asia, where many developing countries have poor legislation and regulations to control the supply and excessive use of antimicrobials. This review addresses the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries and proposes infection control measures that should be applied to limit the spread of multiple-drug-resistant enterococci. PMID:26150452

  4. Genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wasitthankasem, Rujipat; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Siripon, Nipaporn; Suya, Chutima; Chulothok, Phrutsada; Chaiear, Kasemporn; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Kanjana, Sawan; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Global burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated at 150 million individuals, or 3% of the world's population. The distribution of the seven major genotypes of HCV varies with geographical regions. Since Asia has a high incidence of HCV, we assessed the distribution of HCV genotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. From 588 HCV-positive samples obtained throughout Thailand, we characterized the HCV 5' untranslated region, Core, and NS5B regions by nested PCR. Nucleotide sequences obtained from both the Core and NS5B of these isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results were compared to the epidemiological data of HCV genotypes identified within Southeast Asian. Among the HCV subtypes characterized in the Thai samples, subtype 3a was the most predominant (36.4%), followed by 1a (19.9%), 1b (12.6%), 3b (9.7%) and 2a (0.5%). While genotype 1 was prevalent throughout Thailand (27-36%), genotype 3 was more common in the south. Genotype 6 (20.9%) constituted subtype 6f (7.8%), 6n (7.7%), 6i (3.4%), 6j and 6m (0.7% each), 6c (0.3%), 6v and 6xa (0.2% each) and its prevalence was significantly lower in southern Thailand compared to the north and northeast (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively). Within Southeast Asia, high prevalence of genotype 6 occurred in northern countries such as Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, while genotype 3 was prevalent in Thailand and Malaysia. Island nations of Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines demonstrated prevalence of genotype 1. This study further provides regional HCV genotype information that may be useful in fostering sound public health policy and tracking future patterns of HCV spread.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Vegetation and Their Relationships with Climate in Southeast Asia Based on Three Satellite NDVI Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Piao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical vegetation plays an essential role for global biogeochemical cycles. An abundant literature focused on the vegetation dynamics in Amazon. It is shown that the Amazonian rainforest is strongly controlled by radiation, even during dry season. However, only few researches deal with tropical rainforest in Southeast Asia; the vegetation dynamics in Southeast Asia remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of vegetation in Southeast Asia with three independent satellite derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products (GIMMS AVHRR NDVI3g, SPOT, and MODIS) as well as the recently developed Sun Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF). We furthermore examined how climate drivers (precipitation, temperature and radiation) exert influences on the vegetation dynamics. We find that the three NDVI datasets are generally consistent with each other. At seasonal scale, NDVI decreases from the beginning to the end of the dry season; at interannual scale, dry season NDVI is positively correlated to precipitation but negatively correlated to radiation, while wet season NDVI is positively correlated to radiation. Compared to evergreen forests, deciduous forests have a larger NDVI decrease rate and more extended area with positive relationships between NDVI and precipitation during the dry season. SIF is lower during dry season than during wet season. Our results indicate that most forests in Southeast Asia, unlike in the Amazonian basin, are water-limited in the dry season but radiation-limited in the wet season. These results imply that droughts may have a stronger impact on forests in Southeast Asia than in Amazon.

  6. Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal infections among tourists to Southeast Asia: an intercontinental foodborne outbreak.

    PubMed

    Boyce, T G; Mintz, E D; Greene, K D; Wells, J G; Hockin, J C; Morgan, D; Tauxe, R V

    1995-11-01

    To determine the source and extent of an outbreak of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal infections among 630 cruise ship passengers to Southeast Asia, a retrospective cohort study was done. Questionnaires were sent to all passengers from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, and serum samples were requested from all passengers reporting diarrhea. A case was defined as diarrheal illness with onset between 8 and 28 February 1994 and a cholera antitoxic antibody titer > or = 800. Six passengers, including 1 with bacteremia, met the case definition. Illness was associated with eating yellow rice at a buffet restaurant in Bangkok on 10 February (relative risk undefined, P = .005). This international outbreak demonstrates foodborne transmission of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, an emerging cause of epidemic cholera in Asia, to tourists from Western countries. Physicians should suspect infection with either V. cholerae O1 or O139 in any patient with severe watery diarrhea after travel to the developing world.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome in the 21st century: perspectives from Asia or South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Asian irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) studies not only confirm the truth of this functional disorder but also describe the current disease situation of this continent, with its variable socioeconomic backgrounds. Most Asian community IBS prevalence is within 5-10%, regardless of gender or ethnic character. As well as meeting the main Rome II criteria, Asian IBS subjects also have many minor symptoms. Thus this recommendation remains useful to diagnose Asian IBS. Also, female patients commonly express constipation-predominant (C-) symptoms. Extra-colonic symptoms are common in Asia, for example dyspepsia, insomnia and irritable urinary bladder. Asian IBS subjects do experience psychological disturbances including anxiety, depression, agoraphobia and neuroticism. Accordingly, their quality of life is poor and there is absenteeism leading to excessive physician visits. Abnormal gut motor and sensory functions have been indicated among the Asian IBS subjects. Now, there is evidence of altered colonic neuroimmune function leading to gut hypersensitivity and dysmotility. An Asia-Pacific trial also confirmed tegaserod efficacy on female C-IBS subjects. More than 90% of nurses have very limited IBS knowledge, and are unable even to explain it clearly. In conclusion, Western recommended criteria clearly diagnose Asian IBS and many factors are mutual leading to IBS. Current IBS treatments remain useful but additional reeducation for medical professionals appears to be needed.

  8. Decadal-scale relationship between measurements of aerosols, land-use change, and fire over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake Cohen, Jason; Lecoeur, Eve; Loong Ng, Daniel Hui

    2017-01-01

    A simultaneous analysis of 13 years of remotely sensed data of land cover, fires, precipitation, and aerosols from the MODIS, TRMM, and MISR satellites and the AERONET network over Southeast Asia is performed, leading to a set of robust relationships between land-use change and fire being found on inter-annual and intra-annual scales over Southeast Asia, reflecting the heavy amounts of anthropogenic influence over land-use change and fires in this region of the world. First, we find that fires occur annually, but with a considerable amount of variance in their onset, duration, and intensity from year to year, and from two separate regions within Southeast Asia. Second, we show that a simple regression model of the land-cover, fire, and precipitation data can be used to recreate a robust representation of the timing and magnitude of measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multiple measurements sources of this region using either 8-day (better for onset and duration) or monthly (better for magnitude) measurements, but not daily measurements. We find that the reconstructed AOD matches the timing and intensity from AERONET measurements to within 70 to 90 % and the timing and intensity of MISR measurements to within 50 to 95 %. This is a unique finding in this part of the world since cloud-covered regions are large, yet the model is still robustly capable, including over regions where no fires are observed and hence no emissions would be expected to contribute to AOD. Third, we determine that while Southeast Asia is a source region of such intense smoke emissions, portions of it are also impacted by smoke transported from other regions. There are regions in northern Southeast Asia which have two annual AOD peaks, one during the local fire season and the other, smaller peak corresponding to a combination of some local smoke sources as well as transport of aerosols from fires in southern Southeast Asia and possibly even from anthropogenic sources in South Asia. Overall

  9. On the transferability of RegCM4: Europe, Africa and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Simulations driven by ERA-interim reanalysis for CORDEX domains covering Europe, Africa and Asia have been performed using RegCM4 at 50 km resolution. The same settings are used in basic simulations and preliminary evaluation of model performance for individual regions will be presented. Several settings of different options is tested and sensitivity of selected ones will be shown in individual regions. Secant Mercator projection is introduced for Africa providing more efficient model geometry setting, the impact of proper emissivity inclusion is compared especially for Africa and Asia desserts. CRU data are used for the validation.

  10. Air Quality and Climate Effects of Oil Palm Expansion in Southeast Asia 1990 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    The natural rainforests of Southeast Asia have endured large-scale losses over the last few decades, principally driven by logging and agroforestry activities, including rapid expansion of plantations of high-isoprene-emitting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trees at the expense of comparatively low-emitting natural dipterocarp rainforests. Satellite-derived estimates of land cover represent snapshots in time of this highly-dynamic landscape. We apply multiple observational datasets and a global carbon-chemistry-climate model (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) to quantify the magnitude of altered biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) fluxes in Southeast Asia and the resulting impacts on atmospheric chemical composition due to the past two decades of land cover change in the region. NASA ModelE2-YIBs includes a fully interactive land carbon cycle. Isoprene production is energetically coupled to photosynthesis. Time-slice simulations for the period spanning 1990 - 2010 are forced with monthly anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from the MACCity emissions inventory. Simulated tropospheric chemical composition is compared to observations, including fire-free formaldehyde columns, TES vertically-resolved ozone concentrations, and surface-level ozone measurements. We assess the contribution of land cover change-induced BVOC emission changes to regional ozone and aerosol pollution and provide the first estimate of the impacts on global climate.

  11. A comparative assessment of the financial costs and carbon benefits of REDD+ strategies in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Victoria; Laurance, Susan G.; Grech, Alana; McGregor, Andrew; Venter, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    REDD+ holds potential for mitigating emissions from tropical forest loss by providing financial incentives for carbon stored in forests, but its economic viability is under scrutiny. The primary narrative raised in the literature is that REDD+ will be of limited utility for reducing forest carbon loss in Southeast Asia, while the level of finance committed falls short of profits from alternative land-use activities in the region, including large-scale timber and oil palm operations. Here we assess the financial costs and carbon benefits of various REDD+ strategies deployed in the region. We find the cost of reducing emissions ranges from 9 to 75 per tonne of avoided carbon emissions. The strategies focused on reducing forest degradation and promoting forest regrowth are the most cost-effective ways of reducing emissions and used in over 60% of REDD+ projects. By comparing the financial costs and carbon benefits of a broader range of strategies than previously assessed, we highlight the variation between different strategies and draw attention to opportunities where REDD+ can achieve maximum carbon benefits cost-effectively. These findings have broad policy implications for Southeast Asia. Until carbon finance escalates, emissions reductions can be maximized from reforestation, reduced-impact logging and investing in improved management of protected areas. Targeting cost-efficient opportunities for REDD+ is important to improve the efficiency of national REDD+ policy, which in-turn fosters greater financial and political support for the scheme.

  12. Five challenges to reconcile agricultural land use and forest ecosystem services in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L R; Papworth, S K; Reed, J; Symes, W S; Ickowitz, A; Clements, T; Peh, K S-H; Sunderland, T

    2016-10-01

    Southeast Asia possesses the highest rates of tropical deforestation globally and exceptional levels of species richness and endemism. Many countries in the region are also recognized for their food insecurity and poverty, making the reconciliation of agricultural production and forest conservation a particular priority. This reconciliation requires recognition of the trade-offs between competing land-use values and the subsequent incorporation of this information into policy making. To date, such reconciliation has been relatively unsuccessful across much of Southeast Asia. We propose an ecosystem services (ES) value-internalization framework that identifies the key challenges to such reconciliation. These challenges include lack of accessible ES valuation techniques; limited knowledge of the links between forests, food security, and human well-being; weak demand and political will for the integration of ES in economic activities and environmental regulation; a disconnect between decision makers and ES valuation; and lack of transparent discussion platforms where stakeholders can work toward consensus on negotiated land-use management decisions. Key research priorities to overcome these challenges are developing easy-to-use ES valuation techniques; quantifying links between forests and well-being that go beyond economic values; understanding factors that prevent the incorporation of ES into markets, regulations, and environmental certification schemes; understanding how to integrate ES valuation into policy making processes, and determining how to reduce corruption and power plays in land-use planning processes.

  13. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  14. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. PMID:24688871

  15. Independent Emergence of Artemisinin Resistance Mutations Among Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Jacob, Christopher G.; Arze, Cesar; Cummings, Michael P.; Silva, Joana C.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Fukuda, Mark M.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Mayxay, Mayfong; Noedl, Harald; Nosten, Francois; Kyaw, Myat P.; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Imwong, Mallika; Bethell, Delia; Se, Youry; Lon, Chanthap; Tyner, Stuart D.; Saunders, David L.; Ariey, Frederic; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Menard, Didier; Newton, Paul N.; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Starzengruber, Peter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Khan, Wasif A.; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Nyunt, Myaing M.; Nyunt, Myat H.; Brown, Tyler S.; Adams, Matthew; Pepin, Christopher S.; Bailey, Jason; Tan, John C.; Ferdig, Michael T.; Clark, Taane G.; Miotto, Olivo; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; White, Nicholas J.; Ringwald, Pascal; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia threatens malaria treatment efficacy. Mutations in a kelch protein encoded on P. falciparum chromosome 13 (K13) have been associated with resistance in vitro and in field samples from Cambodia. Methods. P. falciparum infections from artesunate efficacy trials in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam were genotyped at 33 716 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Linear mixed models were used to test associations between parasite genotypes and parasite clearance half-lives following artesunate treatment. K13 mutations were tested for association with artemisinin resistance, and extended haplotypes on chromosome 13 were examined to determine whether mutations arose focally and spread or whether they emerged independently. Results. The presence of nonreference K13 alleles was associated with prolonged parasite clearance half-life (P = 1.97 × 10−12). Parasites with a mutation in any of the K13 kelch domains displayed longer parasite clearance half-lives than parasites with wild-type alleles. Haplotype analysis revealed both population-specific emergence of mutations and independent emergence of the same mutation in different geographic areas. Conclusions. K13 appears to be a major determinant of artemisinin resistance throughout Southeast Asia. While we found some evidence of spreading resistance, there was no evidence of resistance moving westward from Cambodia into Myanmar. PMID:25180241

  16. United States and environmental security: Deforestation and conflict in southeast Asia. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, P.T.

    1992-06-01

    In the post Cold War era, the East-West conflict may be succeeded by a new confrontation which pits an industrialized North against a developing South. In June 1992, world attention was fixed on the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This event marked a milestone in global environmental awareness; but just as the end of the Cold War has provided new opportunities for the US, the world is now faced with new sources of conflict which have advanced to the forefront of the national security debate. Among the new sources of conflict, environmental problems are rapidly becoming preeminent. Within national security debates, those environmental problems which respect no international boundary are of particular concern. Worldwide deforestation, and the related issues of global warming and the loss of biodiversity, represent a clear threat to national security. Two percent of the Earth's rainforests are lost each year; one 'football field' is lost each second. Deforestation has already led to conflict and instability within several regions of the world including Southeast Asia. The United States must recognize the character and dynamics of these new sources of conflict in order to successfully realize its policy aims in national security. The US should preempt conflict through cooperation and develop a shared concern for the environment throughout the world. The US military may play a key role in this effort. Rainforest, Deforestation, Tropical timber, Logging, Southeast Asia, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Laos, Japan Cambodia, Vietnam, Human rights, Plywood, Pulp, Paper, World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development.

  17. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Gaveau, D. L. A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M.

    2016-05-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire’s radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan.

  18. Measuring sustainability based upon various perspectives: a case study of a hill station in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Estoque, Ronald C; Murayama, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    A hill station is a town or city situated in mountain regions in the tropics founded during the western colonization in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Hill stations have moderate temperatures, and are known for their relatively good natural environments, which generate valuable ecosystem services that benefit the local population. However, rapid urbanization threatens the sustainability of these areas. This study evaluates the sustainability of the urbanization process of Baguio City, a hill station city in Southeast Asia and the summer capital of the Philippines, by determining the relationship between its velocity of urbanization and velocity of urban sustainability based upon various perspectives. From an equal weight perspective (of the triple bottom line of sustainability components, namely environmental, social, and economic) and a pro-economic perspective, the results revealed that the urbanization of Baguio City has been moving toward a "sustainable urbanization." However, from the environmental and eco-sustainable human development perspectives, the results indicated that it has been moving toward an "unsustainable urbanization." The paper discusses the implications of the findings for the planning of sustainable development for Baguio City, including some critical challenges in sustainability assessment and the applicability of the framework used for future sustainability assessments of the other hill stations in Southeast Asia.

  19. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined. PMID:25266041

  20. Satellite estimation of photosynthetically active radiation in Southeast Asia: Impacts of smoke and cloud cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Hoyano, Akira; Aoki, Masatoshi; Komori, Daisuke; Boonyawat, Samakkee

    2004-02-01

    Since large-scale variations in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) influence the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks through the plant photosynthesis variations, large-scale evaluation of PAR is required. In the present study a simple PAR estimation model was developed for Southeast Asia, where large-scale forest fires occurred during El Niño years. The model considered the smoke aerosol released by forest fires using satellite-based smoke detection methods. A comparison study with ground-based solar radiation data for Malaysia and Thailand indicated that the current model could estimate monthly PAR with 10% (root-mean-square) accuracy and would successfully trace the seasonal and year-to-year variations in PAR, including the forest fire periods. During the peak-smoke month in Indonesia, September 1997, the reduction of PAR by smoke reached 63-75% in the center of the Kalimantan and Sumatra Islands. From the analyses of the smoke and cloud cover impacts on PAR in 1997-1999, annual PAR variations were found to be mostly regulated by smoke variations on the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Kalimantan Islands and cloud cover variations on the Indo-China Peninsula. Thus annual variations in PAR changed with location. These variations did not simply correlate with year-to-year variations in cloud cover associated with the El Niño and La Niña cycle, but exhibited more complicated spatial variations due to the existence of smoke in Southeast Asia.

  1. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997

    PubMed Central

    Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Gaveau, D. L. A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M.

    2016-01-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire’s radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan. PMID:27241616

  2. Large fluctuations of shallow seas in low-lying Southeast Asia driven by mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Flament, Nicolas; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Gurnis, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The Sundaland continental promontory, as the core of Southeast Asia, is one of the lowest lying continental regions, with half of the continental area presently inundated by a shallow sea. The role of mantle convection in driving long-wavelength topography and vertical motion of the lithosphere in this region has often been ignored when interpreting regional stratigraphy, including a widespread Late Cretaceous-Eocene unconformity, despite a consensus that Southeast Asia is presently situated over a large-amplitude dynamic topography low resulting from long-term post-Pangea subduction. We use forward numerical models to link mantle flow with surface tectonics and compare predicted trends of dynamic topography with eustasy and regional paleogeography to determine the influence of mantle convection on regional basin histories. A Late Cretaceous collision of Gondwana-derived terranes with Sundaland choked the active margin, leading to slab breakoff and a ˜10-15 Myr-long subduction hiatus. A subduction hiatus likely resulted in several hundred meters of dynamic uplift and emergence of Sundaland between ˜80 and 60 Ma and may explain the absence of a Late Cretaceous-Eocene sedimentary record. Renewed subduction from ˜60 Ma reinitiated dynamic subsidence of Sundaland, leading to submergence from ˜40 Ma despite falling long-term global sea levels. Our results highlight a complete "down-up-down" dynamic topography cycle experienced by Sundaland, with transient dynamic topography manifesting as a major regional unconformity in sedimentary basins.

  3. Temporal change of EIA asymmetry revealed by a beacon receiver network in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Maruyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Nishioka, Michi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the temporal change of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) asymmetry, a multipoint satellite-ground beacon experiment was conducted along the meridional plane of the Thailand-Indonesia sector. The observation includes one station near the magnetic equator and four stations at off-equator latitudes. This is the first EIA asymmetry study with high spatial resolution using GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) observations in Southeast Asia. GRBR-total electron contents (TECs) from 97 polar-orbit satellite passes in March 2012 were analyzed in this study. Successive passes captured rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry, especially during geomagnetic disturbances. The penetrating electric fields that occur during geomagnetic disturbed days are not the cause of the asymmetry. Instead, high background TEC associated with an intense electric field empowers the neutral wind to produce severe asymmetry of the EIA. Such rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry was not seen during nighttime, when meridional wind mainly controlled the asymmetric structures. Additional data are necessary to identify the source of the variations, i.e., atmospheric waves. Precisely capturing the locations of the crests and the evolution of the asymmetry enhances understanding of the temporal change of EIA asymmetry at the local scale and leads to a future local modeling for TEC prediction in Southeast Asia.

  4. Helminth parasite species richness in rodents from Southeast Asia: role of host species and habitat.

    PubMed

    Palmeirim, Marta; Bordes, Frédéric; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Siribat, Praphaiphat; Ribas, Alexis; Morand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asia is a biodiversity hotspot that harbours many species of rodents, including some that live in close contact with humans. They host helminth parasites, some of which are of zoonotic importance. It is therefore important to understand the factors that influence the richness of the helminths parasitizing rodents. The specific objectives of this study were to evaluate rodent species as a factor determining helminth richness in rodent assemblages, to identify the major rodent helminth reservoir species and to explore the influence of habitat on helminth richness. We estimated helminth species richness using a large dataset of 18 rodent species (1,651 individuals) originating from Southeast Asia and screened for helminth parasites. The use of an unbiased estimator shows that the helminth species richness varies substantially among rodent species and across habitats. We confirmed this pattern by investigating the number of helminth species per individual rodent in all rodent species, and specifically in the two mitochondrial lineages Rattus tanezumi and R. tanezumi R3, which were captured in all habitats.

  5. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Chan-Yeung, M; Aït-Khaled, N; White, N; Tsang, K W; Tan, W C

    2004-02-01

    This review examines whether the comprehensive programme recommended by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), developed mostly by physicians in industrialised countries, can be applied in developing countries. In developing countries, there are several major limitations to the implementation of the programme. First, management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is not a priority in competing for health care resources. Second, only major medical centres in developing countries have spirometers; the reliance on spirometric testing for diagnosis, staging and treatment options, as recommended by the GOLD guidelines, makes it almost impossible for the programme to be implemented. Third, in many Asian and African countries, regular monitoring is often restricted to patients with severe COPD who have frequent hospitalisations or clinic visits for exacerbations and complications. Fourth, the choice of therapy usually depends on the availability and cost of drugs. Finally, given the aetiological role of sequelae of lung infections, including tuberculosis, the appropriateness and safety of using intermittent courses of oral steroids during acute exacerbations and of long-term, high-dose inhaled corticosteroids for moderate to severe COPD in developing countries has not been evaluated. Developing countries in Asia and Africa may need to adapt the GOLD guidelines according to varying aetiology, local health care resources, socio-economic and cultural factors and development of health services. Prevention programmes, especially for tobacco control, are of paramount importance. National and international efforts must be directed towards controlling the tobacco epidemic in developing countries to reduce the burden of COPD and other tobacco-induced diseases.

  6. A taxonomic review of the centipede genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) in mainland Southeast Asia, with description of a new species from Laos

    PubMed Central

    Siriwut, Warut; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The centipede genus Scolopendra in mainland Southeast Asia is reviewed taxonomically based on morphological characters, informed by a molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences from three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA). Eight nominal species of Scolopendra, namely Scolopendra morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1816, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, Scolopendra calcarata Porat, 1876, Scolopendra japonica Koch, 1878, Scolopendra pinguis Pocock, 1891, and Scolopendra dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, are redescribed together with some revision of type materials. Geographical variation in each species has been compiled with reference to samples that span their distribution ranges in Southeast Asia and some parts of neighbouring areas such as East Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Africa. Comparative study of traditional taxonomic characters from external morphology provides further information to distinguish some closely related species. Scolopendra cataracta Siriwut, Edgecombe & Panha, sp. n., is described from the southern part of Laos, with additional records in Thailand and Vietnam. The phylogenetic framework for Southeast Asian Scolopendra recognizes Scolopendra calcarata + Scolopendra pinguis, Scolopendra morsitans, and a Scolopendra subspinipes group that unites the other six species as the main clades. Within the Scolopendra subspinipes group, two monophyletic groups can be distinguished by having either slender or short, thick ultimate leg prefemora and different numbers of apical spines on the coxopleuron. Scolopendra arborea Lewis, 1982, is placed in subjective synonymy with Scolopendra dehaani. A survey of external morphology of the genital segments confirms its potential for improving species identification in Scolopendra. Some observations on biology and behaviour are recorded based on field surveys in this area. PMID:27408540

  7. A taxonomic review of the centipede genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) in mainland Southeast Asia, with description of a new species from Laos.

    PubMed

    Siriwut, Warut; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The centipede genus Scolopendra in mainland Southeast Asia is reviewed taxonomically based on morphological characters, informed by a molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences from three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA). Eight nominal species of Scolopendra, namely Scolopendra morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1816, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, Scolopendra calcarata Porat, 1876, Scolopendra japonica Koch, 1878, Scolopendra pinguis Pocock, 1891, and Scolopendra dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, are redescribed together with some revision of type materials. Geographical variation in each species has been compiled with reference to samples that span their distribution ranges in Southeast Asia and some parts of neighbouring areas such as East Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Africa. Comparative study of traditional taxonomic characters from external morphology provides further information to distinguish some closely related species. Scolopendra cataracta Siriwut, Edgecombe & Panha, sp. n., is described from the southern part of Laos, with additional records in Thailand and Vietnam. The phylogenetic framework for Southeast Asian Scolopendra recognizes Scolopendra calcarata + Scolopendra pinguis, Scolopendra morsitans, and a Scolopendra subspinipes group that unites the other six species as the main clades. Within the Scolopendra subspinipes group, two monophyletic groups can be distinguished by having either slender or short, thick ultimate leg prefemora and different numbers of apical spines on the coxopleuron. Scolopendra arborea Lewis, 1982, is placed in subjective synonymy with Scolopendra dehaani. A survey of external morphology of the genital segments confirms its potential for improving species identification in Scolopendra. Some observations on biology and behaviour are recorded based on field surveys in this area.

  8. A new urban landscape in East-Southeast Asia, 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Mertes, C. M.; Tatem, A. J.; Tan, B.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Graves, S. J.; Patel, N. N.; Horton, J. A.; Gaughan, A. E.; Rollo, J. T.; Schelly, I. H.; Stevens, F. R.; Dastur, A.

    2015-03-01

    East-Southeast Asia is currently one of the fastest urbanizing regions in the world, with countries such as China climbing from 20 to 50% urbanized in just a few decades. By 2050, these countries are projected to add 1 billion people, with 90% of that growth occurring in cities. This population shift parallels an equally astounding amount of built-up land expansion. However, spatially-and temporally-detailed information on regional-scale changes in urban land or population distribution do not exist; previous efforts have been either sample-based, focused on one country, or drawn conclusions from datasets with substantial temporal/spatial mismatch and variability in urban definitions. Using consistent methodology, satellite imagery and census data for >1000 agglomerations in the East-Southeast Asian region, we show that urban land increased >22% between 2000 and 2010 (from 155 000 to 189 000 km2), an amount equivalent to the area of Taiwan, while urban populations climbed >31% (from 738 to 969 million). Although urban land expanded at unprecedented rates, urban populations grew more rapidly, resulting in increasing densities for the majority of urban agglomerations, including those in both more developed (Japan, South Korea) and industrializing nations (China, Vietnam, Indonesia). This result contrasts previous sample-based studies, which conclude that cities are universally declining in density. The patterns and rates of change uncovered by these datasets provide a unique record of the massive urban transition currently underway in East-Southeast Asia that is impacting local-regional climate, pollution levels, water quality/availability, arable land, as well as the livelihoods and vulnerability of populations in the region.

  9. The Influence of Summertime Convection Over Southeast Asia on Water Vapor in the Tropical Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. S.; Fu, R.; Fueglistaler, S.; Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contributions of Southeast Asian convective source regions during boreal summer to water vapor in the tropical stratosphere are examined using Lagrangian trajectories. Convective sources are identified using global observations of infrared brightness temperature at high space and time resolution, and water vapor transport is simulated using advection-condensation. Trajectory simulations are driven by three different reanalysis data sets, GMAO MERRA, ERA-Interim, and NCEP/NCAR, to establish points of consistency and evaluate the sensitivity of the results to differences in the underlying meteorological fields. All ensembles indicate that Southeast Asia is a prominent boreal summer source of tropospheric air to the tropical stratosphere. Three convective source domains are identified within Southeast Asia: the Bay of Bengal and South Asian subcontinent (MON), the South China and Philippine Seas (SCS), and the Tibetan Plateau and South Slope of the Himalayas (TIB). Water vapor transport into the stratosphere from these three domains exhibits systematic differences that are related to differences in the bulk characteristics of transport. We find air emanating from SCS to be driest, from MON slightly moister, and from TIB moistest. Analysis of pathways shows that air detrained from convection over TIB is most likely to bypass the region of minimum absolute saturation mixing ratio over the equatorial western Pacific; however, the impact of this bypass mechanism on mean water vapor in the tropical stratosphere at 68 hPa is small 0.1 ppmv). This result contrasts with previously published hypotheses, and it highlights the challenge of properly quantifying fluxes of atmospheric humidity.

  10. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use.

  11. An HIV Vaccine for South-East Asia-Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; O'Connell, Robert J; Kim, Jerome H; Excler, Jean-Louis

    2013-08-14

    Recent advances in HIV vaccine development along with a better understanding of the immune correlates of risk have emerged from the RV144 efficacy trial conducted in Thailand. Epidemiological data suggest that CRF01_AE is still predominant in South-East Asia and is spreading in China with a growing number of circulating recombinant forms due to increasing human contact, particularly in large urban centers, tourist locations and in sites of common infrastructure. A vaccine countering CRF01_AE is a priority for the region. An Asia HIV vaccine against expanding B/E or BCE recombinant forms should be actively pursued. A major challenge that remains is the conduct of efficacy trials in heterosexual populations in this region. Men who have sex with men represent the main target population for future efficacy trials in Asia. Coupling HIV vaccines with other prevention modalities in efficacy trials might also be envisaged. These new avenues will only be made possible through the conduct of large-scale efficacy trials, interdisciplinary teams, international collaborations, and strong political and community commitments.

  12. On the evolution of pollution from South and Southeast Asia during the winter-spring monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadnis, Mahesh J.; Levy, Hiram; Moxim, Walter J.

    2002-12-01

    The NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory three-dimensional Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is used to examine the winter-spring evolution of pollution (fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning) from South and Southeast Asia with special focus on the Indian Ocean region. We find that during the monsoonal winter-spring outflow, pollution over the Indian Ocean north of the ITCZ is concentrated in the maritime boundary layer and originates from both regions. South Asian emissions dominate over the Arabian Sea and the Western Indian Ocean, while the Southeast Asian emissions have the greatest impact over the Bay of Bengal and Eastern Indian Ocean. Over these oceanic regions, CO pollution in both source regions, most of which is from biomass burning, accounts for 30-50% of the boundary layer CO. It is transported equatorward from South and Southeast Asian source regions and episodically lofted into the upper troposphere by tropical convection events. This transport path has a noticable impact (10-20%) on total CO at 300 mb and produces a maximum in a tropical belt over and north of the ITCZ. Another free troposphere transport path, primarily open to Southeast Asian emissions, carries CO from that region out over the North Pacific and around the Northern Hemisphere. O3 production is driven by NOx, which, unlike CO, comes almost equally from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion in this region and has a chemical lifetime of a few days or less. The resulting NOx distributions, while qualitatively similar to CO, have much steeper gradients, are transported much less widely, have a much lower background, and over the Indian and Pacific Oceans, are strongly dominated by pollution. O3 resulting from these anthropogenic sources generally exhibits patterns similar to those found for CO and NOx. Pollution accounts for 20-50% of the near-surface O3 and 5-10% of the O3 in the upper troposphere. South and Southeast Asian emissions only produce 25% of the

  13. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  14. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amnuaylojaroen, T.; Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kreasuwun, J.; Prasitwattanaseree, S.; Chantara, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.3 using Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) gas-phase chemistry and Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects), the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS) emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass-burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (FINNv1) model. WRF-Chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict the NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass-burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 30% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios averaged over the land areas of the model domain differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass-burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16

  15. The lithosphere thermal structure of the Southeast Asia: constrained by Vs data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuanhai, Yu; Xiaobin, Shi; Qunshu, Tang; Xiaoqiu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. As we all know, the tectonic evolution is closely related to the deep thermal structure state. Therefore, an accurate estimation of lithosphere thermal structure and lithosphere thickness is important in extracting information on tectonics and geodynamics. Though the thermal regime could be calculated with the observed surface heat flow, there are many uncertainties in the calculated deep thermal state. In this study, we calculated the deep lithosphere thermal structure of Southeast Asia regions by employing an empirical relationship between Vs and temperature, from the calculated temperature-depth profiles, we can identify the base of the thermal lithosphere. The results show that the temperature contours at 80km depth is about 200-300°C higher in the rifted basins and oceanic basins such as Andaman Sea, Thailand Bay, Thailand Rift Basin, South China Sea than in the plateaus and subduction zones such as Khorat Plateau, Sumatra Island and Philippine Trench regions. Generally, the thermal state indicated by the temperature contours at 80 km depth is in agreement with those suggested by the observed surface heat flow. The temperature at 100 km and 200 km depth in Southeast Asia regions is 1450-1500°C and 1650-1780°C which suggest that the study regions might have a higher thermal state than other regions. Our results also show that the estimated thickness of the lithosphere are 85-95 km in the regions of Subduction and collision regions surrounding the study area such as Java trench system, Sumatra trench system, Indo-Asian collision suture zone, Taiwan orogenic belt, Luzon Island, Celebes Island and Northeast of Borneo and becomes smaller toward the South China Sea. In the South China

  16. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  17. Genotypic Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wasitthankasem, Rujipat; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Siripon, Nipaporn; Suya, Chutima; Chulothok, Phrutsada; Chaiear, Kasemporn; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Kanjana, Sawan; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Global burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated at 150 million individuals, or 3% of the world’s population. The distribution of the seven major genotypes of HCV varies with geographical regions. Since Asia has a high incidence of HCV, we assessed the distribution of HCV genotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. From 588 HCV-positive samples obtained throughout Thailand, we characterized the HCV 5’ untranslated region, Core, and NS5B regions by nested PCR. Nucleotide sequences obtained from both the Core and NS5B of these isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results were compared to the epidemiological data of HCV genotypes identified within Southeast Asian. Among the HCV subtypes characterized in the Thai samples, subtype 3a was the most predominant (36.4%), followed by 1a (19.9%), 1b (12.6%), 3b (9.7%) and 2a (0.5%). While genotype 1 was prevalent throughout Thailand (27–36%), genotype 3 was more common in the south. Genotype 6 (20.9%) constituted subtype 6f (7.8%), 6n (7.7%), 6i (3.4%), 6j and 6m (0.7% each), 6c (0.3%), 6v and 6xa (0.2% each) and its prevalence was significantly lower in southern Thailand compared to the north and northeast (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively). Within Southeast Asia, high prevalence of genotype 6 occurred in northern countries such as Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, while genotype 3 was prevalent in Thailand and Malaysia. Island nations of Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines demonstrated prevalence of genotype 1. This study further provides regional HCV genotype information that may be useful in fostering sound public health policy and tracking future patterns of HCV spread. PMID:25962112

  18. Dual-band beacon experiment over Southeast Asia for ionospheric irregularity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watthanasangmechai, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Saito, A.; Saito, S.; Maruyama, T.; Tsugawa, T.; Nishioka, M.

    2013-12-01

    An experiment of dual-band beacon over Southeast Asia was started in March 2012 in order to capture and analyze ionospheric irregularities in equatorial region. Five GNU Radio Beacon Receivers (GRBRs) were aligned along 100 degree geographic longitude. The distances between the stations reach more than 500 km. The field of view of this observational network covers +/- 20 degree geomagnetic latitude including the geomagnetic equator. To capture ionospheric irregularities, the absolute TEC estimation technique was developed. The two-station method (Leitinger et al., 1975) is generally accepted as a suitable method to estimate TEC offsets of dual-band beacon experiment. However, the distances between the stations directly affect on the robustness of the technique. In Southeast Asia, the observational network is too sparse to attain a benefit of the classic two-station method. Moreover, the least-squares approch used in the two-station method tries too much to adjust the small scales of the TEC distribution which are the local minima. We thus propose a new technique to estimate the TEC offsets with the supporting data from absolute GPS-TEC from local GPS receivers and the ionospheric height from local ionosondes. The key of the proposed technique is to utilize the brute-force technique with weighting function to find the TEC offset set that yields a global minimum of RMSE in whole parameter space. The weight is not necessary when the TEC distribution is smooth, while it significantly improves the TEC estimation during the ESF events. As a result, the latitudinal TEC shows double-hump distribution because of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). In additions, the 100km-scale fluctuations from an Equatorial Spread F (ESF) are captured at night time in equinox seasons. The plausible linkage of the meridional wind with triggering of ESF is under invatigating and will be presented. The proposed method is successful to estimate the latitudinal TEC distribution from dual

  19. Endangered Peoples of Southeast & East Asia: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.

    This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and East Asia and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie…

  20. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  1. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…

  2. Diversity of Aspergillus oryzae genotypes (RFLP) isolated from traditional soy sauce production within Malaysia and Southeast Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA fingerprinting was performed on 64 strains of Aspergillus oryzae and one strain of A. sojae isolated from soysauce factories within Malaysia and Southeast Asia that use primitive traditional methods in producing 'tamari type' Cantonese soy sauce. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each isol...

  3. Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region.

  4. Spatial and temporal variations of groundwater arsenic in South and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Fendorf, Scott; Michael, Holly A; van Geen, Alexander

    2010-05-28

    Over the past few decades, groundwater wells installed in rural areas throughout the major river basins draining the Himalayas have become the main source of drinking water for tens of millions of people. Groundwater in this region is much less likely to contain microbial pathogens than surface water but often contains hazardous amounts of arsenic--a known carcinogen. Arsenic enters groundwater naturally from rocks and sediment by coupled biogeochemical and hydrologic processes, some of which are presently affected by human activity. Mitigation of the resulting health crisis in South and Southeast Asia requires an understanding of the transport of arsenic and key reactants such as organic carbon that could trigger release in zones with presently low groundwater arsenic levels.

  5. Interactions between biomass-burning aerosols and clouds over Southeast Asia: current status, challenges, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sayer, Andrew M; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Loftus, Adrian M; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Hsu, N Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chantara, Somporn

    2014-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols, clouds, and precipitation remain among the largest sources of uncertainty in the Earth's energy budget. Biomass-burning aerosols are a key feature of the global aerosol system, with significant annually-repeating fires in several parts of the world, including Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA in particular provides a "natural laboratory" for these studies, as smoke travels from source regions downwind in which it is coupled to persistent stratocumulus decks. However, SEA has been under-exploited for these studies. This review summarizes previous related field campaigns in SEA, with a focus on the ongoing Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) and results from the most recent BASELInE deployment. Progress from remote sensing and modeling studies, along with the challenges faced for these studies, are also discussed. We suggest that improvements to our knowledge of these aerosol/cloud effects require the synergistic use of field measurements with remote sensing and modeling tools.

  6. Public health in South-East Asia in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the proceedings of the Regional Conference on Public Health in Southeast Asia in the 21st Century, held in Calcutta, India, on November 22-24, 1999. Organized by the WHO, the conference reviewed the progress in Public Health education and training, practice and research in the countries of the region. Discussions were focused on the quality of the Schools of Public Health, professional capacities, societal commitment, shrinking resources for health and the resultant need for greater efficiency of interventions and the realization of national Public Health goals. It also stressed the importance of Public Health for national, socioeconomic and political development. Moreover, the participants identified key strategies and initiatives for strengthening Public Health in the region. These measures include focusing on the promotion of health in all settings; social mobilization and community action; strengthening the scientific and ethical foundation for evidence-based policy formulation in Public Health; and the creation of an Executive Management Team.

  7. The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, P J; Ramanathan, V; Andreae, M O; Brenninkmeijer, C M; Campos, T; Cass, G R; Dickerson, R R; Fischer, H; de Gouw, J A; Hansel, A; Jefferson, A; Kley, D; de Laat, A T; Lal, S; Lawrence, M G; Lobert, J M; Mayol-Bracero, O L; Mitra, A P; Novakov, T; Oltmans, S J; Prather, K A; Reiner, T; Rodhe, H; Scheeren, H A; Sikka, D; Williams, J

    2001-02-09

    The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution levels were observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean toward the Intertropical Convergence Zone at about 6 degrees S. We show that agricultural burning and especially biofuel use enhance carbon monoxide concentrations. Fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning cause a high aerosol loading. The growing pollution in this region gives rise to extensive air quality degradation with local, regional, and global implications, including a reduction of the oxidizing power of the atmosphere.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Groundwater Arsenic in South and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendorf, Scott; Michael, Holly A.; van Geen, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Over the past few decades, groundwater wells installed in rural areas throughout the major river basins draining the Himalayas have become the main source of drinking water for tens of millions of people. Groundwater in this region is much less likely to contain microbial pathogens than surface water but often contains hazardous amounts of arsenic—a known carcinogen. Arsenic enters groundwater naturally from rocks and sediment by coupled biogeochemical and hydrologic processes, some of which are presently affected by human activity. Mitigation of the resulting health crisis in South and Southeast Asia requires an understanding of the transport of arsenic and key reactants such as organic carbon that could trigger release in zones with presently low groundwater arsenic levels.

  9. Seismic Structure of Southeast Asia from Full Waveform Seismic Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, P. R.; Saygin, E.; Fichtner, A.; Masturyono, M.

    2015-12-01

    We image the lower crust and upper-mantle structure of Southeast Asia with a 3D full waveform adjoint inversion scheme by directly inverting Green's functions retrieved from interstation seismic noise correlations. Synthetic Green's functions are computed at a period range between 10 and 40 s to simulate the wave propagation in the region. Misfits between observed and synthetic waveforms are reduced by iteratively updating model parameters using sensitivity kernels with a conjugate-gradient optimization method. The final model is verified via comparing the simulated waveforms with the recorded earthquakes in the region. The balanced coverage of rays in the region enabled us to image complex structure. The Australian plate is characterized with higher velocities for most of the crust, where most of Indonesia, and its surroundings show complex structure with low velocities. The transition from the oceanic part of the Australian Plate to the continental crust adjacent to the Banda Arc is clearly imaged.

  10. Resilience and well-being among children of migrant parents in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia-a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N=1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment.

  11. Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S A; Graham, Elspeth

    2015-05-04

    Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-east Asia - and in particular the feminisation of these movements - suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents' migration.

  12. [Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].

    PubMed

    Streuli, Rolf A

    2008-01-01

    On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection.

  13. Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-east Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Graham, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-east Asia – and in particular the feminisation of these movements – suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents’ migration. PMID:27134570

  14. Organic Carbon Transport through Holocene and Pleistocene Sediment from Southeast Asia: Implications for Arsenic Mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanimirova, R.; Mailloux, B. J.; Sun, J.; Bostick, B. C.; Mulvihill, C.; van Geen, A.; Mihajlov, I.; Magyar, J. S.; Ahmed, K.; Choudhury, I.; Stute, M.

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation of organic carbon coupled to the reduction of Fe (hydr)oxides is causing the mobilization of arsenic from sediment to groundwater in Southeast Asia and has resulted in a public health crisis. Recent results indicate that advected organic carbon could be a primary source of the reactive OC to the subsurface. Little is known about OC transport through aquifer sediments and its impact on aquifer geochemistry. The goal of this work was to perform column experiments using intact sediments from Holocene and Pleistocene drinking water aquifers of Southeast Asia in which unreactive OC, Eliot soil Humic Acid (ESHA), was flushed through the column and effluent geochemistry was monitored. In field-run columns flushed with anaerobic site groundwater and no ESHA, As, Fe, and Mn aqueous concentrations remained constant or decreased with flushing, indicating that redox reactions were not occurring within the columns and these elements appear to just be slowly mobilized and flushed from the sediment. In anaerobic laboratory run columns with ESHA a large range of redox responses occurred. In site F sediment complete breakthrough of ESHA occurred within 5 PV and Mn reduction occurred during the injection of ESHA, but no response of Fe and As occurred, indicating flushing of these elements. In site K sediment, complete breakthrough of ESHA occurred in 20 PV and redox reactions occurred with increases in concentration of As, Fe, and Mn, indicating that the in situ microbial population was stimulated. In Cambodian Pleistocene sediment ESHA breakthrough occurred with bromide breakthrough and no redox reactions were observed and only flushing occurred. Fluorescence analysis indicates that the ESHA mobilized in situ sediment OC during initial breakthrough in each column. These results indicate that OC can be transported through Bangladesh sediments, but that more interactions between ESHA and the sediment result in more redox reactions and As mobilization and it is this

  15. Region-wide synchrony and traveling waves of dengue across eight countries in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    van Panhuis, Willem G; Choisy, Marc; Xiong, Xin; Chok, Nian Shong; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Lam, Sai K; Chong, Chee K; Lam, Fook C; Phommasak, Bounlay; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Bouaphanh, Khamphaphongphane; Rekol, Huy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thai, Pham Quang; Duong, Tran Nhu; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Lun; Ng, Lee-Ching; Shi, Yuan; Tayag, Enrique A; Roque, Vito G; Lee Suy, Lyndon L; Jarman, Richard G; Gibbons, Robert V; Velasco, John Mark S; Yoon, In-Kyu; Burke, Donald S; Cummings, Derek A T

    2015-10-20

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus infection that causes epidemics of febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever across the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Annual epidemics are commonly observed, but there is substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity in intensity. A better understanding of this heterogeneity in dengue transmission could lead to improved epidemic prediction and disease control. Time series decomposition methods enable the isolation and study of temporal epidemic dynamics with a specific periodicity (e.g., annual cycles related to climatic drivers and multiannual cycles caused by dynamics in population immunity). We collected and analyzed up to 18 y of monthly dengue surveillance reports on a total of 3.5 million reported dengue cases from 273 provinces in eight countries in Southeast Asia, covering ∼ 10(7) km(2). We detected strong patterns of synchronous dengue transmission across the entire region, most markedly during a period of high incidence in 1997-1998, which was followed by a period of extremely low incidence in 2001-2002. This synchrony in dengue incidence coincided with elevated temperatures throughout the region in 1997-1998 and the strongest El Niño episode of the century. Multiannual dengue cycles (2-5 y) were highly coherent with the Oceanic Niño Index, and synchrony of these cycles increased with temperature. We also detected localized traveling waves of multiannual dengue epidemic cycles in Thailand, Laos, and the Philippines that were dependent on temperature. This study reveals forcing mechanisms that drive synchronization of dengue epidemics on a continental scale across Southeast Asia.

  16. On the spatial and temporal variability of ENSO precipitation and drought teleconnection in mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Timo A.; Lindgren, Ville; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Kummu, Matti

    2016-09-01

    The variability of the hydroclimate over mainland Southeast Asia is strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which has been linked to severe droughts and floods that profoundly influence human societies and ecosystems alike. Although the significance of ENSO is well understood, there are still limitations in the understanding of its effects on hydroclimate, particularly with regard to understanding the spatio-temporal characteristics and the long-term variation of its effects. Therefore we analysed the seasonal evolution and spatial variations in the effect of ENSO on precipitation over the period of 1980-2013 and the long-term variation in the ENSO teleconnection using tree-ring-derived Palmer drought severity indices (PDSIs) for the March-May season that span over the time period 1650-2004. The analyses provided an improved understanding of the seasonal evolution of the precipitation anomalies during ENSO events. The effects of ENSO were found to be most consistent and expressed over the largest areal extents during March-May of the year when the ENSO events decay. On a longer timescale, we found that ENSO has affected the region's March-May hydroclimate over the majority (95 %) of the 355-year study period and that during half (52 %) of the time ENSO caused a significant increase in hydroclimatic variability. The majority of the extremely wet and dry March-May seasons also occurred during ENSO events. However, considerable variability in ENSO's influence was revealed: the spatial pattern of precipitation anomalies varied between individual ENSO events, and the strength of ENSO's influence was found to vary through time. Given the high variability in ENSO teleconnection that we described and the limitations of the current understanding of the effects of ENSO, we suggest that the adaptation to ENSO-related extremes in hydroclimate over mainland Southeast Asia needs to recognise uncertainty as an inherent part of adaptation, must go beyond

  17. Monsoon extremes and society over the past millennium on mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Fletcher, Roland; Wang, Shi-Yu Simon; Zottoli, Brian; Pottier, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The early 21st century has seen vigorous scientific interest in the Asian monsoon and significant development of paleo-proxies of monsoon strength. These include the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas - a 700-year, gridded reconstruction of hydroclimate derived from 327 tree ring records - and several long speleothem records from China and India. Similar progress has been made on the study of monsoon climate dynamics through re-analysis data products and General Circulation Model diagnostics. The story has emerged of a variable monsoon over the latter Holocene, with extended droughts and anomalously wet episodes that occasionally and profoundly influenced the course of human history. We focus on Southeast Asia where an anomalous period of unstable climate coincided with the demise of the capital of the Khmer Empire at Angkor between the 14th and the 16th centuries, and we suggest that protracted periods of drought and deluge rain events, the latter of which damaged Angkor's extensive water management systems, may have been a significant factor in the subsequent transfer of the political capital away from Angkor. The late 16th and early 17th century experienced climate instability and the collapse of the Ming Dynasty in China under a period of drought, while Tonkin experienced floods and droughts throughout the 17th century. The 18th century was a period of great turmoil across Southeast Asia, when all of the region's polities saw great unrest and rapid realignment during one of the most extended periods of drought of the past millennium. New paleo-proxy records and the incorporation of historical documentation will improve future analyses of the interaction between climate extremes, social behavior and the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate.

  18. A probabilistic assessment of volcanic ash hazard to aviation in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Whelley, Patrick; Taisne, Benoit; Newhall, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Southeast Asia is home to hundreds of active volcanoes, largely clustered over the island chains of the Philippines and Indonesia. The prominent large scale weather feature in this region is dominated by Monsoons. The prevailing winds during the monsoon seasons can drive volcanic ash clouds over the South China Sea. Since this region is a busy aviation corridor it is important to evaluate the risk to aviation operations. This study quantifies the long-term probability that this region will be adversely affected by volcanic ash, through calculating the probability of eruptions for a range of magnitudes as well as the trajectory of the resulting ash plumes. Approximately 750 active or potentially active volcanoes are identified in Southeast Asia. They are separated into five classes by their morphology and eruptive style. For each volcano class, the typical eruption magnitude and frequencies are determined. The volcanoes are further divided into 23 geographical zones and the likelihood of each magnitude eruption for all volcano zones is estimated. Dispersion modelling is employed to estimate the concentration and extent of volcanic ash plumes based on hypothetical eruptions of Volcano Explosivity Index of 3 to 8 and 3 years of historical meteorological data. Preliminary results show that in the next decade, there is a 30 to 60% chance that volcanic ash will affect any part of the air space above the South China Sea between 6096m to 10668m at a concentration exceeding 2mg/m3. Half of this region has a 43% or greater chance of containing more than 2mg/m3 of volcanic ash. This is largely in agreement with 30 years of observations, with the exception west of Sumatra, where more ash is predicted than has been observed. The findings in this study can be used to inform scenario planning and mitigation strategy for regional aviation industry.

  19. Aerosol transport model evaluation of an extreme smoke episode in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, Edward J.; Chew, Boon Ning

    2010-04-01

    Biomass burning is one of many sources of particulate pollution in Southeast Asia, but its irregular spatial and temporal patterns mean that large episodes can cause acute air quality problems in urban areas. Fires in Sumatra and Borneo during September and October 2006 contributed to 24-h mean PM 10 concentrations above 150 μg m -3 at multiple locations in Singapore and Malaysia over several days. We use the FLAMBE model of biomass burning emissions and the NAAPS model of aerosol transport and evolution to simulate these events, and compare our simulation results to 24-h average PM 10 measurements from 54 stations in Singapore and Malaysia. The model simulation, including the FLAMBE smoke source as well as dust, sulfate, and sea salt aerosol species, was able to explain 50% or more of the variance in 24-h PM 10 observations at 29 of 54 sites. Simulation results indicated that biomass burning smoke contributed to nearly all of the extreme PM 10 observations during September-November 2006, but the exact contribution of smoke was unclear because the model severely underestimated total smoke emissions. Using regression analysis at each site, the bias in the smoke aerosol flux was determined to be a factor of between 2.5 and 10, and an overall factor of 3.5 was estimated. After application of this factor, the simulated smoke aerosol concentration averaged 20% of observed PM 10, and 40% of PM 10 for days with 24-h average concentrations above 150 μg m -3. These results suggest that aerosol transport models can aid analysis of severe pollution events in Southeast Asia, but that improvements are needed in models of biomass burning smoke emissions.

  20. Significant influences of global mean temperature and ENSO on extreme rainfall over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafuerte, Marcelino, II; Matsumoto, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Along with the increasing concerns on the consequences of global warming, and the accumulating records of disaster related to heavy rainfall events in Southeast Asia, this study investigates whether a direct link can be detected between the rising global mean temperature, as well as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and extreme rainfall over the region. The maximum likelihood modeling that allows incorporating covariates on the location parameter of the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is employed. The GEV model is fitted to annual and seasonal rainfall extremes, which were taken from a high-resolution gauge-based gridded daily precipitation data covering a span of 57 years (1951-2007). Nonstationarities in extreme rainfall are detected over the central parts of Indochina Peninsula, eastern coasts of central Vietnam, northwest of the Sumatra Island, inland portions of Borneo Island, and on the northeastern and southwestern coasts of the Philippines. These nonstationarities in extreme rainfall are directly linked to near-surface global mean temperature and ENSO. In particular, the study reveals that a kelvin increase in global mean temperature anomaly can lead to an increase of 30% to even greater than 45% in annual maximum 1-day rainfall, which were observed pronouncedly over central Vietnam, southern coast of Myanmar, northwestern sections of Thailand, northwestern tip of Sumatra, central portions of Malaysia, and the Visayas island in central Philippines. Furthermore, a pronounced ENSO influence manifested on the seasonal maximum 1-day rainfall; a northward progression of 10%-15% drier condition over Southeast Asia as the El Niño develops from summer to winter is revealed. It is important therefore, to consider the results obtained here for water resources management as well as for adaptation planning to minimize the potential adverse impact of global warming, particularly on extreme rainfall and its associated flood risk over the region

  1. Health and health-care systems in southeast Asia: diversity and transitions.

    PubMed

    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Phua, Kai Hong; Yap, Mui Teng; Pocock, Nicola S; Hashim, Jamal H; Chhem, Rethy; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Lopez, Alan D

    2011-01-29

    Southeast Asia is a region of enormous social, economic, and political diversity, both across and within countries, shaped by its history, geography, and position as a major crossroad of trade and the movement of goods and services. These factors have not only contributed to the disparate health status of the region's diverse populations, but also to the diverse nature of its health systems, which are at varying stages of evolution. Rapid but inequitable socioeconomic development, coupled with differing rates of demographic and epidemiological transitions, have accentuated health disparities and posed great public health challenges for national health systems, particularly the control of emerging infectious diseases and the rise of non-communicable diseases within ageing populations. While novel forms of health care are evolving in the region, such as corporatised public health-care systems (government owned, but operating according to corporate principles and with private-sector participation) and financing mechanisms to achieve universal coverage, there are key lessons for health reforms and decentralisation. New challenges have emerged with rising trade in health services, migration of the health workforce, and medical tourism. Juxtaposed between the emerging giant economies of China and India, countries of the region are attempting to forge a common regional identity, despite their diversity, to seek mutually acceptable and effective solutions to key regional health challenges. In this first paper in the Lancet Series on health in southeast Asia, we present an overview of key demographic and epidemiological changes in the region, explore challenges facing health systems, and draw attention to the potential for regional collaboration in health.

  2. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr‑1, with a range of 132–159 Mt C yr‑1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr‑1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr‑1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr‑1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  3. Region-wide synchrony and traveling waves of dengue across eight countries in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    van Panhuis, Willem G.; Choisy, Marc; Xiong, Xin; Chok, Nian Shong; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Lam, Sai K.; Chong, Chee K.; Lam, Fook C.; Phommasak, Bounlay; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Bouaphanh, Khamphaphongphane; Rekol, Huy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thai, Pham Quang; Duong, Tran Nhu; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Lun; Ng, Lee-Ching; Shi, Yuan; Tayag, Enrique A.; Roque, Vito G.; Lee Suy, Lyndon L.; Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Velasco, John Mark S.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Burke, Donald S.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus infection that causes epidemics of febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever across the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Annual epidemics are commonly observed, but there is substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity in intensity. A better understanding of this heterogeneity in dengue transmission could lead to improved epidemic prediction and disease control. Time series decomposition methods enable the isolation and study of temporal epidemic dynamics with a specific periodicity (e.g., annual cycles related to climatic drivers and multiannual cycles caused by dynamics in population immunity). We collected and analyzed up to 18 y of monthly dengue surveillance reports on a total of 3.5 million reported dengue cases from 273 provinces in eight countries in Southeast Asia, covering ∼107 km2. We detected strong patterns of synchronous dengue transmission across the entire region, most markedly during a period of high incidence in 1997–1998, which was followed by a period of extremely low incidence in 2001–2002. This synchrony in dengue incidence coincided with elevated temperatures throughout the region in 1997–1998 and the strongest El Niño episode of the century. Multiannual dengue cycles (2–5 y) were highly coherent with the Oceanic Niño Index, and synchrony of these cycles increased with temperature. We also detected localized traveling waves of multiannual dengue epidemic cycles in Thailand, Laos, and the Philippines that were dependent on temperature. This study reveals forcing mechanisms that drive synchronization of dengue epidemics on a continental scale across Southeast Asia. PMID:26438851

  4. Understanding spatio-temporal variation of vegetation phenology and rainfall seasonality in the monsoon Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Suepa, Tanita; Qi, Jiaguo; Lawawirojwong, Siam; Messina, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of remote sensing are considered to be the primary advantage in environmental studies. With long-term and frequent satellite observations, it is possible to monitor changes in key biophysical attributes such as phenological characteristics, and relate them to climate change by examining their correlations. Although a number of remote sensing methods have been developed to quantify vegetation seasonal cycles using time-series of vegetation indices, there is limited effort to explore and monitor changes and trends of vegetation phenology in the Monsoon Southeast Asia, which is adversely affected by changes in the Asian monsoon climate. In this study, MODIS EVI and TRMM time series data, along with field survey data, were analyzed to quantify phenological patterns and trends in the Monsoon Southeast Asia during 2001-2010 period and assess their relationship with climate change in the region. The results revealed a great regional variability and inter-annual fluctuation in vegetation phenology. The phenological patterns varied spatially across the region and they were strongly correlated with climate variations and land use patterns. The overall phenological trends appeared to shift towards a later and slightly longer growing season up to 14 days from 2001 to 2010. Interestingly, the corresponding rainy season seemed to have started earlier and ended later, resulting in a slightly longer wet season extending up to 7 days, while the total amount of rainfall in the region decreased during the same time period. The phenological shifts and changes in vegetation growth appeared to be associated with climate events such as EL Niño in 2005. Furthermore, rainfall seemed to be the dominant force driving the phenological changes in naturally vegetated areas and rainfed croplands, whereas land use management was the key factor in irrigated agricultural areas.

  5. Emergence and diversity of begomoviruses infecting solanaceous crops in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Shih, Su-Ling; Lee, Li-Mei

    2014-06-24

    Over the past three decades diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) have emerged to be important constraints to the production of solanaceous crops, particularly tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum spp.), in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most studied of these is Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which has spread to many other areas from its likely origin in the Mediterranean basin region. The virus is usually associated with the polyphagous and virus-vectoring-efficient B-biotype of its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, in Southeast and East Asia, a wide variety of distinct local begomovirus species have been identified from tomato and pepper crops over this period, and TYLCV was detected in Japan only in about 1996, China in 2006 and Korea in 2008, despite B-biotype whiteflies being present in several of the countries of the region since at least the early 1990s. Continental Southeast Asia appears to be a major center of diversity for begomoviruses and some species may have spread across the region; Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Myanmar region into southern China and is now displacing the local tomato-infecting species in Taiwan, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLCKaV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Vietnam region to Java, Indonesia. Since many of the native tomato- or pepper-infecting begomoviruses and associated satellite DNAs have also been detected in local weed species, it seems likely that their ancestors originated in these weed hosts, but with the expansion and intensification of tomato and pepper production in the region, there was selection for recombinant or mutant forms with greater virulence on tomato and/or pepper. Expansion and intensification of these crops may also have resulted in increased populations of local, and if present, B- or Q-biotype whiteflies, aiding the increase

  6. First finding of Southeast Asia topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Kinmen, Taiwan, in the 2012 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yeou-Liang; Chang, Chia-Yi; Pan, Chu-Hsiang; Deng, Ming-Chung; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Lee, Fan

    2014-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. The Southeast Asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype O of the virus, is prevalent in some Asian countries, but had not previously been found in Taiwan. The topotype was first found in pigs in Kinmen Island, Taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Outbreaks were reported at 4 farms, resulting in the culling of 628 pigs and 1 cattle. Pigs were the only species infected during the outbreak. The incursion of Southeast Asia topotype into Taiwan implies the expansion of the topotype in East Asia.

  7. First Finding of Southeast Asia Topotype of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Kinmen, Taiwan, in the 2012 Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    LIN, Yeou-Liang; CHANG, Chia-Yi; PAN, Chu-Hsiang; DENG, Ming-Chung; TSAI, Hsiang-Jung; LEE, Fan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. The Southeast Asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype O of the virus, is prevalent in some Asian countries, but had not previously been found in Taiwan. The topotype was first found in pigs in Kinmen Island, Taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Outbreaks were reported at 4 farms, resulting in the culling of 628 pigs and 1 cattle. Pigs were the only species infected during the outbreak. The incursion of Southeast Asia topotype into Taiwan implies the expansion of the topotype in East Asia. PMID:25056674

  8. Constraints on total fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, Vincent; Wooster, Martin; Kaiser, Johannes; Gaveau, David; Flemming, Johannes; Parrington, Mark; Inness, Antje; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Main, Bruce; van Weele, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes in the south of Kalimantan, the southeastern provinces of Sumatra, and West Papua, the extent of the fires was greatly inflated by an extended period of drought associated with a particularly strong El Niño. In this contribution we provide an estimate of the total carbon released in these fires, making use of satellite observations of the fire's radiative power output as processed with GFAS, applied in the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS: http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/). The carbon emissions are further constrained with MOPITT atmospheric CO column measurements as well as unique on-site plume measurements on Kalimantan. We estimate the carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest over the maritime southeast Asian region since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997.

  9. Maternal, neonatal, and child health in southeast Asia: towards greater regional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Acuin, Cecilia S; Khor, Geok Lin; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Achadi, Endang L; Htay, Thein Thein; Firestone, Rebecca; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-02-05

    Although maternal and child mortality are on the decline in southeast Asia, there are still major disparities, and greater equity is key to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We used comparable cross-national data sources to document mortality trends from 1990 to 2008 and to assess major causes of maternal and child deaths. We present inequalities in intervention coverage by two common measures of wealth quintiles and rural or urban status. Case studies of reduction in mortality in Thailand and Indonesia indicate the varying extents of success and point to some factors that accelerate progress. We developed a Lives Saved Tool analysis for the region and for country subgroups to estimate deaths averted by cause and intervention. We identified three major patterns of maternal and child mortality reduction: early, rapid downward trends (Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand); initially high declines (sustained by Vietnam but faltering in the Philippines and Indonesia); and high initial rates with a downward trend (Laos, Cambodia, and Myanmar). Economic development seems to provide an important context that should be coupled with broader health-system interventions. Increasing coverage and consideration of the health-system context is needed, and regional support from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations can provide increased policy support to achieve maternal, neonatal, and child health goals.

  10. The genus Dromanthomorphus Pic, 1921 (Coleoptera, Cleroidea: Malachiidae) in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tshernyshev, Sergei E

    2016-07-22

    South-East Asian species of the genus Dromanthomorphus Pic, 1921 and several species provisionally attributed to Hadrocnemus Kraatz, 1895 are studied, and their taxonomic position is specified. Three new species are described from the Philippines: D. subflabellatus Tshernyshev, sp. n., D. restrictus Tshernyshev, sp. n. and D. subtilis Tshernyshev, sp. n. Seven species are transferred from Hadrocnemus to Dromanthomorphus, D. apoensis (Wittmer, 1999) comb. n., D. blaisei (Pic, 1926) comb. n., D. chiangensis (Wittmer, 1999) comb. n., D. depressicornis (Pic, 1919) comb. n., D. gravieri (Pic, 1923) comb. n., D. javanus (Wittmer, 1989) comb. n. and D. tonkineus (Pic, 1919) comb. n. Three species are transferred from Dromanthomorphus to Oculapalochrus Tshernyshev, 2015, O. ranuensis Wittmer 1990 comb. n., O. saigonensis (Pic, 1951) comb. n. and O. suttoni Wittmer, 1995 comb. n., and two species from Dromanthomorphus to Mimapalochrus Tshernyshev, 2015, M. cingalensis (Champion, 1921) comb. n. and M. dolokensis Wittmer, 1999 comb. n. Illustrations of male external appearance, metathoracic appendage, urites and genitalia, and distribution maps are provided. A determination key to all species of Dromanthomorphus from South-East Asia is also proposed.

  11. Millennium Development Goal 1: poverty, hunger and decent work in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article considers three questions: 1) what progress has been made in achieving MDG1 targets?; 2) what challenges remain?; and 3) what more could and should be done? To examine these questions, the article assesses the progress of Southeast Asia in seeking to achieve MDG1. It argues that the region is 'on track' to achieve MDG 1 targets, although significant challenges such as inequality remain. Economic growth, significant structural change and incorporation into global value chains have contributed to MDG progress. However, this is a double-edged sword as exposure to global economic turbulence can increase. The longer-term reduction of poverty, inequality and social exclusion is a question of empowerment of local producers within value chains-a shift in economic power and control through pro-poor strategies strong enough to effect substantive structural change. The article outlines key concepts; identifies the main characteristics of Southeast Asian poverty; outlines what more needs to be done; and concludes by reprising the article's findings and weighing the prospects for 2010-15 and beyond.

  12. Investigating the haze transport from 1997 biomass burning in Southeast Asia: its impact upon Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koe, Lawrence C. C.; Arellano, Avelino F.; McGregor, John L.

    The 1997 Indonesia forest fires was an environmental disaster of exceptional proportions. Such a disaster caused massive transboundary air pollution and indiscriminate destruction of biodiversity in the world. The immediate consequence of the fires was the production of large amounts of haze in the region, causing visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. Furthermore, fires of these magnitudes are potential contributors to global warming and climate change due to the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases and other pyrogenic products.The long-range transport of fire-related haze in the region is investigated using trajectories from the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Limited Area Model (DARLAM). Emission scenarios were constructed for hotspot areas in Sumatra and Kalimantan for the months of September and October 1997 to determine the period and fire locations most critical to Singapore. This study also examines some transport issues raised from field observations. Results show that fires in the coastal areas of southeast Sumatra and southwest Kalimantan can be potential contributors to transboundary air pollution in Singapore. Singapore was directly affected by haze from these areas whereas Kuala Lumpur was heavily affected by the haze coming from Sumatra. In most cases, Singapore was more affected by fires from Kalimantan than was Kuala Lumpur. This was mainly a result of the shifting of monsoons. The transition of monsoons resulted in weaker low-level winds and shifted convergence zones near to the southeast of Peninsular Malaysia. In addition to severe drought and massive fire activity in 1997, the timing of the monsoon transition has a strong influence on haze transport in the region.

  13. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of selected popular foods consumed in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijuan; Lee, Davina Elizabeth Mei; Tan, Wei Jie Kevin; Ranawana, Dinesh Viren; Quek, Yu Chin Rina; Goh, Hui Jen; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-03-14

    The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of standard portion sizes of Southeast Asian traditional foods. A total of fifteen popular Southeast Asian foods were evaluated. Of these foods, three were soft drinks, while the other twelve were solid foods commonly consumed in this region. In total, forty-seven healthy participants (eighteen males and twenty-nine females) volunteered to consume either glucose at least twice or one of the fifteen test foods after a 10-12 h overnight fast. Blood glucose concentrations were analysed before consumption of the test food, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption, using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value of the test food as a percentage of each participant's average IAUC value, with glucose as the reference food. Among the fifteen foods tested, six belonged to low-GI foods (Ice Green Tea, Beehoon, Pandan Waffle, Curry Puff, Youtiao and Kaya Butter Toast), three belonged to medium-GI foods (Barley Drink, Char Siew Pau and Nasi Lemak), and the other six belonged to high-GI foods (Ice Lemon Tea, Chinese Carrot Cake, Chinese Yam Cake, Chee Cheong Fun, Lo Mai Gai and Pink Rice Cake). The GI and GL values of these traditional foods provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians on the optimal food choice for glycaemic control. Moreover, our dataset provides GI values of fifteen foods that were not previously tested extensively, and it presents values of foods commonly consumed in Southeast Asia.

  14. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Huarong; Miller, Mark P.; Yang, Feng; Chan, Hon Ki; Gaubert, Philippe; Ades, Gary; Fischer, Gunter A

    2015-01-01

    Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations). These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica). The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  15. Insight into the Peopling of Mainland Southeast Asia from Thai Population Genetic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chaichoompu, Kridsadakorn; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Nuinoon, Manit; Sripichai, Orapan; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat; Praphanphoj, Verayuth; Tongsima, Sissades

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable ethno-linguistic and genetic variation among human populations in Asia, although tracing the origins of this diversity is complicated by migration events. Thailand is at the center of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), a region within Asia that has not been extensively studied. Genetic substructure may exist in the Thai population, since waves of migration from southern China throughout its recent history may have contributed to substantial gene flow. Autosomal SNP data were collated for 438,503 markers from 992 Thai individuals. Using the available self-reported regional origin, four Thai subpopulations genetically distinct from each other and from other Asian populations were resolved by Neighbor-Joining analysis using a 41,569 marker subset. Using an independent Principal Components-based unsupervised clustering approach, four major MSEA subpopulations were resolved in which regional bias was apparent. A major ancestry component was common to these MSEA subpopulations and distinguishes them from other Asian subpopulations. On the other hand, these MSEA subpopulations were admixed with other ancestries, in particular one shared with Chinese. Subpopulation clustering using only Thai individuals and the complete marker set resolved four subpopulations, which are distributed differently across Thailand. A Sino-Thai subpopulation was concentrated in the Central region of Thailand, although this constituted a minority in an otherwise diverse region. Among the most highly differentiated markers which distinguish the Thai subpopulations, several map to regions known to affect phenotypic traits such as skin pigmentation and susceptibility to common diseases. The subpopulation patterns elucidated have important implications for evolutionary and medical genetics. The subpopulation structure within Thailand may reflect the contributions of different migrants throughout the history of MSEA. The information will also be important for genetic association

  16. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-05

    Chatchai Administration Corruption [NAEO NA 20 Jun] 33 Columnist Urges Appointment of Civilian Defense Minister [ BAN MUANG 19 Jun] 34 Seminar...May in Ban Souansavan Village, Sivilai Canton, Paksan District, the Central Organization of the Lao Women’s Federation officially presented a...administrative committees of Sivilai Canton and Ban Souansavan Village provided 1 hectare of land to the meeting place so that activities could be

  17. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    have said the foreign-exchange-strapped Ran- goon regime funded the offensive at least in part by contracts signed since the coup with Western oil ...dictatorship in 1962 which isolated and impoverished the resources-rich land. American and other Western oil experts now work in Rangoon and on-shore sites...failing to resolve the question of oil royalties and the problem of about 500,000 aliens in Sabah. They have raised these subjects as issues in the

  18. Mitochondrial DNA data indicate an introduction through Mainland Southeast Asia for Australian dingoes and Polynesian domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Mattias C. R.; Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Boonyaprakob, Ukadej; Wilton, Alan; Tanabe, Yuichi; Savolainen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the late stages of the global dispersal of dogs, dingoes appear in the Australian archaeological record 3500 years BP, and dogs were one of three domesticates brought with the colonization of Polynesia, but the introduction routes to this region remain unknown. This also relates to questions about human history, such as to what extent the Polynesian culture was introduced with the Austronesian expansion from Taiwan or adopted en route, and whether pre-Neolithic Australia was culturally influenced by the surrounding Neolithic world. We investigate these questions by mapping the distribution of the mtDNA founder haplotypes for dingoes (A29) and ancient Polynesian dogs (Arc1 and Arc2) in samples across Southern East Asia (n = 424) and Island Southeast Asia (n = 219). All three haplotypes were found in South China, Mainland Southeast Asia and Indonesia but absent in Taiwan and the Philippines, and the mtDNA diversity among dingoes indicates an introduction to Australia 4600–18 300 years BP. These results suggest that Australian dingoes and Polynesian dogs originate from dogs introduced to Indonesia via Mainland Southeast Asia before the Neolithic, and not from Taiwan together with the Austronesian expansion. This underscores the complex origins of Polynesian culture and the isolation from Neolithic influence of the pre-Neolithic Australian culture. PMID:21900326

  19. Perceived Professional Development Needs of English-Speaking Evangelical Academic Deans in Africa and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study identified the perceived professional development needs of English-speaking evangelical theological school deans in Africa and Asia, as a basis for evaluating or creating professional development programs for these regions. It answered the question: What are the perceptions of the need for professional development prior to and after…

  20. Challenging Educational Injustice: "Grassroots" Privatisation in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of low-cost private schools "mushrooming" in poor areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and elsewhere, is now well-documented. Findings from research by the author's teams and others show that these schools are serving a majority (urban and peri-urban) or significant minority (rural) of the poor, including…

  1. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. October 1973 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  2. Monitoring the quality of medicines: results from Africa, Asia, and South America.

    PubMed

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M; Lukulay, Patrick H

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003-2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines.

  3. Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Illness: Views from Africa, India, Asia and Australia. Monograph Series, Number 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, William A., Ed.; Wolkon, George H., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This special journal "Theme" issue presents a collection of papers reflecting the psychiatric practices and community treatment for persons with severe psychiatric disabilities in Asia, Africa, Australia, and India. Some of the papers were presented at the 1988 meeting of the World Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation (WAPR) in…

  4. Monitoring the Quality of Medicines: Results from Africa, Asia, and South America

    PubMed Central

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S.; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M.; Lukulay, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003–2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines. PMID:25897073

  5. Decadal-scale relationship between measurements of aerosols, land-use change, and fire over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J. B.; Lecoeur, E.

    2015-10-01

    A simultaneous analysis of 13 years of remotely sensed data of land cover, fires, precipitation, and aerosols from the MODIS, TRMM, and MISR satellites and the AERONET network over Southeast Asia is performed, leading to a set of robust relationships between land-use change and fire being found on inter-annual and intra-annual scales over Southeast Asia, reflecting the heavy amounts of anthropogenic influence over land use change and fires in this region of the world. First, we find that fires occur annually, but with a considerable amount of variance in their onset, duration, and intensity from year to year, and from two separate regions within Southeast Asia from each other. This variability is already partially understood from previous works, including the impacts of both inter-annually and intra-annually occurring influences such as the Monsoon and El-Nino events, but yet there are other as of yet unknown influences that also are found to strongly influence the results. Second, we show that a simple regression-model of the land-cover, fire, and precipitation data can be used to recreate a robust representation of the timing and magnitude of measured AOD from multiple measurements sources of this region using either 8-day (better for onset and duration) or monthly based (better for magnitude) measurements, but not daily measurements. We find that the reconstructed AOD matches the timing and intensity from AERONET measurements to within 70 to 90 % and the timing and intensity of MISR measurements from to within 50 to 95 %. This is a unique finding in this part of the world, since could-covered regions are large, yet the robustness of the model is still capable of holding over many of these regions, where otherwise no fires are observed and hence no emissions source contribution to AOD would otherwise be thought to occur. Third, we determine that while Southeast Asia is a source region of such intense smoke emissions, that it is also impacted by transport of smoke

  6. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  7. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  8. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-04-12

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions.

  9. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, Peoples of Asia and Africa, No. 2, Mar - Apr 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mongolian, Vietnamese, and other peoples of the South and Southeast Asia. A certain group of chauvinistically- minded Chinese historicans of today...English ECONOMIST wrote, not without sarcasm , that "the West, 16 for example, can fully permit Itself to open markets for importing computers...is simply impossible when the interests of the consumers of raw materials are ignored. 19 It must also be borne in mind that the developing

  10. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as “FODMAPs” and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food commonly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937

  11. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as "FODMAPs" and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food com - monly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes.

  12. Gravity Derived Moho Depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    East and Southeast Asia and Western Pacific have extreme topography and both the youngest and oldest oceanic basins in the world, and are ideal places to understand oceanic basin evolution and continent-ocean interactions. Crustal structure is critical to understand the regional geodynamic processes. We present our recent inversion of Moho depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific from satellite gravity data. Because the marginal basins have experienced different cooling histories, we perform thermal correction after the simple Bouguer correction based on the plate cooling model. The model parameters are tested by varying the input plate thickness and mantle temperature with 5 km and 50°C steps, respectively. The evaluation criteria of thermal correction is that the regions with similar water depths have similar Moho depths. We find the best-fit plate thickness and mantle temperature are 95 km and 1300°C, respectively. The Moho undulations are then estimated from residual Bouguer gravity based on the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Because the study area convers distinct geological settings, we implement two gravity inversion strategies. In the first strategy, we use a constant density contrast of 0.38 g/cm3 across the Moho and a reference depth of 25 km for the entire study area. Using just one density contrast results in an obvious shallow Moho in continental region. In the second strategy, the study area is divided into four blocks, each covering either the continents or oceans mainly. Moho depths range approximately between 5 and 65 km. The average Moho depths of continental and continental shelf domains are about 35 and 23 km, respectively. Moho depths beneath the marginal basins are averaged at about 16 km. This large mean Moho depth is attributed to numerous seamounts, volcanic chains and ridges, where the Moho depths can be up to ~35 km. We find that the density contrast across the Moho varies between 0.33 and 0.40 g/cm3, approximately 0.40 g/cm3 in

  13. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-08-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to

  14. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-01-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to

  15. Variability in tropospheric carbon monoxide over an urban site in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, L. K.; Sheel, Varun; Kajino, M.; Nedelec, P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper analyses MOZAIC (Measurements of Ozone aboard Airbus in-service airCraft) measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) profiles over Bangkok to discuss the seasonality in vertical distribution during year 2005-2006. The mixing ratios of CO were enhanced in the lower troposphere being highest in winter followed by summer and wet seasons. During all the seasons, the mixing ratio of CO decreased rapidly and remained low in the middle troposphere. At higher altitudes (6-12 km), CO shows enhanced values particularly during wet and early winter seasons. The strong seasonality in CO was caused by the seasonal shift in the patterns of the long-range transport and biomass burning (BB) in South and Southeast Asia (S-SE Asia). Flow of cleaner air and negligible BB resulted in the lowest mixing ratio of CO in the wet season. In addition to anthropogenic influence, the long-range transport and BB caused the higher CO in the winter and summer seasons, respectively. Despite extensive local BB activities in Thailand during the summer season, the moderate levels of CO were attributed to the dilution due to flow of cleaner marine from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. We have also compared the observations with the Model for Ozone And Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) simulations. Mostly the observations lie between the MOZART-2 and MOZART-4 simulations as they underestimate and overestimate the observed CO, respectively. In the middle and upper troposphere, both the observed and simulated mixing ratios of CO during September-November of year 2006 were higher by 15-30 ppbv compared to the same period of year 2005. Our analysis indicates the impact of El Niño induced extensive BB in Indonesia during the year 2006.

  16. Formation of ionospheric irregularities over Southeast Asia during the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spogli, Luca; Cesaroni, Claudio; Di Mauro, Domenico; Pezzopane, Michael; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Musicò, Elvira; Povero, Gabriella; Pini, Marco; Dovis, Fabio; Romero, Rodrigo; Linty, Nicola; Abadi, Prayitno; Nuraeni, Fitri; Husin, Asnawi; Le Huy, Minh; Lan, Tran Thi; La, The Vinh; Pillat, Valdir Gil; Floury, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the geospace response to the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm leveraging on instruments spread over Southeast Asia (SEA), covering a wide longitudinal sector of the low-latitude ionosphere. A regional characterization of the storm is provided, identifying the peculiarities of ionospheric irregularity formation. The novelties of this work are the characterization in a broad longitudinal range and the methodology relying on the integration of data acquired by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, magnetometers, ionosondes, and Swarm satellites. This work is a legacy of the project EquatoRial Ionosphere Characterization in Asia (ERICA). ERICA aimed to capture the features of both crests of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) and trough (EIT) by means of a dedicated measurement campaign. The campaign lasted from March to October 2015 and was able to observe the ionospheric variability causing effects on radio systems, GNSS in particular. The multiinstrumental and multiparametric observations of the region enabled an in-depth investigation of the response to the largest geomagnetic storm of the current solar cycle in a region scarcely reported in literature. Our work discusses the comparison between northern and southern crests of the EIA in the SEA region. The observations recorded positive and negative ionospheric storms, spread F conditions, scintillation enhancement and inhibition, and total electron content variability. The ancillary information on the local magnetic field highlights the variety of ionospheric perturbations during the different storm phases. The combined use of ionospheric bottomside, topside, and integrated information points out how the storm affects the F layer altitude and the consequent enhancement/suppression of scintillations.

  17. Hantavirus seropositivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge; Henttonen, Heikki; Tran, Annelise; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR where they were collected. Rodents were tested by serological methods that detect several hantaviruses, including pathogenic ones. Rodents with a seropositive status were more likely to be found near to agriculture on steep land, and also in environments with a high proportion of agriculture on steep land. These results suggest that in Southeast Asia, hantaviruses, which are often associated with generalist rodent species with a preference for agricultural land, may benefit from land conversion to agriculture.

  18. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    been unrealisticably high. Until 1983 Southeast Asia presented a fairly united front on population policy matters. The momentous break occurred when the Malaysian Prime Minister announced to his current 15 million people a target of 70 million for Malaysia's population and followed this up with pronatalist policies in support of this goal. The key point in the context of this paper, is to emphasize that perceptions of national self-interest have led to the adoption of widely divergent policies in neighboring Malaysia and Singapore. Singapore is offering strong financial incentives for its socioeconomically disadvantaged groups to have fewer children. Malaysia's incentives to have more people will have most impact on the disadvantaged groups. There is little difference between Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam on fertility goals, and their perceptions of the problem appear similar. Malaysian population and ethnic policies have had a number of direct effects on Australia. It was ethnic politics that determined Malaysia's hard line attitude toward Vietnamese refugees. Australia's acceptance of large numbers of Vietnamese refugees probably resulted as much from the strong pressure applied by ASEAN nations to do so as from humanitarian grounds. Another aspect of Malaysian ethnic politics which has had direct repercussions on Australia is the discrimination against non-Malay students for places in Malaysian universities.

  19. A 50-m Forest Cover Map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and Its Application on Forest Fragmentation Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Dinh Duong, Nguyen; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×106 km2 (GlobCover) to 2.69×106 km2 (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity. PMID:24465714

  20. Regionalism and the Defense of Southeast Asia: An Analysis of ASEAN’s Potential to Assume a Security Dimension.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    systems . Poten- tial sources of discord must be minimized and sacrifices must inevitably be made by individual nations in support of more important common...be completed; however, the potential for irrigation , navigation, * and hydroelectric power offered by the Mekong River which flows for 2,600 miles...ZOPFAN proposal calling for accommodation between the capitalist and socialist systems may have contributed to a more stable Southeast Asia by

  1. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Duong, Nguyen Dinh; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6) km(2) (GlobCover) to 2.69×10(6) km(2) (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity.

  2. Islamic Terrorism in Southeast Asia: An Effects-Based U.S. Regional Strategy Against Jemaah Islamiyah and Abu Sayyaf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    Marriott Hotel in Jakarta was also a former Ngruki student.18 In 1985, fearing a second imprisonment, Ba’asyir and Sungkar fled to Malaysia, taking...detonated a sports utility vehicle filled with explosives in front of the J.W. Marriott hotel in Jakarta, leaving twelve people dead and injuring more... tourism . The transportation network dramatically affects insurgent operations in Southeast Asia. As previously mentioned, maritime lines of

  3. Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia from 2008 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Jantafong, Tippawan; Sangtong, Pradit; Saenglub, Wimontiane; Mungkundar, Chatthapon; Romlamduan, Narin; Lekchareonsuk, Chalermpol; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa

    2015-04-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) affects the swine industry worldwide. Annual surveillances taken from 2008 to 2013 revealed a 13.86% prevalence of PRRSVs in swine populations in Thailand. The selected positive samples were genetically characterized based on global systems and phylogenetic trees that were constructed using 967 ORF5 samples from this study, the collective sequences from Thailand and Southeast Asia and reference sequences. The results showed that both types I and II have been circulating in Thai swine and that genotype II was more prevalent than genotype I. Only type II was found in other countries in Southeast Asia. Type I PRRSVs from Thailand are clustered in subtype 1, clades A, D and H. Type II PRRSVs are topologically classified in lineage 1 and sublineages 5.1, 5.2 and 8.7, of which sublineage 8.7 was predominant, especially after 2010. PRRSVs in sublineage 8.7 are divided into two groups: classical NA and HP-PRRSV. An analysis of all HP-PRRSVs in Southeast Asia revealed four separate clades--A (SX2009-like), B (09HEN1-like), JXA1-like and GXFCH08-like--reflecting four different introductions of these viruses into Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. HP-PRRSV first appeared in Thailand and Cambodia in 2008, 2 years before the first epidemic outbreaks. Recently, the genetics of PRRSVs in Southeast Asia have become more diverse. Thus, PRRSV genetics must be continually characterized and phylogenetically analyzed using global systematic classifications to provide annual genetic information for PRRS control and vaccine selection.

  4. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Steven; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Nguyen-Mai, Huong; Harper, Sherilee

    2015-01-01

    The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science) were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer’s health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia. PMID:26501297

  5. Evolutionary and Ecological Dynamics of Transboundary Disease Caused by H5N1 Virus in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wei, K; Lin, Y; Xie, D

    2015-06-01

    Southeast Asia has been the breeding ground for many emerging diseases in the past decade, and it is in this region that new genetic variants of HPAI H5N1 viruses have been emerging. Cross-border movement of animals accelerates the spread of H5N1, and the changing environmental conditions also exert strong selective pressure on the viruses. The transboundary zoonotic diseases caused by H5N1 pose a serious and continual threat to global economy and public health. Here, we divided the H5N1 viruses isolated in Southeast Asia during 2003-2009 into four groups according to their phylogenetic relationships among HA gene sequences. Molecular evolution analysis suggests populations in expansion rather than a positive selection for group 2 and group 3, yet group 4 is under strong positive selection. Site 193 was found to be a potential glycosylation site and located in receptor-binding domain. Note that site 193 tends to appear in avian isolates instead of human strains. Population dynamics analysis reveals that the effective population size of infections in Southeast Asia has undergone three obvious increases, and the results are consistent with the epidemiological analysis. Ecological and phylogeographical analyses show that agro-ecological environments, migratory birds, domestic waterfowl, especially free-ranging ducks, are crucial in the occurrence, maintenance and spread of H5N1 virus. The epidemiological links between Indonesia and Suphanburi observed suggest that viruses in Indonesia were originated from multiple introductions.

  6. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Steven; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Nguyen-Mai, Huong; Harper, Sherilee

    2015-10-15

    The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science) were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer's health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

  7. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  8. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nick; Moore, Tim; Crofts, Nick

    2012-07-09

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers.In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness.While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR.

  9. From BASE-ASIA Toward 7-SEAS: A Satellite-Surface Perspective of Boreal Spring Biomass-Burning Aerosols and Clouds in Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, William K.-M.; Li, Can; Gabriel, Philip M.; Ji, Qiang; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, E. Judd; Nguyen, Anh X.; Janjai, Serm; Lin, Neng-Huei; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Boonjawat, Jariya; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Fu, Joshua S.; Hansell, Richard A.; Sayer, Andrew M.; Gautam, Ritesh; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Goodloe, Colby S.; Miko, Laddawan R.; Shu, Peter K.; Loftus, Adrian M.; Huang, Jingfeng; Kim, Jin Young; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Pantina, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent field studies conducted by NASA's SMART-COMMIT (and ACHIEVE, to be operated in 2013) mobile laboratories, jointly with distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and MPLNET, http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and other contributing instruments over northern Southeast Asia. These three mobile laboratories, collectively called SMARTLabs (cf. http://smartlabs.gsfc.nasa.gov/, Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research & Testbed Laboratories) comprise a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that are pivotal in providing high spectral and temporal measurements, complementing the collocated spatial observations from various Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. A satellite-surface perspective and scientific findings, drawn from the BASE-ASIA (2006) field deployment as well as a series of ongoing 7-SEAS (2010-13) field activities over northern Southeast Asia are summarized, concerning (i) regional properties of aerosols from satellite and in situ measurements, (ii) cloud properties from remote sensing and surface observations, (iii) vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds, and (iv) regional aerosol radiative effects and impact assessment. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning, exhibits highly consistent spatial and temporal distribution patterns, with major variability arising from changes in the magnitude of the aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from the source regions, the tightly coupled-aerosolecloud system provides a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring the micro- and macro-scale relationships of the complex interactions. The climatic significance is presented through large-scale anti-correlations between aerosol and precipitation anomalies, showing spatial and seasonal variability, but their precise cause-and-effect relationships

  10. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Berger, S Dar; Chadha, S S; Singh, R J; Lal, P; Tonsing, J; Harries, A D

    2015-03-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012-both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere.

  11. Haze in Southeast Asia: Needed Local Actions for a Regional Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odihi, J. O.

    - Southeast Asia experienced disastrous haze episodes in 1997 and 1998 as a result of natural factors such as the El-Niño occurrence and its attendant drought, which aided desiccation and facilitated high combustibility of forest resources, and human activities such as widespread burning of forests in the lush tropical environment. The human factors that caused the haze are presented in this paper, and the conclusion is that Nature is not guilty. A comprehensive approach that tackles the root causes of the haze problem is suggested. Particularly, socioeconomic problems of the poor who use fire as part of their land management, promulgation and effective enforcement of environmental laws are needed on the one hand to reduce the frequency and magnitude of haze episodes in the future. On the other hand, education of the public on `safe' behavior during haze episodes is necessary to avert large scale haze-related disasters or to prevent haze from becoming instantly synonymous with disaster in the region.

  12. Harmonisation of food labelling regulations in Southeast Asia: benefits, challenges and implications.

    PubMed

    Kasapila, William; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2011-01-01

    In the globalised world of the 21st century, issues of food and nutrition labelling are of pre-eminent importance. Several international bodies, including the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation, are encouraging countries to harmonise their food and nutrition regulations with international standards, guidelines and recommendations such as those for Codex Alimentarius. Through harmonisation, these organisations envisage fewer barriers to trade and freer movement of food products between countries, which would open doors to new markets and opportunities for the food industry. In turn, increased food trade would enhance economic development and allow consumers a greater choice of products. Inevitably, however, embracing harmonisation brings along cost implications and challenges that have to be overcome. Moreover, the harmonisation process is complex and sporadic in light of the tasks that countries have to undertake; for example, updating legislation, strengthening administrative capabilities and establishing analytical laboratories. This review discusses the legislation and regulations that govern food and nutrition labelling in Southeast Asia, and highlights the discrepancies that exist in this regard, their origin and consequences. It also gives an account of the current status of harmonising labelling of pre-packaged foodstuffs in the region and explains the subsequent benefits, challenges and implications for governments, the food industry and consumers.

  13. Oil Palm expansion over Southeast Asia: land use change and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, S. J.; Heald, C. L.; Geddes, J.; Marlier, M. E.; Austin, K.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). Much of this expansion has come at the expense of natural forests and grasslands. Aircraft measurements from a 2008 campaign, OP3, found that oil palm plantations emit as much as 7 times more isoprene than nearby natural forests. Furthermore, SEA is a rapidly developing region, with increasing urban population, and growing air quality concerns. Thus, SEA represents an ideal case study to examine the impacts of land use change on air quality in the region, and whether those changes can be detected from satellite observations of atmospheric composition. We investigate the impacts of historical and future oil palm expansion in SEA using satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We examine the impact of palm plantations on surface-atmosphere processes (dry deposition, biogenic emissions). We show the sensitivity of air quality to current and future oil palm expansion scenarios, and discuss the limitations of current satellite measurements in capturing these changes. Our results indicate that while the impact of oil palm expansion on air quality can be significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space.

  14. Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Clark, Taane G; Jacob, Christopher G; Cummings, Michael P; Miotto, Olivo; Dondorp, Arjen M; Fukuda, Mark M; Nosten, Francois; Noedl, Harald; Imwong, Mallika; Bethell, Delia; Se, Youry; Lon, Chanthap; Tyner, Stuart D; Saunders, David L; Socheat, Duong; Ariey, Frederic; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Starzengruber, Peter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Stepniewska, Kasia; Flegg, Jennifer; Arze, Cesar; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; Silva, Joana C; Ricklefs, Stacy M; Porcella, Stephen F; Stephens, Robert M; Adams, Matthew; Kenefic, Leo J; Campino, Susana; Auburn, Sarah; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Su, Xin-zhuan; White, Nicholas J; Ringwald, Pascal; Plowe, Christopher V

    2013-01-02

    The recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in western Cambodia could threaten prospects for malaria elimination. Identification of the genetic basis of resistance would provide tools for molecular surveillance, aiding efforts to contain resistance. Clinical trials of artesunate efficacy were conducted in Bangladesh, in northwestern Thailand near the Myanmar border, and at two sites in western Cambodia. Parasites collected from trial participants were genotyped at 8,079 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a P. falciparum-specific SNP array. Parasite genotypes were examined for signatures of recent positive selection and association with parasite clearance phenotypes to identify regions of the genome associated with artemisinin resistance. Four SNPs on chromosomes 10 (one), 13 (two), and 14 (one) were significantly associated with delayed parasite clearance. The two SNPs on chromosome 13 are in a region of the genome that appears to be under strong recent positive selection in Cambodia. The SNPs on chromosomes 10 and 13 lie in or near genes involved in postreplication repair, a DNA damage-tolerance pathway. Replication and validation studies are needed to refine the location of loci responsible for artemisinin resistance and to understand the mechanism behind it; however, two SNPs on chromosomes 10 and 13 may be useful markers of delayed parasite clearance in surveillance for artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia.

  15. The Role of DNA Barcodes in Understanding and Conservation of Mammal Diversity in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Charles M.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Ivanova, Natalia V.; Eger, Judith L.; Lim, Burton K.; Guillén-Servent, Antonio; Kruskop, Sergei V.; Mackie, Iain; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Southeast Asia is recognized as a region of very high biodiversity, much of which is currently at risk due to habitat loss and other threats. However, many aspects of this diversity, even for relatively well-known groups such as mammals, are poorly known, limiting ability to develop conservation plans. This study examines the value of DNA barcodes, sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, to enhance understanding of mammalian diversity in the region and hence to aid conservation planning. Methodology and Principal Findings DNA barcodes were obtained from nearly 1900 specimens representing 165 recognized species of bats. All morphologically or acoustically distinct species, based on classical taxonomy, could be discriminated with DNA barcodes except four closely allied species pairs. Many currently recognized species contained multiple barcode lineages, often with deep divergence suggesting unrecognized species. In addition, most widespread species showed substantial genetic differentiation across their distributions. Our results suggest that mammal species richness within the region may be underestimated by at least 50%, and there are higher levels of endemism and greater intra-specific population structure than previously recognized. Conclusions DNA barcodes can aid conservation and research by assisting field workers in identifying species, by helping taxonomists determine species groups needing more detailed analysis, and by facilitating the recognition of the appropriate units and scales for conservation planning. PMID:20838635

  16. El Niño and health risks from landscape fire emissions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth S; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Kinney, Patrick L; Randerson, James T; Shindell, Drew T; Chen, Yang; Faluvegi, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Emissions from landscape fires affect both climate and air quality(1). In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modeling to quantify health effects from fire emissions in Southeast Asia from 1997 to 2006. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity due to coupling between El Niño-induced droughts and anthropogenic land use change(2,3). We show that during strong El Niño years, fires contribute up to 200 μg/m(3) and 50 ppb in annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) surface concentrations near fire sources, respectively. This corresponds to a fire contribution of 200 additional days per year that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) 50 μg/m(3) 24-hour PM2.5 interim target (IT-2)(4) and an estimated 10,800 (6,800-14,300) person (~2%) annual increase in regional adult cardiovascular mortality. Our results indicate that reducing regional deforestation and degradation fires would improve public health along with widely established benefits from reducing carbon emissions, preserving biodiversity, and maintaining ecosystem services.

  17. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia from Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Suhardjono, Suhardjono; Harjadi, Prih

    2014-05-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distribution of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  18. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia using Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Suhardjono, S.; Harjadi, P.

    2013-12-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distrbition of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  19. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, I

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617

  20. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-05

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened.

  1. Complexities at the intersection of tobacco control and trade liberalisation: evidence from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Drope, Jeffrey; Chavez, Jenina Joy

    2015-06-01

    For more than two decades, public health scholars and proponents have demonstrated concern about the negative effects of trade liberalisation on tobacco control policies. However, there is little theoretically-guided, empirical research across time and space that evaluates this relationship. Accordingly, we use one major region that has experienced rapid and significant recent liberalisation, Southeast Asia, and examine key tobacco control-relevant outcomes between 1999 and 2012. While we find a modest increase in regional trade in tobacco products in some countries, the effects on tobacco affordability and consumption are very mixed with no clear link to liberalisation. We argue that widespread penetration of the region by transnational tobacco firms is likely mitigating the effects of trade liberalisation. Notably, tobacco control policies have also generally improved across the region, part of which is likely the result of successful regional and global efforts by civil society, governments and intergovernmental organisations. The results suggest that scholars and public health proponents should move the focus away from narrow economic aspects of liberalisation toward specific issues that are more likely to affect tobacco control, such as intellectual property rights protections and investor-state dispute settlement.

  2. Degraded lands worth protecting: the biological importance of Southeast Asia's repeatedly logged forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Larsen, Trond H; Docherty, Teegan D S; Ansell, Felicity A; Hsu, Wayne W; Derhé, Mia A; Hamer, Keith C; Wilcove, David S

    2011-01-07

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot of imperiled biodiversity, owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture. The degraded forests that remain after multiple rounds of intensive logging are often assumed to be of little conservation value; consequently, there has been no concerted effort to prevent them from being converted to oil palm. However, no study has quantified the biodiversity of repeatedly logged forests. We compare the species richness and composition of birds and dung beetles within unlogged (primary), once-logged and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. Logging had little effect on the overall richness of birds. Dung beetle richness declined following once-logging but did not decline further after twice-logging. The species composition of bird and dung beetle communities was altered, particularly after the second logging rotation, but globally imperiled bird species (IUCN Red List) did not decline further after twice-logging. Remarkably, over 75 per cent of bird and dung beetle species found in unlogged forest persisted within twice-logged forest. Although twice-logged forests have less biological value than primary and once-logged forests, they clearly provide important habitat for numerous bird and dung beetle species. Preventing these degraded forests from being converted to oil palm should be a priority of policy-makers and conservationists.

  3. Policy challenges and approaches for the conservation of mangrove forests in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Friess, Daniel A; Thompson, Benjamin S; Brown, Ben; Amir, A Aldrie; Cameron, Clint; Koldewey, Heather J; Sasmito, Sigit D; Sidik, Frida

    2016-10-01

    Many drivers of mangrove forest loss operate over large scales and are most effectively addressed by policy interventions. However, conflicting or unclear policy objectives exist at multiple tiers of government, resulting in contradictory management decisions. To address this, we considered four approaches that are being used increasingly or could be deployed in Southeast Asia to ensure sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. First, a stronger incorporation of mangroves into marine protected areas (that currently focus largely on reefs and fisheries) could resolve some policy conflicts and ensure that mangroves do not fall through a policy gap. Second, examples of community and government comanagement exist, but achieving comanagement at scale will be important in reconciling stakeholders and addressing conflicting policy objectives. Third, private-sector initiatives could protect mangroves through existing and novel mechanisms in degraded areas and areas under future threat. Finally, payments for ecosystem services (PES) hold great promise for mangrove conservation, with carbon PES schemes (known as blue carbon) attracting attention. Although barriers remain to the implementation of PES, the potential to implement them at multiple scales exists. Closing the gap between mangrove conservation policies and action is crucial to the improved protection and management of this imperiled coastal ecosystem and to the livelihoods that depend on them.

  4. The key role of government in addressing the pandemic of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, Theodore H

    2015-04-08

    Micronutrient deficiency conditions are a major global public health problem. While the private sector has an important role in addressing this problem, the main responsibility lies with national governments, in cooperation with international agencies and donors. Mandatory fortification of basic foods provides a basic necessary intake for the majority and needs to be supported by provision of essential vitamin and mineral supplements for mothers and children and other high risk groups. Fortification by government mandate and regulation is essential with cooperation by private sector food manufacturers, and in the context of broader policies for poverty reduction, education and agricultural reform. Iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, folic acid, zinc, vitamin D and vitamin B12 are prime examples of international fortification experience achieved by proactive governmental nutrition policies. These are essential to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and their follow-up sustainable global health targets. National governmental policies for nutritional security and initiatives are essential to implement both food fortification and targeted supplementation policies to reduce the huge burden of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world.

  5. El Nino and Health Risks from Landscape Fire Emissions in Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; Defries, Ruth S.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Kinney, Patrick L.; Randerson, James T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Chen, Yang; Faluvegi, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Emissions from landscape fires affect both climate and air quality. Here, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modelling to quantify health effects from fire emissions in southeast Asia from 1997 to 2006. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity owing to coupling between El Nino-induced droughts and anthropogenic land-use change. We show that during strong El Nino years, fires contribute up to 200 micrograms per cubic meter and 50 ppb in annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone surface concentrations near fire sources, respectively. This corresponds to a fire contribution of 200 additional days per year that exceed the World Health Organization 50 micrograms per cubic metre 24-hr PM(sub 2.5) interim target and an estimated 10,800 (6,800-14,300)-person (approximately 2 percent) annual increase in regional adult cardiovascular mortality. Our results indicate that reducing regional deforestation and degradation fires would improve public health along with widely established benefits from reducing carbon emissions, preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services.

  6. Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal Production in Southeast Asia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, Nguyen T.; Cuong, Nguyen V.; Thwaites, Guy; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Asia is an area of great economic dynamism. In recent years, it has experienced a rapid rise in the levels of animal product production and consumption. The region is considered to be a hotspot for infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We reviewed English-language peer-reviewed publications related to antimicrobial usage (AMU) and AMR in animal production, as well as antimicrobial residues in meat and fish from 2000 to 2016, in the region. There is a paucity of data from most countries and for most bacterial pathogens. Most of the published work relates to non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Campylobacter spp. (mainly from Vietnam and Thailand), Enterococcus spp. (Malaysia), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Thailand). However, most studies used the disk diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; breakpoints were interpreted using Clinical Standard Laboratory Institute (CSLI) guidelines. Statistical models integrating data from publications on AMR in NTS and E. coli studies show a higher overall prevalence of AMR in pig isolates, and an increase in levels of AMR over the years. AMU studies (mostly from Vietnam) indicate very high usage levels of most types of antimicrobials, including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and quinolones. This review summarizes information about genetic determinants of resistance, most of which are transferrable (mostly plasmids and integrons). The data in this review provide a benchmark to help focus research and policies on AMU and AMR in the region. PMID:27827853

  7. Soil-transmitted helminths of humans in Southeast Asia--towards integrated control.

    PubMed

    Jex, Aaron R; Lim, Yvonne A L; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Hotez, Peter J; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) pose significant public health challenges in many countries of Southeast Asia (SEA). Overall, approximately one-third of the world's cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm disease occur in the 11 major SEA countries. Various countries are at different stages in their response to controlling these diseases. For instance, in Malaysia and Thailand, the major burden of disease is confined to rural/remote, indigenous and/or refugee populations. In countries, such as Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Vietnam, the burden remains high, although extensive deworming programmes are underway and are yielding encouraging results. The present chapter reviews the current status of STH infections in SEA, identifies knowledge gaps and offers a perspective on the development of improved, integrated surveillance and control in this geographical region. It indicates that advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of these parasites, through the strategic use of molecular and predictive (e.g. geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS)) technologies, could readily underpin future research and control programmes. It is hoped that the gradual move towards integrated treatment/control programmes will assist substantially in decreasing the chronic disease burden linked to STHs, thus increasing human health and welfare, and supporting socio-economic growth and development in SEA countries.

  8. Challenges in the clinical development requirements for the marketing authorization of new medicines in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kudrin, Alex

    2009-03-01

    A rapid growth of investment into clinical research and new drug development has manifested itself by an exponential increase of new products coming onto the worldwide market. The emerging pharmaceutical and biotech markets in Southeast Asia are believed to be extremely promising from a commercial point of view in the next decade. The unique position of the Asian market and the diversity in clinical research initiatives are linked with diverse regulatory requirements for clinical development and registration of new medicines. Some of these differences have an impact on timelines for marketing authorizations in South Korea, China, Thailand, Japan, Singapore, and other countries. One of the approaches to streamlining regulatory strategy in different countries is the initiation of multicountry international clinical trials trying to address requirements and allowing registration in several regional countries simultaneously. Increasing cooperation between South Asian countries in relation to regulatory requirements and clinical development will facilitate the registration of innovative medicines in this rapidly developing region of the world and enable improved cohesiveness between countries in a drug safety framework.

  9. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the tropics of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Zulkeflle, Siti Norayuni Mohd; Yusaimi, Yus Amira; Sugiura, Norio; Iwamoto, Koji; Goto, Masafumi; Utsumi, Motoo; Othman, Nor'azizi Bin; Zakaria, Zuriati; Hara, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem throughout the world. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in hospital wastewater is a cause for great concern today. In this study, 276 Staph. aureus isolates were recovered from hospital wastewater samples in Malaysia. All of the isolates were screened for susceptibility to nine different classes of antibiotics: ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and nalidixic acid. Screening tests showed that 100 % of Staph.aureus isolates exhibited resistance against kanamycin, vancomycin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 91, 87, 50, 43, 11 and 8.7 % of isolates showed resistance against erythromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, respectively. Based on these results, 100 % of isolates demonstrated multidrug-resistant (MDR) characteristics, displaying resistance against more than three classes of antibiotics. Of 276 isolates, nine exhibited resistance to more than nine classes of tested antibiotics; these were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing and examined for the presence of conserved ARGs. Interestingly, a high percentage of the selected MDR Staph.aureus isolates did not contain conserved ARGs. These results indicate that non-conserved MDR gene elements may have already spread into the environment in the tropics of Southeast Asia, and unique resistance mechanisms against several antibiotics may have evolved due to stable, moderate temperatures that support growth of bacteria throughout the year.

  10. Interventions to improve the use of antimalarials in south-east Asia: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, M.; Wayling, S.; Pang, L.

    1998-01-01

    There are few drugs for malaria, and those which are available for use are subject to rapid development of resistance. Curiously, little effort has been made to improve drug use in malaria-endemic countries and to assess the benefits of such improvements. Advances can be made in public understanding of the value of ingesting a full regimen of antimalarials, in order to achieve complete cure, and in improving simple technologies (blister packaging) to achieve the same result. Better efforts can be made to reduce the availability of fake or substandard drugs in the marketplace. In this article, we describe the outcome of a concerted effort to improve drug compliance and drug quality in an area of multidrug resistance for malaria. These research efforts, guided by the Task Force for Improved Use of Antimalarials, characterized the problems in drug compliance in South-East Asia, and developed interventions to improve drug use in the various countries. Interventions involved drug packaging, public information campaigns, and assessments of drug quality. Results show that blister packaging worked best to improve drug compliance and that the increased cost of packaged medication did not limit its use. Drug quality was a major problem in unregulated countries and should be improved. PMID:9763718

  11. Population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles aconitus in China and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Harbach, Ralph E.; Walton, Catherine; He, Zhengbo; Zhong, Daibin; Yan, Guiyun; Butlin, Roger K.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles aconitus is a well-known vector of malaria and is broadly distributed in the Oriental Region, yet there is no information on its population genetic characteristics. In this study, the genetic differentiation among populations was examined using 140 mtDNA COII sequences from 21 sites throughout southern China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka. The population in Sri Lanka has characteristic rDNA D3 and ITS2, mtDNA COII and ND5 haplotypes, and may be considered a distinct subspecies. Clear genetic structure was observed with highly significant genetic variation present among population groups in Southeast Asia. The greatest genetic diversity exists in Yunnan and Myanmar population groups. All population groups are significantly different from one another in pairwise Fst values, except northern Thailand with central Thailand. Mismatch distributions and extremely significant Fs values suggest that the populations passed through a recent demographic expansion. These patterns are discussed in relation to the likely biogeographic history of the region and compared to other Anopheles species. PMID:22982161

  12. Regional Climate System Feedbacks from Land Use Changes in Southeast Asia: A sensitivity study using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, H. L.; Sloan, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    Many observational and modeling studies have demonstrated the strong links between changes in land use and climate, and anthropogenic alterations of the land surface are now recognized to have consequences at the local, regional, and global scales. However, the effects of such changes on the local and regional climate system are not well understood, and yet, are critical to understanding future regional climate change. In Southeast Asia, a region which has experienced rapid and dramatic anthropogenic land use change in the 20th Century, shifts in precipitation patterns in response to these changes have been documented from observational data. While most climate modeling studies of the Southeast Asian region have employed low- resolution general circulation models, previous regional modeling studies for Southeast Asia have focused on land use change feedbacks on timescales from days to months and only for portions of the region. This study employs a high-resolution regional climate model centered on the Southeast Asian region, including Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines, and parts of Papua New Guinea and northern Australia, to conduct two simulations over the 30-year period between 1975 and 2005. Specifically, the simulations are used to compare climates with natural potential vegetation to those with modern land use as land cover, including differences in seasonal and annual temperature and precipitation distributions.

  13. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  14. Geomorphology and Geodynamics at Crustal Boundaries within Asia and Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The release of SRTM images by NASA over the past two years year has been greeted by foreign Earth scientist's as "NASA's gift to the World". The goodwill that this has engendered in parts of Africa. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, as scientists in those countries contemplated what many of them considered an unprovoked and unjustifiable US invasion of Iraq, cannot be underestimated. We have used SRTM images from Africa and India and elsewhere to examine aspects of tectonism, geodynamics and tsunami and earthquake hazards. Highlights of this research are itemized in this final report. One difficulty that has arisen is , of course, that the funding for the science lead the availability of the data by more than a year. and as a result many of the findings are as yet unpublished.

  15. Phylogeographical structure in mitochondrial DNA of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in southern India and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Ram Kumar, Nikhil; Chang, Jian-Cheng; Narayanan, Manikanda Boopathi; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2016-03-29

    South and Southeast Asia endure high vegetable production losses due to begomovirus diseases mainly transmitted by the insect vector, whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Control over the spread of virus infection can be achieved through a better understanding of genetic diversity among B. tabaci. A total of 64 populations of B. tabaci collected from Tamil Nadu (India), Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia were investigated based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (coxI) sequences. Populations from Tamil Nadu are distributed into three clades (Asia I, Asia II 7, and Asia II 8), whereas Indonesian populations settle along with Asia I population of India in the phylogenetic tree. Vietnam populations align with the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) clade, and interestingly MEAM1 invades northern Vietnam quite recently. Samples from Thailand made a unique clade between the outgroup and the remaining B. tabaci, representing the possibility of a new subspecies. AMOVA analysis among populations from various districts in Tamil Nadu exhibits significant differences, which represent each district's individuality. This study proves that the use of coxI as a marker for molecular identification of B. tabaci can provide a better estimate of diversity. We provide important clues for developing insight into the genetic structure of B. tabaci, and suggest strategies for control.

  16. Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Blurring Borders, Changing Balance. Routledge Research on Public and Social Policy in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically chart and comparatively assess the trend towards private higher education in South East Asia. Caught between conflicting imperatives of spiralling demand, and limited resources, the balance between public and private higher education systems in South East, South, and East Asia has shifted markedly. The…

  17. Teachers' Views Regarding Ways in Which the Intercultural Competence of Students Is Developed at an International School in Southeast Asia: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Gavin Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study is a mixed methods investigation of teachers' views regarding the ways in which the intercultural competence (ICC) of students is developed at an international school in Southeast Asia. To gather data for the study a survey was administered to approximately 90 teachers in the high school section of an international school in Asia to…

  18. Evapotranspiration of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia: RUBBER EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN SE ASIA

    SciTech Connect

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    The expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation to higher latitudes and higher elevations in southeast Asia is part of a dramatic shift in the direction of rural land cover change in the region toward more tree covered landscapes. To investigate the possible effects of increasing rubber cultivation in the region on ecosystem services including water cycling, eddy covariance towers were established to measure ecosystem fluxes within two rubber plantations, one each in Bueng Kan, northeastern Thailand, and Kampong Cham, central Cambodia. The results show that evapotranspiration (ET) at both sites is strongly related to variations in available energy and leaf area, and moderately controlled by soil moisture. Measured mean annual ET was 1128 and 1272 mm for the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. After adjustment for energy closure, mean annual was estimated to be 1211 and 1459 mm yr at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. Based on these estimates and that of another site in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China, it appears that of rubber is higher than that of other tree dominated land covers in the region, including forest. While measurements by others in non rubber tropical ecosystems indicate that at high net radiation sites is at most only slightly higher than for sites with lower net radiation, mean annual rubber increases strongl with increasing net radiation across the three available rubber plantation observation sites. With the continued expansion of tree dominated land covers, including rubber cultivation, in southeast Asia, the possible association between commercially viable, fast growing tree crop species Giambelluca et al. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Havea brasiliensis) cultivated at two sites in southeast Asia and their relatively high water use raises concerns about potential effects on water and food security.

  19. Middle and later Pleistocene hominins in Africa and Southwest Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rightmire, G. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 700,000 years ago, Homo erectus in Africa was giving way to populations with larger brains accompanied by structural adjustments to the vault, cranial base, and face. Such early Middle Pleistocene hominins were not anatomically modern. Their skulls display strong supraorbital tori above projecting faces, flattened frontals, and less parietal expansion than is the case for Homo sapiens. Postcranial remains seem also to have archaic features. Subsequently, some groups evolved advanced skeletal morphology, and by ca. 200,000 years ago, individuals more similar to recent humans are present in the African record. These fossils are associated with Middle Stone Age lithic assemblages and, in some cases, Acheulean tools. Crania from Herto in Ethiopia carry defleshing cutmarks and superficial scoring that may be indicative of mortuary practices. Despite these signs of behavioral innovation, neither the Herto hominins, nor others from Late Pleistocene sites such as Klasies River in southern Africa and Skhūl/Qafzeh in Israel, can be matched in living populations. Skulls are quite robust, and it is only after ≈35,000 years ago that people with more gracile, fully modern morphology make their appearance. Not surprisingly, many questions concerning this evolutionary history have been raised. Attention has centered on systematics of the mid-Pleistocene hominins, their paleobiology, and the timing of dispersals that spread H. sapiens out of Africa and across the Old World. In this report, I discuss structural changes characterizing the skulls from different time periods, possible regional differences in morphology, and the bearing of this evidence on recognizing distinct species. PMID:19581595

  20. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located.

  1. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

    2016-07-01

    The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast

  2. The tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia through accretionary and extensional episodes since the Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seton, M.; Zahirovic, S.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    Although a number of tectonic reconstructions exist that document the development of the present-day complex assemblage of exotic terranes in Southeast Asia, very few describe the continuously evolving plate boundaries and the geodynamic driving forces in the region. We propose a plate motion model that attempts to reconcile evidence from both surface geology and the subsurface mantle structure, and implement continuously closing plate polygons using our open-source plate reconstruction software, GPlates, for the eastern Asian margin and eastern Tethyan domain since the Cretaceous. We link the change from a compressional to an extensional regime along eastern Asia in the Late Cretaceous as the likely opening of the Proto South China Sea in a back-arc setting to account for obducted ophiolite sections on Palawan that are Cretaceous in age, with a likely Miocene emplacement resulting from subduction of the Proto South China Sea crust. Such an interpretation is also consistent with the timing of accretionary episodes along northern Borneo and the upper mantle slab visible in P-wave seismic tomography models. The development of Sundaland is also intricately linked to the opening of the Proto South China Sea and the accretion of Gondwana-derived micro-continental blocks, including East Java and West Sulawesi, in the Cretaceous. Whether Sundaland behaved as a rigid cohesive block, or whether Borneo rotated and moved relative to Sundaland has been a matter of debate due to inconsistencies between paleomagnetic and structural data. Paleomagnetic results indicate significant rotations of Borneo that are accommodated by oroclinal bending without the need for bounding transform faults, which are not obvious in both seismic and potential field data. In the absence of preserved seafloor, we use geological evidence such as ophiolite emplacements, magmatic episodes, paleomagnetic constraints, structural reactivation and deformation as proxies to build a self-consistent plate

  3. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  4. Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Jerry; Hess, Tim; Daccache, Andre; Wheeler, Tim

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a serious threat to crop productivity in regions that are already food insecure. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of eight major crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is - 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of - 17% (wheat), - 5% (maize), - 15% (sorghum) and - 10% (millet) and across South Asia of - 16% (maize) and - 11% (sorghum) were estimated. No mean change in yield was detected for rice. The limited number of studies identified for cassava, sugarcane and yams precluded any opportunity to conduct a meta-analysis for these crops. Variation about the projected mean yield change for all crops was smaller in studies that used an ensemble of > 3 climate (GCM) models. Conversely, complex simulation studies that used biophysical crop models showed the greatest variation in mean yield changes. Evidence of crop yield impact in Africa and South Asia is robust for wheat, maize, sorghum and millet, and either inconclusive, absent or contradictory for rice, cassava and sugarcane.

  5. Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Much of the data resolution of the haploid non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) haplogroup O in East Asia are still rudimentary and could be an explanatory factor for current debates on the settlement history of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Here, 81 slowly evolving markers (mostly SNPs) and 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats were used to achieve higher level molecular resolution. Our aim is to investigate if the distribution of NRY DNA variation in Taiwan and ISEA is consistent with a single pre-Neolithic expansion scenario from Southeast China to all ISEA, or if it better fits an expansion model from Taiwan (the OOT model), or whether a more complex history of settlement and dispersals throughout ISEA should be envisioned. Results We examined DNA samples from 1658 individuals from Vietnam, Thailand, Fujian, Taiwan (Han, plain tribes and 14 indigenous groups), the Philippines and Indonesia. While haplogroups O1a*-M119, O1a1*-P203, O1a2-M50 and O3a2-P201 follow a decreasing cline from Taiwan towards Western Indonesia, O2a1-M95/M88, O3a*-M324, O3a1c-IMS-JST002611 and O3a2c1a-M133 decline northward from Western Indonesia towards Taiwan. Compared to the Taiwan plain tribe minority groups the Taiwanese Austronesian speaking groups show little genetic paternal contribution from Han. They are also characterized by low Y-chromosome diversity, thus testifying for fast drift in these populations. However, in contrast to data provided from other regions of the genome, Y-chromosome gene diversity in Taiwan mountain tribes significantly increases from North to South. Conclusion The geographic distribution and the diversity accumulated in the O1a*-M119, O1a1*-P203, O1a2-M50 and O3a2-P201 haplogroups on one hand, and in the O2a1-M95/M88, O3a*-M324, O3a1c-IMS-JST002611 and O3a2c1a-M133 haplogroups on the other, support a pincer model of dispersals and gene flow from the mainland to the islands which likely started during the late upper Paleolithic, 18,000 to 15

  6. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of

  7. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  8. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, S.; Berger, S. Dar; Chadha, S. S.; Singh, R. J.; Lal, P.; Tonsing, J.; Harries, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012—both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596

  9. Assessment of Ebola virus disease preparedness in the WHO South-East Asia Region

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Methods Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4–5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country’s Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Findings Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Conclusion Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations. PMID:27994284

  10. Land cover characterization and mapping of continental southeast Asia using multi-resolution satellite sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Defourny, Pierre; Shrestha, Surendra

    2003-01-01

    Land use/land cover change, particularly that of tropical deforestation and forest degradation, has been occurring at an unprecedented rate and scale in Southeast Asia. The rapid rate of economic development, demographics and poverty are believed to be the underlying forces responsible for the change. Accurate and up-to-date information to support the above statement is, however, not available. The available data, if any, are outdated and are not comparable for various technical reasons. Time series analysis of land cover change and the identification of the driving forces responsible for these changes are needed for the sustainable management of natural resources and also for projecting future land cover trajectories. We analysed the multi-temporal and multi-seasonal NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data of 1985/86 and 1992 to (1) prepare historical land cover maps and (2) to identify areas undergoing major land cover transformations (called ‘hot spots’). The identified ‘hot spot’ areas were investigated in detail using high-resolution satellite sensor data such as Landsat and SPOT supplemented by intensive field surveys. Shifting cultivation, intensification of agricultural activities and change of cropping patterns, and conversion of forest to agricultural land were found to be the principal reasons for land use/land cover change in the Oudomxay province of Lao PDR, the Mekong Delta of Vietnam and the Loei province of Thailand, respectively. Moreover, typical land use/land cover change patterns of the ‘hot spot’ areas were also examined. In addition, we developed an operational methodology for land use/land cover change analysis at the national level with the help of national remote sensing institutions.

  11. Laboratory Study on Water Uptake by Freshly Emitted Peat Smoke Particles in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Kuwata, M.; Itoh, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical peatland burning activities in Southeast Asia, which can keep smouldering for a long time, have been becoming rather frequent during the last few decades. These combustions have released huge amounts of greenhouse gases and aerosol particles into the atmosphere, contributing large uncertainties to the global radiative forcing estimation. In addition, the gas and aerosol particles emitted from the peat-fire have caused environmental and human health issues. These regional and global impacts are closely tied to water uptake properties of aerosol particles, which alter their physical and chemical characteristics. However, hygroscopic property of peat burning aerosol particles has rarely been investigated. Here, we utilized a self-built Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) to measure diameter growth factors of fresh peat burning particles, which were generated during laboratory peat combustion experiments under controlled conditions. Particle number size distribution and chemical composition were also measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and the Time of Flight - Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ToF-ACSM). Number size distribution demonstrated a bimodal pattern, with the mode diameters in the size ranges of 50-80 nm and 300-500 nm, respectively. The corresponding normalized volume size distribution was unimodal distributed with mode diameter at around 400-600nm. Water uptake of freshly emitted peat smoke aerosol particles was less hygroscopic, probably because fresh peat burning aerosol particles were predominantly composed of organic compounds and sulfates were negligible. The obtained information can be further applied into the studies on the influence of peat burning aerosol particles on regional and global climate.

  12. Zoonotic emerging infectious disease in selected countries in Southeast Asia: insights from ecohealth.

    PubMed

    Grace, Delia; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Lapar, M Lucila; Unger, Fred; Fèvre, Sonia; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Schelling, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Most emerging diseases of humans originate in animals, and zoonotic emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) threaten human, animal, and environment health. We report on a scoping study to assess actors, linkages, priorities, and needs related to management of these diseases from the perspective of key stakeholders in three countries in Southeast Asia. A comprehensive interview guide was developed and in-depth interviews completed with 21 key stakeholders in Vietnam, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia. We found numerous relevant actors with a predominance of public sector and medical disciplines. More capacity weaknesses than strengths were reported, with risk analysis and research skills most lacking. Social network analysis of information flows showed policy-makers were regarded as mainly information recipients, research institutes as more information providers, and universities as both. Veterinary and livestock disciplines emerged as an important "boundary-spanning" organization with linkages to both human health and rural development. Avian influenza was regarded as the most important zoonotic EID, perhaps reflecting the priority-setting influence of actors outside the region. Stakeholders reported a high awareness of the ecological and socioeconomic drivers of disease emergence and a demand for disease prioritization, epidemiological skills, and economic and qualitative studies. Evaluated from an ecohealth perspective, human health is weakly integrated with socioeconomics, linkages to policy are stronger than to communities, participation occurs mainly at lower levels, and equity considerations are not fully considered. However, stakeholders have awareness of ecological and social determinants of health, and a basis exists on which transdisciplinarity, equity, and participation can be strengthened.

  13. The Composition of Organic Aerosols in Southeast Asia During The 2006 Haze Episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, H.; Zielinska, B.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    The regional smoke haze in Southeast Asia is a recurring air pollution problem. Uncontrolled forest fires from land-clearing activities in Sumatra and Borneo, and to a lesser extent Malaysia, have occurred almost every dry season since the late 1990s. The smoke haze that took place in October 2006 shrouded an estimated 215,000 square miles of land on Indonesia's islands of Sumatra and Borneo, and persisted for several weeks. Satellite pictures showed numerous hotspots in both Sumatra and Kalimantan. The prevailing, South-Southwesterly, winds blew smoke from land and forest fires in central and south Sumatra to Singapore, affecting the regional air quality significantly and reducing atmospheric visibility. During this haze episode, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore to characterize the composition of organic aerosols, which usually account for a large fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM). A total of 17 PM samples were collected while the hazy atmospheric conditions persisted in Singapore, and subjected to accelerated solvent extraction with dichloromethane and acetone. The extracted compounds were grouped into three major fractions (n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polar organic compounds). More than 180 particulate-bound organic compounds were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In order to investigate the origin of organic species, the carbon preference indexes as well as diagnostic ratios were used. The compositional differences of organic aerosols between the haze- and non- haze periods will be presented. The atmospheric implications of the composition of organic aerosols of biomass burning origin will be discussed. Keywords: smoke haze, organic aerosols, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polar organic compounds

  14. Mitigating the impact of oil-palm monoculture on freshwater fishes in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Giam, Xingli; Hadiaty, Renny K; Tan, Heok Hui; Parenti, Lynne R; Wowor, Daisy; Sauri, Sopian; Chong, Kwek Yan; Yeo, Darren C J; Wilcove, David S

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic land-cover change is driving biodiversity loss worldwide. At the epicenter of this crisis lies Southeast Asia, where biodiversity-rich forests are being converted to oil-palm monocultures. As demand for palm oil increases, there is an urgent need to find strategies that maintain biodiversity in plantations. Previous studies found that retaining forest patches within plantations benefited some terrestrial taxa but not others. However, no study has focused on aquatic taxa such as fishes, despite their importance to human well-being. We assessed the efficacy of forested riparian reserves in conserving freshwater fish biodiversity in oil-palm monoculture by sampling stream fish communities in an oil-palm plantation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forested riparian reserves maintained preconversion local fish species richness and functional diversity. In contrast, local and total species richness, biomass, and functional diversity declined markedly in streams without riparian reserves. Mechanistically, riparian reserves appeared to increase local species richness by increasing leaf litter cover and maintaining coarse substrate. The loss of fishes specializing in leaf litter and coarse substrate decreased functional diversity and altered community composition in oil-palm plantation streams that lacked riparian reserves. Thus, a land-sharing strategy that incorporates the retention of forested riparian reserves may maintain the ecological integrity of fish communities in oil-palm plantations. We urge policy makers and growers to make retention of riparian reserves in oil-palm plantations standard practice, and we encourage palm-oil purchasers to source only palm oil from plantations that employ this practice.

  15. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.; Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Marlier, Miriam E.

    2016-08-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and near-term future (2020) projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface-atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (˜ 1990), overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m-3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m-3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  16. Use of Expansion Factors to Estimate the Burden of Dengue in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is the most common arthropod-borne disease of humans and its geographical range and infection rates are increasing. Health policy decisions require information about the disease burden, but surveillance systems usually underreport the total number of cases. These may be estimated by multiplying reported cases by an expansion factor (EF). Methods and Findings As a key step to estimate the economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia (SEA), we projected dengue cases from 2001 through 2010 using EFs. We conducted a systematic literature review (1995–2011) and identified 11 published articles reporting original, empirically derived EFs or the necessary data, and 11 additional relevant studies. To estimate EFs for total cases in countries where no empirical studies were available, we extrapolated data based on the statistically significant inverse relationship between an index of a country's health system quality and its observed reporting rate. We compiled an average 386,000 dengue episodes reported annually to surveillance systems in the region, and projected about 2.92 million dengue episodes. We conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, simultaneously varying the most important parameters in 20,000 Monte Carlo simulations, and derived 95% certainty level of 2.73–3.38 million dengue episodes. We estimated an overall EF in SEA of 7.6 (95% certainty level: 7.0–8.8) dengue cases for every case reported, with an EF range of 3.8 for Malaysia to 19.0 in East Timor. Conclusion Studies that make no adjustment for underreporting would seriously understate the burden and cost of dengue in SEA and elsewhere. As the sites of the empirical studies we identified were not randomly chosen, the exact extent of underreporting remains uncertain. Nevertheless, the results reported here, based on a systematic analysis of the available literature, show general consistency and provide a reasonable empirical basis to adjust for

  17. Confronting the HIV, Tuberculosis, Addiction, and Incarceration Syndemic in Southeast Asia: Lessons Learned from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Bick, Joseph; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Bazazi, Alexander R; Ferro, Enrico; Copenhaver, Michael; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-09-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia, repressive drug laws have resulted in high rates of imprisonment in people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV (PLH), greatly magnifying the harm associated with HIV, tuberculosis, and addiction. We review findings from Malaysia's largest prison to describe the negative synergistic effects of HIV, tuberculosis, addiction, and incarceration that contribute to a 'perfect storm' of events challenging public and personal health and offer insights into innovative strategies to control these converging epidemics. The majority of PLH who are imprisoned in Malaysia are opioid dependent PWID. Although promoted by official policy, evidence-based addiction treatment is largely unavailable, contributing to rapid relapse and/or overdose after release. Similarly, HIV treatment in prisons and compulsory drug treatment centers is sometimes inadequate or absent. The prevalence of active tuberculosis is high, particularly in PLH, and over 80 % of prisoners and prison personnel are latently infected. Mandatory HIV testing and subsequent segregation of HIV-infected prisoners increases the likelihood of tuberculosis acquisition and progression to active disease, amplifying the reservoir of infection for other prisoners. We discuss strategies to control these intersecting epidemics including screening linked to standardized treatment protocols for all three conditions, and effective transitional programs for released prisoners. For example, recently introduced evidence-based interventions in prisons like antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy to treat latent tuberculosis infection, and methadone maintenance to treat opioid dependence, have markedly improved clinical care and reduced morbidity and mortality. Since introduction of these interventions in September 2012, all-cause and HIV-related mortality have decreased by 50.0 % and 75.7 %, respectively. We discuss the further deployment of these

  18. International river basin development and climatic change: The Lower Mekong of Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The world's most important effort in international river basin planning has been carried out in the Lower Mekong Basin of Southeast Asia. Coordinated planning of water resource development in the basin has been the responsibility of the United Nations-sponsored Mekong Committee, established in 1957. Original member nations of the Committee were Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. The Committee has made an impressive list of contributions to regional water development in spite of several constrains on its work program (e.g., Vietnam War, erratic international funding, differing opinions of member nations regarding development). An emerging problem which may greatly affect the Mekong Committee is regional climate change resulting from human-induced global warming. The study canvasses the potential roles the Mekong Committee might play in helping lower Mekong inhabitants adjust to climatic change. In doing so, the historical record of the Committee is reviewed in terms of their contributions in addressing climate-related problems, such as floods and salinity intrusion. The changing context in which the Committee has operated is an important part of the record, as it has both enabled and constrained Committee activities. The Committee's historical roles in promoting development suggest that their future roles in addressing climatic change will likely be in the areas of data gathering and dissemination, small-scale structural measures, and flood and low-flow forecasting. These sub-programs have been important to many Lower Basin inhabitants and are critical to sound river basin planning. In a broader sense, the Committee's ability to operate in the face of numerous disturbances suggests a high degree of institutional resiliency. This thesis argues that the committee's ability to withstand several shocks to its work program will allow it to better adjust to future changes, including climate change.

  19. Atmospheric PCDD/F measurement in Taiwan and Southeast Asia during Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuan, Ngo Thi; Chi, Kai Hsien; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chang, Moo Been; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Peng, Chi-Ming

    2013-10-01

    The international campaign of Dongsha Experiment was conducted in the northern Southeast Asian region during March-May 2010. To address the effects of long-range transport on the persistent organic pollutants and further understand the PCDD/F contamination in Vietnam, atmospheric PCDD/Fs were evaluated at a coastal station (Pingtung County, Sites A) in southern Taiwan, remote island station in South China Sea (Dongsha Island, Site B) and coastal station (Da Nang City, Site C) in central Vietnam during different sampling periods in this study. The measurements indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations were 1.01-27.4 fg I-TEQ/m3 (n = 22), 1.52-10.8 fg I-TEQ/m3 (n = 17) and 23.4-146 fg I-TEQ/m3 (n = 16) at Sites A, B and C, respectively, during different periods in 2010. In March 2010, an Asian dust storm (ADS) that originated in Gobi deserts eventually reached populated areas of East Asia, including Taiwan and the island in northern South China Sea. During the ADS episode, measurements made in southern Taiwan and South China Sea on 16 and 21 March 2010 indicate that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentration increased 6.5 and 6.9 times at Sites A and B, respectively. Furthermore, the significantly higher PCDD/F concentrations and contents in suspended particles (134-546 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP) were measured at Site C in the central Vietnam. In addition, the distribution of PCDD/F congeners measured in Central Vietnam was quite different from those measured at other stations with high PCDD distribution (>80%) especially in OCDD (>70%). During the Vietnam conflict, United States (US) forces had sprayed a greater volume of defoliant with higher PCDD/F contents than originally estimated. We consider that the high fraction of PCDDs observed in Vietnam probably originated as anthropogenic emission from specific source in Vietnam.

  20. Decoupling of ENSO and fires in insular Southeast Asia from 2001-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, D. O.

    2010-12-01

    Eight-day active fire time series (2001-May 2010) in western, insular Southeast Asia were analyzed to evaluate whether the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and fires has changed through time consistent with the hypothesis that fires and climate forcings are becoming decoupled as deforestation has continued in the region. The study period was marked by three major fire peaks in 2002, 2006 and 2009-2010 coinciding with three El Niño events. Maximum cross correlation coefficients (MCC) between lagged ENSO sea-surface temperature indices and fire counts (raw and seasonally detrended) were modest (≤ 0.50) and showed a general decrease for most land cover types from 2001-2006 to 2007-May 2010. A notable exception was peat swamp forest where the MCC increased slightly between the two periods for all indices except Niño3. A measure of annual seasonality also revealed that fires in peat swamp forest, lowland forest and secondary formations from 2007-May 2010 were more seasonal than fires during 2001-2006. Overall, the evidence suggests that fires and ENSO are becoming decoupled in the region and that forest types such as peat swamp and lowland forest may be experiencing more seasonal fires. We hypothesize that the decoupling occurs because of a stabilization in land use and establishment of permanent crops. We thus expect that fires will diminish in these areas as permanent plantations (primarily oil palm) are established and incentives to protect valuable crops outweigh incentives to convert land for cultivation.

  1. Modeling the Influences of Aerosols on Pre-Monsoon Circulation and Rainfall over Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D.; Sud, Y. C.; Oreopoulos, L.; Kim, K.-M.; Lau, W. K.; Kang, I.-S.

    2014-01-01

    We conduct several sets of simulations with a version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5, (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) equipped with a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme to understand the role of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) emissions in Southeast Asia (SEA) in the pre-monsoon period of February-May. Our experiments are designed so that both direct and indirect aerosol effects can be evaluated. For climatologically prescribed monthly sea surface temperatures, we conduct sets of model integrations with and without biomass burning emissions in the area of peak burning activity, and with direct aerosol radiative effects either active or inactive. Taking appropriate differences between AGCM experiment sets, we find that BBA affects liquid clouds in statistically significantly ways, increasing cloud droplet number concentrations, decreasing droplet effective radii (i.e., a classic aerosol indirect effect), and locally suppressing precipitation due to a deceleration of the autoconversion process, with the latter effect apparently also leading to cloud condensate increases. Geographical re-arrangements of precipitation patterns, with precipitation increases downwind of aerosol sources are also seen, most likely because of advection of weakly precipitating cloud fields. Somewhat unexpectedly, the change in cloud radiative effect (cloud forcing) at surface is in the direction of lesser cooling because of decreases in cloud fraction. Overall, however, because of direct radiative effect contributions, aerosols exert a net negative forcing at both the top of the atmosphere and, perhaps most importantly, the surface, where decreased evaporation triggers feedbacks that further reduce precipitation. Invoking the approximation that direct and indirect aerosol effects are additive, we estimate that the overall precipitation reduction is about 40% due to the direct effects of absorbing aerosols, which stabilize the atmosphere and reduce

  2. Latitudinal GRBR-TEC estimation in Southeast Asia region based on the two-station method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Tsugawa, Takuya; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Supnithi, Pornchai; Yatini, Clara Yono

    2014-10-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is an important parameter for revealing latitudinal ionospheric structures, such as the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in Southeast Asia. Understanding the EIA is beneficial for studying equatorial spread F. To reveal the structures, the absolute TEC as a function of latitude must be accurately determined. In early 2012, we expanded a GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) network to provide latitudinal coverage in the Thailand-Indonesia sector. We employed the GRBR network to receive VHF and UHF signals from polar low-Earth-orbit satellites. The TEC offset is an unknown parameter in the absolute TEC estimation process. We propose a new technique based on the two-station method to estimate the offset for the latitudinal TEC estimation, and it works better than the original method for a sparse network. The TEC estimation system requires two iterations to minimize the root-mean-square error (RMSE). Once the RMSE reaches the global minimum, the absolute TECs are estimated simultaneously over five GRBR stations. GPS-TECs from local stations are used as the initial guess of the offset estimation. The height of the ionospheric pierce point is determined from the ionosonde hmF2. As a result, the latitudinal GRBR-TEC was successfully estimated from the polar orbit satellites. The two EIA humps were clearly captured by the GRBR-TEC. The result was well verified with the TEC reconstructed from the C/NOFS density data and the ionosonde bottomside data. This is a significant step showing that the GRBR is a useful tool for the study of low-latitude ionospheric features.

  3. Remotely Sensed Data Informs Red List Evaluations and Conservation Priorities in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binbin V.; Hughes, Alice C.; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List has assessed the global distributions of the majority of the world’s amphibians, birds and mammals. Yet these assessments lack explicit reference to widely available, remotely-sensed data that can sensibly inform a species’ risk of extinction. Our first goal is to add additional quantitative data to the existing standardised process that IUCN employs. Secondly, we ask: do our results suggest species of concern—those at considerably greater risk than hitherto appreciated? Thirdly, these assessments are not only important on a species-by-species basis. By combining distributions of species of concern, we map conservation priorities. We ask to what degree these areas are currently protected and how might knowledge from remote sensing modify the priorities? Finally, we develop a quick and simple method to identify and modify the priority setting in a landscape where natural habitats are disappearing rapidly and so where conventional species’ assessments might be too slow to respond. Tropical, mainland Southeast Asia is under exceptional threat, yet relatively poorly known. Here, additional quantitative measures may be particularly helpful. This region contains over 122, 183, and 214 endemic mammals, birds, and amphibians, respectively, of which the IUCN considers 37, 21, and 37 threatened. When corrected for the amount of remaining natural habitats within the known elevation preferences of species, the average sizes of species ranges shrink to <40% of their published ranges. Some 79 mammal, 49 bird, and 184 amphibian ranges are <20,000km2—an area at which IUCN considers most other species to be threatened. Moreover, these species are not better protected by the existing network of protected areas than are species that IUCN accepts as threatened. Simply, there appear to be considerably more species at risk than hitherto appreciated. Furthermore, incorporating remote sensing data showing where habitat loss is prevalent changes the locations of

  4. Coordinating research on neglected parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia through networking.

    PubMed

    Olveda, Remigio; Leonardo, Lydia; Zheng, Feng; Sripa, Banchob; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    The new dialogue between stakeholders, that is, scientists, research administrators and donors as well as the populations victimized by endemic infections, is initiating a virtuous circle leading to lower disease-burdens, improved public health and the mitigation of poverty. There is now general agreement that control activities need research collaboration to advance, while surveillance plays an increasingly important role in sustaining long-term relief. On the part of the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)), this has led to a new vision not only focused on general strengthening of research capabilities but also on furthering efforts to close the gap between research and control and bridge different branches of science. From its original, exclusive focus on schistosomiasis, RNAS(+) has expanded to include food-borne and soil-transmitted helminth infections as well. Its current repository of data on the distribution, prevalence and severity of these diseases is increasingly utilised by decision makers charged with epidemiological control in the endemic countries. Thanks to a more rapid translation of research results into control applications and the dissemination of data and new technology through networking, the overall situation is improving. Working as a virtual organisation of researchers and control officers in the endemic countries of Southeast Asia, RNAS(+) is playing an important role in this conversion. Its responsibilities are divided along disease lines into five main areas, but no serious, endemic disease is considered to be outside the network's sphere of interest. This chapter recounts some of the more important RNAS(+) accomplishments, pinpoints potential directions for future operations and highlights areas where research is most needed.

  5. Multi-model estimates of fire emissions and air quality degradation in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Kinney, P. L.; Shindell, D. T.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Like fossil fuel pollution, fire emissions affect both climate change and air quality. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modeling to quantify potential population exposure to particulate matter and ozone from fires in Southeast Asia from 1997 to 2007. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity due to El Niño-induced droughts and anthropogenic drivers. Though typically too wet to combust, increased sources of deforestation and degradation are enhancing the susceptibility of forests and underlying carbon-rich peat deposits to fire during drought, as documented in the extreme fires of the 1997-98 El Niño. Concerns of a positive feedback between fire activity and a warming climate would further increase the influence of fires on air quality degradation. Monthly fire emissions are estimated from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED version 3) and transported in two atmospheric models to assess population exposure. We show that during strong El Niño years, fires contribute to daily fine particulate matter and afternoon maximum ozone surface concentrations over 150 μg/m3 and 240 μg/m3, respectively. Exposure to these two types of pollutants increases mortality and hospital admissions from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, even at low concentrations. This fire pollutant burden corresponds to 200 added days per year exceeding the World Health Organization fine particulate matter guideline and exposes up to 50 million additional people to more than 25 days above the most extreme pollutant concentrations. Our results indicate that substantial health and economic co-benefits would result from reducing fires in locations where transported emissions lead to enhanced exposure to air pollution during high fire years.

  6. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-09-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4%). The attack rate of traveler's diarrhea was 16.1%, with an incidence rate of 32.05 per 100 person months. Travelers' origin and destination countries significantly related to diarrhea risk. Oceanians had the highest risk (32.9%) and East Asians the lowest (2.6%). Vietnam and Indonesia were the highest risk destinations (19.3%). Other significant factors were youth, trip duration, number of countries visited, and frequently drinking beverages with ice.

  7. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4%). The attack rate of traveler's diarrhea was 16.1%, with an incidence rate of 32.05 per 100 person months. Travelers' origin and destination countries significantly related to diarrhea risk. Oceanians had the highest risk (32.9%) and East Asians the lowest (2.6%). Vietnam and Indonesia were the highest risk destinations (19.3%). Other significant factors were youth, trip duration, number of countries visited, and frequently drinking beverages with ice. PMID:26123958

  8. Annual variation in carbon budget using remote-sensing data and a process model in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, W.; Yamagata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) is one of the most important carbon emission reduction efforts in the tropical region. Deforestation and land use changes are human activities with major impact on the regional carbon budged and the other greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) emissions. Forest carbon biomass in Southeast Asia is largest in Asia region; however, the area of primary forest had continuously decreased due to land-use conversion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate carbon budged and greenhouse gases induced by deforestation from Borneo Island. We used time-series satellite remote-sensing data to track deforestation history in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia, and estimated the resulting forest carbon budget using a process-based model (VISIT: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases). The forest/non-forest area was mapped by applying the ALOS/PALSAR-calibrated threshold value to MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION, and NOAA-AVHRR images. The model allowed us to estimate changes in carbon budged and greenhouse gases by human disturbances, including land-use conversion from primary forest to cropland (e.g., oil-palm plantation). The estimated carbon stocks, budged, and greenhouse gases were verified using field observation of previous studies at some point of Borneo Island. Our results suggested that the southern part of Borneo Island was a large carbon source due to deforestation, although the VISIT model need be revised to account for tropical peatland.

  9. Half-metre sea-level fluctuations on centennial timescales from mid-Holocene corals of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzner, Aron J.; Switzer, Adam D.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Ashe, Erica; Qiu, Qiang; Hill, David F.; Bradley, Sarah L.; Kopp, Robert E.; Hill, Emma M.; Majewski, Jędrzej M.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.

    2017-02-01

    Sea-level rise is a global problem, yet to forecast future changes, we must understand how and why relative sea level (RSL) varied in the past, on local to global scales. In East and Southeast Asia, details of Holocene RSL are poorly understood. Here we present two independent high-resolution RSL proxy records from Belitung Island on the Sunda Shelf. These records capture spatial variations in glacial isostatic adjustment and paleotidal range, yet both reveal a RSL history between 6850 and 6500 cal years BP that includes two 0.6 m fluctuations, with rates of RSL change reaching 13+/-4 mm per year (2σ). Observations along the south coast of China, although of a lower resolution, reveal fluctuations similar in amplitude and timing to those on the Sunda Shelf. The consistency of the Southeast Asian records, from sites 2,600 km apart, suggests that the records reflect regional changes in RSL that are unprecedented in modern times.

  10. Cold season Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern and its relation to the Atlantic multidecadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Ding, Ruiqiang; Jin, Ze

    2016-08-01

    A prominent teleconnection pattern of multidecadal variability of cold season (November to April) upper-level atmospheric circulation over North Africa and Eurasia (NA-EA) is revealed by empirical orthogonal function analysis of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis data. This teleconnection pattern is characterized by an eastward propagating wave train with a zonal wavenumber of 5-6 between 20° and 40°N, extending from the northwest coast of Africa to East Asia, and thus is referred to as the Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern (AAMT). One-point correlation maps show that the teleconnectivity of AAMT is strong and further demonstrate the existence of the AAMT. The AAMT shapes the spatial structure of multidecadal change in atmospheric circulation over the NA-EA region, and in particular the AAMT pattern and associated fields show similar structures to the change occurring around the early 1960s. A strong in-phase relationship is observed between the AAMT and Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) and this connection is mainly due to Rossby wave dynamics. Barotropic modeling results suggest that the upper-level Rossby wave source generated by the AMV can excite the AAMT wave train, and Rossby wave ray tracing analysis further highlights the role of the Asian jet stream in guiding the wave train to East Asia. The AAMT acts as an atmospheric bridge conveying the influence of AMV onto the downstream multidecadal climate variability. The AMV is closely related to the coordinated change in surface and tropospheric air temperatures over Northwest Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Central China, which may result from the adiabatic expansion/compression of air associated with the AAMT.

  11. Reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations together drove species diversification of slipper orchids (Paphiopedilum) in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    South-East Asia covers four of the world's biodiversity hotspots, showing high species diversity and endemism. Owing to the successive expansion and contraction of distribution and the fragmentation by geographical barriers, the tropical flora greatly diversified in this region during the Tertiary, but the evolutionary tempo and mode of species diversity remain poorly investigated. Paphiopedilum, the largest genus of slipper orchids comprising nearly 100 species, is mainly distributed in South-East Asia, providing an ideal system for exploring how plant species diversity was shaped in this region. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of this genus with eight cpDNA regions and four low-copy nuclear genes. Discordance between gene trees and network analysis indicates that reticulate evolution occurred in the genus. Ancestral area reconstruction suggests that vicariance and long-distance dispersal together led to its current distribution. Diversification rate variation was detected and strongly correlated with the species diversity in subg. Paphiopedilum (~80 species). The shift of speciation rate in subg. Paphiopedilum was coincident with sea-level fluctuations in the late Cenozoic, which could have provided ecological opportunities for speciation and created bridges or barriers for gene flow. Moreover, some other factors (e.g. sympatric distribution, incomplete reproductive barriers and clonal propagation) might also be advantageous for the formation and reproduction of hybrid species. In conclusion, our study suggests that the interplay of reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations has promoted the diversification of the genus Paphiopedilum and sheds light into the evolution of Orchidaceae and the historical processes of plant species diversification in South-East Asia.

  12. Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

    2014-05-02

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria

  13. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

    2014-10-12

    Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30μg/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22°N and 95 to 107°E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

  14. New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei in Southeast Asia lead to updates in range, habitat and threats.

    PubMed

    Aylesworth, L; Lawson, J M; Laksanawimol, P; Ferber, P; Loh, T-L

    2016-04-01

    New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei from Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, along with recently published studies from India and Singapore, have greatly expanded the known range of H. mohnikei within Southeast Asia. These new records reveal novel habitat preferences and threats to H. mohnikei in the region. Although the global conservation status of H. mohnikei is classified as Data Deficient according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, new sightings indicate that this species is found in similar habitats and faces similar threats as other Hippocampus species that are considered Vulnerable.

  15. More than a drop in the bucket: decentralized membrane-based drinking water refill stations in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Sima, Laura C; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-07-16

    Decentralized membrane-based water treatment and refill stations represent a viable and growing business model in Southeast Asia, which rely upon the purchase of water from refill stations by consumers. This feature article discusses these water treatment and refill stations, including the appropriateness of the technology, the suitability of the business models employed, and the long-term environmental and operational sustainability of these systems. We also provide an outlook for the sector, highlighting key technical challenges that need to be addressed in order to improve the capacity of these systems, such that they can become an effective and financially viable solution.

  16. Trypanosoma from rodents as potential source of infection in human-shaped landscapes of South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pumhom, Pornpan; Morand, Serge; Tran, Annelise; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Desquesnes, Marc

    2015-03-15

    Reports of atypical human cases of Trypanosoma lewisi or T. lewisi-like and Trypanosoma evansi infections have increased in South-East Asia, urging to investigate the possible links between humans, animal reservoirs and habitats. We tested how habitat structure affects the infection by Trypanosoma species of common murine rodents, inhabiting human-dominated landscapes in South East Asia. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents investigated for Trypanosoma infection and land cover maps produced for seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR. High prevalence of infection by T. lewisi was observed in rodents living near human settlement and in areas with high cover of built-up habitat, while the infection of rodents by T. evansi was explained by increased landscape patchiness and high cover of rain-fed agriculture lands. These results suggest a likely role of wild rodents as reservoir and possible source of atypical human infection by animal trypanosomes.

  17. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    PubMed

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  18. Ticks (Ixodoidea) on birds migrating from Africa to Europe and Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Gaber, Sobhy; Guindy, Ezzat

    1961-01-01

    Hyalomma marginatum marginatum of Europe and Asia and H. marginatum rufipes of Africa, both reservoirs and vectors of organisms pathogenic to humans and animals, have not infrequently been found as incidental specimens or established populations far from their normal endemic geographical boundaries. Owing to ticks' unique ability to transmit or harbour for long periods a variety of pathogens of man and animals, their potential epidemiological role is suspected wherever they occur. Evidence that birds, in themselves hosts of several viruses causing human disease, actually transport the African H. marginatum rufipes northwards was obtained in Egypt by capture of infested migrants during spring passage from East Africa to Europe and Asia. Between 1956 and 1960, 340 birds representing 22 forms (species and subspecies) were found infested by 1025 immature ticks, all but seven of which were or appear to be H. marginatum rufipes. The period of attachment of immature stages of rufipes to their host is sufficient to suggest that many of these ticks are carried some distance into Europe and Asia. PMID:13715709

  19. The occurrence of equatorial spread-F at conjugate stations in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinngam, Somjai; Supnithi, Pornchai; Rungraengwajiake, Sarawoot; Tsugawa, Takuya; Ishii, Mamoru; Maruyama, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the probability of equatorial spread-F (ESF) occurrence at the conjugate stations in Southeast Asia: Chiangmai station (CMU), Thailand, and Kototabang station (KTB), Indonesia, and near the magnetic equator, Chumphon station (CPN), Thailand, is presented. We analyze the ionogram data recorded by the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FM/CW) ionosondes for the periods of minimum solar activity from September 2008 to April 2009 and in the equinoctial months (March and April) from 2006 to 2013. The spread-F signatures are manually categorized into three types: the frequency spread-F (FSF), the range spread-F (RSF) and the mixed spread-F (MSF) and the monthly average percentage of the occurrence of each ESF type is presented. The results show that the percentage of RSF occurrence at CPN, which is located around the magnetic equator, is higher than at other stations and the RSF mostly occurs during the equinoctial months. On the other hand, the FSF occurrence at CMU and KTB, that are located in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively, are higher than at CPN. The RSF occurrence typically has the peaks before midnight, while the maximum occurrence rate of FSF is after midnight. Furthermore, the RSF onsets normally precede the FSF onsets by about 1-2 h. As the solar activity levels go up, the percentages of RSF occurrence increase, but the percentages of FSF tends to decrease. In addition, we compare the statistics of observed RSF occurrence with the prediction of the IRI-2012 model. The results show that the IRI model overestimates the observed RSF occurrence at all stations during most of the solar activity levels and seasons, except in June 2008 (21:00-03:00 LT), March 2011 (23:30-01:00 LT) and March 2013 (01:00-02:30 LT) when the IRI model underestimates our observations. However, the IRI model gives closer probability of RSF occurrence to our observed values at CPN, especially in equinoctial months and during the periods of medium solar

  20. Impact of biomass burning on ocean water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundarambal, P.; Balasubramanian, R.; Tkalich, P.; He, J.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric nutrients have recently gained considerable attention as a significant additional source of new nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading to the ocean. The effect of atmospheric macro nutrients on marine productivity depends on the biological availability of both inorganic and organic N and P forms. During October 2006, the regional smoke haze episodes in Southeast Asia (SEA) that resulted from uncontrolled forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Borneo blanketed large parts of the region. In this work, we determined the chemical composition of nutrients in aerosols and rainwater during hazy and non-hazy days to assess their impacts on aquatic ecosystem in SEA for the first time. We compared atmospheric dry and wet deposition of N and P species in aerosol and rainwater in Singapore between hazy and non-hazy days. Air mass back trajectories showed that large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were a significant source of atmospheric nutrients to aquatic environments in Singapore and SEA region on hazy days. It was observed that the average concentrations of nutrients increased approximately by a factor of 3 to 8 on hazy days when compared with non-hazy days. The estimated mean dry and wet atmospheric fluxes (mg/m2/day) of total nitrogen (TN) were 12.72 ± 2.12 and 2.49 ± 1.29 during non-hazy days and 132.86 ± 38.39 and 29.43 ± 10.75 during hazy days; the uncertainty estimates are represented as 1 standard deviation (1σ) here and throughout the text. The estimated mean dry and wet deposition fluxes (mg/m2/day) of total phosphorous (TP) were 0.82 ± 0.23 and 0.13 ± 0.03 for non-hazy days and 7.89 ± 0.80 and 1.56 ± 0.65 for hazy days. The occurrences of higher concentrations of nutrients from atmospheric deposition during smoke haze episodes may have adverse consequences on receiving aquatic ecosystems with cascading impacts on water quality.

  1. Variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm over East/Southeast Asia on the ENSO time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tie; Di, Yuelun; Qie, Kai

    2016-03-01

    The variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm on the ENSO time scales over East/Southeast Asia was investigated by using 17-year (1995-2011) lightning data from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and 14-year (1998-2011) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) precipitation feature data. In addition, ERA-Interim reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used to present related environmental characteristics. It was found that the response of lightning flash to ENSO events shows remarkable seasonal and regional variations. The regions of positive (negative) lightning anomaly are mainly located at both sides of 5°-20°N (5°-15°N) in El Niño (La Niña) spring and winter, and located north of the equator in summer and autumn. There is a significantly positive correlation between lightning anomaly and the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) over both East China and Indonesia during El Niño episodes, but no obvious correlation during La Niña episodes. The positive thunderstorm anomalies during El Niño periods are dispersed. The distribution of thunderstorm anomalies in La Niña summer and autumn is almost opposite to that in spring and winter. The correlation between thunderstorm anomaly and ONI is better over East China than that over Indonesia. In general, lightning variation follows thunderstorm intensity (number) variation over East China during El Niño (La Niña) episodes, and follows a combination of thunderstorm intensity and number variations over Indonesia on ENSO time scales. During ENSO time scales, variations of surface wind can be considered as one of the key factors to LAs. More lightning flashes present in the regions where warm moist flows intersection, and less in the regions where surface wind changes slightly or diverges. Dramatic lightning increases also occur with higher values of convective available potential energy (CAPE). In addition, higher (lower

  2. Observations of Aerosol Optical Properties over 15 AERONET Sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. D.; Lagrosas, N.; Uy, S. N.; Holben, B. N.; Dorado, S.; Tobias, V., Jr.; Anh, N. X.; Po-Hsiung, L.; Janjai, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Liew, S. C.; Lim, H. S.; Lestari, P.

    2014-12-01

    Mean column-integrated optical properties from ground sun photometers of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are studied to provide an overview of the characteristics of aerosols over the region as part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) mission. The 15 AERONET sites with the most available level 2 data products are selected from Thailand (Chiang Mai, Mukdahan, Songkhla and Silpakorn University), Malaysia (University Sains Malaysia), Laos (Vientiane), Vietnam (Bac Giang, Bac Lieu and Nha Trang), Taiwan (National Cheng Kung University and Central Weather Bureau Taipei), Singapore, Indonesia (Bandung) and the Philippines (Manila Observatory and Notre Dame of Marbel University). For all 15 sites, high angstrom exponent values (α>1) have been observed. Chiang Mai and USM have the highest mean Angstrom exponent indicating the dominance of fine particles that can be ascribed to biomass burning and urbanization. Sites with the lowest Angstrom exponent values include Bac Lieu (α=1.047) and Manila Observatory (α=1.021). From the average lognormal size distribution curves, Songkhla and NDMU show the smallest annual variation in the fine mode region, indicating the observed fine aerosols are local to the sites. The rest of the sites show high variation which could be due to large scale forcings (e.g., monsoons and biomass burnings) that affect aerosol properties in these sites. Both high and low single scattering albedo at 440 nm (ω0440) values are found in sites located in major urban areas. Silpakorn University, Manila Observatory and Vientiane have all mean ω0440 < 0.90. Singapore and CWB Taipei have ω0440 > 0.94. The discrepancy in ω0 suggests different types of major emission sources present in urban areas. The absorptivity of urban aerosols can vary depending on the strength of traffic emissions, types of fuel combusted and automobile engines used, and the effect of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season. High aerosol optical depth values (τa550

  3. Public Health Hotspots Of Exposure To Air Pollution From Biomass Burning In Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; Defries, R. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Shindell, D. T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Kinney, P. L.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fire is one of the most significant instruments of land use change; forests and grasslands are burned to create and maintain agricultural fields or other anthropogenic landscapes. Although fire emissions have been studied for their climatic and atmospheric effects, less is known about their impact on global public health. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire emissions and atmospheric modeling to estimate exposure in Southeast Asia to particulate matter and ozone, which have a demonstrated detrimental health impact. Regional emissions can vary by a factor of twenty or more interannually due to the combined influence of prolonged drought conditions from El Nino, land use policies, and high fuel loads in tropical forests and peat. High fire years in the region, such as the 1997-1998 El Nino, can have a profound effect on global trace gas and aerosol loads. We conducted daily simulations of surface fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations for the 1997-2007 period using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2) within two atmospheric models: Harvard’s GEOS-CHEM and the NASA GISS Global Climate Model. The results from each model are compared and validated by field-based and remote sensing datasets. The public health risk from each pollutant is assessed with current air quality regulations published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our preliminary results demonstrate that regions experiencing substantial fire activity can increase the percentage of days per year exceeding WHO air quality guidelines by more than 20%. These anomalies are localized in regions close to burning centers, and more so for heavier pollutants like particulate matter. In addition, the population exposed to particulate matter and ozone above WHO guidelines can increase during high fire years by up to 70% and 50% over the decadal mean, respectively. Our results implicate fires as a serious public health risk to cardiovascular diseases, which the WHO estimates are a

  4. Central System of Psychosocial Support to the Czech Victims Affected by the Tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-02-01

    The Tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  5. Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from Southeast Asia - aerosol and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Forster, C.; Huntrieser, H.; Mannstein, H.; McMillan, W. W.; Petzold, A.; Schlager, H.; Weinzierl, B.

    2007-02-01

    An air pollution plume from Southern and Eastern Asia, including regions in India and China, was predicted by the FLEXPART particle dispersion model to arrive in the upper troposphere over Europe on 24-25 March 2006. According to the model, the plume was exported from Southeast Asia six days earlier, transported into the upper troposphere by a warm conveyor belt, and travelled to Europe in a fast zonal flow. This is confirmed by the retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) from AIRS satellite measurements, which are in excellent agreement with the model results over the entire transport history. The research aircraft DLR Falcon was sent into this plume west of Spain on 24 March and over Southern Europe on 25 March. On both days, the pollution plume was found close to the predicted locations and, thus, the measurements taken allowed the first detailed characterization of the aerosol content and chemical composition of an anthropogenic pollution plume after a nearly hemispheric transport event. The mixing ratios of CO, reactive nitrogen (NOy) and ozone (O3) measured in the Asian plume were all clearly elevated over a background that was itself likely elevated by Asian emissions: CO by 17-34 ppbv on average (maximum 60 ppbv) and O3 by 2-9 ppbv (maximum 22 ppbv). Positive correlations existed between these species, and a ΔO3/ΔCO slope of 0.25 shows that ozone was formed in this plume, albeit with moderate efficiency. Nucleation mode and Aitken particles were suppressed in the Asian plume, whereas accumulation mode aerosols were strongly elevated and correlated with CO. The suppression of the nucleation mode was likely due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface of the transported larger particles. Super-micron particles, likely desert dust, were found in part of the Asian pollution plume and also in surrounding cleaner air. The aerosol light absorption coefficient was enhanced in the plume (average values for individual plume encounters 0.25-0.70 Mm-1), as was the

  6. Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from Southeast Asia - aerosol and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Forster, C.; Huntrieser, H.; Mannstein, H.; McMillan, W. W.; Petzold, A.; Schlager, H.; Weinzierl, B.

    2006-12-01

    An air pollution plume from Southern and Eastern Asia, including regions in India and China, was predicted by the FLEXPART particle dispersion model to arrive in the upper troposphere over Europe on 24-25 March 2006. According to the model, the plume was exported from Southeast Asia only six days earlier, transported into the upper troposphere by a warm conveyor belt, and travelled to Europe in a fast zonal flow. This is confirmed by the retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) from AIRS satellite measurements, which are in excellent agreement with the model results over the entire transport history. The research aircraft DLR Falcon was sent into this plume west of Spain on 24 March and over Southern Europe on 25 March. On both days, the pollution plume was indeed found close to the predicted locations and, thus, the measurements taken allowed the first detailed characterization of the aerosol content and chemical composition of an anthropogenic pollution plume after a nearly hemispheric transport event. The mixing ratios of CO, reactive nitrogen (NOy) and ozone (O3) measured in the Asian plume were all clearly elevated over a background that was itself likely elevated by Asian emissions: CO by 17-34 ppbv on average (maximum 60 ppbv) and O3 by 2-9 ppbv (maximum 22 ppbv). Positive correlations existed between these species, and a ΔO3/ΔCO slope of 0.25 shows that ozone was formed in this plume, albeit with moderate efficiency. Nucleation mode and Aitken particles were suppressed in the Asian plume, whereas accumulation mode aerosols were strongly elevated and correlated with CO. The suppression of the nucleation mode was likely due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface due to the transported larger particles. Super-micron particles, likely desert dust, were found in part of the Asian pollution plume and also in surrounding cleaner air. The aerosol light absorption coefficient was enhanced in the plume (average values for individual plume encounters 0.25-0.70 Mm-1

  7. Government Information and Information about Governments in Southeast Asia: A New Era? An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ch'ng Kim

    This paper on Southeast Asian government information and official publications (GIOPs) begins with a general overview of new ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) members (Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos, and Vietnam) as well as founding members (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore). Information technology (IT)…

  8. Homogeneous Population of the Brown Alga Sargassum polycystum in Southeast Asia: Possible Role of Recent Expansion and Asexual Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sze Wai; Cheang, Chi Chiu; Chirapart, Anong; Gerung, Grevo; Tharith, Chea; Ang, Put

    2013-01-01

    Southeast Asia has been known as one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. Repeated glacial cycles during Pleistocene were believed to cause isolation of marine taxa in refugia, resulting in diversification among lineages. Recently, ocean current was also found to be another factor affecting gene flow by restricting larval dispersal in animals. Macroalgae are unique in having mode of reproduction that differs from that of animals. Our study on the phylogeographical pattern of the brown macroalga Sargassum polycystum using nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2), plastidal RuBisCO spacer (Rub spacer) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-III (Cox3) as molecular markers revealed genetic homogeneity across 27 sites in Southeast Asia and western Pacific, in sharp contrast to that revealed from most animal studies. Our data suggested that S. polycystum persisted in single refugium during Pleistocene in a panmixia pattern. Expansion occurred more recently after the Last Glacial Maximum and recolonization of the newly flooded Sunda Shelf could have involved asexual propagation of the species. High dispersal ability through floating fronds carrying developing germlings may also contribute to the low genetic diversity of the species. PMID:24147050

  9. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, David L A; Salim, Mohammad A; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; DeFries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-08-19

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013--a non-drought year--Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated "very unhealthy"). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 ± 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 ± 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands.

  10. New Paradigms for Virus Detection, Surveillance and Control of Zika Virus Vectors in the Settings of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vythilingam, Indra; Sam, Jamal I-C; Chan, Yoke F; Khaw, Loke T; Sulaiman, Wan Y Wan

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has now become a global public health concern. The vectors for ZIKV are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Both these mosquitoes are predominant in Southeast Asia and are also responsible for the spread of other arboviral diseases like dengue virus and chikungunya virus. The incidence of dengue has been increasing over the years and this is of concern to public health workers. Simple laboratory tools for the detection of ZIKV is also lacking. In the absence of drugs and vaccine for these arboviral diseases, vector control is the main option for surveillance and control. Aedes larval surveys have been the hallmark of dengue control along with larviciding and fogging when cases are reported. However, we need new paradigms and options for control of these vectors. The current situation in Southeast Asia clearly proves that effective strategies for vector control need to be proactive and not reactive. This will be the way forward to control epidemics of these diseases inclusive of ZIKV until a vaccine becomes available.

  11. New Paradigms for Virus Detection, Surveillance and Control of Zika Virus Vectors in the Settings of Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Vythilingam, Indra; Sam, Jamal I-C.; Chan, Yoke F.; Khaw, Loke T.; Sulaiman, Wan Y. Wan

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has now become a global public health concern. The vectors for ZIKV are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Both these mosquitoes are predominant in Southeast Asia and are also responsible for the spread of other arboviral diseases like dengue virus and chikungunya virus. The incidence of dengue has been increasing over the years and this is of concern to public health workers. Simple laboratory tools for the detection of ZIKV is also lacking. In the absence of drugs and vaccine for these arboviral diseases, vector control is the main option for surveillance and control. Aedes larval surveys have been the hallmark of dengue control along with larviciding and fogging when cases are reported. However, we need new paradigms and options for control of these vectors. The current situation in Southeast Asia clearly proves that effective strategies for vector control need to be proactive and not reactive. This will be the way forward to control epidemics of these diseases inclusive of ZIKV until a vaccine becomes available. PMID:27679623

  12. Upper-mantle shear-wave structure under East and Southeast Asia from Automated Multimode Inversion of waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Q.-F.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new Sv-velocity model of the upper mantle under East and Southeast Asia constrained by the inversion of seismic waveforms recorded by broad-band stations. Seismograms from earthquakes occurred between 1977 and 2012 are collected from about 4786 permanent and temporary stations in the region whenever and wherever available. Automated Multimode Inversion of surface and multiple-S waveforms is applied to extract structural information from the seismograms, in the form of linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties. The equations are then solved for the seismic velocity perturbations in the crust and upper mantle with respect to a three-dimensional (3-D) reference model and a realistic crust. Major features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in East and Southeast Asia are identified in the resulting model. At lithospheric depth, low velocities can be seen beneath Tibet, whereas high velocities are found beneath cratonic regions, such as the Siberian, North China, Yangtze,) Tarim, and Dharwarand cratons. A number of microplates are mapped and the interaction with neighbouring plates is discussed. Slabs from the Pacific and Indian Oceans can be seen in the upper mantle. Passive marginal basins and subduction zones are also properly resolved.

  13. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Salim, Mohammad A.; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E.; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; DeFries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013 – a non-drought year – Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated “very unhealthy”). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 ± 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 ± 12 Tg C), representing 5–10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000–2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands. PMID:25135165

  14. Dominant discourses, debates and silences on child labour in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Tatek; Bessell, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the relevant literature, this article explores key debates and controversies on child labour in the context of Africa and Asia. It first identifies and analyses three dominant discourses on child labour: 1) the work-free childhoods perspective; 2) the socio-cultural perspective; and 3) the political economy perspective. Against the backdrop of these discourses, the article goes on to critically examine aspects of child labour that are underrepresented in the literature and in international policy circles. It concludes by highlighting the importance of grounding children's gendered work within the complex material social practices of interconnected histories and geographies in which their livelihoods unfold.

  15. Global accumulation of tree-crops and its competition with forest loss and food security in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, A.; Mizoue, N.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tree-crops, which are the plants holding trunks for several decades and supply products in a form of fruits or resin, such as oil palm and natural rubber, comprises 5% of crop land of the world in 2008. While the expansion has been a major driver of forest loss and food security, a research on the process and proportion of tree-crops on global scale has been lacking. We examined the regional and temporal difference on the expansion process of the top five abundant tree-crops of the world while linking the trend of crop areas (for food production) and forest areas between 1960s and 2000s. We adopted FAOSTAT database and focused on globally abundant top-five tree crops (oil palm, rubber, coconuts, coffee, cocoa). Globally, notable proportional change of these five tree-crops on total crop lands was observed in Asia from 1.8% in 1961 to 5.2% in 2008. Regionally, it was Southeast Asia that exhibited the growth in the ratio of these five tree-crops on overall crop lands for the last half a century; from only one-tenth in 1961 to as much as one-fourth in 2008. While oil palm plantations are established in southern part of Southeast Asia, rubber plantations are being established in expense of traditional agricultural fields in northern Southeast Asia. We identified the tree-crops expansion has been increased in expense of agricultural areas (production for food) in Thailand from 1961 to 2008 (r = -0.828, P < 0.0001) and Myanmar from 1961 to 1989 (r = -0.741, P < 0.0001). The impacts of ongoing tree-crops expansion on food and wood security of the region need to be carefully monitored in terms of biodiversity, carbon storage, the local climate and the hydrological cycle. We proposed the suggestion the necessity of a new framework of protecting agricultural land from the expansion of tree-crops, especially oil palm and rubber.

  16. Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk behavior for MSM and transwomen in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Adi; Erasmus, Vicki; Zomer, Tizza P; Wu, Qing; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to gain insights from existing literature from Southeast Asian countries to improve future HIV prevention programs for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (transwomen). We conducted a systematic search in six international databases for literature published prior to 1 January 2015. We included studies describing behavioral interventions targeting MSM and/or transwomen, and conducted in at least one Southeast Asian country. Five out of 575 screened studies met the inclusion criteria and reported a significant intervention effect on at least one outcome measure, that is, condom use (with casual or commercial partner), water-based lubricant use, number of sex partners, HIV prevention knowledge, or willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis. Peer education/outreach was the most commonly employed type of intervention in the five included studies and was usually delivered as an element of a larger intervention package, together with condom distribution and the provision of drop-in centers. Motivational interviewing was effective, while internet-based interventions appeared to be a viable platform for intervention delivery. Nevertheless, research on behavioral interventions among MSM and transwomen in Southeast Asia is limited. Future interventions should be culturally appropriate, theoretically grounded, and rigorously evaluated. Only then can we best address the HIV epidemic among MSM and transwomen in this region.

  17. An evaluation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease outbreak reporting in mainland South-East Asia from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Madin, Ben

    2011-12-01

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is considered to be endemic throughout mainland South-East Asia (SEA). The South-East Asia and China FMD (SEACFMD) campaign is a regional control programme which has been ongoing since 1997. The programme encourages countries to submit reports of outbreaks regularly. This paper evolved from a collaboration with SEACFMD to evaluate 10 years worth of reporting. All publicly available outbreak reports (5237) were extracted from the ASEAN Region Animal Health Information System (ARAHIS) for the period from 2000 to mid 2010. These reports included date, outbreak location (at the province and district level) and serotype (if known) plus information on the outbreak size and affected species. Not all records had complete information on the population at-risk or the number of animals affected. This data was transferred into a spatially enabled database (along with data from other sources) and analysed using R and SaTScan. Outbreak serotype was unknown in 2264 (43%) of reports and some countries had very few laboratory confirmed cases (range <1-86%). Outbreak reports were standardised by number of villages in each province. Outbreak intensity varied however there did not appear to be a consistent pattern, nor was there any seasonal trend in outbreaks. Spatial and spatio-temporal cluster detection methods were applied. These identified significant clusters of disease reports. FMD is endemic across the region but is not uniformly present. ARAHIS reports can be regarded as indicators of disease reporting: there may be reports in which laboratory confirmation has not occurred, and in some cases clinical signs are inconsistent with FMD. This raises questions about the specificity of the data. Advances in decentralised testing techniques offer hope for improved verification of FMD as the cause of disease outbreaks. Advances in molecular typing may provide a substantial leap forward in understanding the circulation of FMD in South East Asia.

  18. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The highly structured distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups suggests that current patterns of variation may be informative of past population processes. However, limited phylogenetic resolution, particularly of subclades within haplogroup K, has obscured the relationships of lineages that are common across Eurasia. Here we genotype 13 new highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a worldwide sample of 4413 males that carry the derived allele at M526, and reconstruct an NRY haplogroup tree with significantly higher resolution for the major clade within haplogroup K, K-M526. Although K-M526 was previously characterized by a single polytomy of eight major branches, the phylogenetic structure of haplogroup K-M526 is now resolved into four major subclades (K2a–d). The largest of these subclades, K2b, is divided into two clusters: K2b1 and K2b2. K2b1 combines the previously known haplogroups M, S, K-P60 and K-P79, whereas K2b2 comprises haplogroups P and its subhaplogroups Q and R. Interestingly, the monophyletic group formed by haplogroups R and Q, which make up the majority of paternal lineages in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas, represents the only subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q. PMID:24896152

  19. Satellite time-series data for vegetation phenology detection and environmental assessment in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suepa, Tanita

    The relationship between temporal and spatial data is considered the major advantage of remote sensing in research related to biophysical characteristics. With temporally formatted remote sensing products, it is possible to monitor environmental changes as well as global climate change through time and space by analyzing vegetation phenology. Although a number of different methods have been developed to determine the seasonal cycle using time series of vegetation indices, these methods were not designed to explore and monitor changes and trends of vegetation phenology in Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA is adversely affected by impacts of climate change, which causes considerable environmental problems, and the increase in agricultural land conversion and intensification also adds to those problems. Consequently, exploring and monitoring phenological change and environmental impacts are necessary for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics and environmental change in this region. This research aimed to investigate inter-annual variability of vegetation phenology and rainfall seasonality, analyze the possible drivers of phenological changes from both climatic and anthropogenic factors, assess the environmental impacts in agricultural areas, and develop an enhanced visualization method for phenological information dissemination. In this research, spatio-temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were analyzed by using MODIS-EVI time series data over the period of 2001-2010. Rainfall seasonality was derived from TRMM daily rainfall rate. Additionally, this research assessed environmental impacts of GHG emissions by using the environmental model (DNDC) to quantify emissions from rice fields in Thailand. Furthermore, a web mapping application was developed to present the output of phenological and environmental analysis with interactive functions. The results revealed that satellite time-series data provided a great opportunity to study regional vegetation variability

  20. Combined observational and modeling efforts of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftus, Adrian; Tsay, Si-Chee; Nguyen, Xuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Low-level stratocumulus (Sc) clouds cover more of the Earth's surface than any other cloud type rendering them critical for Earth's energy balance, primarily via reflection of solar radiation, as well as their role in the global hydrological cycle. Stratocumuli are particularly sensitive to changes in aerosol loading on both microphysical and macrophysical scales, yet the complex feedbacks involved in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions remain poorly understood. Moreover, research on these clouds has largely been confined to marine environments, with far fewer studies over land where major sources of anthropogenic aerosols exist. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia (SEA) in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning (BB), exhibits highly consistent spatiotemporal distribution patterns, with major variability due to changes in aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from source regions, the transported BB aerosols often overlap with low-level Sc cloud decks associated with the development of the region's pre-monsoon system, providing a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring their complex micro- and macro-scale relationships. Compared to other locations worldwide, studies of springtime biomass-burning aerosols and the predominately Sc cloud systems over SEA and their ensuing interactions are underrepresented in scientific literature. Measurements of aerosol and cloud properties, whether ground-based or from satellites, generally lack information on microphysical processes; thus cloud-resolving models are often employed to simulate the underlying physical processes in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model has recently been enhanced with a triple-moment (3M) bulk microphysics scheme as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6 aerosol module. Because the aerosol burden not only affects cloud

  1. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-05-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration slightly increased. The

  2. SSA 03-1 PREVALENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    : Similar to the trend worldwide, hypertension (HTN) is also the single most attributable cause for mortality in South-East Asia (SEA). But while in developed regions, the prevalence of HTN appears to be stabilizing or decreasing, the rates in SEA continue to rise. Around a third of the adult population in SEA have elevated blood pressure (BP) with nearly 1.5 million deaths (9.4% of total deaths) attributable to HTN annually.In several countries in SEA, awareness level of HTN is less than 50% but in the more affluent countries in the region, awareness ranges from 56% to 70%. Of those aware that they have hypertension, about half are on treatment, following the global rule of halves in HTN. Control rates to BP levels below 140/90[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]mmHg remains dismally low.HTN is also a common comorbid condition with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the region, with HTN coexisting in 40%-60% of individuals with T2DM, and vice-versa. These dual problem likely accounts for the increased deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), which remains the leading cause of mortality.At least seven countries in the region have standard national guidelines for the management of hypertension, with some of these countries initiating efforts at reducing salt intake at the population level. These efforts need to be scaled up and adopted by the other countries in SEA.Considered an urgent public health problem, barriers to effective prevention and control remain a major challenge in the region. These barriers include cultural norms and practices that promote unhealthy behaviors and misconceptions about HTN, the lack of an enabling environment for healthy lifestyle practices, increased tobacco use, disparities in healthcare with inadequate access for early detection and treatment especially primary healthcare facilities, high out-of-pocket cost of treatment, and generally poor adherence to treatment.Majority of the countries in SEA have already strengthened their public education

  3. The 'human revolution' in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity and behavior of anatomically modern humans at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo).

    PubMed

    Barker, Graeme; Barton, Huw; Bird, Michael; Daly, Patrick; Datan, Ipoi; Dykes, Alan; Farr, Lucy; Gilbertson, David; Harrisson, Barbara; Hunt, Chris; Higham, Tom; Kealhofer, Lisa; Krigbaum, John; Lewis, Helen; McLaren, Sue; Paz, Victor; Pike, Alistair; Piper, Phil; Pyatt, Brian; Rabett, Ryan; Reynolds, Tim; Rose, Jim; Rushworth, Garry; Stephens, Mark; Stringer, Chris; Thompson, Jill; Turney, Chris

    2007-03-01

    Recent research in Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia suggests that we can no longer assume a direct and exclusive link between anatomically modern humans and behavioral modernity (the 'human revolution'), and assume that the presence of either one implies the presence of the other: discussions of the emergence of cultural complexity have to proceed with greater scrutiny of the evidence on a site-by-site basis to establish secure associations between the archaeology present there and the hominins who created it. This paper presents one such case study: Niah Cave in Sarawak on the island of Borneo, famous for the discovery in 1958 in the West Mouth of the Great Cave of a modern human skull, the 'Deep Skull,' controversially associated with radiocarbon dates of ca. 40,000 years before the present. A new chronostratigraphy has been developed through a re-investigation of the lithostratigraphy left by the earlier excavations, AMS-dating using three different comparative pre-treatments including ABOX of charcoal, and U-series using the Diffusion-Absorption model applied to fragments of bones from the Deep Skull itself. Stratigraphic reasons for earlier uncertainties about the antiquity of the skull are examined, and it is shown not to be an 'intrusive' artifact. It was probably excavated from fluvial-pond-desiccation deposits that accumulated episodically in a shallow basin immediately behind the cave entrance lip, in a climate that ranged from times of comparative aridity with complete desiccation, to episodes of greater surface wetness, changes attributed to regional climatic fluctuations. Vegetation outside the cave varied significantly over time, including wet lowland forest, montane forest, savannah, and grassland. The new dates and the lithostratigraphy relate the Deep Skull to evidence of episodes of human activity that range in date from ca. 46,000 to ca. 34,000 years ago. Initial investigations of sediment scorching, pollen, palynomorphs, phytoliths, plant

  4. An Overview of Regional Experiments on Biomass Burning Aerosols and Related Pollutants in Southeast Asia: From BASE-ASIA and the Dongsha Experiment to 7-SEAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Maring, Hal B.; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Fu, Joshua S.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lee, Chung-Te; Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, Jia-Lin; Hsu, Christina N.; Sayer, Andrew M.; Holben, Brent N.; Chu, Yu-Chi; Nguyen, Xuan Anh; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chen, Shui-Jen; Cheng, Man-Ting; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Peng, Chi-Ming; Schnell, Russell C.; Conway, Tom; Chang, Chang-Tang; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tsai, Ying I.; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Chang, Wei-Li; Huang, Shih-Jen; Lin, Tang-Huang; Liu, Gin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    By modulating the Earth-atmosphere energy, hydrological and biogeochemical cycles, and affecting regional-to-global weather and climate, biomass burning is recognized as one of the major factors affecting the global carbon cycle. However, few comprehensive and wide-ranging experiments have been conducted to characterize biomass-burning pollutants in Southeast Asia (SEA) or assess their regional impact on meteorology, the hydrological cycle, the radiative budget, or climate change. Recently, BASEASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and the 7-SEAS (7- South-East Asian Studies) Dongsha Experiment were conducted during the spring seasons of 2006 and 2010 in northern SEA, respectively, to characterize the chemical, physical, and radiative properties of biomass-burning emissions near the source regions, and assess their effects. This paper provides an overview of results from these two campaigns and related studies collected in this special issue, entitled Observation, modeling and impact studies of biomass burning and pollution in the SE Asian Environment. This volume includes 28 papers, which provide a synopsis of the experiments, regional weatherclimate, chemical characterization of biomass-burning aerosols and related pollutants in source and sink regions, the spatial distribution of air toxics (atmospheric mercury and dioxins) in source and remote areas, a characterization of aerosol physical, optical, and radiative properties, as well as modeling and impact studies. These studies, taken together, provide the first relatively complete dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the sourcesink region in the northern SEA, with particular emphasis on the marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere (LFT). The data, analysis and modeling included in these papers advance our present knowledge of source characterization of biomass-burning pollutants near the source regions as well as the physical and

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association.

  6. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  7. Climate and air quality impacts of altered BVOC fluxes from land cover change in Southeast Asia 1990 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Kandice; Yue, Xu; Unger, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale transformation of the natural rainforests of Southeast Asia in recent decades, driven primarily by logging and agroforestry activities, including rapid expansion of plantations of high-isoprene-emitting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trees at the expense of comparatively low-emitting natural dipterocarp rainforests, may have altered the prevailing regime of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) fluxes from this tropical region. Chemical processing of isoprene in the atmosphere impacts the magnitude and distribution of several short-lived climate forcers, including ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Consequently, modification of the fluxes of isoprene and other BVOCs from vegetation serves as a mechanism by which tropical land cover change impacts both air quality and climate. We apply satellite-derived snapshots of land cover for the period 1990 - 2010 to the NASA ModelE2-Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon-chemistry-climate model to quantify the impact of Southeast Asian land cover change on atmospheric chemical composition and climate driven by changes in isoprene emission. NASA ModelE2-YIBs features a fully interactive land carbon cycle and includes a BVOC emission algorithm which energetically couples isoprene production to photosynthesis. The time-slice simulations are nudged with large-scale winds from the GMAO reanalysis dataset and are forced with monthly anthropogenic and biomass burning reactive air pollution emissions from the MACCity emissions inventory. Relative to the year 1990, regional isoprene emissions in 2010 increased by 2.6 TgC/yr from the expansion of Southeast Asian oil palm plantations and decreased by 0.7 TgC/yr from the loss of regional dipterocarp rainforest. Considering only the impact of land-cover-change-induced isoprene emission changes in Southeast Asia over this period, we calculate a spatially heterogeneous impact on regional seasonal surface-level ozone concentrations (minimum: -1

  8. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia detection and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus described in a monotypic genus as Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The symptoms of the disease include green-spotted chloro...

  9. Preface to Changes and disturbance in tropical rainforest in South-East Asia. A Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society on 20 and 21 January 1999

    PubMed Central

    Newbery, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    Preface to Changes and disturbance in tropical rainforest in South-East Asia. A Discussion Meeting held at The Royal Society on 20 and 21 January 1999. Organized and edited by D. M. Newbery, T. H. Clutton-Brock and G. T. Prance.

  10. Characterization and spatial distribution of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR mosaic 25m-resolution in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Nakazono, E.; Parwati, E.; Dien, V. T.; Oo, K. S.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate characteristics of mangrove forest types and to identify spatial distribution of mangrove forest based on ALOS PALSAR mosaic 25m- resolution in Southeast Asia. Methodology consists of collecting of ALOS PALSAR image for overall Southeast Asia region, preprocessing include converting DN to NRCS and filtering, collecting regions of interest of mangrove forest in Southeast Asia, plotting, characterization and classification. Result on this research we found characteristics of mangrove forest on HH values around -10.88 dB to -6.65 dB and on HV value around -16.49 dB to -13.26 dB. On polarization of HH which the highest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Preak Piphot River Cambodia, Thái Thủy Thai Binh Vietnam, and Vạn Ninh tp. Móng Cái Quảng Ninh Vietnam whereas the lowest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Thailand area. On polarization of HV which the highest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Preak Piphot River Cambodia, Sorong and Teluk Bintuni Indonesia whereas the lowest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Subang Indonesia, Giao Thiện Giao Thuỷ Nam Định, Vietnam and Puyu Mueng Satun Thailand. Based on characterization, we create a rule criteria for classification of mangrove areas and non mangrove area. Finally we found spatial distribution of mangrove forest based on ALOS PALSAR 25m-resolution in Southeast Asia.

  11. The Oldest Gibbon Fossil (Hylobatidae) from Insular Southeast Asia: Evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O. Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891–1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here. PMID:24914951

  12. The oldest gibbon fossil (Hylobatidae) from insular Southeast Asia: evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891-1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here.

  13. Achievements of the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences in South-Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shahida; Begum, Ferdousi; Tank, Jaydeep; Chaudhury, Pushpa; Yasmin, Haleema; Dissanayake, Mangala

    2014-07-01

    Since 2008, the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences has contributed to ensuring the substitution of sharp curettage by manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and medical abortion in selected hospitals in participating countries of South-Southeast Asia. This initiative facilitated the registration of misoprostol in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and the approval of mifepristone for "menstrual regulation" in Bangladesh. The Pakistan Nursing Council agreed to include MVA and medical abortion in the midwifery curriculum. The Bangladesh Government has approved the training of nurses and paramedics in the use of MVA to treat incomplete abortion in selected cases. The Sri Lanka College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, in collaboration with partners, has presented a draft petition to the relevant authorities appealing for them to liberalize the abortion law in cases of rape and incest or when lethal congenital abnormalities are present. Significantly, the initiative has introduced or strengthened the provision of postabortion contraception.

  14. Genetic identification and structure of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Southeast Asia using a mitochondrial DNA marker.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paolin; Sulaiman, Zohrah

    2015-05-22

    A phylogenetic tree and median-joining network based on cytochrome b sequence data revealed clades consistent with morphological differences and geographical distribution of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Southeast Asia. AMOVA analysis for variation was significant among populations (P<0.05) and was in agreement with morphological differences. Pairwise differences were significant between Java and Brunei/Borneo, Brunei/Borneo and west Malaysia, and Java and west Malaysia samples (P < 0.05). Closest relationships were found between samples from Brunei/Borneo and Java, and between west Malaysia and Laos-Sumatra. Nine haplotypes were unique to geographical regions. The Java species had high haplotype (1.000 ± 0.126) but low nucleotide (0.017) diversities, suggesting a population bottleneck followed by expansion. However, SSD and Hri (P=0.5) did not support demographic expansion. Instead, purifying selection where mutations occur and accumulate at silent sites is a more acceptable explanation.

  15. Southeast Asia: America’s Next Frontier in the Global War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Indonesia, Malaysia , and the Philippines? Recommended strategy changes were generated from applying a three-step analysis approach. First, analyzing the...influence throughout the Southeast Asian countries of Indonesia, Malaysia , and the Philippines? Recommended strategy changes were generated from...JI Jemmah Islamiyah JTF Joint Task Force KGB Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti KMM Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia LJ Lashkar Jihad MILF Moro

  16. Selected TESOL Developments in A.I.D.'s Assistance to Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vent, Myron H.

    A description of the Regional English Language Center (RELC) and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO), which governs RELC and other educational projects either in operation or in advanced stages of planning, is presented. (Founding members of the Organization are Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore,…

  17. Contemporary Education Policies in Southeast Asia: Common Philosophical Underpinnings and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly N. N.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the various education policies in Southeast Asian countries, highlighting the underlining philosophies and current practices in the region. The conceptual framework of the presentation includes key concepts such as access and equity, unity and identity, quality and relevance, efficiency and effectiveness. Each of these key…

  18. ICT in the Changing Landscape of Higher Education in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Kian-Sam; Songan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    As in the developed nations, developing countries in the Southeast Asian region increasingly are recognising the important role higher education plays in enhancing the human resources of a nation for promoting its development in a world of depleting natural resources. Advances and pervasiveness of ICT in the society mean that higher education…

  19. Migrant Parents and the Psychological Well-Being of Left-Behind Children in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P.

    2011-01-01

    Several million children currently live in transnational families, yet little is known about impacts on their health. We investigated the psychological well-being of left-behind children in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were drawn from the CHAMPSEA study. Caregiver reports from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to…

  20. China’s Soft Power and Growing Influence in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    see soft power as consisting of using Coke and Big Macs to attract people in the Islamic world to love the United States.63 This is not the case...components of the soup are more important than the soup itself. The attractiveness of specific ingredients to specific segments of Southeast Asian

  1. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  2. The Long Winding Road of Opioid Substitution Therapy Implementation in South-East Asia: Challenges to Scale Up

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gary; Sharma, Mukta; Higgs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users. Significance for public health Several countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region can be commended for introducing opioid substitution therapy (OST) to address the ongoing HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Local evidence shows OST is an effective drug treatment approach in the Asian context given sufficient technical and institutional support. However, despite much progress, the number of OST dispensing sites and recipients remains totally inadequate in terms of impact upon the current HIV epidemic among PWID. Ongoing advocacy is needed if countries are to achieve the WHO’s target of 40% of PWID being dosed with OST. Greater political commitment a strengthened policy environment, capacity building for OST clinics, lessening the criminalisation of drug use and promoting a public health response will give many more PWID access to OST and slow the advance of the HIV epidemic. PMID:25170509

  3. Multi-Institutional Phase II Clinical Study of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia, a multi-institutional Phase II clinical study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Methods and Materials: Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky Stage IIB and 60 with Stage IIIB) with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were enrolled in the present study. Radiotherapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy according to institutional practice. The planned Point A dose was 24-28 Gy in four fractions for high-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy and 40-45 Gy in one to two fractions for low-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the radiotherapy course. Results: All patients were eligible for the study. The median follow-up was 27.3 months. Of the 120 patients, 100 (83%) received four or five cycles of chemotherapy. Acute Grade 3 leukopenia was observed in 21% of the patients, and Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 6%. No patient failed to complete the radiotherapy course because of toxicity. The 2-year local control and overall survival rate for all patients was 87.1% and 79.6%, respectively. The 2-year major late rectal and bladder complication rate was 2.5% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The results have suggested that concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin is feasible and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia.

  4. Half-metre sea-level fluctuations on centennial timescales from mid-Holocene corals of Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Meltzner, Aron J.; Switzer, Adam D.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Ashe, Erica; Qiu, Qiang; Hill, David F.; Bradley, Sarah L.; Kopp, Robert E.; Hill, Emma M.; Majewski, Jędrzej M.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-level rise is a global problem, yet to forecast future changes, we must understand how and why relative sea level (RSL) varied in the past, on local to global scales. In East and Southeast Asia, details of Holocene RSL are poorly understood. Here we present two independent high-resolution RSL proxy records from Belitung Island on the Sunda Shelf. These records capture spatial variations in glacial isostatic adjustment and paleotidal range, yet both reveal a RSL history between 6850 and 6500 cal years BP that includes two 0.6 m fluctuations, with rates of RSL change reaching 13±4 mm per year (2σ). Observations along the south coast of China, although of a lower resolution, reveal fluctuations similar in amplitude and timing to those on the Sunda Shelf. The consistency of the Southeast Asian records, from sites 2,600 km apart, suggests that the records reflect regional changes in RSL that are unprecedented in modern times. PMID:28186122

  5. Half-metre sea-level fluctuations on centennial timescales from mid-Holocene corals of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Meltzner, Aron J; Switzer, Adam D; Horton, Benjamin P; Ashe, Erica; Qiu, Qiang; Hill, David F; Bradley, Sarah L; Kopp, Robert E; Hill, Emma M; Majewski, Jędrzej M; Natawidjaja, Danny H; Suwargadi, Bambang W

    2017-02-10

    Sea-level rise is a global problem, yet to forecast future changes, we must understand how and why relative sea level (RSL) varied in the past, on local to global scales. In East and Southeast Asia, details of Holocene RSL are poorly understood. Here we present two independent high-resolution RSL proxy records from Belitung Island on the Sunda Shelf. These records capture spatial variations in glacial isostatic adjustment and paleotidal range, yet both reveal a RSL history between 6850 and 6500 cal years BP that includes two 0.6 m fluctuations, with rates of RSL change reaching 13±4 mm per year (2σ). Observations along the south coast of China, although of a lower resolution, reveal fluctuations similar in amplitude and timing to those on the Sunda Shelf. The consistency of the Southeast Asian records, from sites 2,600 km apart, suggests that the records reflect regional changes in RSL that are unprecedented in modern times.

  6. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Okello, Anna L.; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V.; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C.; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  7. Orientalism(s), World Geography Textbooks, and Temporal Paradox: Questioning Representations of Southwest Asia and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagumny, Lisa; Richey, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this critical discourse analysis of six high-school world geography textbooks, we explore how constructions and representations of North Africa and Southwest Asia have served to reinforce Orientalist discourse in formal curriculum. Visual and written representations in these textbooks were overwhelmingly confounded by a traditional/modern…

  8. IFLA General Conference 1988. Division of Regional Activities. Sections on: Asia and Oceania; Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The eight papers in this collection focus on library activities in various geographical regions, e.g., Asia, Oceania, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Western Australia: (1) "Future Approaches and Prospects of Computerised Information Network among the Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)" (Abdullah…

  9. The variations of ionosphere critical frequency of E layer over the equatorial geomagnetic region in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenpankho, Prasert; Ishii, Mamoru; Supnithi, Pornchai

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the values of the critical frequency of the ionospheric E layer, foE, obtained at Chumphon ionospheric observatory station, Thailand. For a declining phase of the solar cycle 23 during the year 2005-2008 and an inclining phase of the solar cycle 24 during the year 2009-2013, the foE data have been used to investigate the foE variations over the equatorial geomagnetic region in Southeast Asia. A comparison between the observation data and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model has also been investigated and studied. The results show that the foE obtained from IRI 2012 model underestimates foE from Chumphon station especially during the period of 7-11 am and after 6 pm for each day and all seasons. As the results combining with the previous investigations, we suggest that the underestimation of ionospheric foE by IRI 2012 model is helpful for the correction and improvement of IRI model in an equatorial Asia region.

  10. Funding renal replacement therapy in southeast Asia: building public-private partnerships in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Morad, Zaki; Choong, Hui Lin; Tungsanga, Kriang; Suhardjono

    2015-05-01

    The provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in developing economies is limited by lack of financial and other resources. There are no national reimbursement policies for RRT in many countries in Asia. The Southeast Asia countries of Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia have adopted a strategy of encouraging public-private partnerships to increase the RRT rates in their respective countries. The private organizations include both for-profit and philanthropic bodies. The latter raise funds from ordinary citizens, corporations, and faith-based groups, as well as receive subsidies from the government to support RRT for patients in need. The kidney foundations of these countries play a leadership role in this public-private partnership. Many of the private organizations that support RRT are providers of treatment in addition to offering financial assistance to patients, with hemodialysis being the most frequently supported modality. Public-private partnership in funding RRT is sustainable over the long term with proper organization and facilitated by support from the government.

  11. Survival from digestive cancer in emerging countries in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Lambert, René; Saito, Hiroshi; Lucas, Eric; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of digestive cancer, including cancer of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and liver, is analyzed in developing and less developed countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America. The analysis is based on cancer registries for observed values, on a recent monograph published at International Agency for Research on Cancer and on the GLOBOCAN 2008 database for estimations. For all tumor sites analyzed, the incidence is lower in these countries than in developed countries of Europe, North America, and Japan. The 5-year relative survival from digestive cancer is also lower. In developing countries, there is room for prevention of cancer burden through lifestyle interventions and through improved early detection of cancer.

  12. Quality of vaccination services and social demand for vaccinations in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Streefland, P. H.; Chowdhury, A. M.; Ramos-Jimenez, P.

    1999-01-01

    For immunization to be effective in the long run as a major global disease control intervention it is important to provide good quality vaccination services. Studies carried out in three countries in Asia (Bangladesh, India, and the Philippines) and two countries in Africa (Ethiopia and Malawi), and reported on in this article, document the fact that parents are willing to invest considerable effort in having their children vaccinated; however, there are a number of serious shortcomings in the quality of the routine vaccination services and strains are apparent at the interface between the vaccination providers and the users. These shortcomings are detracting from the sustainability of routine vaccination programmes and are promoting the growth of pools of nonimmunized and partially immunized children. To safeguard the continued operation and to enhance the coverage of routine vaccination programmes it is crucial that these difficulties be addressed. PMID:10534895

  13. Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy

    1963-01-01

    The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

  14. Polyphyly of Asian Tree Toads, Genus Pedostibes Günther, 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Description of a New Genus from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kin Onn; Grismer, L Lee; Zachariah, Anil; Brown, Rafe M; Abraham, Robin Kurian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tree Toad genus Pedostibes, as currently understood, exhibits a conspicuously disjunct distribution, posing several immediate questions relating to the biogeography and taxonomy of this poorly known group. The type species, P. tuberculosus and P. kempi, are known only from India, whereas P. hosii, P. rugosus, and P. everetti are restricted to Southeast Asia. Several studies have shown that these allopatric groups are polyphyletic, with the Indian Pedostibes embedded within a primarily South Asian clade of toads, containing the genera Adenomus, Xanthophryne, and Duttaphrynus. Southeast Asian Pedostibes on the other hand, are nested within a Southeast Asian clade, which is the sister lineage to the Southeast Asian river toad genus Phrynoidis. We demonstrate that Indian and Southeast Asian Pedostibes are not only allopatric and polyphyletic, but also exhibit significant differences in morphology and reproductive mode, indicating that the Southeast Asian species' are not congeneric with the true Pedostibes of India. As a taxonomic solution, we describe a new genus, Rentapia gen. nov. to accommodate the Southeast Asian species.

  15. Polyphyly of Asian Tree Toads, Genus Pedostibes Günther, 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Description of a New Genus from Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Grismer, L. Lee; Zachariah, Anil; Brown, Rafe M.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tree Toad genus Pedostibes, as currently understood, exhibits a conspicuously disjunct distribution, posing several immediate questions relating to the biogeography and taxonomy of this poorly known group. The type species, P. tuberculosus and P. kempi, are known only from India, whereas P. hosii, P. rugosus, and P. everetti are restricted to Southeast Asia. Several studies have shown that these allopatric groups are polyphyletic, with the Indian Pedostibes embedded within a primarily South Asian clade of toads, containing the genera Adenomus, Xanthophryne, and Duttaphrynus. Southeast Asian Pedostibes on the other hand, are nested within a Southeast Asian clade, which is the sister lineage to the Southeast Asian river toad genus Phrynoidis. We demonstrate that Indian and Southeast Asian Pedostibes are not only allopatric and polyphyletic, but also exhibit significant differences in morphology and reproductive mode, indicating that the Southeast Asian species’ are not congeneric with the true Pedostibes of India. As a taxonomic solution, we describe a new genus, Rentapia gen. nov. to accommodate the Southeast Asian species. PMID:26788854

  16. Early strains of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky sequence type 198 from Southeast Asia harbor Salmonella genomic island 1-J variants with a novel insertion sequence.

    PubMed

    Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Guibert, Véronique; Praud, Karine; Cloeckaert, Axel; Doublet, Benoît

    2012-10-01

    Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a 43-kb integrative mobilizable element that harbors a great diversity of multidrug resistance gene clusters described in numerous Salmonella enterica serovars and also in Proteus mirabilis. The majority of SGI1 variants contain an In104-derivative complex class 1 integron inserted between resolvase gene res and open reading frame (ORF) S044 in SGI1. Recently, the international spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. enterica serovar Kentucky sequence type 198 (ST198) containing SGI1-K variants has been reported. A retrospective study was undertaken to characterize ST198 S. Kentucky strains isolated before the spread of the epidemic ST198-SGI1-K population in Africa and the Middle East. Here, we characterized 12 ST198 S. Kentucky strains isolated between 1969 and 1999, mainly from humans returning from Southeast Asia (n = 10 strains) or Israel (n = 1 strain) or from meat in Egypt (n = 1 strain). All these ST198 S. Kentucky strains did not belong to the XbaI pulsotype X1 associated with the African epidemic clone but to pulsotype X2. SGI1-J subgroup variants containing different complex integrons with a partial transposition module and inserted within ORF S023 of SGI1 were detected in six strains. The SGI1-J4 variant containing a partially deleted class 1 integron and thus showing a narrow resistance phenotype to sulfonamides was identified in two epidemiologically unrelated strains from Indonesia. The four remaining strains harbored a novel SGI1-J variant, named SGI1-J6, which contained aadA2, floR2, tetR(G)-tetA(G), and sul1 resistance genes within its complex integron. Moreover, in all these S. Kentucky isolates, a novel insertion sequence related to the IS630 family and named ISSen5 was found inserted upstream of the SGI1 complex integron in ORF S023. Thus, two subpopulations of S. Kentucky ST198 independently and exclusively acquired the SGI1 during the 1980s and 1990s. Unlike the ST198-X1 African epidemic subpopulation, the

  17. Vegetation controls on weathering intensity during the last deglacial transition in southeast Africa.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Sarah J; McGlue, Michael M; Ellis, Geoffrey S; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Cohen, Andrew S; Vincens, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Tropical climate is rapidly changing, but the effects of these changes on the geosphere are unknown, despite a likelihood of climatically-induced changes on weathering and erosion. The lack of long, continuous paleo-records prevents an examination of terrestrial responses to climate change with sufficient detail to answer questions about how systems behaved in the past and may alter in the future. We use high-resolution records of pollen, clay mineralogy, and particle size from a drill core from Lake Malawi, southeast Africa, to examine atmosphere-biosphere-geosphere interactions during the last deglaciation (∼ 18-9 ka), a period of dramatic temperature and hydrologic changes. The results demonstrate that climatic controls on Lake Malawi vegetation are critically important to weathering processes and erosion patterns during the deglaciation. At 18 ka, afromontane forests dominated but were progressively replaced by tropical seasonal forest, as summer rainfall increased. Despite indication of decreased rainfall, drought-intolerant forest persisted through the Younger Dryas (YD) resulting from a shorter dry season. Following the YD, an intensified summer monsoon and increased rainfall seasonality were coeval with forest decline and expansion of drought-tolerant miombo woodland. Clay minerals closely track the vegetation record, with high ratios of kaolinite to smectite (K/S) indicating heavy leaching when forest predominates, despite variable rainfall. In the early Holocene, when rainfall and temperature increased (effective moisture remained low), open woodlands expansion resulted in decreased K/S, suggesting a reduction in chemical weathering intensity. Terrigenous sediment mass accumulation rates also increased, suggesting critical linkages among open vegetation and erosion during intervals of enhanced summer rainfall. This study shows a strong, direct influence of vegetation composition on weathering intensity in the tropics. As climate change will likely

  18. Vegetation controls on weathering intensity during the last deglacial transition in southeast Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivory, Sarah J.; McGlue, Michael M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Cohen, Andrew S.; Vincens, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Tropical climate is rapidly changing, but the effects of these changes on the geosphere are unknown, despite a likelihood of climatically-induced changes on weathering and erosion. The lack of long, continuous paleo-records prevents an examination of terrestrial responses to climate change with sufficient detail to answer questions about how systems behaved in the past and may alter in the future. We use high-resolution records of pollen, clay mineralogy, and particle size from a drill core from Lake Malawi, southeast Africa, to examine atmosphere-biosphere-geosphere interactions during the last deglaciation (~18–9 ka), a period of dramatic temperature and hydrologic changes. The results demonstrate that climatic controls on Lake Malawi vegetation are critically important to weathering processes and erosion patterns during the deglaciation. At 18 ka, afromontane forests dominated but were progressively replaced by tropical seasonal forest, as summer rainfall increased. Despite indication of decreased rainfall, drought-intolerant forest persisted through the Younger Dryas (YD) resulting from a shorter dry season. Following the YD, an intensified summer monsoon and increased rainfall seasonality were coeval with forest decline and expansion of drought-tolerant miombo woodland. Clay minerals closely track the vegetation record, with high ratios of kaolinite to smectite (K/S) indicating heavy leaching when forest predominates, despite variable rainfall. In the early Holocene, when rainfall and temperature increased (effective moisture remained low), open woodlands expansion resulted in decreased K/S, suggesting a reduction in chemical weathering intensity. Terrigenous sediment mass accumulation rates also increased, suggesting critical linkages among open vegetation and erosion during intervals of enhanced summer rainfall. This study shows a strong, direct influence of vegetation composition on weathering intensity in the tropics. As climate change will likely impact

  19. Vegetation Controls on Weathering Intensity during the Last Deglacial Transition in Southeast Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ivory, Sarah J.; McGlue, Michael M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Cohen, Andrew S.; Vincens, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Tropical climate is rapidly changing, but the effects of these changes on the geosphere are unknown, despite a likelihood of climatically-induced changes on weathering and erosion. The lack of long, continuous paleo-records prevents an examination of terrestrial responses to climate change with sufficient detail to answer questions about how systems behaved in the past and may alter in the future. We use high-resolution records of pollen, clay mineralogy, and particle size from a drill core from Lake Malawi, southeast Africa, to examine atmosphere-biosphere-geosphere interactions during the last deglaciation (∼18–9 ka), a period of dramatic temperature and hydrologic changes. The results demonstrate that climatic controls on Lake Malawi vegetation are critically important to weathering processes and erosion patterns during the deglaciation. At 18 ka, afromontane forests dominated but were progressively replaced by tropical seasonal forest, as summer rainfall increased. Despite indication of decreased rainfall, drought-intolerant forest persisted through the Younger Dryas (YD) resulting from a shorter dry season. Following the YD, an intensified summer monsoon and increased rainfall seasonality were coeval with forest decline and expansion of drought-tolerant miombo woodland. Clay minerals closely track the vegetation record, with high ratios of kaolinite to smectite (K/S) indicating heavy leaching when forest predominates, despite variable rainfall. In the early Holocene, when rainfall and temperature increased (effective moisture remained low), open woodlands expansion resulted in decreased K/S, suggesting a reduction in chemical weathering intensity. Terrigenous sediment mass accumulation rates also increased, suggesting critical linkages among open vegetation and erosion during intervals of enhanced summer rainfall. This study shows a strong, direct influence of vegetation composition on weathering intensity in the tropics. As climate change will likely

  20. Management of healthcare waste: developments in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Kühling, Jan-Gerd; Pieper, Ute

    2012-09-01

    In many Southeast Asian countries, significant challenges persist with regard to the proper management and disposal of healthcare waste. The amount of healthcare waste in these countries is continuously increasing as a result of the expansion of healthcare systems and services. In the past, healthcare waste, if it was treated at all, was mainly incinerated. In the last decade more comprehensive waste management systems were developed for Southeast Asian countries and implementation started. This also included the establishment of alternative healthcare waste treatment systems. The developments in the lower-middle-income countries are of special interest, as major investments are planned. Based upon sample projects, a short overview of the current development trends in the healthcare waste sector in Laos, Indonesia and Vietnam is provided. The projects presented include: (i) Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (development of the national environmental health training system to support the introduction of environmental health standards and improvement of healthcare waste treatment in seven main hospitals by introducing steam-based treatment technologies); (ii) Indonesia (development of a provincial-level healthcare waste-management strategy for Province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and introduction of an advanced waste treatment system in a tertiary level hospital in Makassar); and (iii) Vietnam (development of a healthcare waste strategy for five provinces in Vietnam and a World Bank-financed project on healthcare waste in Vietnam).

  1. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Talbott, K; Brown, M

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues.

  2. 17 CFR Appendix E to Part 43 - Other Commodity Geographic Identification for Public Dissemination Pursuant to § 43.4(d)(4)(iii)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Russia) Russia Africa Northern Africa Western Africa Eastern Africa Central Africa Southern Africa Asia-Pacific Northern Asia (excluding Russia) Central Asia Eastern Asia Western Asia Southeast Asia...

  3. SHRIMP U-Pb in zircon geochronology of granitoids from Myanmar: temporal constraints on the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barley, M. E.; Zaw, Khin

    2009-04-01

    The Mesozoic to Tertiary tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia is the result of the convergence and collision of fragments of Gondwanaland with Eurasia culminating in the collision of India. A rapidly growing geochronological database is placing tight constraints on the timing and duration of magmatic episodes, metallogenic and tectonic events in the Himalayas, Tibet and eastern Indochina. However, there is little comparable geochronology for Myanmar. This SHRIMP U-Pb in zircon geochronology focuses on granitoids from the Mogok Metamorphic Belt (MMB, a belt of high grade metamorphic rocks at the edge of the Shan-Thai Terrane), the Myeik Archipelago (Shan-Thai Terrane) and the west Myanmar Terrane. Strongly deformed granitic orthogneisses in the MMB near Mandalay contain Jurassic (~170 Ma) zircons that have partly recrystallised during ~43 Ma high-grade metamorphism. A hornblende syenite from Mandalay also contains Jurassic zircons with evidence of Eocene metamorphism rimmed by thin zones of 30.9 ±0.7 Ma magmatic zircon. The relative abundance of Jurassic zircons in these rocks is consistent with suggestions that southern Eurasia had an Andean-type margin at that time. Mid-Cretaceous to earliest Eocene (120 to 50 Ma). I-type granitoids in the MMB, Myeik Archipelago and west Myanmar confirm that prior to the collision of India, an up to 200km wide magmatic belt extended along the Eurasian margin. The primitive I-type Khanza Chaung granodiorite in the Wuntho batholith in the west Myanmar terrane hosts porphyry-style mineralisation and has a magmatic age of 94  1 Ma. Triassic (~240 Ma), Jurassic (~170 Ma) and Early Cretaceous xenocryst zircons in this granitoid correspond with peaks of granitoid magmatism in the Shan-Thai terrane and establish that west Myanmar was part of the margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic. A suite of highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous I-type granitoids with associated Sn-W-Ta mineralisation emplaced in the Myeik Archipelago of

  4. Evaluating the genetic impact of South and Southeast Asia on the peopling of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar; Sharif, Mohd Istiaq; Asaduzzaman, Md; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer

    2015-11-01

    Despite rapidly growing understandings and dependency on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), highly variable autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) are still regarded as the most established method to differentiate individuals at forensic level. Here with large number of various ethnic groups we undertook this study to reveal the genetic structure of the most densely populated part of South Asia i.e. the Bangladesh. The purpose of this work was to estimate population parameters based on the allele frequencies obtained for 15 polymorphic autosomal STR loci investigated in caste and tribal populations from Bangladesh (n=706). We compared the results in a broader context by merging 24 different populations of Asia to pertain their affinity. Various statistical analyses suggested a clear cut demarcation of tribal and non-tribal in Bangladesh. Moreover, beside the phylogenetic structure of the studied populations, it is found that the mean heterozygosity value was highest among the populations of Bangladesh, likely because of gene flow from different directions. However, Tonchangya, Adi and Khumi showed sign of genetic isolation and reduced diversity, possibly as a result of genetic drift and/or strong founder effects working on small endogamous populations.

  5. Women are key players in the economies of East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B; Mason, A

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the East-West Center's Program on Population investigated the links between population change and economic growth in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. This document discusses the findings pertaining to women's changing marriage and childbearing patterns, education attainment, and labor force participation as well as changes in family life. In eastern and southeastern Asia, women are delaying marriage and having fewer children as a result of their overwhelming acceptance of modern contraception. Concurrently, women's secondary school enrollment has increased dramatically since 1960, and women have accounted for steadily increasing proportions of total labor force growth. Economic development has led to fewer women employed in agriculture and more in clerical positions. Women continue to be marginalized in low-paying manufacturing jobs and to lose these jobs more frequently than do men. Women's labor force participation continues to be dependent upon their child care responsibilities, but women are beginning to combine both activities with the help of live-in grandparents. Women have made an important contribution to economic growth in Asia. Policies should address job discrimination against married women, wage discrimination, the problems faced by young women who leave home for employment in the manufacturing and service sectors, and the lack of child care facilities.

  6. Cross-disciplinary working in the sciences and humanities: historical data rescue activities in Southeast Asia and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Fiona

    2016-12-01

    This paper argues that more work is needed to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaborations by scholars across the physical sciences and humanities to improve Data Rescue Activities (DARE). Debate over the scale and potential impact of anthropogenic global warming is one of the dominant narratives of the twenty-first century. Predicting future climates and determining how environment and society might be affected by climate change are global issues of social, economic and political importance. They require responses from different research communities and necessitate closer inter-disciplinary working relationships for an integrated approach. Improving the datasets required for long-term climate models is an important part of this process. Establishing a multi-disciplinary dialogue and approach to DARE activities is increasingly being recognised as the best way to achieve this. This paper focuses on the recovery of the long-term instrumental weather observations used for models and reconstructions of the climate over the past two-hundred years. Written from the perspective of an historian working in the field, it does not seek to explore the reconstructions themselves but the process of data gathering, advocating a closer working relationship between the arts, social sciences, and sciences to extend the geographic and temporal coverage of extant datasets. This is especially important for regions where data gaps exist currently. First, it will offer a justification for extending data recovery activities for Southeast Asia and the China Seas region. Second, it will offer a brief overview of the data recovery projects currently operating in that area and the typesof historic source material that are used. Third, it will explore the work currently being undertaken for Southeast Asia and China under the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth initiative as an example of a successful cross-disciplinary program. Finally, it will argue the importance of

  7. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of