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Sample records for africa tanzania uganda

  1. A Call to Learning Focus in East Africa: Uwezo's Measurement of Learning in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugo, John Kabutha; Ruto, Sara Jerop; Nakabugo, Mary Goretti; Mgalla, Zaida

    2015-01-01

    From the late 1990s, education in East Africa started to be appraised on the basis of enrolment. The universalisation of primary education that started in Uganda in 1997--and peaked in Tanzania in 2002, as well as in Kenya in 2003--was politicised as the epitome of education reform. Yet, alternative voices called for consideration of improving…

  2. Successful Community Nutrition Programming: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannotti, Lora; Gillespie, Stuart

    This report on the key findings from a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000. The aim of the assessments was to identify key lessons learned from the successful processes and outcomes in these programs. The report is divided into eight chapters: (1)…

  3. Language Problems in Africa; A Bibliography (1946-1967) and Summary of the Present Situation, with Special Reference to Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnos, Angela, Comp.

    The present Information Circular covering the language situation in East Africa has been prepared as a bibliographic reference tool for specialists, universities, and libraries. The introductory section describes the work of EARIC (East African Research Information Centre), which is sponsored by the East African Academy and financed by the Ford…

  4. Uganda.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading

  5. Uganda.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading

  6. Affirmative Action, Gender Equity and University Admissions--Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsongo, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the outcomes of affirmative action policies aimed at improving access for women students to university education in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Different interpretations of affirmative action are found in the three countries. These include lower entry scores, remedial pre-university programmes and financial assistance. There…

  7. CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--EXPERIENCES, NEEDS, AND INTEREST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDSTROEM, LARS-OLOF

    THIS REPORT ON THE SALIENT FEATURES AND CONCERNS OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--(1) DISCUSSES ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT, (2) SURVEYS CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES (POSTAL SERVICES, ROADS, INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION,…

  8. A SWOT Analysis of the Integration of E-Learning at a University in Uganda and a University in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Justice Mugenyi, Kintu

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) to integrating e-learning perceived by academic staff at a university in Uganda and a university in Tanzania. Mixed-methods research was used in which a main qualitative study was complemented by a quantitative method. The sample participants were academic staff…

  9. Neoproterozoic collision tectonics in the Mozambique Belt of East Africa: evidence from the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhongo, Sospeter

    1994-10-01

    The fault-bounded Proterozoic metamorphic terranes lying to the E of the Tanzanian craton make up the Usagara tectonic domain and are a part of the transcontinental Mozambique Orogenic Belt (MB). The lithotectonic units in the MB of the East Africa consist of comparable rock assembles which underwent the same complex deformational history and are thought to represent large thrust sheets or nappes. Their shelf- and fore-deep terranes border the Tanzanian craton and make up the foreland terranes of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt. Granulite-gneiss nappes are ubiquitous in the orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism, associated with recumbent folds, was due to crustal thickening, which took place during the collision between Gondwana fragments. Isotope data suggest a collision (and concomitant granulite-facies metamorphism) age of between 700 and 550 Ma. The orientations of planar and linear fabrics in the granulite-facies rocks of the Uluguru mountains are used to infer the relative crustal block motions during this collisional event. This Pan-African collisional event was characterized by NW-directed movements, oblique to the N-S trend of the orogen, and involved SE-directed backthrusting. The Ubendian Belt of Tanzania and the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda and Kenya, which both bifurcate around the Tanzania craton, accommodated the tectonically thickened crust, created by the collisional event, through NW-SE sinistral strike-slip movements.

  10. International trends in health science librarianship part 14: East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda).

    PubMed

    Gathoni, Nasra; Kamau, Nancy; Nannozi, Judith; Singirankabo, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    This is the 14th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. This is the second of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda). The next feature column will investigate trends in West Africa. JM.

  11. Improving Early-Grade Literacy in East Africa: Experimental Evidence from Kenya and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Adrienne M.; McEwan, Patrick J.; Ngware, Moses; Oketch, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Primary school enrollments have increased rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, spurring concerns about low levels of learning. We analyze field experiments in Kenya and Uganda that assessed whether the Reading to Learn intervention, implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation in both countries, improved early-grade literacy as measured by common assessments.…

  12. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean causing rust in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. was reported on legume hosts other than soybean in Tanzania as early as 1979. Soybean rust (SBR), caused by P. pachyrhizi, was first reported on soybean in Africa in Uganda in 1996, and its introduction into Africa was proposed to occur through urediniospores blowing from ...

  13. Out of Africa: Uganda and UNAIDS advance a bold experiment.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, J

    1999-10-01

    The UNAIDS HIV Drug Access Initiative was launched in 1997 to aid four resource-limited countries: Chile, Cote d'Ivoire, Uganda, and Viet Nam. This multipronged initiative between pharmaceutical companies and government officials aims to expand access to HIV-related drugs on a small, sustainable scale in developing countries. Uganda's experience in the implementation of the UNAIDS HIV Drug Access Initiative is presented. Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni was struck by the reality of AIDS in 1986 when he learned that up to 25 percent of Ugandan troops might be HIV-infected. The overall Ugandan incidence of AIDS has been reduced since that time from 30 percent to about 14.5 percent due, in part, to cooperation between government and international institutions. Various charts are included, indicating cost estimates for the delivery of HIV care, and a flow chart diagrams drug procurement from six pharmaceutical companies for distribution to Ugandans living with HIV/AIDS. Minister of Health Crispus Kiyonga appointed a 15-member National Advisory Board in 1998 that established subcommittees on Drug Policy and Financing, Care and Practice, and Vertical Transmission to implement and oversee responsibilities. The establishment of Uganda's antiretroviral (ARV) treatment guidelines, standards, and educational and treatment efforts are discussed.

  14. Condom use within marriage: an assessment of changes in South Africa and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Pranitha; Neema, Stella; Cleland, John; Busza, Joanna; Shah, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to measure trends in condom use in marital and cohabiting relationships in South Africa and Uganda. The data for the study come from two cross sectional surveys conducted in 1998 and 2008 among adult men and women and their partners in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the Jinja district, Uganda. The findings suggest that consistent condom use has risen substantially in both countries. The percentage reporting consistent condom use in the South African sample of husbands increased from 2.5% in 1998 to 12% in 2008 and from 5.5 to 12.5% among wives. In Uganda, the corresponding trends are 1.1-8.3% for husbands and 4-8.6% for wives. In both countries, condom use was considerably higher among the minority of couples where one or both partners were thought to be HIV positive. Increasingly, in both countries condoms are also used for contraceptive purposes. Condoms play a role in preventing HIV infection but the challenge is for prevention programs to broaden their focus toward meeting the needs of married and cohabiting couples.

  15. Chronic Diseases in North-West Tanzania and Southern Uganda. Public Perceptions of Terminologies, Aetiologies, Symptoms and Preferred Management

    PubMed Central

    Nnko, Soori; Bukenya, Dominic; Kavishe, Bazil Balthazar; Biraro, Samuel; Peck, Robert; Kapiga, Saidi; Grosskurth, Heiner; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that health system utilization is low for chronic diseases (CDs) other than HIV. We describe the knowledge and perceptions of CDs identified from rural and urban communities in north-west Tanzania and southern Uganda. Methods Data were collected through a quantitative population survey, a quantitative health facility survey and focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) in subgroups of population survey participants. The main focus of this paper is the findings from the FGDs and IDIs. Results We conducted 24 FGDs, involving approximately 180 adult participants and IDIs with 116 participants (≥18 years). CDs studied included: asthma/chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiac failure and HIV- related disease. The understanding of most chronic conditions involved a combination of biomedical information, gleaned from health facility visits, local people who had suffered from a complaint or knew others who had and beliefs drawn from information shared in the community. The biomedical contribution shows some understanding of the aetiology of a condition and the management of that condition. However, local beliefs for certain conditions (such as epilepsy) suggest that biomedical treatment may be futile and therefore work counter to biomedical prescriptions for management. Conclusion Current perceptions of selected CDs may represent a barrier that prevents people from adopting efficacious health and treatment seeking behaviours. Interventions to improve this situation must include efforts to improve the quality of existing health services, so that people can access relevant, reliable and trustworthy services. PMID:26555896

  16. Seasonal Shifts in Primary Water Source Type: A Comparison of Largely Pastoral Communities in Uganda and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Amber L; Zwickle, Adam; Namanya, Judith; Rzotkiewicz, Amanda; Mwita, Emiliana

    2016-02-01

    Many water-related illnesses show an increase during the wet season. This is often due to fecal contamination from runoff, yet, it is unknown whether seasonal changes in water availability may also play a role in increased illness via changes in the type of primary water source used by households. Very little is known about the dynamic aspects of access to water and changes in source type across seasons, particularly in semi-arid regions with annual water scarcity. The research questions in this study were: (1) To what degree do households in Uganda (UG) and Tanzania (TZ) change primary water source type between wet and dry seasons?; and (2) How might seasonal changes relate to water quality and health? Using spatial survey data from 92 households each in UG and TZ this study found that, from wet to dry season, 26% (UG) and 9% (TZ) of households switched from a source with higher risk of contamination to a source with lower risk. By comparison, only 20% (UG) and 0% (TZ) of households switched from a source with lower risk of contamination to a source with higher risk of contamination. This research suggests that one pathway through which water-related disease prevalence may differ across seasons is the use of water sources with higher risk contamination, and that households with access to sources with lower risks of contamination sometimes choose to use more contaminated sources. PMID:26828507

  17. Animal research ethics in Africa: is Tanzania making progress?

    PubMed

    Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy

    2013-12-01

    The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised.

  18. Reasons for Missing Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from a Multi-Country Study in Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Koole, Olivier; Denison, Julie A; Menten, Joris; Tsui, Sharon; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mulenga, Modest; Auld, Andrew; Agolory, Simon; Mukadi, Ya Diul; van Praag, Eric; Torpey, Kwasi; Williams, Seymour; Kaplan, Jonathan; Zee, Aaron; Bangsberg, David R; Colebunders, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the reasons patients miss taking their antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the proportion who miss their ART because of symptoms; and to explore the association between symptoms and incomplete adherence. Methods Secondary analysis of data collected during a cross-sectional study that examined ART adherence among adults from 18 purposefully selected sites in Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. We interviewed 250 systematically selected patients per facility (≥18 years) on reasons for missing ART and symptoms they had experienced (using the HIV Symptom Index). We abstracted clinical data from the patients’ medical, pharmacy, and laboratory records. Incomplete adherence was defined as having missed ART for at least 48 consecutive hours during the past 3 months. Results Twenty-nine percent of participants reported at least one reason for having ever missed ART (1278/4425). The most frequent reason was simply forgetting (681/1278 or 53%), followed by ART-related hunger or not having enough food (30%), and symptoms (12%). The median number of symptoms reported by participants was 4 (IQR: 2–7). Every additional symptom increased the odds of incomplete adherence by 12% (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1–1.2). Female participants and participants initiated on a regimen containing stavudine were more likely to report greater numbers of symptoms. Conclusions Symptoms were a common reason for missing ART, together with simply forgetting and food insecurity. A combination of ART regimens with fewer side effects, use of mobile phone text message reminders, and integration of food supplementation and livelihood programmes into HIV programmes, have the potential to decrease missed ART and hence to improve adherence and the outcomes of ART programmes. PMID:26788919

  19. Traditional Music of East Africa: Experiencing "Ngoma" in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ngoma is present throughout Eastern and Southern Africa. Ngoma refers to the tradition of expression via music, drumming, dance, and storytelling. History, values, education, and even identity can be transmitted between generations. This article traces the experiences of a music teacher from the United States traveling and studying…

  20. Multi-Institutional Partnerships for Higher Education in Africa: A Case Study of Assumptions of International Academic Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Baker, Rose; Freer, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Public and private universities in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, South Africa, and elsewhere in Africa, were experiencing all time high enrollments since the late 1990s. To address these demands, university administrators sought partnerships with universities of the global North to facilitate the necessary educational reform and curriculum…

  1. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  2. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries. PMID:19082756

  3. Does Family Background Matter for Learning in East Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sam; Schipper, Youdi

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which differences in family background characteristics explain differences in learning outcomes between children captures the extent of equality in educational opportunities. This study uses large-scale data on literacy and numeracy outcomes for children of school age across East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) to investigate the…

  4. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular

    PubMed Central

    Berrang Ford, Lea

    2007-01-01

    Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives. PMID:17411421

  5. Conference on Resource Sharing in Southern and Central Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, December 16-19, 1985). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

    This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…

  6. Pharmacovigilance in India, Uganda and South Africa with reference to WHO’s minimum requirements

    PubMed Central

    Maigetter, Karen; Pollock, Allyson M.; Kadam, Abhay; Ward, Kim; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmacovigilance (PV) data are crucial for ensuring safety and effectiveness of medicines after drugs have been granted marketing approval. This paper describes the PV systems of India, Uganda and South Africa based on literature and Key Informant (KI) interviews and compares them with the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) minimum PV requirements for a Functional National PV System. Methods: A documentary analysis of academic literature and policy reports was undertaken to assess the medicines regulatory systems and policies in the three countries. A gap analysis from the document review indicated a need for further research in PV. KI interviews covered topics on PV: structure and practices of the system; current regulatory policy; capacity limitations, staffing, funding and training; availability and reporting of data; and awareness and usage of the systems. Twenty interviews were conducted in India, 8 in Uganda and 11 in South Africa with government officials from the ministries of health, national regulatory authorities, pharmaceutical producers, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), members of professional associations and academia. The findings from the literature and KI interviews were compared with WHO’s minimum requirements. Results: All three countries were confronted with similar barriers: lack of sufficient funding, limited number of trained staff, inadequate training programs, unclear roles and poor coordination of activities. Although KI interviews represented viewpoints of the respondents, the findings confirmed the documentary analysis of the literature. Although South Africa has a legal requirement for PV, we found that the three countries uniformly lacked adequate capacity to monitor medicines and evaluate risks according to the minimum standards of the WHO. Conclusion: A strong PV system is an important part of the overall medicine regulatory system and reflects on the stringency and competence of the regulatory bodies in

  7. Language of instruction and student performance: new insights from research in Tanzania and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2007-11-01

    This article, drawing on a set of studies conducted in the framework of the Language of Instruction in Tanzania and South Africa (LOITASA) research project, shows how well African students express themselves if they are allowed to use a familiar African language, and conversely the difficulties they have when forced to use a foreign language, a language they hardly hear and never use outside of school, as a language of instruction. A key finding of the research is that when the foreign language, English in this case, is used, there is a much larger spread in test performance between students. This means that a small group of students succeed while the vast majority sinks. The author therefore argues for working towards a goal whereby African children like children in industrialized countries may study in their own language. Pursuing this goal should be a centrepiece in poverty reduction strategies.

  8. Cropland land surface phenology and seasonality in East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Most people in East Africa depend on rainfed agriculture. Rainfall in the region has been decreasing recently and is highly variable in space and time leading to high food insecurity. A comprehensive understanding of the regional cropland dynamics is therefore needed. Land surface phenology and land surface seasonality have important roles in monitoring cropland dynamics in a region with sparse coverage of in situ climatic and biophysical observations. However, commonly used optical satellite data are often degraded by cloud cover, aerosols, and dust and they are restricted to daytime observations. Here we used near-daily passive microwave (PM) data at 25 km spatial resolution from a series of microwave radiometers—AMSR-E, FengYun3B/MWRI, AMSR2—to study cropland dynamics for 2003-2013 in three important grain production areas of East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan. PM data can be collected through clouds and at night. Based on Google Earth imagery, we identified several cropland areas corresponding to PM grid cells. Rainfall from TRMM and atmospheric water vapor (V) from PM data displayed temporal patterns that were unimodal in Ethiopia and South Sudan, but bimodal in Tanzania. We fitted convex quadratic models to link growing season increments of V and vegetation optical depth (VOD) to accumulated V (AV). The models yielded high coefficients of determination (r2 ≥0.8) and phenometrics calculated from the parameter coefficients. Peak rainfall lagged peak V, but preceded peak VOD. Growing degree-days (GDD), calculated from the PM air temperature data, displayed a weaker bimodal seasonality in which the lowest values occurred during the peak rainy season, due to the cooling effect of latent heat flux and coupled with higher reflection of insolation by the cloud deck. V as a function of GDD displays quasi-periodic behavior. Drier sites in the region displayed larger (smaller) intra-annual dynamic range of V (GDD) compared to the moister sites.

  9. Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…

  10. Education Policy Formation in Africa: A Comparative Study of Five Countries. Technical Paper No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David R., Ed.

    This publication contains a set of five case studies and two analytical overview chapters that lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of the process of educational policy formation in Africa. Reflecting developments until late 1992, the cases include Botswana, Tanzania, Uganda, Mali, and Senegal. The articles describe and analyze current…

  11. Learning about War and Peace in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lyndsay

    2007-01-01

    Two-thirds of the world's conflicts are in Africa. In particular, the Great Lakes region (Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania) continues to see conflicts that are complex, extreme and seemingly intractable. By exploring the narrative experiences of those most affected by the conflicts in the region--specifically…

  12. Health policy for sickle cell disease in Africa: experience from Tanzania on interventions to reduce under-five mortality

    PubMed Central

    Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; Rwezaula, Stella; Krag, Marlene; Mghamba, Janneth; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Cox, Sharon E.; Grosse, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has made considerable progress towards reducing childhood mortality, achieving a 57% decrease between 1980 and 2011. This epidemiological transition will cause a reduction in the contribution of infectious diseases to childhood mortality and increase in contribution from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Haemoglobinopathies are amongst the most common childhood NCDs, with sickle cell disease (SCD) being the commonest haemoglobinopathy in Africa. In Tanzania, 10 313 children with SCD under 5 years of age (U5) are estimated to die every year, contributing an estimated 7% of overall deaths in U5 children. Key policies that governments in Africa are able to implement would reduce mortality in SCD, focusing on newborn screening and comprehensive SCD care programmes. Such programmes would ensure that interventions such as prevention of infections using penicillin plus prompt diagnosis and treatment of complications are provided to all individuals with SCD. PMID:25365928

  13. Health policy for sickle cell disease in Africa: experience from Tanzania on interventions to reduce under-five mortality.

    PubMed

    Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; Rwezaula, Stella; Krag, Marlene; Mghamba, Janneth; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Cox, Sharon E; Grosse, Scott D

    2015-02-01

    Tanzania has made considerable progress towards reducing childhood mortality, achieving a 57% decrease between 1980 and 2011. This epidemiological transition will cause a reduction in the contribution of infectious diseases to childhood mortality and increase in contribution from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Haemoglobinopathies are amongst the most common childhood NCDs, with sickle cell disease (SCD) being the commonest haemoglobinopathy in Africa. In Tanzania, 10,313 children with SCD under 5 years of age (U5) are estimated to die every year, contributing an estimated 7% of overall deaths in U5 children. Key policies that governments in Africa are able to implement would reduce mortality in SCD, focusing on newborn screening and comprehensive SCD care programmes. Such programmes would ensure that interventions such as prevention of infections using penicillin plus prompt diagnosis and treatment of complications are provided to all individuals with SCD.

  14. Health policy for sickle cell disease in Africa: experience from Tanzania on interventions to reduce under-five mortality.

    PubMed

    Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; Rwezaula, Stella; Krag, Marlene; Mghamba, Janneth; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Cox, Sharon E; Grosse, Scott D

    2015-02-01

    Tanzania has made considerable progress towards reducing childhood mortality, achieving a 57% decrease between 1980 and 2011. This epidemiological transition will cause a reduction in the contribution of infectious diseases to childhood mortality and increase in contribution from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Haemoglobinopathies are amongst the most common childhood NCDs, with sickle cell disease (SCD) being the commonest haemoglobinopathy in Africa. In Tanzania, 10,313 children with SCD under 5 years of age (U5) are estimated to die every year, contributing an estimated 7% of overall deaths in U5 children. Key policies that governments in Africa are able to implement would reduce mortality in SCD, focusing on newborn screening and comprehensive SCD care programmes. Such programmes would ensure that interventions such as prevention of infections using penicillin plus prompt diagnosis and treatment of complications are provided to all individuals with SCD. PMID:25365928

  15. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scale for Adolescents: Item Response Theory Analyses Based on Data from a Study in South Africa and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaro, Leif E.; Breivik, Kyrre; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Kaaya, Sylvia; Onya, Hans E.; Wubs, Annegreet; Helleve, Arnfinn; Flisher, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor…

  16. Comparing the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Maseko, Fresier; Chirwa, Maureen; Mwisongo, Aziza; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction is an important determinant of health worker motivation, retention, and performance, all of which are critical to improving the functioning of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. A number of small-scale surveys have measured the job satisfaction and intention to leave of individual health worker cadres in different settings, but there are few multi-country and multi-cadre comparative studies. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a stratified cluster sample of 2,220 health workers, 564 from Tanzania, 939 from Malawi, and 717 from South Africa. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic information, a 10-item job satisfaction scale, and one question on intention to leave. Multiple regression was used to identify significant predictors of job satisfaction and intention to leave. Results There were statistically significant differences in job satisfaction and intention to leave between the three countries. Approximately 52.1% of health workers in South Africa were satisfied with their jobs compared to 71% from Malawi and 82.6% from Tanzania (χ2=140.3, p<0.001). 18.8% of health workers in Tanzania and 26.5% in Malawi indicated that they were actively seeking employment elsewhere, compared to 41.4% in South Africa (χ2=83.5, p<0.001). The country differences were confirmed by multiple regression. The study also confirmed that job satisfaction is statistically related to intention to leave. Conclusions We have shown differences in the levels of job satisfaction and intention to leave between different groups of health workers from Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Our results caution against generalising about the effectiveness of interventions in different contexts and highlight the need for less

  17. Costing RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda: A generalizable approach drawing on publicly available data.

    PubMed

    Galactionova, Katya; Bertram, Melanie; Lauer, Jeremy; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-11-27

    Recent results from the phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine show that the vaccine induced partial protection against clinical malaria in infants and children; given the high burden of the disease it is currently considered for use in malaria endemic countries. To inform adoption decisions the paper proposes a generalizable methodology to estimate the cost of vaccine introduction using routinely collected and publicly available data from the cMYP, UNICEF, and WHO-CHOICE. Costing is carried out around a set of generic activities, assumptions, and inputs for delivery of immunization services adapted to a given country and deployment modality to capture among other factors the structure of the EPI program, distribution model, geography, and demographics particular to the setting. The methodology is applied to estimate the cost of RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. At an assumed vaccine price of $5 per dose and given our assumptions on coverage and deployment strategy, we estimate total economic program costs for a 6-9 months cohort within $23.11-$28.28 per fully vaccinated child across the 6 countries. Net of procurement, costs at country level are substantial; for instance in Tanzania these could add as much as $4.2 million per year or an additional $2.4 per infant depending on the level of spare capacity in the system. Differences in cost of vaccine introduction across countries are primarily driven by differences in cost of labour. Overall estimates generated with the methodology result in costs within the ranges reported for other new vaccines introduced in SSA and capture multiple sources of heterogeneity in costs across countries. Further validation with data from field trials will support use of the methodology while also serving as a validation for cMYP and WHO-CHOICE as resources for costing health interventions in the region. PMID:26518406

  18. Costing RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda: A generalizable approach drawing on publicly available data.

    PubMed

    Galactionova, Katya; Bertram, Melanie; Lauer, Jeremy; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-11-27

    Recent results from the phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine show that the vaccine induced partial protection against clinical malaria in infants and children; given the high burden of the disease it is currently considered for use in malaria endemic countries. To inform adoption decisions the paper proposes a generalizable methodology to estimate the cost of vaccine introduction using routinely collected and publicly available data from the cMYP, UNICEF, and WHO-CHOICE. Costing is carried out around a set of generic activities, assumptions, and inputs for delivery of immunization services adapted to a given country and deployment modality to capture among other factors the structure of the EPI program, distribution model, geography, and demographics particular to the setting. The methodology is applied to estimate the cost of RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. At an assumed vaccine price of $5 per dose and given our assumptions on coverage and deployment strategy, we estimate total economic program costs for a 6-9 months cohort within $23.11-$28.28 per fully vaccinated child across the 6 countries. Net of procurement, costs at country level are substantial; for instance in Tanzania these could add as much as $4.2 million per year or an additional $2.4 per infant depending on the level of spare capacity in the system. Differences in cost of vaccine introduction across countries are primarily driven by differences in cost of labour. Overall estimates generated with the methodology result in costs within the ranges reported for other new vaccines introduced in SSA and capture multiple sources of heterogeneity in costs across countries. Further validation with data from field trials will support use of the methodology while also serving as a validation for cMYP and WHO-CHOICE as resources for costing health interventions in the region.

  19. Review of SISA Student Dissertations on Library and Information Systems and Services in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)

  20. Safeguarding inheritance and enhancing the resilience of orphaned young people living in child- and youth-headed households in Tanzania and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    This article explores the resilience of orphaned young people in safeguarding physical assets (land and property) inherited from their parents and sustaining their households without a co-resident adult relative. Drawing on the concept of resilience and the sustainable livelihoods framework, the article analyses the findings of an exploratory study conducted in 2008-2009 in Tanzania and Uganda with 15 orphaned young people heading households, 18 of their siblings, and 39 NGO workers and community members. The findings suggest that inherited land and property were key determining factors in the formation and viability of the child- and youth-headed households in both rural and urban areas. Despite experiences of stigma and marginalisation in the community, social networks were crucial in enabling the young people to protect themselves and their property, providing access to material and emotional resources, and enhancing their skills and capabilities to develop sustainable livelihoods. Support for child- and youth-headed households needs to recognise young people's agency and should adopt a holistic approach to their lives by analysing the physical assets, material resources, and human and social capital available to the household, as well as giving consideration to individual young people's wellbeing, outlook and aspirations. Alongside cash transfers and material support, youth-led collective mobilisation that is sustained over time may also help build resilience and foster supportive social environments in order to challenge property-grabbing and the stigmatisation of child- and youth-headed households.

  1. Safeguarding inheritance and enhancing the resilience of orphaned young people living in child- and youth-headed households in Tanzania and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    This article explores the resilience of orphaned young people in safeguarding physical assets (land and property) inherited from their parents and sustaining their households without a co-resident adult relative. Drawing on the concept of resilience and the sustainable livelihoods framework, the article analyses the findings of an exploratory study conducted in 2008-2009 in Tanzania and Uganda with 15 orphaned young people heading households, 18 of their siblings, and 39 NGO workers and community members. The findings suggest that inherited land and property were key determining factors in the formation and viability of the child- and youth-headed households in both rural and urban areas. Despite experiences of stigma and marginalisation in the community, social networks were crucial in enabling the young people to protect themselves and their property, providing access to material and emotional resources, and enhancing their skills and capabilities to develop sustainable livelihoods. Support for child- and youth-headed households needs to recognise young people's agency and should adopt a holistic approach to their lives by analysing the physical assets, material resources, and human and social capital available to the household, as well as giving consideration to individual young people's wellbeing, outlook and aspirations. Alongside cash transfers and material support, youth-led collective mobilisation that is sustained over time may also help build resilience and foster supportive social environments in order to challenge property-grabbing and the stigmatisation of child- and youth-headed households. PMID:25860094

  2. Challenges with routine data sources for PMTCT programme monitoring in East Africa: insights from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Michael, Denna; Reniers, Georges; Urassa, Mark; Njau, Prosper; Kajoka, Deborah; Lema, Levina; Zaba, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Routinely collected clinic data have the potential to provide much needed information on the uptake of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, and to measure HIV prevalence in pregnant women. This article describes the methodological challenges associated with using such data, based on the experiences of researchers and programme implementers in Tanzania and drawing from other examples from East Africa. PMTCT data are routinely collected in maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in East Africa using paper-based registers corresponding to distinct services within the PMTCT service continuum. This format has inherent limitations with respect to maintaining and accurately recording unique identifiers that can link patients across the different clinics (antenatal, delivery, child), and also poses challenges when compiling aggregate data. Recent improvements to recording systems include assigning unique identifiers to HIV-positive pregnant women in MCH clinics, although this should ideally be extended to all pregnant women, and recording mother and infant identifiers alongside each other in registers. The use of 'health passports', as in Malawi, which maintains the same antenatal clinic identifier over time, also holds promise. Routine data hold tremendous potential for clinic-level patient management, surveillance, and evaluating PMTCT/MCH programmes. Linking clinic data to community research datasets can also provide population-level estimates of coverage with PMTCT services, currently a problematic but vital statistic for monitoring programme performance and negotiating donor funding. Enhancements to indexing and recording of routine PMTCT/MCH data are needed if we are to capitalise on this rich data source.

  3. The effects of high HIV prevalence on orphanhood and living arrangements of children in Malawi, Tanzania, and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hosegood, Victoria; Floyd, Sian; Marston, Milly; Hill, Caterina; McGrath, Nuala; Isingo, Raphael; Crampin, Amelia; Zaba, Basia

    2007-11-01

    Using longitudinal data from three demographic surveillance systems (DSS) and a retrospective cohort study, we estimate levels and trends in the prevalence and incidence of orphanhood in South Africa, Tanzania, and Malawi in the period 1988-2004. The prevalence of maternal, paternal, and double orphans rose in all three populations. In South Africa - where the HIV epidemic started later, has been very severe, and has not yet stabilized - the incidence of orphanhood among children is double that of the other populations. The living arrangements of children vary considerably between the populations, particularly in relation to fathers. Patterns of marriage, migration, and adult mortality influence the living and care arrangements of orphans and non-orphans. DSS data provide new insights into the impact of adult mortality on children, challenging several widely held assumptions. For example, we find no evidence that the prevalence of child-headed households is significant or has increased in the three study areas.

  4. Promoting Children's Sustainable Access to Early Schooling in Africa: Reflections on the Roles of Parents in Their Children's Early Childhood Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has predominantly rural populations unable to offer children sustainable access to early literacy and childhood care and education. Children's literacy development starts very early in life through participation and experiences in the home and preschool. My research in rural Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania shows that…

  5. The Earliest Colubroid-Dominated Snake Fauna from Africa: Perspectives from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation of Southwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Jacob A.; Stevens, Nancy J.; O’Connor, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The extant snake fauna has its roots in faunal upheaval occurring across the Paleogene - Neogene transition. On northern continents, this turnover is well established by the late early Miocene. However, this transition is poorly documented on southern landmasses, particularly on continental Africa, where no late Paleogene terrestrial snake assemblages are documented south of the equator. Here we describe a newly discovered snake fauna from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation in the Rukwa Rift Basin of Tanzania. The fauna is small but diverse with eight identifiable morphotypes, comprised of three booids and five colubroids. This fauna includes Rukwanyoka holmani gen. et sp. nov., the oldest boid known from mainland Africa. It also provides the oldest fossil evidence for the African colubroid clade Elapidae. Colubroids dominate the fauna, comprising more than 75% of the recovered material. This is likely tied to local aridification and/or seasonality and mirrors the pattern of overturn in later snake faunas inhabiting the emerging grassland environments of Europe and North America. The early emergence of colubroid dominance in the Rukwa Rift Basin relative to northern continents suggests that the pattern of overturn that resulted in extant faunas happened in a more complex fashion on continental Africa than was previously realized, with African colubroids becoming at least locally important in the late Paleogene, either ahead of or as a consequence of the invasion of colubrids. The early occurrence of elapid snakes in the latest Oligocene of Africa suggests the clade rapidly spread from Asia to Africa, or arose in Africa, before invading Europe. PMID:24646522

  6. The earliest colubroid-dominated snake fauna from Africa: perspectives from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation of southwestern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Jacob A; Stevens, Nancy J; O'Connor, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    The extant snake fauna has its roots in faunal upheaval occurring across the Paleogene-Neogene transition. On northern continents, this turnover is well established by the late early Miocene. However, this transition is poorly documented on southern landmasses, particularly on continental Africa, where no late Paleogene terrestrial snake assemblages are documented south of the equator. Here we describe a newly discovered snake fauna from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation in the Rukwa Rift Basin of Tanzania. The fauna is small but diverse with eight identifiable morphotypes, comprised of three booids and five colubroids. This fauna includes Rukwanyoka holmani gen. et sp. nov., the oldest boid known from mainland Africa. It also provides the oldest fossil evidence for the African colubroid clade Elapidae. Colubroids dominate the fauna, comprising more than 75% of the recovered material. This is likely tied to local aridification and/or seasonality and mirrors the pattern of overturn in later snake faunas inhabiting the emerging grassland environments of Europe and North America. The early emergence of colubroid dominance in the Rukwa Rift Basin relative to northern continents suggests that the pattern of overturn that resulted in extant faunas happened in a more complex fashion on continental Africa than was previously realized, with African colubroids becoming at least locally important in the late Paleogene, either ahead of or as a consequence of the invasion of colubrids. The early occurrence of elapid snakes in the latest Oligocene of Africa suggests the clade rapidly spread from Asia to Africa, or arose in Africa, before invading Europe.

  7. Buffering municipal wastewater pollution using urban wetlands in sub-Saharan Africa: a case of Masaka municipality, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bateganya, Najib Lukooya; Nakalanzi, Diana; Babu, Mohammed; Hein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In many sub-Saharan Africa municipalities and cities, wastewater is discharged with limited or no treatment at all, thus creating public and environmental health risks. This study assessed the performance of a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), based on effluent pollution flux, in Masaka Municipality, Uganda. Also, the downstream pollution attenuation through a natural wetland was analysed to ascertain its role in buffering the WWTP performance deficits. Generally, there was deficiency in WWTP performance, with 100% failure over a five-year assessment period, for example, the mean effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (mg l(-1)) were found to be 316 ± 15 and 582 ± 28 compared with 50 and 100 maximum permissible environment discharge limits, respectively. Despite these deficits in WWTP performance, the wetland buffer effectively reduced pollutant loads for suspended solids (73%), organic matter (BOD5, 88% and COD, 75%), nutrients (total nitrogen, 74% and total phosphorus, 83%) and pathogens (faecal coliforms, 99%). These findings underpin the challenge of managing municipal wastewater using centralized mechanical WWTPs in the region. However, the wetland buffer system demonstrated a critical role these ecosystems play in abating both pulse and intermittent pollution loads from urban environments of sub-Saharan Africa whose sanitation systems are defective and inadequate. Therefore, it was concluded that integrating wetland ecosystems in urban planning as natural landscape features to enhance municipal wastewater management and pollution control is paramount.

  8. Predictors of sustainability for community-managed handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Foster, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Rural water supply sustainability has remained an enduring policy challenge in sub-Saharan Africa for decades. Drawing on the largest data set assembled on rural water points in sub-Saharan Africa to date, this paper employs logistic regression analyses to identify operational, technical, institutional, financial, and environmental predictors of functionality for over 25 000 community-managed handpumps in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. Risk factors significantly associated with nonfunctionality across all three countries were (a) system age, (b) distance from district/county capital, and (c) absence of user fee collection. In at least one of the three countries, other variables found to have significant multivariable adjusted associations with functionality status included well type, handpump type, funding organization, implementing organization, spare parts proximity, availability of a handpump mechanic, regular servicing, regular water committee meetings, women in key water committee positions, rainfall season, and perceived water quality. While the findings reinforce views that a multifaceted range of conditions is critical for the sustainability of community-managed handpumps, they also demonstrate that these factors remain absent from a high proportion of cases. Governments and development partners must significantly strengthen postconstruction support for operation and maintenance systems, and greater efforts are needed to test and evaluate alternative models for managing handpump water supplies.

  9. Annotated list of Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) from the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania and new Tettigoniidae species from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2013-12-21

    A list of the Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) of the East Usambara Mountains is presented and 16 new species are described from East Africa. A total number of 29 Tettigoniidae species is recorded for the East Usambara Mountains. New species are described from the Shimba Hills in Kenya, coastal Tanzania from the Kazimzumbwi forest reserve, Mt Kilimanjaro, the East and West Usambara and Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania, namely in Conocephalinae Afroagraecia pwania n. sp., Afroagraecia shimbaensis n. sp., Afroanthracites discolor n. sp., Afroanthracites jagoi n. sp. and Afroanthracites viridis n. sp., in Meconematinae Afrophisis flagellata n. sp., Afrophisis kisarawe n. sp., Afrophisis mazumbaiensis n. sp. and Afrophisis pseudoflagellata n. sp., in Hexacentrinae Aerotegmina megaloptera n. sp., in Mecopodinae Apteroscirtus cristatus n. sp., and A. planidorsatus n. sp., in Phaneropterinae Gelotopoia amabilis n. sp., and in Pseudophyllinae Cymatomerella pardopunctata n. sp. and Cymatomera viridimaculata n. sp. Seven species are endemic to the East Usambara Mountains which are 25% of the recorded forest-bound bush crickets. The Tettigoniidae fauna is compared between the East Usambara Mountains and Mt Kilimanjaro and mechanisms of speciation discussed in Orthoptera for the area. New Tettigoniidae records are given for Mt Kilimanjaro (Oxyecous apertus Ragge, Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge and Eurycorypha conclusa Hemp).

  10. New Phlugidia species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae, Phlugidini) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, Africa.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Phlugidia (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) are described from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. P. planicercus Hemp n. sp. occurs in lowland forest at the foothills of the Uluguru Mountains, while P. ob- tusicercus Hemp n. sp. was collected in the Nguru Mountains. A key to Phlugidia species is provided.

  11. Smallholder groundwater irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa: an interdisciplinary framework applied to the Usangu plains, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villholth, Karen G.; Ganeshamoorthy, Jegan; Rundblad, Christian M.; Knudsen, Theis S.

    2013-11-01

    A simple but comprehensive framework for analysing the potential for and constraints to groundwater development for irrigated agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is proposed. The framework, based on food value chain principles, is applied to the sub-Saharan context and a specific catchment in Tanzania, the Usangu plains, where groundwater has been proposed as a strategic resource for augmenting food production and smallholder livelihoods and to alleviate seasonal water scarcity. The novel contribution of the work is the presentation of a tool that can be applied to support an interdisciplinary approach to systematically identify most significant barriers and most critical water management and development interventions for sustainable development of groundwater irrigation. The result of the case study shows that farmer economics, capacity, and pump and well drilling market constraints limit groundwater irrigation in the Usangu plains rather than hydrogeological conditions.

  12. Quality of life among patients receiving palliative care in South Africa and Uganda: a multi-centred study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) is a core outcome of palliative care, yet in African settings there is a lack of evidence on patients' levels of QOL. We aimed to describe QOL among patients with incurable, progressive disease receiving palliative care in South Africa and Uganda, to compare QOL in cancer and HIV, to determine how domains of QOL correlate with overall QOL, and compare levels of QOL in this population with those in other studies using the same tool. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Missoula Vitas Quality of Life Index (MVQOLI), a 26-item QOL questionnaire with five subscales (Function, Symptom, Interpersonal, Well being, Transcendent) covering physical, social, psychological and spiritual domains and one global QOL item. One item in each subscale assesses the subjective importance of the domain on a score from 1 (least important) to 5 (most important), used to weight the contribution of the subscale towards the Total QOL score. The tool was translated into 6 languages and administered to consecutively recruited patients at four facilities in South Africa and one in Uganda. Results 285 patients were recruited, with a mean age of 40.1; 197 (69.1%) were female. Patients' primary diagnoses were HIV (80.7%), cancer (17.9%) and other conditions (1.4%). The mean global QOL score was 2.81 (possible range 0 (worst) to 5 (best)); mean Total score 17.32 (possible range 0 to 30). Patients scored most poorly on Function (mean 0.21), followed by Well being (2.59), Symptoms (5.38), Transcendent (5.50), Interpersonal (9.53) (possible range for subscale scores -30 to 30). Most important to patients were: close relationships (mean 4.13), feeling at peace (4.12), sense of meaning in life (4.10), being active (3.84), physical comfort (2.58). Cancer patients were predominantly recruited at three of the sites; hence comparison with HIV-infected patients was restricted to these sites. HIV+ patients (n = 115) scored significantly worse than cancer

  13. The Tendaguru formation of southeastern Tanzania, East Africa: An alternating Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous palaeoenvironment of exceptional status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sames, B.

    2009-04-01

    Dinosaur remains have inspired considerable scientific interest in the Tendaguru formation of southeastern Tanzania during the 20th century; however, this formation is exceptional in many other respects. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits of the Tendaguru formation in the southwestern Tethys are unique because they represent a marginal marine palaeoenvironment with nonmarine faunal and floral content. It is a threefold succession of marginal marine to terrestrial, carbonate-siliciclastic sediments with cyclic character, consisting of three transgressive-regressive cycles. Revisitation of the type locality (the Tendaguru, a hill approximately 60km northwest of the town of Lindi) by a German-Tanzanian expedition in summer 2000 (Heinrich et al., 2001) resulted in a new standard section (hitherto unpublished, the informal terminology is indicated by the use of lower case in Tendaguru formation), a refined environmental model (Aberhan et al., 2002) and many new insights towards its geology (with evidence of event-sedimentation, Bussert and Aberhan, 2004), biostratigraphy and a better understanding of the Tendaguru palaeo-ecosystems and the palaeoclimate. Within the scope of the designation of a new standard section at the type locality, calcareous microfossils (ostracods, charophytes) have been described to supplement the ongoing discussion about the age and palaeoecology of the Tendaguru formation (Sames, 2008). Although only a few unevenly distributed layers across the section produced calcareous microfossils, the results are very promising. A total of 40 ostracode and 2 charophyte taxa could be distinguished. The non-marine part of the ostracod fauna provides an important contribution to the documentation of Purbeck/Wealden-type nonmarine palaeoenvironments and its microfaunas and -floras previously unknown from East Africa. The marine faunal part belongs to a relatively endemic southern (Gondwana) fauna. Together with other fossil groups, the

  14. Research-policy partnerships - experiences of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Partnerships are increasingly common in conducting research. However, there is little published evidence about processes in research-policy partnerships in different contexts. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing experiences of research-policy partnerships between Ministries of Health and research organisations for the implementation of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods A conceptual framework for understanding and assessing research-policy partnerships was developed and guided this study. The data collection methods for this qualitative study included semi-structured interviews with Ministry of Health Partners (MOHPs) and Research Partners (RPs) in each country. Results The term partnership was perceived by the partners as a collaboration involving mutually-agreed goals and objectives. The principles of trust, openness, equality and mutual respect were identified as constituting the core of partnerships. The MOHPs and RPs had clearly defined roles, with the MOHPs largely providing political support and RPs leading the research agenda. Different influences affected partnerships. At the individual level, personal relationships and ability to compromise within partnerships were seen as important. At the organisational level, the main influences included the degree of formalisation of roles and responsibilities and the internal structures and procedures affecting decision-making. At the contextual level, political environment and the degree of health system decentralisation affected partnerships. Conclusions Several lessons can be learned from these experiences. Taking account of influences on the partnership at individual, organisation and contextual/system levels can increase its effectiveness. A common understanding of mutually-agreed goals and objectives of the partnership is essential. It is important to give attention to the processes of initiating and maintaining partnerships

  15. The second African Federation of Neurological Surgeons course in the East, Central, and Southern Africa region held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, January 2011.

    PubMed

    Kahamba, Joseph F; Assey, Anthony B; Dempsey, Robert J; Qureshi, Mahmood M; Härtl, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The second International African Federation of Neurological Surgeons course was organized on January 24 to 28, 2011, at the Seacliff Hotel and Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete graced the official opening with high ranking government officials in attendance. The targeted participants were young neurosurgeons in the East, Central, and South African region. More than 80 surgeons, residents, and neurosurgical nurses came from Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The objectives of the course were to teach and train young local surgeons in the essential-relevant for the region-and current techniques and management principles of brain and spinal diseases, acquire new skills through hands-on practical sessions, and share experiences. The course consisted of didactic sessions, practical aspects on spine internal fixation, cadaver dissections, and live microscopic and endoscopic surgery. Experienced faculty from different states of the United States, Spain, Turkey, India, Egypt, and Ethiopia facilitated the course. The objectives of the course were met with a favorable evaluation report. The collaboration and experience gained will be reinvested in organizing similar courses in the region.

  16. Tobacco smoking in Tanzania, East Africa: population based smoking prevalence using expired alveolar carbon monoxide as a validation tool

    PubMed Central

    Jagoe, K; Edwards, R; Mugusi, F; Whiting, D; Unwin, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of tobacco smoking in an urban East African population while using a simple validation procedure to examine the degree of under reporting in men and women. Design: A cross sectional population based study in adults (15 years and over) with sampling from a well maintained census register. Setting: Ilala Ilala, a middle income district of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: An age and sex stratified random sample of 973 men and women. Main outcome measures: Self reported smoking status with correction by exhaled alveolar carbon monoxide (EACO). Results: From the 605 participants (response rate 67.9%) age standardised (new world population) smoking prevalence, based on questionnaire and EACO, was 27.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8% to 33.2%) in males and 5.0% (95% CI 2.8% to 7.2%) in females. The age specific prevalence of smoking was highest in the age group 35–54 years (34.3%) for men and in the over 54 years group (16%) for women. Of those classified as smokers, 7.3% of men and 27.3% of women were reclassified as current smokers based on EACO (≥ 9 parts per million), after they had reported themselves to be an ex- or non-smoker in the questionnaire. Conclusions: The data suggest: (1) high rates of smoking among men in an urban area of East Africa; and (2) the importance of validating self reports of smoking status, particularly among women. PMID:12198270

  17. Ray of hope in Uganda in war against HIV.

    PubMed

    1997-03-24

    According to an October 1996 report from the Ugandan Health Ministry's STD/AIDS Control Program (STD/ACP) on HIV prevalence among pregnant women at six hospitals between 1991 and 1995, HIV infection has been declining in parts of the country and Ugandans have significantly changed their sexual behavior to avoid infection. The health ministry still estimates that there are 1.5 million infected Ugandans and more than 48,000 cumulative cases of AIDS have been reported in Uganda since the mid-1980s. The actual number of AIDS cases could, however, be 5-10 times greater. Other African countries with HIV infection rates of more than 10% among pregnant women are Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, and Cote d'Ivoire. The prevalence of infection among pregnant women will soon exceed 10% in Botswana and South Africa. Uganda has achieved some reduction in the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection by applying a multisectoral approach of coordinated efforts by the Uganda AIDS Commission's National Secretariat, ministries, districts, and village councils. Technical committees, task forces, steering committees, nongovernmental organizations, religious groups, academics and researchers, the media, the private sector, unions, workers, employers, herbalists, people living with HIV/AIDS, artists, and other groups are involved.

  18. 'Deadly gonorrhoea': history, collective memory and early HIV epidemiology in East Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhanen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This article combines local oral reminiscences with recent epidemiological literature to sketch a historical context around the onset and expansion of the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Uganda and north-western Tanzania. The local historical imagination has associated the appearance of AIDS in two ways. First, with specific socio-economic structures and circumstances common in the region since the 1960s and their enhancement during the 1970s due to economic changes at national and global levels. Second, the epidemic is associated with changes in the epidemiological situation. Local perspectives are supported by recent phylogenetic research and circumstantial historical evidence, on the basis of which a hypothesis on the expansion of HIV-1 in East Central Africa (southern Uganda, north-western Tanzania, Rwanda) is presented.

  19. Assessment of in vivo oxidative stress in hypertensive rats and hypertensive subjects in Tanzania, Africa.

    PubMed

    Negishi, H; Njelekela, M; Ikeda, K; Sagara, M; Noguchi, T; Kuga, S; Kanda, T; Liu, L; Nara, Y; Tagami, M; Yamori, Y

    2000-05-01

    Oxidative stress has been reported to be involved in not only cardiovascular diseases but in hypertension, which is a major risk for cardiovascular diseases. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been recognized as a sensitive biomarker of oxidative DNA damage and also of oxidative stress. In the present study, we assessed the oxidative stress in human subjects with hypertension and in hypertensive rats. In stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats at the age of 14 weeks, the excretion of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared with that in age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Next, we investigated the relationship between oxidative DNA damage and cardiovascular risk factors among Tanzanians aged 46-58 years in a population study carried out in 1998 in at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, according to the WHO-CARDIAC Study Protocol. Sixty subjects (male/female, 28/32) were selected by SPSS Base 8.0 from those who completed a 24-h urine collection. The 24-h urinary 8-OHdG of the hypertensive subjects (SBP > or =140 mmHg and/or DBP > or =90 mmHg) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of the normotensive subjects (SBP <140 mmHg and DBP <90 mmHg) after adjusting for age and gender (Hypertensives: 17.31 +/- 2.0 ng/mg creatinine, n=38; Normotensives: 10.10 +/- 2.64 ng/mg creatinine, n=22). Oxidative stress was thought to be involved in hypertensive subjects and in hypertensive rats.

  20. Mantle Flow Implications across Easter and Southern Africa from Shear Wave Splitting Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Bagley, B. C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; van der Meijde, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present new shear wave splitting results from broadband seismic stations in Botswana and Namibia, and combine them with previous results from stations in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Angola to further examine the pattern of seismic anisotropy across southern Africa. The new results come from stations in northern Namibia and Botswana, which help to fill in large gaps in data coverage. Our preliminary results show that fast polarization directions overall trend in a NE orientation. The most noticeable measurements that deviate from this pattern are located around the Archean Tanzania Craton in eastern Africa. The general NE pattern of fast polarization directions is attributed to mantle flow linked to the African superplume. Smaller scale variations from this general direction can be explained by shape anisotropy in the lithosphere in magmatic regions in the East African rift system and to fossil anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere.

  1. Condom use and sexuality communication with adults: a study among high school students in South Africa and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fostering adolescents’ communication on sexuality issues with their parents and other significant adults is often assumed to be an important component of intervention programmes aimed at promoting healthy adolescent sexual practices. However, there are few studies describing the relationship between such communication and sexual practices, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the relationships between adolescents’ communication with significant adults and their condom use in three sites in this region. Methods Data stem from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a school-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Only data from comparison schools were used. The design is therefore a prospective panel study with three waves of data collections. Data were collected in 2004 from 6,251 participants in 40 schools. Associations between adolescents’ communication with adults about sexuality issues and their use of condoms were analysed cross-sectionally using analysis of variance, as well as prospectively using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that consistent condom users had significantly higher mean scores on communication (across topics and communication partners) than both occasional users and never-users, who had the lowest scores. After controlling for condom use at the first data collection occasion in each model as well as for possible confounders, communication scores significantly predicted consistent condom use prospectively in all three ordinal logistic regression models (Model R2 = .23 to .31). Conclusion The findings are consistent with the assertion that communication on sexuality issues between adolescents and significant adults results in safer sexual practices, as reflected by condom use, among in-school adolescents. The associations between communication variables and condom use might

  2. The impact of rapid population growth, expanding urbanisation, and other factors on development in sub-Saharan Africa: the contrasting responses of Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Huth, M J

    1984-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the twin factors of rapid population growth and expanding urbanization on social and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and compares policies that have been developed in Tanzania and Kenya in response to these factors. The principal consequences of overpopulation and overurbanization have been economic stagnation and physical and cultural malaise in urban population centers. Between 1960-80, per capita incomes in 19 countries of sub-Saharan Africa grew by less than 1%/year and 15 countries recorded a negative rate of growth in per capita income during the 1970s. Urban populations have increased at at overall rate of 6%/year as sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to cities in search of employment. Few national governments in the region have formulated longterm strategies to deal effectively with this double-faceted development constraint or have integrated new urban populations into the national economy. tanzania's development strategy is focused on the goals of socialism, rural development, and self-reliance. Urban development has remained a residual item in Tanzania's national development process, despite the fact that the urban population increased from 5.7% of the total population in 1967 to 12.7% in 1978 and is projected to comprise 24.7% by the year 2000. In contrast, Kenya, whose proportion of urban population increased from 9% to 15% between 1962 and 1979, has pursued an urban-focused development strategy. The strong urban-rural linkages of the economy have focused migration to the secondary towns. The national development plan includes urban spatial, employment, and investment policies. Although this plan constitutes a good basis for future planning, the magnitude of the urban problem is beyond the capabilities of the central government and requires the development of local capabilities.

  3. Molecular identification of Oesophagostomum spp. from ‘village’ chimpanzees in Uganda and their phylogenetic relationship with those of other primates

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Narumi; Hasegawa, Hideo; McLennan, Matthew R.; Kooriyama, Takanori; Sato, Hiroshi; Pebsworth, Paula A.; Huffman, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Oesophagostomum spp. are parasitic nematodes of mammals, including humans and other primates. To identify species and determine phylogeny, we analysed DNA sequences of adult and larval Oesophagostomum from wild chimpanzees in Bulindi, Uganda, which inhabit degraded forest fragments amid villages. Oesophagostome larvae and/or eggs from baboons in Tanzania and South Africa and from a Japanese macaque were also sequenced. Based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) of mtDNA, O. stephanostomum and O. bifurcum were identified from chimpanzees. Bulindi is the second locality where molecular detection of O. bifurcum in wild chimpanzees has been made. While most O. stephanostomum had ITS2 genotypes recorded previously, three new genotypes were detected. Among four ITS2 genotypes of O. bifurcum from chimpanzees, one was identical to that from various monkey species in Kibale, Uganda, and baboons from Tanzania and South Africa; another was shared by a baboon from Tanzania. No genotype was identical with that of the cryptic species reported from humans and monkeys in Kibale. Phylogeny based on Cox1 sequences of O. stephanostomum showed locality-dependent clades, whereas those of O. bifurcum formed clades composed of worms from different hosts and localities. PMID:26716002

  4. Kanda fault: A major seismogenic element west of the Rukwa Rift (Tanzania, East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittori, Eutizio; Delvaux, Damien; Kervyn, François

    1997-09-01

    The NW-SE trending Rukwa Rift, part of the East African Rift System, links the approximately N-S oriented Tanganyika and Nyassa (Malawi) depressions. The rift has a complex half-graben structure, generally interpreted as the result of normal and strike-slip faulting. Morphological and structural data (e.g. fault scarps, faceted spurs, tilting of Quaternary continental deposits, volcanism, seismicity) indicate Late Quaternary activity within the rift. In 1910 an earthquake of M = 7.4 (historically the largest felt in Africa) struck the Rukwa region. The epicentre was located near the Kanda fault, which affects the Ufipa plateau, separating the Rukwa depression from the south-Tanganyika basin. The geomorphic expression of the Kanda fault is a prominent fresh-looking scarp more than 180 km long, from Tunduma to north of Sumbawanga, that strikes roughly NW-SE, and dips constantly northeast. No evidence for horizontal slip was observed. Generally, the active faulting affects a very narrow zone, and is only locally distributed over several subparallel scarps. The height of the scarp progressively decreases towards the northwest, from about 40-50 m to a few metres north of Sumbawanga. Faulted lacustrine deposits exposed in a road cut near Kaengesa were dated as 8340 ± 700 and 13 600 ± 1240 radiocarbon years. These low-energy deposits now hang more than 15 m above the present-day valley floor, suggesting rapid uplift during the Holocene. Due to its high rate of activity in very recent times, the Kanda Fault could have produced the 1910 earthquake. Detailed paleoseismological studies are used to characterize its recent history. In addition, the seismic hazard posed by this fault, which crosses the fast growing town of Sumbawanga, must be seriously considered in urban planning.

  5. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  6. Emergency health and risk management in sub-saharan Africa: a lesson from the embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Clack, Zoanne A; Keim, Mark E; Macintyre, Anthony G; Yeskey, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, terrorists simultaneously bombed United States Embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. The local response to these bombings was unorganized and ad hoc, indicating the need for basic disaster preparedness and improvement of emergency management capabilities in both countries. In this context, risk and risk management are defined and are related to the health hazards affecting Tanzanians and Kenyans. In addition, the growing number of injuries in Tanzania is addressed and the relationship between risk management and injury is explored. Also, an emergency medicine-based strategy for injury control and prevention is proposed. Implications of implementing such a protocol in developing nations also are discussed.

  7. Emergence of rice yellow mottle virus in eastern Uganda: Recent and singular interplay between strains in East Africa and in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Ochola, Dennis; Issaka, Souley; Rakotomalala, Mbolarinosy; Pinel-Galzi, Agnès; Ndikumana, Innocent; Hubert, Judith; Hébrard, Eugénie; Séré, Yacouba; Tusiime, Geoffrey; Fargette, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) have developed recently in eastern Uganda, close to Lake Victoria in East Africa. Unexpectedly, all isolates from the affected area belonged to a single strain (named S4ug), a strain that is different from the S4lv strain that has been prevalent in the Lake Victoria basin for the past five decades. Interestingly, the S4ug strain is most closely related at the genomic level (except ORF1) to the strain present in Madagascar (S4mg), 2000km away. The minor parent of the S4mg recombinant strain could not be detected. Molecular clock dating analysis indicated that the singular sequence of events - that associated the emergence of a new strain (S4ug), a modular recombination between closely related strains (S4mg and S4ug) and a long distance transmission (S4mg) - occurred recently, within the past few decades. This finding is at variance with the process of gradual strain dispersal and diversification over two centuries throughout Africa that was previously established.

  8. The upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of East Africa derived from Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J.; Nyblade, A.; Adams, A. N.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.

    2012-12-01

    An expanded model of the three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath East Africa has been developed using data from the latest phases of the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from preceding studies. The combined dataset consists of 331 events recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this latest study, 149 events were used to determine fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 seconds using the two-plane-wave method. These were subsequently combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for an updated upper mantle three-dimensional shear wave velocity model. Newly imaged features include a substantial fast anomaly in eastern Zambia that may have exerted a controlling influence on the evolution of the Western Rift Branch. Furthermore, there is a suggestion that the Eastern Rift Branch trends southeastward offshore eastern Tanzania.

  9. Comparative health systems research in a context of HIV/AIDS: lessons from a multi-country study in South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Dawad, Suraya; Veenstra, Nina

    2007-10-30

    Comparative, multi-country research has been underutilised as a means to inform health system development. South-south collaboration has been particularly poor, even though there have been clearly identified benefits of such endeavours. This commentary argues that in a context of HIV/AIDS, the need for regional learning has become even greater. This is because of the regional nature of the problem and the unique challenges that it creates for health systems. We draw on the experience of doing comparative research in South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia, to demonstrate that it can be useful for determining preconditions for the success of health care reforms, for affirming common issues faced by countries in the region, and for developing research capacity. Furthermore, these benefits can be derived by all countries participating in such research, irrespective of differences in capacity or socio-economic development.

  10. Study projects demographic impact of AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    Based on the United Nations study, "AIDS and the Demography of Africa", population growth rates will remain high in African countries south of the Sahara despite high mortality due to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The Population Division of the UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (DESIPA) incorporated the demographic impact of AIDS in its biennial population estimates and projections for Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. 9 million additional deaths due to AIDS are projected by 2005; 61% will occur in Uganda, Zaire, Tanzania, and Zambia. From 2000 to 2005, the average life expectancy for the region (51.2 years) will be 6.5 years lower than that without AIDS; that in Uganda (42.9 years) will be 11.1 years less. Mortality is increasing and its hardest impact will be during the prime working and family care years. Socioeconomic effects may include reductions in the size and productivity of the labor force, decreased industrial and agricultural production, and changes in care of children and the elderly. Due to high fertility rates, however, population increases are projected for all 15 countries. Although its nearly 12.4 million years less (4%) than that expected without the effect of AIDS, the total population for the region is projected to be 297.9 million by 2005. The address for obtaining the document discussed is listed with the price.

  11. 'We keep her status to ourselves': experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Cloete, Allanise; Metcalf, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In HIV-discordant relationships, the HIV-negative partner also carries the burden of a stigmatised disease. For this reason, couples often hide their HIV-discordant status from family, friends and community members. This perpetuates the silence around HIV-discordant relationships and impacts on targeted HIV prevention, treatment and counselling efforts. This article reports on experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine. During 2008, HIV-discordant couples who had been in a relationship for at least one year were recruited purposively through health-care providers and civil society organisations in the three countries. Participants completed a brief self-administered questionnaire, while semi-structured interviews were conducted with each partner separately and with both partners together. Interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Fifty-one couples were recruited: 26 from South Africa, 10 from Tanzania, and 15 from Ukraine. Although most participants had disclosed their HIV status to someone other than their partner, few were living openly with HIV discordance. Experiences of stigma were common and included being subjected to gossip, rumours and name-calling, and HIV-negative partners being labelled as HIV-positive. Perpetrators of discrimination included family members and health workers. Stigma and discrimination present unique and complex challenges to couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships in these three diverse countries. Addressing stigmatisation of HIV-discordant couples requires a holistic human rights approach and specific programme efforts to address discrimination in the health system.

  12. ‘We keep her status to ourselves’: Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Cloete, Allanise; Metcalf, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In HIV-discordant relationships, the HIV-negative partner also carries the burden of a stigmatised disease. For this reason, couples often hide their HIV-discordant status from family, friends and community members. This perpetuates the silence around HIV-discordant relationships and impacts on targeted HIV prevention, treatment and counselling efforts. This article reports on experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine. During 2008, HIV-discordant couples who had been in a relationship for at least one year were recruited purposively through health-care providers and civil society organisations in the three countries. Participants completed a brief self-administered questionnaire, while semi-structured interviews were conducted with each partner separately and with both partners together. Interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Fifty-one couples were recruited: 26 from South Africa, 10 from Tanzania, and 15 from Ukraine. Although most participants had disclosed their HIV status to someone other than their partner, few were living openly with HIV discordance. Experiences of stigma were common and included being subjected to gossip, rumours and name-calling, and HIV-negative partners being labelled as HIV-positive. Perpetrators of discrimination included family members and health workers. Stigma and discrimination present unique and complex challenges to couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships in these three diverse countries. Addressing stigmatisation of HIV-discordant couples requires a holistic human rights approach and specific programme efforts to address discrimination in the health system. PMID:25778765

  13. Social solidarity and willingness to tolerate risk- and income-related cross-subsidies within health insurance: experiences from Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Goudge, Jane; Akazili, James; Ataguba, John; Kuwawenaruwa, August; Borghi, Josephine; Harris, Bronwyn; Mills, Anne

    2012-03-01

    The importance of ill-health in perpetuating poverty is well recognized. In order to prevent the damaging downward spiral of poverty and illness, there is a need for a greater level of social protection, with greater cross-subsidization between the poor and wealthy, and the healthy and those with ill-health. The aim of this paper is to examine individual preferences for willingness to pre-pay for health care and willingness to cross-subsidize the sick and the poor in Ghana, South Africa and Tanzania. Household surveys in the three countries elicited views on cross-subsidization within health care financing. The paper examines how these preferences varied by socio-economic status, other respondent characteristics, and the extent and type of experience of health insurance in the light of country context. In South Africa and Ghana, 62% and 55% of total respondents, respectively, were in favour of a progressive financing system in which richer groups would pay a higher proportion of income than poorer groups, rather than a system where individuals pay the same proportion of income irrespective of their wealth (proportional). In Tanzania, 45% of the total sample were willing to pay for the health care of the poor. However, in all three countries, a progressive system was favoured by a smaller proportion of the most well off than of less well off groups. Solidarity has been considered to be a collective property of a specific socio-political culture, based on shared expectations and developed as part of a communal, historical learning process. The three countries had different experiences of health insurance and this may have contributed to the above differences in expressed willingness to pay between countries. Building and 'living with' institutions that provide affordable universal coverage is likely to be an essential part of the learning process which supports the development of social solidarity.

  14. Plague in Tanzania: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ziwa, Michael H; Matee, Mecky I; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Kilonzo, Bukheti S

    2013-10-01

    Human plague remains a public health concern in Tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. Despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in Tanzania. This work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in Tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. Plague is believed to have been introduced to Tanzania from the Middle East through Uganda with the first authentication in 1886. Xenopsylla brasiliensis, X. cheopis, Dinopsyllus lypusus, and Pulex irritans are among potential vectors while Lophuromys spp, Praomys delectorum, Graphiurus murinus, Lemniscomys striatus, Mastomys natalensis, and Rattus rattus may be the potential reservoirs. Plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in Tanzania are likely to be attributable to a complexity of factors including cultural, socio-economical, environmental and biological. Minimizing or preventing people's proximity to rodents is probably the most effective means of preventing plague outbreaks in humans in the future. In conclusion, much has been done on plague diagnosis in Tanzania. However, in order to achieve new insights into the features of plague epidemiology in the country, and to reorganize an effective control strategy, we recommend broader studies that will include the ecology of the pathogen, vectors and potential hosts, identifying the reservoirs, dynamics of infection and landscape ecology.

  15. Sexual scripting of heterosexual penile-anal intercourse amongst participants in an HIV prevention trial in South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Duby, Zoe; Hartmann, Miriam; Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Colvin, Christopher J; Mensch, Barbara; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Sexual risk-taking is influenced by individual, interpersonal and social factors. This paper presents findings from a qualitative follow-up study to a clinical trial evaluating biomedical HIV prevention products among African women, explored participants' perceptions and experiences of heterosexual penile-anal intercourse, as well as the gendered power dynamics and relationship contexts in which this sexual behaviour occurs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 88 women from South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Findings reveal that despite its social stigmatisation, women engage in penile-anal intercourse for reasons including male pleasure, relationship security, hiding infidelity, menstruation, vaginal infections, money and beliefs that it will prevent HIV transmission. In addition, participants described experiences of non-consensual penile-anal intercourse. We used sexual scripting theory as an analytical framework with which to describe the sociocultural and relationship contexts and gendered power dynamics in which these practices occur. These data on the distinct individual, dyadic and social contexts of heterosexual penile-anal intercourse, and the specific factors that may contribute to women's HIV risk, make a unique contribution to our understanding of heterosexual behaviour in these sub-Saharan countries, thereby helping to inform both current and future HIV prevention efforts for women in the region.

  16. Simultaneous virus-specific detection of the two cassava brown streak-associated viruses by RT-PCR reveals wide distribution in East Africa, mixed infections, and infections in Manihot glaziovii.

    PubMed

    Mbanzibwa, D R; Tian, Y P; Tugume, A K; Mukasa, S B; Tairo, F; Kyamanywa, S; Kullaya, A; Valkonen, J P T

    2011-02-01

    The expanding cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) epidemic in East Africa is caused by two ipomoviruses (genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae), namely, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) that was described recently. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic method was developed in this study for simultaneous virus-specific detection of the two viruses. Results showed that CBSV and UCBSV are distributed widely in the highlands (> 1000 m above the sea level) of the Lake Victoria zone in Uganda and Tanzania and also in the Indian Ocean costal lowlands of Tanzania. Isolates of UCBSV from the Lake Victoria zone were placed to two phylogenetic clusters in accordance with their origin in Uganda or Tanzania, respectively. Mixed infections with CBSV and UCBSV were detected in many cassava plants in the areas surveyed. CBSV was also detected in the perennial species Manihot glaziovii (DNA-barcoded in this study) in Tanzania, which revealed the first virus reservoir other than cassava. The method for detection of CBSV and UCBSV described in this study has important applications for plant quarantine, resistance breeding of cassava, and studies on epidemiology and control of CBSD in East Africa.

  17. Factors influencing the burden of health care financing and the distribution of health care benefits in Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Macha, Jane; Harris, Bronwyn; Garshong, Bertha; Ataguba, John E; Akazili, James; Kuwawenaruwa, August; Borghi, Josephine

    2012-03-01

    In Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa, health care financing is progressive overall. However, out-of-pocket payments and health insurance for the informal sector are regressive. The distribution of health care benefits is generally pro-rich. This paper explores the factors influencing these distributions in the three countries. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with insurance scheme members, the uninsured, health care providers and managers. Household surveys were also conducted in all countries. Flat-rate contributions contributed to the regressivity of informal sector voluntary schemes, either by design (in Tanzania) or due to difficulties in identifying household income levels (in Ghana). In all three countries, the regressivity of out-of-pocket payments is due to the incomplete enforcement of exemption and waiver policies, partial or no insurance cover among poorer segments of the population and limited understanding of entitlements among these groups. Generally, the pro-rich distribution of benefits is due to limited access to higher level facilities among poor and rural populations, who rely on public primary care facilities and private pharmacies. Barriers to accessing health care include medical and transport costs, exacerbated by the lack of comprehensive insurance coverage among poorer groups. Service availability problems, including frequent drug stock-outs, limited or no diagnostic equipment, unpredictable opening hours and insufficient skilled staff also limit service access. Poor staff attitudes and lack of confidence in the skills of health workers were found to be important barriers to access. Financing reforms should therefore not only consider how to generate funds for health care, but also explicitly address the full range of affordability, availability and acceptability barriers to access in order to achieve equitable financing and benefit incidence patterns.

  18. Nodding syndrome, western Uganda, 1994.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George

    2015-07-01

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208

  19. The Book Industry in Tanzania. Occasional Paper No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This comprehensive treatment of the state of the publishing industry in Tanzania provides a general description of the book trade in Africa, including discussions of the types of publishers active in Africa and of the recording of African publishing output, and a review of publishing activities in Tanzania, which covers the history of Tanzanian…

  20. Molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular composition and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and α-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m-3) in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m-3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 ng m-3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7 ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic acids from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% in PM2.5 during wet season and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during dry season. The higher ratios in dry season suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors probably via heterogeneous reactions on

  1. The Situation of Students in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of St Augustine University of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Bernadette; Haller, Max

    2012-01-01

    It is widely recognised that higher education is crucial for socio-economic growth in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is lagging behind in this regard in spite of a strong expansion of universities in the last decades. However, this growth may have led to a deterioration of the quality of higher education. There is no dearth of…

  2. The Impact of Adult Mortality on Primary School Enrollment in Northwestern Tanzania. Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Martha; Beegle, Kathleen; Koda, Godlike

    The AIDS epidemic is making orphans out of many African children and threatens to reverse hard-won gains in raising school enrollments. The average gross primary enrollment ration (GPER) the number of children enrolled as a percent of the total number of children of school age was only 77% for Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996. The countries are hard-hit…

  3. Reforming Teacher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…

  4. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression after home HIV testing and counselling in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and Mbarara district, Uganda: a prospective, observational intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Barnabas, Ruanne V.; van Rooyen, Heidi; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Murnane, Pamela M.; Baeten, Jared M.; Humphries, Hilton; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Joseph, Philip; Krows, Meighan; Hughes, James P; Celum, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly decreases HIV-associated morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission through HIV viral load suppression. In high HIV prevalence settings, outreach strategies are needed to find asymptomatic HIV positive persons, link them to HIV care and ART, and achieve viral suppression. Methods We conducted a prospective intervention study in two rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and Mbabara district, Uganda. The intervention included home HIV testing and counseling (HTC), point-of-care CD4 count testing for HIV positive persons, referral to care, and one month then quarterly lay counselor follow-up visits. The outcomes at 12 months were linkage to care, and ART initiation and viral suppression among HIV positive persons eligible for ART (CD4≤350 cells/μL). Findings 3,393 adults were tested for HIV (96% coverage), of whom 635 (19%) were HIV positive. At baseline, 36% of HIV positive persons were newly identified (64% were previously known to be HIV positive) and 40% were taking ART. By month 12, 619 (97%) of HIV positive persons visited an HIV clinic, and of 123 ART eligible participants, 94 (76%) initiated ART by 12 months. Of the 77 participants on ART by month 9, 59 (77%) achieved viral suppression by month 12. Among all HIV positive persons, the proportion with viral suppression (<1,000 copies/mL) increased from 50% to 65% (p=<0.001) at 12 months. Interpretation Community-based HTC in rural South Africa and Uganda achieved high testing coverage and linkage to care. Among those eligible for ART, a high proportion initiated ART and achieved viral suppression, indicating high adherence. Implementation of this HTC approach by existing community health workers in Africa should be evaluated to determine effectiveness and costs. PMID:25601912

  5. Mantle structure beneath eastern Africa: Evidence for a through going-mantle anomaly and its implications for the origin of Cenozoic tectonism in eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.; Julia, J.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 are used to invert P and S travel time residuals, together with travel time residuals from previous deployments, for a 3D image of mantle wave speeds and for examining relief on transition zone discontinuities using receiver function stacks. Tomographic images reveal a low wave speed anomaly (LWA) that dips to the SW beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The anomaly appears to be continuous across the transition zone, extending into the lower mantle. Receiver function stacks reveal an average transition zone thickness (TZT) across a wide region extending from central Zambia to the NE through Tanzania and into Kenya, which is ~30-40 km thinner than the global average. These results are not easily explained by models for the origin of the Cenozoic tectonism in eastern Africa that invoke a plume head or small scale convection either by edge flow or passive stretching of the lithosphere. However, the depth extent of the LWA coincident with a thin transition zone is consistent with a model invoking a through-going mantle anomaly beneath eastern Africa that links anomalous upper mantle to the African Superplume anomaly in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa. This finding indicates that geodynamic processes deep in the lower mantle are influencing surface dynamics across the Afro-Arabian rift system.

  6. Investigating "mass hysteria" in early postcolonial Uganda: Benjamin H. Kagwa, East african psychiatry, and the Gisu.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Yolana

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1960s, medical officers and administrators began to receive reports of what was being described as "mass madness" and "mass hysteria" in Tanganyika (now Tanzania) and Uganda. Each epidemic reportedly affected between three hundred and six hundred people and, coming in the wake of independence from colonial rule, caused considerable concern. One of the practitioners sent to investigate was Benjamin H. Kagwa, a Ugandan-born psychiatrist whose report represents the first investigation by an African psychiatrist in East Africa. This article uses Kagwa's investigation to explore some of the difficulties facing East Africa's first generation of psychiatrists as they took over responsibility for psychiatry. During this period, psychiatrists worked in an intellectual climate that was both attempting to deal with the legacy of colonial racism, and which placed faith in African psychiatrists to reveal more culturally sensitive insights into African psychopathology. The epidemics were the first major challenge for psychiatrists such as Kagwa precisely because they appeared to confirm what colonial psychiatrists had been warning for years-that westernization would eventually result in mass mental instability. As this article argues, however, Kagwa was never fully able to free himself from the practices and assumptions that had pervaded his discipline under colonial rule. His analysis of the epidemics as a "mental conflict" fit into a much longer tradition of psychiatry in East Africa, and stood starkly against the explanations of the local community.

  7. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids using a gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the size distribution and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121.5± 46.6 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258.1± 69.5 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (168.6 ± 42.4 ng m-3) in wet season than dry season (292.4± 164.8 ng m-3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65.4% and 67.1% in PM2.5 and 64.6% and 63.9% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 m-3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher to those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower to those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in the fine fraction in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic aerosols from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. The averaged contributions of total diacid carbon to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 in wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 in dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% inPM2.5 and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These ratios suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors and heterogeneous reactions on aerosols under strong solar

  8. Science Education in Tanzania: Challenges and Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Mehta, Khanjan

    2012-01-01

    Students in rural and urban areas in Tanzania, and elsewhere in Africa, continue to have limited or lack access to culturally and employment-relevant science education. The current case study, a 2007-2009 examination of barriers to the reform movement of science education in Tanzania, uses data from interviews, classroom observations, document…

  9. The future of financing for HIV services in Uganda and the wider sub-Saharan Africa region: should we ask patients to contribute to the cost of their care?

    PubMed

    Kakaire, Tom; Schlech, Walter; Coutinho, Alex; Brough, Richard; Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind

    2016-08-27

    Whilst multi-lateral funding for HIV/AIDS dramatically increased from 2004 to 2008, it has largely plateaued in the last 8 years. Across sub-Saharan Africa, up to 20 % of total spending on health is used for HIV services, and of this over 85 % is estimated to come from international funding rather than in-country sources. In Uganda, the fiscal liability to maintain services for all those who are currently receiving it is estimated to be as much as 3 % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In order to meet the growing need of increased patient numbers and further ART coverage the projected costs of comprehensive HIV care and treatment services will increase substantially. Current access to HIV care includes free at point of delivery (provided by Ministry of Health clinics), as well as out-of-pocket financing and health insurance provided care at private for- and not for- profit facilities. The HIV response is funded through Ugandan Ministry of Health national budget allocations, as well as multilateral donations such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS in Africa (PEPFAR) and Global Fund (GF) and other international funders. We are concerned that current funding mechanism for HIV programs in Uganda may be difficult to sustain and as service providers we are keen to explore ways in which provide lifelong HIV care to as many people living with HIV (PLHIV) as possible. Until such time as the Ugandan economy can support universal, state-supported, comprehensive healthcare, bridging alternatives must be considered. We suggest that offering patients with the sufficient means to assume some of the financial burden for their care in return for more convenient services could be one component of increasing coverage and sustaining services for those living with HIV.

  10. The future of financing for HIV services in Uganda and the wider sub-Saharan Africa region: should we ask patients to contribute to the cost of their care?

    PubMed

    Kakaire, Tom; Schlech, Walter; Coutinho, Alex; Brough, Richard; Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Whilst multi-lateral funding for HIV/AIDS dramatically increased from 2004 to 2008, it has largely plateaued in the last 8 years. Across sub-Saharan Africa, up to 20 % of total spending on health is used for HIV services, and of this over 85 % is estimated to come from international funding rather than in-country sources. In Uganda, the fiscal liability to maintain services for all those who are currently receiving it is estimated to be as much as 3 % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In order to meet the growing need of increased patient numbers and further ART coverage the projected costs of comprehensive HIV care and treatment services will increase substantially. Current access to HIV care includes free at point of delivery (provided by Ministry of Health clinics), as well as out-of-pocket financing and health insurance provided care at private for- and not for- profit facilities. The HIV response is funded through Ugandan Ministry of Health national budget allocations, as well as multilateral donations such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS in Africa (PEPFAR) and Global Fund (GF) and other international funders. We are concerned that current funding mechanism for HIV programs in Uganda may be difficult to sustain and as service providers we are keen to explore ways in which provide lifelong HIV care to as many people living with HIV (PLHIV) as possible. Until such time as the Ugandan economy can support universal, state-supported, comprehensive healthcare, bridging alternatives must be considered. We suggest that offering patients with the sufficient means to assume some of the financial burden for their care in return for more convenient services could be one component of increasing coverage and sustaining services for those living with HIV. PMID:27567669

  11. Public health laboratory systems development in East Africa through training in laboratory management and field epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Mosha, Fausta; Oundo, Joseph; Mukanga, David; Njenga, Kariuki; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Laboratories are integral to the delivery of quality health care and for public health functions; however laboratory systems and services are often neglected in resource-poor settings such as the East African region. In order to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in resource-poor countries, there is a need to train laboratory personnel to work in clinical as well as public health laboratories. In 2004,Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan began training public health laboratory workers jointly with field epidemiologists in the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), and later through the Tanzania FELTP, as a strategy to strengthen public health laboratories. These programs train laboratory epidemiologists through a two-year public health leadership development course, and also offer various types of short course training for frontline staff. The FELTP laboratory graduates in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and South Sudan are working in their respective countries to strengthen public health laboratory systems while the short course participants provide a pool of frontline implementers with the capacity to support the lower tiers of health systems, as well as serve as surge capacity for the regions and the national level. Through training competent public health laboratory workers, the East African ministries of health, in collaboration with other regional partners and stakeholders are now engaged in developing and implementing a holistic approach that will guarantee an overall strengthening of the health system by using well-trained public health laboratory leaders to drive the process. Strengthening public health laboratory medicine in East Africa is critical to improve health-care systems. The experience with the FELTP model in East Africa is a step in the right direction towards ensuring a stronger role for the laboratory in public health. PMID:22359702

  12. Developing children's palliative care in Africa through beacon centres: lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Downing, Julia D; Marston, Joan; Selwyn, Casey; Ross-Gakava, Laura

    2013-02-18

    Much progress has been made in the provision of palliative care across sub-Saharan Africa, however much still remains to be done, particularly in the area of children's palliative care (CPC). The Beacon Centres programme was set up in 2009, aimed at improving access to CPC in South Africa, Uganda and Tanzania through more and better-trained health professionals and CPC clinical services of a high standard. Having identified sites in each country to develop into CPC Beacon Centres, Navigators were identified who would be the 'champions' for CPC in those sites and lead a programme of training, mentorship and support. Five navigators (2 in Uganda and Tanzania and 1 in South Africa) were trained between September and December 2009. Following this they undertook CPC needs assessments at the 3 centres and set up and delivered a six-month CPC training programme, providing mentorship and support to students to enable them to integrate CPC into their workplaces. To date, 188 participants have commenced the six-month course, with 80 having completed it. CPC has been integrated into the activities of the centres and a CPC virtual resource centre set up in South Africa. The achievements from the Beacon project have been great and the work of the navigators immense, but as in all projects it has not been without its challenges. Lessons learnt include issues around: the focus of the project; the length and nature of the training; assessment; accreditation; the choice of navigators; mentoring; administrative support; co-ordination; the choice of project sites; and the integration of CPC into services. The need for CPC is not going to go away and it is therefore important that models of scaling-up are found that are not only practical, feasible, affordable and sustainable, but that focus on the outcome of improved CPC for all those who need it. It is hoped that the lessons shared from the Beacon Project will help in developing and implementing such models.

  13. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  14. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  15. Evolutionary analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 isolates from east africa suggests two independent introductions from southern africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In East Africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. Little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. To enhance our appreciation of the epidemiological status of serotype SAT 1 virus in the region, we inferred its evolutionary and phylogeographic history by means of genealogy-based coalescent methods using 53 VP1 coding sequences covering a sampling period from 1948-2007. Results The VP1 coding sequence of 11 serotype SAT 1 FMD viruses from East Africa has been determined and compared with known sequences derived from other SAT 1 viruses from sub-Saharan Africa. Purifying (negative) selection and low substitution rates characterized the SAT 1 virus isolates in East Africa. Two virus groups with probable independent introductions from southern Africa were identified from a maximum clade credibility tree. One group was exclusive to Uganda while the other was present within Kenya and Tanzania. Conclusions Our results provide a baseline characterization of the inter-regional spread of SAT 1 in sub-Saharan Africa and highlight the importance of a regional approach to trans-boundary animal disease control in order to monitor circulating strains and apply appropriate vaccines. PMID:21118525

  16. The health and nutritional status of schoolchildren in Africa: evidence from school-based health programmes in Ghana and Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of the health of schoolchildren in Tanga Region, Tanzania and Volta Region, Ghana are reported. Two age groups of both sexes were studied: 8-9 and 12-13 years old. Children themselves tend to have a poor perception of their health status. This is confirmed by biomedical surveys. Evidence was common of chronic ill-health due to undernutrition, anaemia, parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiencies. The older age groups of both sexes were significantly more stunted (height-for-age z score < 2 below National Center for Health Statistics reference values) than the younger groups, indicating that linear growth continues to falter throughout the school-age years. Anaemia was common: 38% of children in Ghana and 75% of children in Tanzania had a haemoglobin level < 120 g/L. Younger children were more likely to be anaemic than older children, but no significant difference between the sexes was observed. Helminth infections which cause blood loss (Schistosoma haematobium and hookworms) were common and only 37% of children in Ghana and 14% in Tanzania had no evidence of worm infection. In Ghana, 71% of children had a low urinary iodine concentration; in Tanzania 38%. The burden of ill-health suggests that school health programmes in these countries which deliver anthelmintics and micronutrient supplements have the potential to improve the health, growth and educational achievements of schoolchildren.

  17. Development and Assessment of a Geographic Knowledge-Based Model for Mapping Suitable Areas for Rift Valley Fever Transmission in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Tran, Annelise; Trevennec, Carlène; Lutwama, Julius; Sserugga, Joseph; Gély, Marie; Pittiglio, Claudia; Pinto, Julio; Chevalier, Véronique

    2016-09-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans, is one of the most important viral zoonoses in Africa. The objective of the present study was to develop a geographic knowledge-based method to map the areas suitable for RVF amplification and RVF spread in four East African countries, namely, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia, and to assess the predictive accuracy of the model using livestock outbreak data from Kenya and Tanzania. Risk factors and their relative importance regarding RVF amplification and spread were identified from a literature review. A numerical weight was calculated for each risk factor using an analytical hierarchy process. The corresponding geographic data were collected, standardized and combined based on a weighted linear combination to produce maps of the suitability for RVF transmission. The accuracy of the resulting maps was assessed using RVF outbreak locations in livestock reported in Kenya and Tanzania between 1998 and 2012 and the ROC curve analysis. Our results confirmed the capacity of the geographic information system-based multi-criteria evaluation method to synthesize available scientific knowledge and to accurately map (AUC = 0.786; 95% CI [0.730-0.842]) the spatial heterogeneity of RVF suitability in East Africa. This approach provides users with a straightforward and easy update of the maps according to data availability or the further development of scientific knowledge. PMID:27631374

  18. Development and Assessment of a Geographic Knowledge-Based Model for Mapping Suitable Areas for Rift Valley Fever Transmission in Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Annelise; Trevennec, Carlène; Lutwama, Julius; Sserugga, Joseph; Gély, Marie; Pittiglio, Claudia; Pinto, Julio; Chevalier, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans, is one of the most important viral zoonoses in Africa. The objective of the present study was to develop a geographic knowledge-based method to map the areas suitable for RVF amplification and RVF spread in four East African countries, namely, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia, and to assess the predictive accuracy of the model using livestock outbreak data from Kenya and Tanzania. Risk factors and their relative importance regarding RVF amplification and spread were identified from a literature review. A numerical weight was calculated for each risk factor using an analytical hierarchy process. The corresponding geographic data were collected, standardized and combined based on a weighted linear combination to produce maps of the suitability for RVF transmission. The accuracy of the resulting maps was assessed using RVF outbreak locations in livestock reported in Kenya and Tanzania between 1998 and 2012 and the ROC curve analysis. Our results confirmed the capacity of the geographic information system-based multi-criteria evaluation method to synthesize available scientific knowledge and to accurately map (AUC = 0.786; 95% CI [0.730–0.842]) the spatial heterogeneity of RVF suitability in East Africa. This approach provides users with a straightforward and easy update of the maps according to data availability or the further development of scientific knowledge. PMID:27631374

  19. Development and Assessment of a Geographic Knowledge-Based Model for Mapping Suitable Areas for Rift Valley Fever Transmission in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Tran, Annelise; Trevennec, Carlène; Lutwama, Julius; Sserugga, Joseph; Gély, Marie; Pittiglio, Claudia; Pinto, Julio; Chevalier, Véronique

    2016-09-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans, is one of the most important viral zoonoses in Africa. The objective of the present study was to develop a geographic knowledge-based method to map the areas suitable for RVF amplification and RVF spread in four East African countries, namely, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia, and to assess the predictive accuracy of the model using livestock outbreak data from Kenya and Tanzania. Risk factors and their relative importance regarding RVF amplification and spread were identified from a literature review. A numerical weight was calculated for each risk factor using an analytical hierarchy process. The corresponding geographic data were collected, standardized and combined based on a weighted linear combination to produce maps of the suitability for RVF transmission. The accuracy of the resulting maps was assessed using RVF outbreak locations in livestock reported in Kenya and Tanzania between 1998 and 2012 and the ROC curve analysis. Our results confirmed the capacity of the geographic information system-based multi-criteria evaluation method to synthesize available scientific knowledge and to accurately map (AUC = 0.786; 95% CI [0.730-0.842]) the spatial heterogeneity of RVF suitability in East Africa. This approach provides users with a straightforward and easy update of the maps according to data availability or the further development of scientific knowledge.

  20. Socio-economic factors, gender and smoking as determinants of COPD in a low-income country of sub-Saharan Africa: FRESH AIR Uganda

    PubMed Central

    van Gemert, Frederik; Chavannes, Niels; Kirenga, Bruce; Jones, Rupert; Williams, Sian; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Vonk, Judith; Kocks, Janwillem; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-01-01

    In Uganda, biomass smoke seems to be the largest risk factor for the development of COPD, but socio-economic factors and gender may have a role. Therefore, more in-depth research is needed to understand the risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic factors and gender differences on the COPD prevalence in Uganda. The population comprised 588 randomly selected participants (>30 years) who previously completed the FRESH AIR Uganda study. In this post hoc analysis, the impact of several socio-economic characteristics, gender and smoking on the prevalence of COPD was assessed using a logistic regression model. The main risk factors associated with COPD were non-Bantu ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–2.82, P=0.030), biomass fuel use for heating (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03–3.00, P=0.038), former smoker (OR 1.87, 95% CI 0.97–3.60, P=0.063) and being unmarried (OR 0.087, 95% CI 0.93–2.95, P=0.087). A substantial difference in the prevalence of COPD was seen between the two ethnic groups: non-Bantu 20% and Bantu 12.9%. Additional analysis between these two groups showed significant differences in socio-economic circumstances: non-Bantu people smoked more (57.7% vs 10.7%), lived in tobacco-growing areas (72% vs 14.8%) and were less educated (28.5% vs 12.9% had no education). With regard to gender, men with COPD were unmarried (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.25–7.61, P=0.015) and used more biomass fuel for heating (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.02–4.54, P=0.045), and women with COPD were former smokers (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.22–9.22, P=0.019). Only a few socio-economic factors (i.e., smoking, biomass fuel use for heating, marital status and non-Bantu ethnicity) have been found to be associated with COPD. This applied for gender differences as well (i.e., for men, marital status and biomass fuel for heating, and for women being a former smoker). More research is needed to clarify the complexity of the different risk factors

  1. Socio-economic factors, gender and smoking as determinants of COPD in a low-income country of sub-Saharan Africa: FRESH AIR Uganda.

    PubMed

    van Gemert, Frederik; Chavannes, Niels; Kirenga, Bruce; Jones, Rupert; Williams, Sian; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Vonk, Judith; Kocks, Janwillem; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-01-01

    In Uganda, biomass smoke seems to be the largest risk factor for the development of COPD, but socio-economic factors and gender may have a role. Therefore, more in-depth research is needed to understand the risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic factors and gender differences on the COPD prevalence in Uganda. The population comprised 588 randomly selected participants (>30 years) who previously completed the FRESH AIR Uganda study. In this post hoc analysis, the impact of several socio-economic characteristics, gender and smoking on the prevalence of COPD was assessed using a logistic regression model. The main risk factors associated with COPD were non-Bantu ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.82, P=0.030), biomass fuel use for heating (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-3.00, P=0.038), former smoker (OR 1.87, 95% CI 0.97-3.60, P=0.063) and being unmarried (OR 0.087, 95% CI 0.93-2.95, P=0.087). A substantial difference in the prevalence of COPD was seen between the two ethnic groups: non-Bantu 20% and Bantu 12.9%. Additional analysis between these two groups showed significant differences in socio-economic circumstances: non-Bantu people smoked more (57.7% vs 10.7%), lived in tobacco-growing areas (72% vs 14.8%) and were less educated (28.5% vs 12.9% had no education). With regard to gender, men with COPD were unmarried (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.25-7.61, P=0.015) and used more biomass fuel for heating (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.02-4.54, P=0.045), and women with COPD were former smokers (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.22-9.22, P=0.019). Only a few socio-economic factors (i.e., smoking, biomass fuel use for heating, marital status and non-Bantu ethnicity) have been found to be associated with COPD. This applied for gender differences as well (i.e., for men, marital status and biomass fuel for heating, and for women being a former smoker). More research is needed to clarify the complexity of the different risk factors. PMID

  2. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofts, Marylee

    1986-01-01

    Reviews myths, misconceptions, and unintentional biases about Africa in United States K-12 social studies textbooks. Summarizes common topics and recommends additions. Provides the names, addresses and phone numbers of 10 university-based African Studies centers. Concludes that improvements to textbooks must continue. (JDH)

  3. Training for rural radiology and imaging in sub-saharan Africa: addressing the mismatch between services and population.

    PubMed

    Kawooya, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to outline the needs, challenges, and training interventions for rural radiology (RR) training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Rural radiology may be defined as imaging requirements of the rural communities. In SSA, over 80% of the population is rural. The literature was reviewed to determine the need for imaging in rural Africa, the challenges, and training interventions. Up to 50% of the patients in the rural health facilities in Uganda may require imaging, largely ultrasound and plain radiography. In Uganda, imaging is performed, on an average, in 50% of the deserving patients in the urban areas, compared to 10-13 % in the rural areas. Imaging has been shown to increase the utilization of facility-based rural health services and to impact management decisions. The challenges in the rural areas are different from those in the urban areas. These are related to disease spectrum, human resource, and socio-economic, socio-cultural, infrastructural, and academic disparities. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, for which information on training intervention was available, included: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zambia, Ghana, Malawi, and Sudan. Favorable national policies had been instrumental in implementing these interventions. The interventions had been made by public, private-for-profit (PFP), private-not-for profit (PNFP), local, and international academic institutions, personal initiatives, and professional societies. Ultrasound and plain radiography were the main focus. Despite these efforts, there were still gross disparities in the RR services for SSA. In conclusion, there have been training interventions targeted toward RR in Africa. However, gross disparities in RR provision persist, requiring an effective policy, plus a more organized, focused, and sustainable approach, by the stakeholders.

  4. Into the Forest: The Evolution of a Conservation Education Program at Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhar, Christopher W.; Bettinger, Tammie L.; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Townsend, Stephanie; Cox, Debbie

    2007-01-01

    While there are many conservation programs in east Africa, relatively little is invested in environmental education or capacity building within the community. With this in mind, the National Forest Authority of Uganda, the Ugandan Ministry of Education and Sports, Disney's Animal Kingdom[R], and the Jane Goodall Institute--Uganda entered into a…

  5. Evaluating a School-Based Trachoma Curriculum in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewallen, Susan; Massae, Patrick; Tharaney, Manisha; Somba, Margareth; Geneau, Robert; MacArthur, Chad; Courtright, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Trachoma remains a public health problem in a number of sub-Saharan Africa countries; behavioral change and environmental improvements are cornerstones of prevention efforts. Evidence of successful health education are few in Africa. Health education efforts through primary schools have recently been developed and adopted in Tanzania. We evaluated…

  6. Integrating Ubunifu, informal science, and community innovations in science classrooms in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Hristova, Adelina; Owiny, Sylvia A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between informal science and indigenous innovations in local communities in which students matured. The discussion considers methods for bridging the gap that exists between parents' understanding of informal science ( Ubunifu) and what students learn in secondary schools in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. In an effort to reconcile the difference between students' lived experiences and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) taught in classrooms, this study presents an experiential iSPACES instructional model as an example of curriculum integration in science classrooms. The culmination is presentation of lessons learned from history, including Africa's unique contributions to science, theory, and indigenous innovations, in the hope that these lessons can spur the development of new instructional practices, standards, curriculum materials, professional and community development, and dialogue among nations.

  7. Prevalence of nodding syndrome--Uganda, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Preetha J; Wamala, Joseph; Ratto, Jeffrey; Blanton, Curtis; Malimbo, Mugagga; Lukwago, Luswa; Becknell, Steven; Downing, Robert; Bunga, Sudhir; Sejvar, James; Makumbi, Issa

    2014-07-18

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a seizure disorder of unknown etiology, predominately affecting children aged 3-18 years in three sub-Saharan countries (Uganda, South Sudan, and Tanzania), with the primary feature of episodic head nodding. These episodes are thought to be one manifestation of a syndrome that includes neurologic deterioration, cognitive impairment, and additional seizure types. NS investigations have focused on clinical features, progression, and etiology; however, none have provided a population-based prevalence assessment using a standardized case definition. In March 2013, CDC and the Ugandan Ministry of Health (MOH) conducted a single-stage cluster survey to perform the first systematic assessment of prevalence of NS in Uganda using a new consensus case definition, which was modified during the course of the investigation. Based on the modified definition, the estimated number of probable NS cases in children aged 5-18 years in three northern Uganda districts was 1,687 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1,463-1,912), for a prevalence of 6.8 (CI = 5.9-7.7) probable NS cases per 1,000 children aged 5-18 years in the three districts. These findings can guide the MOH to understand and provide the health-care resources necessary to address NS in northern Uganda, and provide a basis for future studies of NS in Uganda and in other areas affected by NS. PMID:25029112

  8. The uppermost mantle shear wave velocity structure of eastern Africa from Rayleigh wave tomography: constraints on rift evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J. P.; Adams, A.; Nyblade, A. A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.

    2013-08-01

    An expanded model of the 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath eastern Africa has been developed using earthquakes recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined data set comprises 331 earthquakes recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this study, data from 149 earthquakes were used to determine fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s using the two-plane wave method, and then combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the uppermost mantle. New features in the model include (1) a low-velocity region in western Zambia, (2) a high-velocity region in eastern Zambia, (3) a low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania and (4) low-velocity regions beneath the Lake Malawi rift. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, these results support a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. We estimate a lithospheric thickness of ˜150-200 km for the substantial fast shear wave anomaly imaged in eastern Zambia, which may be a southward subsurface extension of the Bangweulu Block. The low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. Pronounced velocity lows along the Lake Malawi rift are found beneath the northern and southern ends of the lake, but not beneath the central portion of the lake.

  9. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Grace C.; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly, Jessica

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  10. STS-57 Earth observation of Lake Victoria, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Earth observation taken aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, is of Africa's Lake Victoria, which sits in the middle of the East African Rift Valley System.Lake Victoria is a major resource in eastern Africa, especially to the countries bordering the lake -- Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. Typical summer indicators in equatorial Africa -- puffy clouds over land mass and clear skies over the lakes -- are in the view. Lake Albert in the western section of the Rift Valley and Lake Turkana in the eastern section can be seen to the west and east of Lake Victoria, respectively. Most of the other features on the right are obscured by clouds. NASA scientists studying the STS-57 Earth photography point out that the wide perspective of this scene gives a sense of the three-dimensional profile of the whole rift system. The scientists cite the way in which the component valleys of the rift system ramp up to Lake Victoria on either side.

  11. Barriers in the Delivery of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Post-Conflict Africa: Qualitative Case Studies of Burundi and Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Primus Che; Bulage, Patience; Urdal, Henrik; Sundby, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are particularly grim in conflict, post-conflict and other crisis settings, a situation partly blamed on non-availability and/or poor quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) services. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to effective delivery of EmONC services in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda, in order to provide policy makers and other relevant stakeholders context-relevant data on improving the delivery of these lifesaving services. Methods This was a qualitative comparative case study that used 42 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions for data collection. Participants were 32 local health providers and 37 staff of NGOs working in the area of maternal health. Data was analysed using the framework approach. Results The availability, quality and distribution of EmONC services were major challenges across the sites. The barriers in the delivery of quality EmONC services were categorised into two major themes; human resources-related challenges, and systemic and institutional failures. While some of the barriers were similar, others were unique to specific sites. The common barriers included shortage of qualified staff; lack of essential installations, supplies and medications; increasing workload, burn-out and turnover; and poor data collection and monitoring systems. Barriers unique to Northern Uganda were demoralised personnel and lack of recognition; poor referral system; inefficient drug supply system; staff absenteeism in rural areas; and poor coordination among key personnel. In Burundi, weak curriculum; poor harmonisation and coordination of training; and inefficient allocation of resources were the unique challenges. To improve the situation across the sites, efforts are ongoing to improve the training and recruitment of more staff; harmonise and strengthen the curriculum and training; increase the number of Em

  12. Investigating “mass hysteria” in early postcolonial Uganda: Benjamin H. Kagwa, East African psychiatry, and the Gisu

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Yolana

    2016-01-01

    In the early 1960s, medical officers and administrators began to receive reports of what was being described as “mass madness” and “mass hysteria” in Tanganyika (now Tanzania) and Uganda. Each epidemic reportedly affected between 300 and 600 people and, coming in the wake of independence from colonial rule, caused considerable concern. One of the practitioners sent to investigate was Benjamin H. Kagwa, a Ugandan-born psychiatrist whose report represents the first investigation by an African psychiatrist in East Africa. This article uses Kagwa’s investigation to explore some of the difficulties facing East Africa’s first generation of psychiatrists as they took over responsibility for psychiatry. During this period, psychiatrists worked in an intellectual climate that was both attempting to deal with the legacy of colonial racism, and which placed faith in African psychiatrists to reveal more culturally sensitive insights into African psychopathology. The epidemics were the first major challenge for psychiatrists such as Kagwa precisely because they appeared to confirm what colonial psychiatrists had been warning for years—that westernization would eventually result in mass mental instability. As this article argues, however, Kagwa was never fully able to free himself from the practices and assumptions that had pervaded his discipline under colonial rule. His analysis of the epidemics as a “mental conflict” fit into a much longer tradition of psychiatry in East Africa, and stood starkly against the explanations of the local community. PMID:24191308

  13. Task shifting for cataract surgery in eastern Africa: productivity and attrition of non-physician cataract surgeons in Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This project examined the surgical productivity and attrition of non-physician cataract surgeons (NPCSs) in Tanzania, Malawi, and Kenya. Methods Baseline (2008-9) data on training, support, and productivity (annual cataract surgery rate) were collected from officially trained NPCSs using mailed questionnaires followed by telephone interviews. Telephone interviews were used to collect follow-up data annually on productivity and semi-annually on attrition. A detailed telephone interview was conducted if a surgeon left his/her post. Data were entered into and analysed using STATA. Results Among the 135 NPCSs, 129 were enrolled in the study (Kenya 88, Tanzania 38, and Malawi 3) mean age 42 years; average time since completing training 6.6 years. Employment was in District 44%, Regional 24% or mission/ private 32% hospitals. Small incision cataract surgery was practiced by 38% of the NPCSs. The mean cataract surgery rate was 188/year, median 76 (range 0-1700). For 39 (31%) NPCSs their surgical rate was more than 200/year. Approximately 22% in Kenya and 25% in Tanzania had years where the cataract surgical rate was zero. About 11% of the surgeons had no support staff. Factors significantly associated with increased productivity were: 1) located at a regional or private/mission hospital compared to a district hospital (OR = 8.26; 95 % CI 2.89 – 23.81); 2) 3 or more nurses in the eye unit (OR = 8.69; 95% CI 3.27-23.15); 3) 3 or more cataract surgical sets (OR = 3.26; 95% CI 1.48-7.16); 4) a separate eye theatre (OR = 5.41; 95% CI 2.15-13.65); 5) a surgical outreach program (OR = 4.44; 95% CI 1.88-10.52); and 6) providing transport for patients to hospital (OR = 6.39; 95% CI 2.62-15.59). The associations were similar for baseline and follow-up assessments. Attrition during the 3 years occurred in 13 surgeons (10.3%) and was due to retirement or promotion to administration. Conclusions High quality training is necessary but not sufficient to result in cataract

  14. Performance of Andean common bean under low fertility stress in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low soil fertility is a limiting factor for bean production in East Africa. In Tanzania low available N and P soils are widespread. Average bean yields in Tanzania are around 500 kg/ha although the potential yield under reliable rain-fed conditions is 1500–3000kg/ha, using improved varieties and pro...

  15. Walking in Unfamiliar Territory: Headteachers' Preparation and First-Year Experiences in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onguko, Brown Bully; Abdalla, Mohamed; Webber, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the preappointment experiences of early-career headteachers in Tanzania and to discuss implications for postsecondary institutions and ministries of education in East Africa. Research Design: Seven novice headteachers in a suburb of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, completed questionnaires and participated…

  16. Agricultural nematology in East and Southern Africa: problems, management strategies and stakeholder linkages.

    PubMed

    Talwana, Herbert; Sibanda, Zibusiso; Wanjohi, Waceke; Kimenju, Wangai; Luambano-Nyoni, Nessie; Massawe, Cornel; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Davies, Keith G; Hunt, David J; Sikora, Richard A; Coyne, Danny L; Gowen, Simon R; Kerry, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    By 2050, Africa's population is projected to exceed 2 billion. Africa will have to increase food production more than 50% in the coming 50 years to meet the nutritional requirements of its growing population. Nowhere is the need to increase agricultural productivity more pertinent than in much of Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is currently static or declining. Optimal pest management will be essential, because intensification of any system creates heightened selection pressures for pests. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their damage potential are intertwined with intensified systems and can be an indicator of unsustainable practices. As soil pests, nematodes are commonly overlooked or misdiagnosed, particularly where appropriate expertise and knowledge transfer systems are meager or inadequately funded. Nematode damage to roots results in less efficient root systems that are less able to access nutrients and water, which can produce symptoms typical of water or nutrient deficiency, leading to misdiagnosis of the underlying cause. Damage in subsistence agriculture is exacerbated by growing crops on degraded soils and in areas of low water retention where strong root growth is vital. This review focuses on the current knowledge of economically important nematode pests affecting key crops, nematode control methods and the research and development needs for sustainable management, stakeholder involvement and capacity building in the context of crop security in East and Southern Africa, especially Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. PMID:26299755

  17. Tutorials for Africa - Malaria: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    Tutorials for Africa: Malaria In Uganda, the burden of malaria outranks that of all other diseases. This ... of treatment and techniques for prevention. Select the tutorial to play: Japadhola Japadhola (Self Playing Tutorial) Luganda ...

  18. Prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia in middle-aged men and women in Tanzania, Africa: relationship with resting energy expenditure and dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Njelekela, Marina; Kuga, Sachiko; Nara, Yasuo; Ntogwisangu, Josiah; Masesa, Zablon; Mashalla, Yohana; Ikeda, Katsumi; Mtabaji, Jacob; Yamori, Yukio; Tsuda, Kinsuke

    2002-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia and the mean frequency of intake of selected dietary factors were studied in 545 participants aged 46-58 y and living in three areas in Tanzania. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index of > or = 30 kg/m2) was 22.5% among women and 5.4% among men, p < 0.001. Higher rates of obesity were observed in both men and women in an urban (U) area of Dar. The prevalence of dyslipidemia [(TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C > 5] among men was higher in a pastoralists (P) population of the Maasai in Monduli (22.6%) than in Dar (9.6%) and rural (R) Handeni (7.3%, p < 0.05). The mean resting energy expenditure (REE) was higher in subjects from the rural and pastoralists populations than in urban dwellers (0.024 kcal/min/kg, p < 0.001). The three areas showed different dietary patterns with subjects from the urban area consuming coconut milk (4 d/wk, p < 0.001) and meat (2.5 d/wk, p < 0.05), more often than the rural population of Handeni which had the highest consumption of green vegetables (4.2 d/wk, p < 0.001). Participants from Monduli had the highest consumption of milk per day (1,219 mL/d, p < 0.001). A simple correlation analysis showed that body mass index (BMI) correlated positively with the frequency of intake of coconut milk, fish and meat, and negatively with REE and milk consumption. Total cholesterol (TC) was negatively correlated with the frequency of intake of green vegetables, fish and the REE, and correlated positively with meat consumption and BMI in both genders. Independent of other factors, important contributors to obesity and dyslipidemia in this population were dietary factors such as meat (p < 0.001) and fish (p < 0.05), and a lower REE (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that unhealthy diet and lower energy expenditure are important contributors to obesity and dyslipidemia in Tanzania. PMID:12656207

  19. Management of Information Services. Reports and Papers of a Training Course (Arusha, Tanzania, April 11-22, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musana, A., Ed.; And Others

    These reports and papers from a training course which brought together information services professionals from Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, the Sudan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland address the following topics: (1) information systems analysis; (2) the state of the art in bibliographic control in Eastern and…

  20. A partial economic evaluation of blended learning in teaching health research methods: a three-university collaboration in South Africa, Sweden, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kumpu, Minna; Atkins, Salla; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Nkonki, Lungiswa

    2016-01-01

    Background Novel research training approaches are needed in global health, particularly in sub-Saharan African universities, to support strengthening of health systems and services. Blended learning (BL), combining face-to-face teaching with computer-based technologies, is also an accessible and flexible education method for teaching global health and related topics. When organised as inter-institutional collaboration, BL also has potential for sharing teaching resources. However, there is insufficient data on the costs of BL in higher education. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the total provider costs of BL in teaching health research methods in a three-university collaboration. Design A retrospective evaluation was performed on a BL course on randomised controlled trials, which was led by Stellenbosch University (SU) in South Africa and joined by Swedish and Ugandan universities. For all three universities, the costs of the BL course were evaluated using activity-based costing with an ingredients approach. For SU, the costs of the same course delivered with a classroom learning (CL) approach were also estimated. The learning outcomes of both approaches were explored using course grades as an intermediate outcome measure. Results In this contextually bound pilot evaluation, BL had substantially higher costs than the traditional CL approach in South Africa, even when average per-site or per-student costs were considered. Staff costs were the major cost driver in both approaches, but total staff costs were three times higher for the BL course at SU. This implies that inter-institutional BL can be more time consuming, for example, due to use of new technologies. Explorative findings indicated that there was little difference in students’ learning outcomes. Conclusions The total provider costs of the inter-institutional BL course were higher than the CL course at SU. Long-term economic evaluations of BL with societal perspective are warranted before conclusions

  1. Out of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure with her students…

  2. Care Seeking Behaviour for Children with Suspected Pneumonia in Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with High Pneumonia Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Noordam, Aaltje Camielle; Carvajal-Velez, Liliana; Sharkey, Alyssa B.; Young, Mark; Cals, Jochen W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Because effective antibiotic treatment exists, timely recognition of pneumonia and subsequent care seeking for treatment can prevent deaths. For six high pneumonia mortality countries in SSA we examined if children with suspected pneumonia were taken for care, and if so, from which type of care providers, using national survey data of 76530 children. We also assessed factors independently associated with care seeking from health providers, also known as ‘appropriate’ providers. We report important differences in care seeking patterns across these countries. In Tanzania 85% of children with suspected pneumonia were taken for care, whereas this was only 30% in Ethiopia. Most of the children living in these six countries were taken to a primary health care facility; 86, 68 and 59% in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Burkina Faso respectively. In Uganda, hospital care was sought for 60% of children. 16–18% of children were taken to a private pharmacy in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Tanzania and Nigeria. In Tanzania, children from the richest households were 9.5 times (CI 2.3–39.3) more likely to be brought for care than children from the poorest households, after controlling for the child’s age, sex, caregiver’s education and urban-rural residence. The influence of the age of a child, when controlling for sex, urban-rural residence, education and wealth, shows that the youngest children (<2 years) were more likely to be brought to a care provider in Nigeria, Ethiopia and DRC. Urban-rural residence was not significantly associated with care seeking, after controlling for the age and sex of the child, caregivers education and wealth. The study suggests that it is crucial to understand country-specific care seeking patterns for children with suspected pneumonia and related determinants using available data prior to planning programmatic responses. PMID:25706531

  3. Care seeking behaviour for children with suspected pneumonia in countries in sub-Saharan Africa with high pneumonia mortality.

    PubMed

    Noordam, Aaltje Camielle; Carvajal-Velez, Liliana; Sharkey, Alyssa B; Young, Mark; Cals, Jochen W L

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Because effective antibiotic treatment exists, timely recognition of pneumonia and subsequent care seeking for treatment can prevent deaths. For six high pneumonia mortality countries in SSA we examined if children with suspected pneumonia were taken for care, and if so, from which type of care providers, using national survey data of 76530 children. We also assessed factors independently associated with care seeking from health providers, also known as 'appropriate' providers. We report important differences in care seeking patterns across these countries. In Tanzania 85% of children with suspected pneumonia were taken for care, whereas this was only 30% in Ethiopia. Most of the children living in these six countries were taken to a primary health care facility; 86, 68 and 59% in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Burkina Faso respectively. In Uganda, hospital care was sought for 60% of children. 16-18% of children were taken to a private pharmacy in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Tanzania and Nigeria. In Tanzania, children from the richest households were 9.5 times (CI 2.3-39.3) more likely to be brought for care than children from the poorest households, after controlling for the child's age, sex, caregiver's education and urban-rural residence. The influence of the age of a child, when controlling for sex, urban-rural residence, education and wealth, shows that the youngest children (<2 years) were more likely to be brought to a care provider in Nigeria, Ethiopia and DRC. Urban-rural residence was not significantly associated with care seeking, after controlling for the age and sex of the child, caregivers education and wealth. The study suggests that it is crucial to understand country-specific care seeking patterns for children with suspected pneumonia and related determinants using available data prior to planning programmatic responses.

  4. The Symptom and Genetic Diversity of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Infecting Cassava in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, I. U.; Abarshi, M. M.; Muli, B.; Hillocks, R. J.; Maruthi, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania) and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda) of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible) and Kiroba (tolerant) were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission by grafting, the viruses were classified as either severe or relatively mild. These results were further confirmed by the mechanical inoculation of 13 herbaceous hosts in which the virulent isolates caused plant death in Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana whereas the milder isolates did not. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coat protein gene sequences of these isolates together with sequences obtained from 14 other field-collected samples from Kenya and Zanzibar, and reference sequences grouped them into two distinct clusters, representing the two species of cassava brown streak viruses. Put together, these results did not suggest the association of a hypervirulent form of the virus with the current CBSD epidemic in Uganda. Identification of the severe and milder isolates, however, has further implications for disease management and quarantine requirements. PMID:22454639

  5. Promoting children's sustainable access to early schooling in Africa: reflections on the roles of parents in their children's early childhood care and education.

    PubMed

    Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has predominantly rural populations unable to offer children sustainable access to early literacy and childhood care and education. Children's literacy development starts very early in life through participation and experiences in the home and preschool. My research in rural Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania shows that the transition from home to school is compromised by acute barriers such as lack of parental participation, lack of encouragement and support from teachers, and unavailability of learning materials. However, rural homes and communities are well endowed with a stock of practices, knowledge, and skills relevant to the promotion of literacy development. In this chapter, I reflect on how to empower parents to draw on knowledge and resources within the local context to become better involved in their children's education while also empowering teachers to better recognize and take advantage of local knowledge and resources to enrich instruction and enhance meaningful learning.

  6. Promoting children's sustainable access to early schooling in Africa: reflections on the roles of parents in their children's early childhood care and education.

    PubMed

    Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has predominantly rural populations unable to offer children sustainable access to early literacy and childhood care and education. Children's literacy development starts very early in life through participation and experiences in the home and preschool. My research in rural Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania shows that the transition from home to school is compromised by acute barriers such as lack of parental participation, lack of encouragement and support from teachers, and unavailability of learning materials. However, rural homes and communities are well endowed with a stock of practices, knowledge, and skills relevant to the promotion of literacy development. In this chapter, I reflect on how to empower parents to draw on knowledge and resources within the local context to become better involved in their children's education while also empowering teachers to better recognize and take advantage of local knowledge and resources to enrich instruction and enhance meaningful learning. PMID:25512046

  7. Religious Views on Suicide among the Baganda, Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugisha, James; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Kinyanda, Eugene; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on religion and suicide in Africa, yet religion has a lot of influence on people's way of life in Africa. To study religious views on suicide among the Baganda, Uganda, we used grounded theory and discourse analysis on a total of 28 focus groups and 30 key informant interviews. Suicide is largely seen…

  8. Active seeps, investment climate draw interest to Uganda

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, D.K.; Kashambuzi, R.; Rubondo, E.N.T.

    1995-05-01

    Production has not been established in Uganda, but the hydrocarbon generating capacity of its rift basin is clearly evident. Reports of oil seeps date to 1925 to observations by Wayland; who relates 52 hydrocarbon occurrences in and around Lake Albert. Although not all remain active, nine oil seeps in the rift basin are confirmed active at present. The Albertine graben, a part of the East African rift system, dominates the geology of Uganda. Other, larger basins of similar evolution in Africa include the Sirte basin and the Gulf of Suez basin. These prolific basins account for one third of Africa`s total reserves. The paper describes the geologic setting, reservoirs, source rocks, geologic seals, structures, exploration history, licenses available, and fiscal terms.

  9. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  10. Medical education and health care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kiely, J M

    1980-10-01

    Health care and medical education in Uganda, once the best in Black Africa, have been adversely affected by the economic, political, and social upheavals in this developing country during the past decade. Crop failures, inadequate public health measures, shortage of medical equipment and essential drugs, and lack of sufficient medical school faculty have resulted in a major crisis. Substantial aid from the medical profession in developed countries will be necessary to help restore medical practice and education to the level present before the regime of Idi Amin.

  11. Clostridium difficile infections among adults and children in Mwanza/Tanzania: is it an underappreciated pathogen among immunocompromised patients in sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Seugendo, M.; Mshana, S.E.; Hokororo, A.; Okamo, B.; Mirambo, M.M.; von Müller, L.; Gunka, K.; Zimmermann, O.; Groß, U.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the epidemiology Clostridium difficile in developing countries. Fresh stool samples from patients with diarrhoea were cultured anaerobically. C. difficile was detected in nine (6.4%) of 141 (95% confidence interval 4.2–13.1), of which seven (77.8%) were from children. HIV infection, prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic use were independent factors associated with the occurrence of C. difficile in the gastrointestinal tract. Two of the toxigenic isolates were typed as ribotype 045, and the other two had unknown ribotype. All C. difficile isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, moxifloxacin and clarithromycin, while three isolates were resistant to clarithromycin. C. difficile may be an important pathogen causing diarrhoea in sub-Saharan Africa among immunocompromised patients. PMID:26649183

  12. Adolescents' Communication with Parents, Other Adult Family Members and Teachers on Sexuality: Effects of School-Based Interventions in South Africa and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Namisi, Francis; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kajula, Lusajo J; Kilonzo, Gad P; Onya, Hans; Wubs, Annegreet; Mathews, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Cluster-randomized controlled trials were carried out to examine effects on sexual practices of school-based interventions among adolescents in three sites in sub-Saharan Africa. In this publication, effects on communication about sexuality with significant adults (including parents) and such communication as a mediator of other outcomes were examined. Belonging to the intervention group was significantly associated with fewer reported sexual debuts in Dar es Salaam only (OR 0.648). Effects on communication with adults about sexuality issues were stronger for Dar es Salaam than for the other sites. In Dar, increase in communication with adults proved to partially mediate associations between intervention and a number of social cognition outcomes. The hypothesized mediational effect of communication on sexual debut was not confirmed. Promoting intergenerational communication on sexuality issues is associated with several positive outcomes and therefore important. Future research should search for mediating factors influencing behavior beyond those examined in the present study. PMID:25724974

  13. Fires in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like many countries, the southeastern African country of Malawi faces the challenge of balancing a growing population's need for food and energy with preservation of natural resources. This MODIS image from November 8, 2001, shows Malawi surrounded by (starting from top and moving clockwise) Tanzania, Mozambique, and northern Zambia. Lake Malawi runs north-south through the eastern part of the country, and is the southern-most of Africa's Great Rift Lakes, a series of deep lakes that run roughly north-south along the Great Rift Valley in eastern Africa, formed when the Earth buckled and then sank after the collision of Africa and Eurasia millions of years ago. Most of the land around the lake and throughout the country has been cleared of its natural vegetation and converted to agricultural land. This causes soil erosion problems and sedimentation in the lake, which affects the sustainability of fishing in the lake. In this image, greenish swirls in the water around the shores could indicate a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton or algae. Deforestation is also a major issue, especially since wood for fuel is the primary source of the country's energy. The difference between the lands protected by parks and preserves stand out dramatically. The largest protected area is halfway down the western border of the country-Kasungu National Park. Several smaller preserves also exist, and where they do, they stand out in green against the paler landscape. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Clampdown on AIDS information in E. Africa.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, B

    1986-01-01

    , particularly as it is known to be transmitted in heterosexual as well as homosexual relationships. Medical experts in Kenya identify the need for an AIDS Researh Foundation to be set up to encompass the whole of the East Africa region. This center would receive and collate information on AIDS from Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya, assess it, carry out clinical research, study and experiment with anti-AIDS compounds, and formulate a public education program to be disseminated by the media. 2 points need to be known: it is difficult to contract AIDS casually; through blood and semen, carriers of the virus can transmit AIDS like wildfire creating an epidemic. PMID:12314088

  15. The economics of pharmaceutical supply in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Yudkin, J S

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the patterns of purchasing, distribution, and utilization of pharmaceuticals currently found in Tanzania, an underdeveloped country in Africa. Like other nations in the Third World, Tanzania offers the prospect of a rapidly expanding market for the multinational pharmaceutical industry. However, this market has been to a large extent developed by the intense promotional activities of the drug companies themselves. In addition to normal marketing methods, these companies indulge in techniques which would be neither acceptable nor legal in developed countries. As a result, expensive proprietary drugs are overpurchased and overprescribed, mainly in the large urban hospitals, with consequent deprivation of other health care facilities, particularly those for the rural peasants who form the majority of the population. The activities of the multinational pharmaceutical companies in the Third World are therefore an important component in the continuing underdevelopment of health in these nations.

  16. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Caro, Tim; Davenport, Tim R B

    2016-08-01

    Tanzania, arguably mainland Africa's most important nation for conservation, is losing habitat and natural resources rapidly. Moving away from a charcoal energy base and developing sustainable finance mechanisms for natural forests are critical to slowing persistent deforestation. Addressing governance and capacity deficits, including law enforcement, technical skills, and funding, across parts of the wildlife sector are key to effective wildlife protection. These changes could occur in tandem with bringing new models of natural resource management into play that include capacity building, corporate payment for ecosystem services, empowering nongovernmental organizations in law enforcement, greater private-sector involvement, and novel community conservation strategies. The future of Tanzania's wildlife looks uncertain-as epitomized by the current elephant crisis-unless the country confronts issues of governance, embraces innovation, and fosters greater collaboration with the international community. PMID:26681228

  17. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Caro, Tim; Davenport, Tim R B

    2016-08-01

    Tanzania, arguably mainland Africa's most important nation for conservation, is losing habitat and natural resources rapidly. Moving away from a charcoal energy base and developing sustainable finance mechanisms for natural forests are critical to slowing persistent deforestation. Addressing governance and capacity deficits, including law enforcement, technical skills, and funding, across parts of the wildlife sector are key to effective wildlife protection. These changes could occur in tandem with bringing new models of natural resource management into play that include capacity building, corporate payment for ecosystem services, empowering nongovernmental organizations in law enforcement, greater private-sector involvement, and novel community conservation strategies. The future of Tanzania's wildlife looks uncertain-as epitomized by the current elephant crisis-unless the country confronts issues of governance, embraces innovation, and fosters greater collaboration with the international community.

  18. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Al-Bader, Sara; Masum, Hassan; Simiyu, Ken; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation.This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation.The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania), Acorn Technologies (South Africa), Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa), the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar), the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya), and Niprisan's development by Nigeria's National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria).All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems.For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy

  19. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Al-Bader, Sara; Masum, Hassan; Simiyu, Ken; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation.This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation.The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania), Acorn Technologies (South Africa), Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa), the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar), the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya), and Niprisan's development by Nigeria's National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria).All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems.For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy

  20. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation. This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation. The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania), Acorn Technologies (South Africa), Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa), the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar), the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya), and Niprisan’s development by Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria). All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems. For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long

  1. Sedimentology and depositional environments of the Red Sandstone Group, Rukwa Rift Basin, southwestern Tanzania: New insight into Cretaceous and Paleogene terrestrial ecosystems and tectonics in sub-equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Eric M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Stevens, Nancy J.; Gottfried, Michael D.; Jinnah, Zubair A.; Ngasala, Sifael; Choh, Adeline M.; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2010-05-01

    The Red Sandstone Group (RSG) in the Rukwa Rift Basin of southwestern Tanzania represents one of the only well-exposed, fossiliferous Cretaceous-Paleogene continental sedimentary sequences in sub-equatorial Africa. The significance of the RSG for reconstructing the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic history of African ecosystems during these critical time periods has been obfuscated by long-standing confusion and debate over the age of the deposits. Detailed stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and paleontologic investigations of the RSG conducted between 2002 and 2008 have produced a wealth of new fossil discoveries and data on lithofacies, alluvial architecture, sedimentary provenance, clay mineralogy and geochronology that resolve the long-standing debate over the age of these deposits. This study confirms the existence of an extensive middle Cretaceous sequence, herein named the Galula Formation, and subdivided into the Mtuka and Namba members. Moreover, we document the existence of a previously unrecognized late Paleogene continental sequence termed the Nsungwe Formation, which is divided into the Utengule and Songwe members. The Galula Formation represents a 600-3000 m thick sequence of amalgamated, braided fluvial deposits that were deposited across a large braidplain system via multiple parallel channels that had their source in the highlands of Malawi and Zambia. The middle Cretaceous Dinosaur Beds of Malawi are hypothesized to be at least partially correlative with the Galula Formation, and represent proximal deposits of this large, northwest flowing, trunk stream system. A moderately diverse terrestrial vertebrate fauna, including multiple species of dinosaurs, crocodyliforms, turtles, fishes and mammals have been recovered, along with a sparse aquatic molluscan fauna. Lithofacies and clay mineralogy indicate that Cretaceous paleoclimate ameliorated during deposition of the Galula Formation, transitioning from tropical semi-arid to tropical humid conditions

  2. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Deafness in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyaga, Nassozi B.; Moores, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    A review of deaf education in sub-Saharan Africa notes the role of missionaries, especially Andrew Foster who established 31 schools and introduced total communication; deaf education in Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa; the growing acceptance of sign language; and the role of international disability organizations, especially the World…

  4. Laramie in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    No matter how disturbing, it is common to hear "that's so gay" or "you're such a fag" echoing through the halls of a high school, but when the high school is an international school in Uganda, those words have a newfound potency. As an American teacher working abroad, the author often struggled over her responsibility for the ethical conduct of…

  5. Runyakitara: Uganda's "New" Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernsten, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Examined the emergence of Runyakitara as a new language in Uganda in the 1980s. The formation of Runyakitara through the realignment of four Western Bantu varieties illustrates the potential for the use of language as a resource in ethnic competition. Discusses the construction of Runyakitara in the context of the current political situation in…

  6. The P and S wave velocity structure of the mantle beneath eastern Africa and the African superplume anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2013-08-01

    P and S relative arrival time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray broadband seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Tanzania, and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 have been inverted, together with relative arrival time residuals from earthquakes recorded by previous deployments, for a tomographic image of mantle wave speed variations extending to a depth of 1200 km beneath eastern Africa. The image shows a low-wave speed anomaly (LWA) well developed at shallow depths (100-200 km) beneath the Eastern and Western branches of the Cenozoic East African rift system and northwestern Zambia, and a fast wave speed anomaly at depths ≤ 350 km beneath the central and northern parts of the East African Plateau and the eastern and central parts of Zambia. At depths ≥350 km the LWA is most prominent under the central and southern parts of the East African Plateau and dips to the southwest beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The amplitude of the LWA is consistent with a ˜150-300 K thermal perturbation, and its depth extent indicates that the African superplume, originally identified as a lower mantle anomaly, is likely a whole mantle structure. A superplume extending from the core-mantle boundary to the surface implies an origin for the Cenozoic extension, volcanism, and plateau uplift in eastern Africa rooted in the dynamics of the lower mantle.

  7. Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN), an Emerging Threat to Maize-Based Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mahuku, George; Lockhart, Benham E; Wanjala, Bramwel; Jones, Mark W; Kimunye, Janet Njeri; Stewart, Lucy R; Cassone, Bryan J; Sevgan, Subramanian; Nyasani, Johnson O; Kusia, Elizabeth; Kumar, P Lava; Niblett, C L; Kiggundu, Andrew; Asea, Godfrey; Pappu, Hanu R; Wangai, Anne; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2015-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on maize in Kenya. The disease has since been confirmed in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and similar symptoms have been reported in Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Ethiopia. In 2012, yield losses of up to 90% resulted in an estimated grain loss of 126,000 metric tons valued at $52 million in Kenya alone. In eastern Africa, MLN was found to result from coinfection of maize with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), although MCMV alone appears to cause significant crop losses. We summarize here the results of collaborative research undertaken to understand the biology and epidemiology of MLN in East Africa and to develop disease management strategies, including identification of MLN-tolerant maize germplasm. We discuss recent progress, identify major issues requiring further research, and discuss the possible next steps for effective management of MLN.

  8. Uganda's eco-rebirth.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, D

    1991-01-01

    In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness. PMID:12285370

  9. Uganda's eco-rebirth.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, D

    1991-01-01

    In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness.

  10. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  11. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector. PMID:26038896

  12. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  13. Current knowledge of coffee wilt disease, a major constraint to coffee production in Africa.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Mike A

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Coffee is vital to the economy of East and Central Africa, providing a major source of foreign exchange earnings and, as a cash crop, supporting the livelihoods of millions involved in cultivation, processing, marketing, and export. Coffee wilt disease (CWD), attributed to Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides), has caused losses to coffee production in Africa since 1927 but has been largely contained through the use of host resistance and in some instances wide-scale sanitation practices. A reemergence of CWD on Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee) in Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Tanzania has already led to heavy losses and threatens future production in these countries and elsewhere in the region. The relevance of CWD is all the more pertinent given the impact of a considerable fall in world coffee prices over the last decade. Recent research has clarified the extent of the problem in the region and revealed a low level of diversity within the pathogen, suggesting that two genetically and biologically distinct forms are responsible for current problems. These findings and related research and development initiatives undertaken under the auspices of the Regional Coffee Wilt Programme are of fundamental importance in providing an urgently needed solution to this devastating disease.

  14. Priorities for the Preparation of Secondary School Teachers in Middle Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Frank H.; And Others

    This document describes a cooperative venture in which leading African educators from Sierra Leone, Nigeria, the Ivory Coast, Mali, the Congo, Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya examined the significant problems affecting secondary teacher supply, and questions related to the qualitative improvement of the individual teacher. The situation in each…

  15. Beginning Science Curriculum for English Speaking Tropical Africa (African Primary Science Program). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The African Primary Science Program, which was established in 1960 as part of the African Education Program, has operated widely in English-speaking African countries. Science centers have been established with program assistance in seven of these: Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Uganda. Its goals have been centered on…

  16. Improving Teaching and Learning of Basic Maths and Reading in Africa: Does Teacher Preparation Count?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame; Lussier, Kattie; Pryor, John; Westbrook, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education has an important role in ensuring quality of learning especially for the poorest children. The article draws on a study of teacher preparation for the early primary grades in six African countries--Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda--in reading and mathematics. Initial teacher education had the strongest impact on…

  17. Petrophysical database of Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotoistenmäki, Tapio; Birungi, Nelson R.

    2015-06-01

    The petrophysical database of Uganda contains data on ca. 5800 rock samples collected and analyzed during 2009-2012 in international geological and geophysical projects covering the main part of the land area of Uganda. The parameters included are the susceptibilities and densities of all available field samples. Susceptibilities were measured from the samples from three directions. Using these parameters, we also calculated the ratios of susceptibility maxima/minima reflecting direction homogeneity of magnetic minerals, and estimated the iron content of paramagnetic samples and the magnetite content of ferrimagnetic samples. Statistical and visual analysis of the petrophysical data of Uganda demonstrated their wide variation, thus emphasizing their importance in analyzing the bedrock variations in three dimensions. Using the density-susceptibility diagram, the data can be classified into six main groups: 1. A low density and susceptibility group, consisting of sedimentary and altered rocks. 2. Low-susceptibility, felsic rocks (e.g. quartzites and metasandstones). 3. Paramagnetic, felsic rocks (e.g. granites). 4. Ferrimagnetic, magnetite-containing felsic rocks (e.g. granites). 5. Paramagnetic mafic rocks (e.g. amphibolites and dolerites). 6. Ferrimagnetic, mafic rocks containing magnetite and high-density mafic minerals (mainly dolerites). Moreover, analysis revealed that the parameter distributions of even a single rock type (e.g. granites) can be very variable, forming separate clusters. This demonstrates that the simple calculation of density or susceptibility averages of rock types can be highly erratic. For example, the average can lie between two groups, where only few, if any, samples exist. Therefore, estimation of the representative density and susceptibility must be visually verified from these diagrams. The areal distribution of parameters and their calculated derivatives generally correlate well with the regional distribution of lithological and

  18. Learning shortcuts to success. Africa.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    The exchange of experiences and lessons has been a feature of JOICFP's IP in Africa since the project's earliest days, particularly at the local level. At the end of 1995, this exchange system was expanded to the regional level with the swap of study teams between Zambia and Tanzania. Five personnel from Tanzania visited Zambia from October 14 to 28 and four IP personnel from Zambia visited Tanzania from November 4 to 18. For both teams the experience was one of learning and provided insights into different approaches to such areas as logistics, operational strategy, service delivery, organization setup, administration, income-generation and sustainability, data collection, analysis and reporting and cost-effectiveness. The Tanzanian team was impressed with the effective use of the health advisory committees at the village level in Zambia to reach local people. The steering committee structure ends at the ward level and not the village level in Tanzania. They also noted the strong involvement of men in the project and the dual existence of clubs for men and women. In one of the villages visited, the team joined an IP Open Day attended by over 5000. The study visit to Tanzania was also effective for the Zambian team, which was impressed with the IP system for the collection and analysis of CYP/CPR data. The members noted the close UMATI-government collaboration and joining of forces for FP service delivery. Tanzania's success with systematic CBD/CBS deployment was another impressive feature for the Zambians.

  19. The integrated project in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The 1st Integrated Project (IP) in Africa was started in Tanzania in 1983 by the International Planned Parenthood (IPPF) Africa Bureau. It was to be done by the Family Planning Association of Tanzania (UMATI). 2 pilot areas are in the Kilimanjaro region. 1 covers Modio and Roo villages in rural Masama; the other is a sugar cane plantation run by Tanganyika Planting Company Ltd. (TPC). The IP National Steering Committee (NSC) was formed in 1983 with representatives from the Ministry of Health and a parasitologist. No nutritionist was included. In 1983 a survey of population, health care activities, and demographic characteristics was undertaken. In 1984 house-to-house visits were made. Information was gathered on family planning knowledge, practice, and sanitary conditions. Mass stool examinations and blanket treatment for both children and adults began in August, 1984. Family planning information is fully integrated with education about sanitation and nutrition. 11 films were shown at TPC to about 500 children and adults and almost 20,000 children and adults received some form of health education. Health educators and laboratory technicians moved to accommodations in TPC and Modio village to live among the people they were serving. At the end of 1986, the number of family planning acceptors had risen quite a bit. It continued to do so in 1987. At TPC mass stool tests and deworming were done in 1985. This was completed in Masama in May, 1987. For follow-up selective treatments twice a year was done. The focus of environmental sanitation activity, especially in Masama, was the search for a cheap, well-built latrine. The IP staff in Masama trained 43 of the 90 traditional birth attendants (TBAs). UMATI has realized in 1984 that thought IP they can more effectively involve the community in family planning. By working on parasite infection, the IP staff aroused community interest in family planning. The NSC has set the tone of this project because it understood the

  20. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…

  1. Impacts of the Universal Primary Education Policy on Educational Attainment and Private Costs in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Mikiko; Yamano, Takashi; Sasaoka, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    While some governments in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished tuition to achieve universal primary education (UPE), few studies have examined the impacts of the UPE policy beyond school enrolment. This study estimates the impact of the UPE policy in Uganda on overall primary education attainments by using data including 940 rural households. We find…

  2. Expanding Access and Quality in Uganda: The Challenges of Building a Plane while Flying It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Uganda is among many nations in sub-Saharan Africa that are trying simultaneously to expand higher education opportunities and to enhance the quality of higher-education offerings. These are particularly challenging goals in resource-rich environments and are even more difficulty in environments of more limited resources to include funding,…

  3. The Valorisation of African Languages and Policies in the African Education Systems: A Case of Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzoora, Michael; Terry, Daniel R.; Asiimwe, Agatha A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the challenges of current language policies in education in Africa, with reference to Uganda. Also examined are the likely challenges to language policy in education, while indicating how these challenges can be curtailed or overcome. The authors suggest a different view is required when approaching this topic with a paradigm…

  4. Competence Challenges of Demand-Led Agricultural Research and Extension in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibwika, P.; Wals, A. E. J.; Nassuna-Musoke, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments and development agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa are experimenting alternative approaches within the innovation systems paradigm to enhance relevance of agricultural research and extension to the poverty eradication agenda. Uganda, for example, has recently shifted from the supply driven to demand-led agricultural research and extension.…

  5. Implementing a Palliative Care Nurse Leadership Fellowship Program in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Downing, Julia; Leng, Mhoira; Grant, Liz

    2016-05-01

    Global oncology and palliative care needs are increasing faster than the available capacity to meet these needs. This is particularly marked in sub-Saharan Africa, where healthcare capacity and systems are limited and resources are stretched. Uganda, a country of 35.6 million people in eastern Africa, faces the challenges of a high burden of communicable disease and a rising number of cases of non-communicable disease, including cancer. The vast majority of patients in Uganda are diagnosed with cancer too late for curative treatment to be an option because of factors like poor access to healthcare facilities, a lack of health education, poverty, and delays resulting from seeking local herbal or other traditional remedies. This article describes an innovative model of nurse leadership training in Uganda to improve the delivery of palliative care. The authors believe this model can be applicable to other low- and middle-income countries, where health resources are constrained and care needs are great.
. PMID:27105201

  6. Tanzania: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara

    A survey of the status of language usage in Tanzania begins with an overview of the three levels of language use: (1) Swahili, the national and official language, used in public life; (2) English, used in international affairs and in technical and intellectual matters; and (3) the over 120 vernacular languages used in family and religious life,…

  7. Re-infection of wildlife populations with rinderpest virus on the periphery of the Somali ecosystem in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kock, R A; Wamwayi, H M; Rossiter, P B; Libeau, G; Wambwa, E; Okori, J; Shiferaw, F S; Mlengeya, T D

    2006-07-17

    We report surveillance for rinderpest virus in wildlife populations in three major ecosystems of East Africa: Great Rift Valley, Somali and Tsavo from 1994 to 2003. Three hundred and eighty wild animals were sampled for detection of rinderpest virus, antigen or genome and 1133 sampled for antibody in sera from Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Tanzania from 20 species. This was done modifying for wildlife the internationally recommended standards for rinderpest investigation and diagnosis in livestock. The animals were selected according to susceptibility and preference given to gregarious species, and populations were selected according to abundance, availability and association with livestock. Rinderpest virus, antigen and/or genome were detected in Kenya; within Tsavo, Nairobi and Meru National Parks. Serological results from 864 animals (of which 65% were buffalo) from the region were selected as unequivocal; showing the temporal and spatial aspects of past epidemics. Recent infection has been only in or peripheral to the Somali ecosystem (in Kenya). Our evidence supports the hypothesis that wildlife is not important in the long-term maintenance of rinderpest and that wildlife are infected sporadically most likely from a cattle source, although this needs to be proven in the Somali ecosystem. Wildlife will continue to be a key to monitoring the remaining virus circulation in Africa.

  8. GPS Observations of Plasma Bubbles and Scintillations over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Valladares, C. E.; Semala, G. K.; Bridgwood, C. T.; Adeniyi, J.; Amaeshi, L. L.; Damtie, B.; D'Ujanga Mutonyi, F.; Ndeda, J. D.; Baki, P.; Obrou, O. K.; Okere, B.; Tsidu, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored in part by the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program, Boston College, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and several universities in Africa have collaborated to deploy a network of GPS receivers throughout equatorial Africa, a region which has been largely devoid of ground-based ionospheric monitoring instruments. High date-rate GPS receivers capable of measuring Total Electron Content (TEC) and GPS scintillations were installed at Abidjan, Ivory Coast (5.3°N, 4.0°W, dip 3.5°S); Addis Ababa (9.0°N, 38.8°E, dip 0.1°N ); Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (26.1°N, 50.6°E, dip 20.1°N); Cape Verde (16.6°S, 22.9°W, dip 4.9°N); Ilorin, Nigeria (8.4°S, 4.7°E, dip 1.9°S); Kampala, Uganda (0.3°S, 32.6°E, dip 9.2°S); Lagos, Nigeria (6.5°N, 3.4°E, dip 3.1°S); Nairobi, Kenya (1.3°S, 36.8°W, dip 10.7°S); Nsukka, Nigeria (6.8°S, 7.4°W, dip 3.0°S); and Zanzibar, Tanzania (6.2°S, 39.2°E, dip 15.9°S). In this paper we report on the longitudinal, local time and seasonal occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over equatorial Africa in 2009 and 2010, as a first step toward establishing the climatology of ionospheric irregularities over Africa. The scintillation intensity is obtained by measuring the standard deviation of normalized GPS signal power. The plasma bubbles are detected using an automated technique, whereby the GPS TEC is detrended to remove the diurnal variation and excursions exceeding a particular threshold are extracted for further analysis. A harmonic analysis (FFT) of these extracted events is performed to exclude wavelike features indicative of gravity waves or traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the remaining events are identified as plasma bubbles. Our findings suggest that the occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over Africa are well correlated, but that some discrepancies in their morphologies are evident. While plasma bubbles and scintillations are generally observed during equinoctial

  9. Ruminant methane reduction through livestock development in Tanzania. Final report for US Department of Energy and US Initiative on Joint Implementation--Activities Implemented Jointly

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Roderick

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to help develop the US Initiative on Joint Implementation activities in Eastern Africa. It has been communicated in meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Environment of Tanzania and the consultant group that developed Tanzania's National Climate Change Action Plan, the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, that this project fits very well with the developmental and environmental goals of the Government of Tanzania. The goal of the Activities Implemented Jointly ruminant livestock project is to reduce ruminant methane emissions in Eastern Africa. The project plans a sustainable cattle multiplication unit (CMU) at Mabuki Ranch in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. This CMU will focus on raising genetically improved animals to be purchased by farmers, developmental organizations, and other CMUs in Tanzania. Through the purchase of these animals farmers will raise their income generation potential and reduce ruminant methane emissions.

  10. Research Trends in Emerging Contaminants on the Aquatic Environments of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Miraji, H.; Othman, O. C.; Ngassapa, F. N.; Mureithi, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The continuity for discovery and production of new chemicals, allied products, and uses has currently resulted into generation of recent form of contaminants known as Emerging Contaminants (ECs). Once in the aquatic environment ECs are carcinogenic and cause other threats to both human's and animals' health. Due to their effects this study was aimed at investigating research trends of ECs in Tanzania. Findings revealed that USA and EU countries were leading in ECs researches, little followed by Asia, South Africa, and then Zambia. Only few guidelines from USA-EPA, WHO, Canada, and Australia existed. Neither published guidelines nor regulations for ECs existed in Tanzania; rather only the occurrence of some disinfection by-products and antibiotics was, respectively, reported in Arusha and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. As these reports had a limited coverage of ECs, henceforth, these findings constitute the first-line reference materials for ECs research in Tanzania which shall be useful for future monitoring and regulation planning. PMID:26998381

  11. Community-based advocacy opportunities for tobacco control: experience from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kagaruki, Lutgard K

    2010-06-01

    Tanzania is third in Africa in tobacco production after Malawi and Zimbabwe. In spite of increased production, Tanzania remains a poor country, with tobacco farmers getting poorer and the country losing more than 16,500 hectares of forests annually from tobacco curing alone. Tanzania grows fire-cured and air-cured tobacco. Regarding tobacco use, 35% of Tanzanians smoke tobacco regularly and about 32% of all cancers at Ocean Road Cancer Institute are attributed to tobacco use, with the country spending more than $30m annually to treat tobacco-related cancers. Unfortunately, knowledge on tobacco-related hazards is limited even among policy/decision makers. However, surveys indicate that more than 65% of resource-poor tobacco farmers favour alternative livelihoods when assured of sustainable markets. There is need of intensifying advocacy campaigns against tobacco, in order to improve the socio-economic status of tobacco farmers, enhance public health and sustain the environment in Tanzania. PMID:20595340

  12. Community-based advocacy opportunities for tobacco control: experience from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kagaruki, Lutgard K

    2010-06-01

    Tanzania is third in Africa in tobacco production after Malawi and Zimbabwe. In spite of increased production, Tanzania remains a poor country, with tobacco farmers getting poorer and the country losing more than 16,500 hectares of forests annually from tobacco curing alone. Tanzania grows fire-cured and air-cured tobacco. Regarding tobacco use, 35% of Tanzanians smoke tobacco regularly and about 32% of all cancers at Ocean Road Cancer Institute are attributed to tobacco use, with the country spending more than $30m annually to treat tobacco-related cancers. Unfortunately, knowledge on tobacco-related hazards is limited even among policy/decision makers. However, surveys indicate that more than 65% of resource-poor tobacco farmers favour alternative livelihoods when assured of sustainable markets. There is need of intensifying advocacy campaigns against tobacco, in order to improve the socio-economic status of tobacco farmers, enhance public health and sustain the environment in Tanzania.

  13. Mission of the month: Uganda.

    PubMed

    Snead, B

    1988-04-01

    US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Uganda has been interrupted several times due to Uganda's turbulent history since independence. Mission Director Richard Podol explains that because USAID is not a major donor to Uganda, an effort is made to maximize effectiveness by being cautious about how agency money is spent. USAID looks for critical gaps that are not being filled by other donor programs yet are essential to the development of Uganda at present and in the future. 1 such area is export promotion. Another area is macroeconomic reform. Agricultural rehabilitation is a major factor in the mission's strategy to restore Uganda prosperity. USAID has a package of interrelated projects that work to increase agricultural production and improve processing and marketing, all supported by appropriate economic policies. In 1983, USAID began to fund the Manpower for Agriculture Development (MFAD) Project to assist the MInistry of Agriculture and Makerere University in strengthening their agricultural research and training capabilities. Also designed to increase food production is USAID's 6-year and $20 million Cooperative Agriculture and Agribusiness Support project. IN the health sector, USAID's Family Health Initiatives project works cooperatively with US and international organizations in supporting the MInistry of Health and Ugandan private organizations in their efforts to implement family planning policies and programs. The missions' oral rehydration project is being implemented throughout Uganda to reduce child mortality and severe cases of childhood illness caused by diarrheal diseases. The US in 1986 made pledges toward the budget for UGanda's Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program. Podol maintains that while there has been significant economic and political progress, the primary issue continues to be political, i.e,, can full peace be restored to Uganda.

  14. Enhancing the application of effective malaria interventions in Africa through training.

    PubMed

    Ijumba, Jasper N; Kitua, Andrew Y

    2004-08-01

    Africa bears more than 90% of the entire global malaria disease burden. Surprisingly, even with the current renewed interest in malaria prevention and control and the enabling environment resulting from the Roll Back Malaria initiative and the political commitment made by the African Presidents at the Abuja Summit, there are still no significant initiatives for strengthening capacity for malaria control through training within the African continent itself. The Center for Enhancement of Effective Malaria Interventions (CEEMI) has been established in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania for results-oriented training. It is intended to provide the needed skills for identifying and solving malaria control problems and providing incentives to malaria control workers in their work performance. The intention is to produce implementers with leadership skills for planning and managing malaria control activities and who can use strategic thinking in improving their work performance. To sustain political commitment and support and to sensitize the community on malaria issues, the CEEMI, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (National Malaria Control Program), the Institute of Journalism and Mass Communication of the University of Dar es Salaam, and the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association have already conducted malaria seminars for Tanzanian Members of Parliament and journalists from Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. Additionally, a diploma course in health communication is being developed for journalists and for the same purpose. Also being developed is a training module for "Council Malaria Focal Person." This is aimed at complementing the Roll Back Malaria initiative to meet the Abuja targets of reducing morbidity and mortality due to malaria by 50% by 2010.

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Initiative to Develop Leadership among Women in Africa: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakahiu, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study assesses the impact of a three-year Hilton Foundation-supported, Sisters Leadership Development Initiative (SLDI) in five African nations. The goal was to evaluate the SLDI program for increasing leadership capacities of 340 women in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ghana and Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine…

  16. Explaining Adherence Success in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Norma C; Idoko, John; Kaaya, Sylvia; Biraro, Irene Andia; Wyatt, Monique A; Agbaji, Oche; Chalamilla, Guerino; Bangsberg, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa generally take more than 90% of prescribed doses of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This number exceeds the levels of adherence observed in North America and dispels early scale-up concerns that adherence would be inadequate in settings of extreme poverty. This paper offers an explanation and theoretical model of ART adherence success based on the results of an ethnographic study in three sub-Saharan African countries. Methods and Findings Determinants of ART adherence for HIV-infected persons in sub-Saharan Africa were examined with ethnographic research methods. 414 in-person interviews were carried out with 252 persons taking ART, their treatment partners, and health care professionals at HIV treatment sites in Jos, Nigeria; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Mbarara, Uganda. 136 field observations of clinic activities were also conducted. Data were examined using category construction and interpretive approaches to analysis. Findings indicate that individuals taking ART routinely overcome economic obstacles to ART adherence through a number of deliberate strategies aimed at prioritizing adherence: borrowing and “begging” transport funds, making “impossible choices” to allocate resources in favor of treatment, and “doing without.” Prioritization of adherence is accomplished through resources and help made available by treatment partners, other family members and friends, and health care providers. Helpers expect adherence and make their expectations known, creating a responsibility on the part of patients to adhere. Patients adhere to promote good will on the part of helpers, thereby ensuring help will be available when future needs arise. Conclusion Adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa can be explained as a means of fulfilling social responsibilities and thus preserving social capital in essential relationships. PMID:19175285

  17. Spatially explicit Schistosoma infection risk in eastern Africa using Bayesian geostatistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Chimfwembe, Kingford; Mushinge, Gabriel; Simoonga, Christopher; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Kristensen, Thomas K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-11-01

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the tropics and subtropics, but current statistics are outdated due to demographic and ecological transformations and ongoing control efforts. Reliable risk estimates are important to plan and evaluate interventions in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. We analysed a large ensemble of georeferenced survey data derived from an open-access neglected tropical diseases database to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium for a total of 13 countries of eastern Africa. Bayesian geostatistical models based on climatic and other environmental data were used to account for potential spatial clustering in spatially structured exposures. Geostatistical variable selection was employed to reduce the set of covariates. Alignment factors were implemented to combine surveys on different age-groups and to acquire separate estimates for individuals aged ≤20 years and entire communities. Prevalence estimates were combined with population statistics to obtain country-specific numbers of Schistosoma infections. We estimate that 122 million individuals in eastern Africa are currently infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. Country-specific population-adjusted prevalence estimates range between 12.9% (Uganda) and 34.5% (Mozambique) for S. mansoni and between 11.9% (Djibouti) and 40.9% (Mozambique) for S. haematobium. Our models revealed that infection risk in Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan might be considerably higher than previously reported, while in Mozambique and Tanzania, the risk might be lower than current estimates suggest. Our empirical, large-scale, high-resolution infection risk estimates for S. mansoni and S. haematobium in eastern Africa can guide future control interventions and provide a benchmark for subsequent monitoring and evaluation activities.

  18. Spatially explicit Schistosoma infection risk in eastern Africa using Bayesian geostatistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Chimfwembe, Kingford; Mushinge, Gabriel; Simoonga, Christopher; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Kristensen, Thomas K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-11-01

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the tropics and subtropics, but current statistics are outdated due to demographic and ecological transformations and ongoing control efforts. Reliable risk estimates are important to plan and evaluate interventions in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. We analysed a large ensemble of georeferenced survey data derived from an open-access neglected tropical diseases database to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium for a total of 13 countries of eastern Africa. Bayesian geostatistical models based on climatic and other environmental data were used to account for potential spatial clustering in spatially structured exposures. Geostatistical variable selection was employed to reduce the set of covariates. Alignment factors were implemented to combine surveys on different age-groups and to acquire separate estimates for individuals aged ≤20 years and entire communities. Prevalence estimates were combined with population statistics to obtain country-specific numbers of Schistosoma infections. We estimate that 122 million individuals in eastern Africa are currently infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. Country-specific population-adjusted prevalence estimates range between 12.9% (Uganda) and 34.5% (Mozambique) for S. mansoni and between 11.9% (Djibouti) and 40.9% (Mozambique) for S. haematobium. Our models revealed that infection risk in Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan might be considerably higher than previously reported, while in Mozambique and Tanzania, the risk might be lower than current estimates suggest. Our empirical, large-scale, high-resolution infection risk estimates for S. mansoni and S. haematobium in eastern Africa can guide future control interventions and provide a benchmark for subsequent monitoring and evaluation activities. PMID:22019933

  19. Tungiasis infestation in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mazigo, Humphrey D; Behamana, Emmanuel; Zinga, Maria; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2010-03-01

    Tungiasis is caused by the jigger flea Tunga penetrans. We describe a case of severe infestation from Kigoma region, Western Tanzania. A 19-year-old male with epilepsy and mental disability presented with ulcerated and inflamed toes. Clinical examination revealed the presence of approximately 810 embedded jigger fleas on the feet, and another 60 lesions on the hands. The patient presented with fissures on the feet, hands and soles. He had difficulty walking and erythematous, oedematous, ulcerated and inflamed skin around the feet. Living conditions were precarious. The patient was assisted to extract the embedded fleas and his feet were washed with disinfectants. Oral antibiotics were given. The case shows that the disease may reach high parasite loads in Tanzanian individuals, with consequently severe pathology. There have been single reports of returning tourists from Tanzania with tungiasis, but the epidemiological situation and the geographic occurrence of the disease in this country are not known. Systematic studies are needed to increase knowledge on the epidemiological situation of tungasis in Tanzania and to identify endemic areas. PMID:20351463

  20. Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

  1. Response of sorghum accessions from Chad and Uganda to natural infection by the downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi in Mexico and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, 78 accessions from Chad, West Africa and 20 photoperiod insensitive accessions from Uganda, East Africa were evaluated for downy mildew resistance in Ocotlan, Mexico in 2004 and 2005. Ninety-four of these accessions were also evaluated at two locations in Wharton County, Texas, USA, ...

  2. Cenozoic extension, volcanism and plateau uplift in eastern Africa and the African Superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; O'Donnell, J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Adams, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Recent body and surface wave studies combine to image mantle velocity structure to a depth of 1200 km beneath eastern Africa using teleseismic earthquake data recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined network spans Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. The 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle was imaged using fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s, subsequently inverted for shear velocity structure. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, the shear velocity model supports a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. In eastern Tanzania a low-velocity region suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. The results suggest that existing lithospheric structures exert a significant governing influence on rift development. Sub-lithospheric mantle wave speed variations extending to a depth of 1200 km were tomographically imaged from the inversion of P and S wave relative arrival time residuals. The images shows a low wave speed anomaly (LWA) well developed at shallow depths (100-200 km) beneath the Eastern and Western branches of the rift system and northwestern Zambia, and a fast wave speed anomaly at depths greater than 350 km beneath the central and northern parts of the East African Plateau and the eastern and central parts of Zambia. At depths below 350 km the LWA is most prominent under the central and southern parts of the East African Plateau and dips to the southwest beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The amplitude of the LWA is

  3. Girls' Education in Pastoral Communities: An Ethnographic Study of Monduli District, Tanzania. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Adella

    2014-01-01

    This research report notes that despite the focus on girls' education in the Millennium Development Goals, there remains a huge number of girls out of education, a situation which, although improving, is still a significant concern in Tanzania, Africa. Women and girls in pastoral communities are subject to a particularly challenging…

  4. Development and Education in the Mwanza District (Tanzania), A Case Study of Migration and Peasant Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijnen, Johannes Daniel

    The objectives and functions of the primary school in Tanzania, Africa, are evaluated and analyzed in terms of the agricultural needs and employment of the residents. The document includes discussions on the people, the land, Mwanza Township (the area under study), migration (causes and consequences), influences of primary education on migration,…

  5. Learning to Negotiate Sexual Relationships: A Girls' School in Tanzania as a Restrictive and Agentic Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Laura Wangsness; DeJaeghere, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Literature on schooling in Africa often frames sexual relationships as threatening girls' educational participation, health, and general well-being. Schooling practices aimed at sheltering girls reflect the prevalence of discourses emphasising danger and abstinence. This article presents the case of one all-girls school in Tanzania which provides…

  6. Field Performance of Andean Diversity Panel lines in two locations in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume in human diets in East Africa. For example, it is estimated that over 75 % of rural households in Tanzania depend on it for daily dietary requirements. Despite its importance, bean yield in the East African region is among the lo...

  7. [Tropical medicine/tropical dermatology training in Tanzania and Ghana: Personal experience and selected case reports].

    PubMed

    Völker, K

    2015-05-01

    As a consultant for dermatology with special interested in tropical diseases, I accepted my employers offer (German Armed Forces) to start my training in tropical medicine and tropical dermatology in Africa. The dermatological part of the training was completed at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) in Moshi, Tanzania. This was followed by tropical medicine training at the Presbyterian Hospital in Agogo, Ghana. In this article, I report on my experiences in Africa and present selected case reports.

  8. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness.

  9. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness. PMID:23767462

  10. Giving "Sadness" a Name: The Need for Integrating Depression Treatment into HIV Care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Odokonyero, Raymond; Wagner, Glenn; Ngo, Victoria; Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Akena, Dickens

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and can have significant consequences for HIV disease progression, treatment response and prevention. Yet mental health services are limited in most HIV care programs in this region, in part due to severe shortages of mental health professionals. To address the need for establishing an effective, sustainable model for integrating depression treatment into HIV care in SSA, we have embarked upon a 3-year research project, INDEPTH Uganda (INtegrating DEPression Treatment and in HIV care in Uganda), to evaluate a task-sharing, protocolized approach to providing antidepressant care in ten HIV clinics in Uganda. In this paper we share our experiences with two treated cases identified during the initial days of implementation, which we believe highlight the potential value and policy implications for task shifting depression care models in under-resourced settings. PMID:25376926

  11. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  12. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  13. Just How Much Can School Pupils Learn from School Gardening? A Study of Two Supervised Agricultural Experience Approaches in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okiror, John James; Matsiko, Biryabaho Frank; Oonyu, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    School systems in Africa are short of skills that link well with rural communities, yet arguments to vocationalize curricula remain mixed and school agriculture lacks the supervised practical component. This study, conducted in eight primary (elementary) schools in Uganda, sought to compare the learning achievement of pupils taught using…

  14. Rethinking Teacher Preparation and Professional Development in Africa: An Analysis of the Curriculum of Teacher Education in the Teaching of Early Reading and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, John; Akyeampong, Kwame; Westbrook, Jo; Lussier, Kattie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports research on the initial teacher training and continuing professional development of teachers in six African countries (Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda). The focus of the research was on the teaching of early reading and mathematics. The curriculum of both these areas was analysed in terms of (i) implementation…

  15. A survey of Simulium control in Africa.

    PubMed

    BROWN, A W

    1962-01-01

    It has become possible to control or even eradicate the Simulium fly vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative organism of onchocerciasis. There are two vectors in Africa-namely, S. damnosum, characteristic of the rivers of West Africa, and S. neavei, which breeds on the carapaces of crabs in the streams of East Africa. The use of DDT applied to the water at a concentration as low as 0.1 p.p.m. for 30 minutes eliminates the larvae of Simulium. Such larvicidal methods have eradicated S. neavei from western Kenya and virtually eradicated S. damnosum from the Victoria Nile in Uganda. Excellent control sufficient to render the transmission of onchocerciasis almost negligible has been obtained at Léopoldville (Republic of the Congo) and in circumscribed areas in southern Chad, Northern Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The following survey describes operational research on Simulium control carried out in Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, Chad, Nigeria, Ghana, Upper Volta and Sierra Leone.

  16. IUDs in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Saxton, G A; Pike, M C

    1967-01-01

    Dr G.A. Saxton of the department of preventive and social medicine, Makerere University College Medical School, Kampala, Uganda, and Dr M.C. Pike, of the Medical Research Council statistical research unit, carried out an investigation into the use of IUDs in a multiracial group in Kampala. A full report of their findings will shortly be published, but in the meantime they have supplied the Bulletin with a survey of their work: Between November 1963 and September 1966, approximately 1500 women attended the Uganda Family Planning Association clinic in Kampala, seeking birth control advice. After various contraceptive methods had been described to them, 1000 of these women chose the IUD. Of these, 921 had an IUD fitted. The experience of these women was reviewed at the end of 1966, and using the actuarial life-table method of analysis on the data obtained, we found that : 1. The total retention of the IUDs was depressingly poor and very much the same in all racial groups--approximately 63% of women still having a device (not necessarily the first one) in situ 12 months after the first insertion. 2. There was a steady and marked increase in the total retention of the IUDs with higher parity (and older) women. 3. Lippes loop D was clearly superior to Lippes loop C in terms of total retention (56% as compared to 20% of first loops in situ at 12 months). This superiority was accounted for almost solely by a higher expulsion rate with Lippes loop C. 4. The most significant medical observation in this small study was that for any given IUD the rate of expulsion of the first device did not fall with the length of time since insertion. In this type of study the number of women at risk rapidly diminishes with time after insertion, so that at first sight one gets the false impression that the expulsion rate is hishest in the first month or two. Similarly, the rate of removal of first devices is only somewhat less constant, tending to increase after about a year--this increase

  17. INtegration of DEPression Treatment into HIV Care in Uganda (INDEPTH-Uganda): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite 10 to% of persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa having clinical depression, and the consequences of depression for key public health outcomes (HIV treatment adherence and condom use), depression treatment is rarely integrated into HIV care programs. Task-shifting, protocolized approaches to depression care have been used to overcome severe shortages of mental health specialists in developing countries, but not in sub-Saharan Africa and not with HIV clients. The aims of this trial are to evaluate the implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a task-shifting, protocolized model of antidepressant care for HIV clinics in Uganda. Methods/Design INDEPTH-Uganda is a cluster randomized controlled trial that compares two task-shifting models of depression care - a protocolized model versus a model that relies on the clinical acumen of trained providers to provide depression care in ten public health HIV clinics in Uganda. In addition to data abstracted from routine data collection mechanisms and supervision logs, survey data will be collected from patient and provider longitudinal cohorts; at each site, a random sample of 150 medically stable patients who are depressed according to the PHQ-2 screening will be followed for 12 months, and providers involved in depression care implementation will be followed over 24 months. These data will be used to assess whether the two models differ on implementation outcomes (proportion screened, diagnosed, treated; provider fidelity to model of care), provider adoption of treatment care knowledge and practices, and depression alleviation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to compare the relative use of resources by each model. Discussion If effective and resource-efficient, the task-shifting, protocolized model will provide an approach to building the capacity for sustainable integration of depression treatment in HIV care settings across sub-Saharan Africa and improving key public

  18. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  19. Priority: Africa. Programme of Action Proposed by the Director-General (1990-1995). Proceedings of a Seminar on Distance Education (1st, Arusha, Tanzania, September 24-28, 1990). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanzania National Commission of UNESCO, Dar es Salaam.

    This publication presents a report on the first Pan-African meeting on distance education. The materials reveal that development of distance education in Africa depends on three factors: information and research, the training of specialists, and the production or acquisition of materials. A report of the plenary session summarizes presentations by…

  20. A global social contract to reduce maternal mortality: the human rights arguments and the case of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Mulumba, Moses; Hammonds, Rachel; Latif Laila, Abdul; Waris, Attiya; Forman, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5a, reducing maternal deaths by 75% between 1990 and 2015, has been substantial; however, it has been too slow to hope for its achievement by 2015, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, including Uganda. This suggests that both the Government of Uganda and the international community are failing to comply with their right-to-health-related obligations towards the people of Uganda. This country case study explores some of the key issues raised when assessing national and international right-to-health-related obligations. We argue that to comply with their shared obligations, national and international actors will have to take steps to move forward together. The Government of Uganda should not expect additional international assistance if it does not live up to its own obligations; at the same time, the international community must provide assistance that is more reliable in the long run to create the 'fiscal space' that the Government of Uganda needs to increase recurrent expenditure for health - which is crucial to addressing maternal mortality. We propose that the 'Roadmap on Shared Responsibility and Global Solidarity for AIDS, TB and Malaria Response in Africa', adopted by the African Union in July 2012, should be seen as an invitation to the international community to conclude a global social contract for health.

  1. Cost Drivers for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Using Primary Source Data from Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Lori; Adesina, Adebiyi; Forsythe, Steven; Godbole, Ramona; Reuben, Elan; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background As voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs scale up, there is a pressing need for information about the important cost drivers, and potential efficiency gains. We examine those cost drivers here, and estimate the potential efficiency gains through an econometric model. Methods and Findings We examined the main cost drivers (i.e., personnel and consumables) associated with providing VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa along a number of dimensions, including facility type and service provider. Primary source facility level data from Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were utilized throughout. We estimated the efficiency gains by econometrically estimating a cost function in order to calculate the impact of scale and other relevant factors. Personnel and consumables were estimated at 36% and 28%, respectively, of total costs across countries. Economies of scale (EOS) is estimated to be eight at the median volume of VMMCs performed, and EOS falls from 23 at the 25th percentile volume of VMMCs performed to 5.1 at the 75th percentile. Conclusions The analysis suggests that there is significant room for efficiency improvement as indicated by declining EOS as VMMC volume increases. The scale of the fall in EOS as VMMC volume increases suggests that we are still at the ascension phase of the scale-up of VMMC, where continuing to add new sites results in additional start-up costs as well. A key aspect of improving efficiency is task sharing VMMC procedures, due to the large percentage of overall costs associated with personnel costs. In addition, efficiency improvements in consumables are likely to occur over time as prices and distribution costs decrease. PMID:24802593

  2. Malaria control in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Yhdego, M.; Majura, P. )

    1988-01-01

    A review of the malaria control programs and the problem encountered in the United Republic of Tanzania since 1945 to the year 1986 is discussed. Buguruni, one of the squatter areas in the city of Dar es Salaam, is chosen as a case study in order to evaluate the economic advantage of engineering methods for the control of malaria infection. Although the initial capital cost of engineering methods may be high, the cost effectiveness requires a much lower financial burden of only about Tshs. 3 million compared with the conventional methods of larviciding and insecticiding which requires more than Tshs. 10 million. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of engineering methods are made concerning the upgrading of existing roads and footpaths in general with particular emphasis on drainage of large pools of water which serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes.

  3. Can leaf wax n-alkane δ²H and GDGTs be used conjointly to reconstruct past environmental changes along altitudinal transects in East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Bergonzini, Laurent; Wagner, Thomas; Derenne, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes (C27-C31) and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br GDGTs) are increasingly being used as molecular proxies to investigate past environmental conditions. Indices were previously developed to relate the br GDGT distribution to temperature and pH in soils. Furthermore, the δ²Hwax of leaf wax n-alkanes in soils was shown to track the 'altitude effect', suggesting it could be used to reconstruct paleoelevation. Combination of these two proxies could bring information on both past uplift elevation and past temperature changes, as illustrated by the pioneer paleostudy of Hren et al. (2010) in the Sierra Nevada. In the present study, δ²Hwax and br GDGTs were analysed in ca. 60 surface soils collected along Mt. Rungwe (Southwest Tanzania) and Mt. Kenya (Central Kenya). A weak link was identified between δ²Hwax and altitude (R² = 0.33) along Mt. Kenya, whereas no trend was observed along Mt. Rungwe, as also previously shown by Peterse et al. (2009) for Mt. Kilimanjaro. This shows that the strength of the relationship between soil δ²Hwax and elevation depends on which mountain is considered in East Africa and can be overprinted by numerous poorly understood environmental and/or physiological parameters. In contrast, br GDGT-derived mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and temperature lapse rate (5 °C/1000 m) were in agreement with values recorded along both Mt. Rungwe and Mt. Kenya, highlighting the robustness of this proxy for paleotemperature reconstruction in East Africa. Moreover, the combination of these br GDGT data with previous results obtained from East African surface soils (along Mts. Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), Sinninghe Damsté et al., 2008; Rwenzori (Uganda), Loomis et al., 2011; Rungwe (Tanzania), Coffinet et al., 2014), allowed the establishment of a regional soil calibration between br GDGT distribution and MAAT. This new East African calibration, based on 105 samples, leads to a substantial improvement of both the R2 (0

  4. Changing Patterns of Access to Education in Anglophone and Francophone Countries in Sub Saharan Africa: Is Education for All Pro-Poor? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith M.; Sabates, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores patterns of growth in participation in six Anglophone and seven Francophone countries in SSA. The countries are Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Madagascar, Mali, Niger and Senegal. These countries all have large scale Universal Primary Education programmes and all have…

  5. What are the emerging features of community health insurance schemes in East Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Basaza, Robert; Pariyo, George; Criel, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Background The three East African countries of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya are characterized by high poverty levels, population growth rates, prevalence of HIV/AIDS, under-funding of the health sector, poor access to quality health care, and small health insurance coverage. Tanzania and Kenya have user-fees whereas Uganda abolished user-fees in public-owned health units. Objective To provide comparative description of community health insurance (CHI) schemes in three East African countries of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya and thereafter provide a basis for future policy research for development of CHI schemes. Methods An analytical grid of 10 distinctive items pertaining to the nature of CHI schemes was developed so as to have a uniform lens of comparing country situations of CHI. Results and conclusions The majority of the schemes have been in existence for a relatively short time of less than 10 years and their number remains small. There is need for further research to identify what is the mix and weight of factors that cause people to refrain from joining schemes. Specific issues that could also be addressed in subsequent studies are whether the current schemes provide financial protection, increase access to quality of care and impact on the equity of health services financing and delivery. On the basis of this knowledge, rational policy decisions can be taken. The governments thereafter could consider an option of playing more roles in advocacy, paying for the poorest, and developing an enabling policy and legal framework. PMID:22312207

  6. Changing HIV treatment eligibility under health system constraints in sub-Saharan Africa: investment needs, population health gains, and cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hontelez, Jan A.C.; Chang, Angela Y.; Ogbuoji, Osondu; de Vlas, Sake J.; Bärnighausen, Till; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We estimated the investment needs, population health gains, and cost-effectiveness of different policy options for scaling-up prevention and treatment of HIV in the 10 countries that currently comprise 80% of all people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). Design: We adapted the established STDSIM model to capture the health system dynamics: demand-side and supply-side constraints in the delivery of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: We compared different scenarios of supply-side (i.e. health system capacity) and demand-side (i.e. health seeking behavior) constraints, and determined the impact of changing guidelines to ART eligibility at any CD4+ cell count within these constraints. Results: Continuing current scale-up would require US$178 billion by 2050. Changing guidelines to ART at any CD4+ cell count is cost-effective under all constraints tested in the model, especially in demand-side constrained health systems because earlier initiation prevents loss-to-follow-up of patients not yet eligible. Changing guidelines under current demand-side constraints would avert 1.8 million infections at US$208 per life-year saved. Conclusion: Treatment eligibility at any CD4+ cell count would be cost-effective, even under health system constraints. Excessive loss-to-follow-up and mortality in patients not eligible for treatment can be avoided by changing guidelines in demand-side constrained systems. The financial obligation for sustaining the AIDS response in sub-Saharan Africa over the next 35 years is substantial and requires strong, long-term commitment of policy-makers and donors to continue to allocate substantial parts of their budgets. PMID:27367487

  7. A spatially explicit assessment of current and future hotspots of hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa in the context of global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junguo; Fritz, Steffen; van Wesenbeeck, C. F. A.; Fuchs, Michael; You, Liangzhi; Obersteiner, Michael; Yang, Hong

    2008-12-01

    Hunger knows no boundaries or borders. While much research has focused on undernutrition on a national scale, this report evaluates it at subnational levels for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to pinpoint hotspots where the greatest challenges exist. Undernutrition is assessed with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes by investigating anthropometric data on weight and length of individuals. The impact of climate change on production of six major crops (cassava, maize, wheat, sorghum, rice and millet) is analyzed with a GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (GEPIC) model with the same spatial resolution. Future hotspots of hunger are projected in the context of the anticipated climate, social, economic, and bio-physical changes. The results show that some regions in northern and southwestern Nigeria, Sudan and Angola with a currently high number of people with undernutrition might be able to improve their food security situation mainly through increasing purchasing power. In the near future, regions located in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, southwestern Niger, and Madagascar are likely to remain hotspots of food insecurity, while regions located in Tanzania, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of Congo might face more serious undernutrition. It is likely that both the groups of regions will suffer from lower capacity of importing food as well as lower per capita calorie availability, while the latter group will probably have sharper reduction in per capita calorie availability. Special attention must be paid to the hotspot areas in order to meet the hunger alleviation goals in SSA.

  8. Molecular diagnosis of African tick bite fever using eschar swabs in a traveller returning from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicole; Burgmann, Heinz; Forstner, Christina; Ramharter, Michael; Széll, Marton; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stanek, Gerold; Markowicz, Mateusz

    2016-08-01

    African tick bite fever is an emerging infectious disease among travellers caused by the pathogen Rickettsia africae. Most travel-associated cases have been reported from countries in southern Africa. So far it has rarely been reported among travellers to eastern Africa and our patient is one of the first described cases imported from Tanzania. A woman presented with fever, chills, headache, myalgia and a rickettsial eschar on her ankle after returning from Tanzania. The diagnosis of African tick bite fever is often based on clinical grounds due to a lack of reliable diagnostic tests at commencement of symptoms. In this patient direct molecular detection of R. africae was performed by PCR from a sample obtained non-invasively with a swab from the rickettsial eschar. A positive PCR result was achieved although the patient had already started antibiotic treatment with doxycycline. In conclusion, this non-invasive method enables early diagnosis of African tick bite fever by direct molecular detection of R. africae and might improve the management of undifferentiated fever in travellers from Africa. PMID:27488618

  9. [Three patients with African sleeping sickness following a visit to Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Mendonça Melo, M; Rasica, M; van Thiel, P P A M; Richter, C; Kager, P A; Wismans, P J

    2002-12-28

    Three Dutch tourists, a man aged 57 and two women aged 55 en 52 years, acquired African trypanosomiasis in the national parks of Tanzania. Two, without central nervous system involvement, were cured after treatment in the Netherlands, albeit one after having suffered a relapse. In the third patient, involvement of the central nervous system was diagnosed in Africa and she was treated with melarsoprol. After an apparently uneventful recovery she was readmitted with cerebral complaints and symptoms. While being treated with melarsoprol she lapsed into coma. She died following repatriation. An epidemic of trypanosomiasis is currently raging through Central Africa. In several western countries, trypanosomiasis has been diagnosed recently in tourists who visited Tanzania.

  10. Science-based health innovation in Uganda: creative strategies for applying research to development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local health, if innovation can be fostered and harnessed. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 30 people from across the science-based health innovation system, including government officials, researchers in research institutes and universities, entrepreneurs, international donors, and non-governmental organization representatives. Results Uganda has a range of institutions influencing science-based health innovation, with varying degrees of success. However, the country still lacks a coherent mechanism for effectively coordinating STI policy among all the stakeholders. Classified as a least developed country, Uganda has opted for exemptions from the TRIPS intellectual property protection regime that include permitting parallel importation and providing for compulsory licenses for pharmaceuticals. Uganda is unique in Africa in taking part in the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI), an ambitious though early-stage $30m project, funded jointly by the World Bank and Government of Uganda, to build science capacity and encourage entrepreneurship through funding industry-research collaboration. Two universities – Makerere and Mbarara – stand out in terms of health research, though as yet technology development and commercialization is weak. Uganda has several incubators which are producing low-tech products, and is beginning to move into higher-tech ones like diagnostics. Its pharmaceutical industry has started to create partnerships which encourage innovation. Conclusions Science-based health product innovation is in its early stages in Uganda, as are policies for guiding its development

  11. Building Geophysics Talent and Opportunity in Africa: Experience from the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics Field School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Manzi, M.; Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Durrheim, R. J.; Jones, M. Q. W.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-12-01

    training skills necessary to implement field programs. Several geophysics field schools are being developed in Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Cameroon. We hope to enable some of our graduate students to help with these budding programs.

  12. Integrated Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Data to Understand the Extent, Kinematics and Tectonic Evolution of the Precambrian Aswa Shear Zone in East Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katumwehe, A. B.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Aswa Shear zone (ASZ) is a Precambrian lithospheric structure which forms the western margin of the East African Orogeny (EAO) that influenced the evolution of many tectonic events in Eastern Africa including the East African Rift System. It separates the cratonic entities of Saharan Metacraton in the northeast from the Congo craton and the Tanzanian craton and the Kibaran orogenic belt to the southwest. However little is known about its kinematics and the extent and tectonic origin are not fully understood. We developed a new technique based on the tilt method to extract kinematic information from high-resolution airborne magnetic data. We also used radiometric data over Uganda integrated with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in South Sudan to understand the extent, kinematics and define the tectonic origin of ASZ. (1) Our results suggest that the ASZ extends in a NW-SE for ~550 km in Uganda and South Sudan. (2) The airborne magnetic and radiometric data revealed a much wider (~50 km) deformation belt than the mapped 5-10 km of exposed surface expression of the ASZ. The deformation belt associated with the shear is defined by three NW-trending sinistral strike-slip shear zones bounding structural domains with magnetic fabrics showing splays of secondary shear zones and shear-related folds. These folds are tighter close to the discrete shear zones with their axial traces becoming sub-parallel to the shear zones. Similar fold patterns are observed from South Sudan in the SRTM DEM. We interpret these folds as due to ENE-WSW shortening associated with the sinistral strike-slip movement. (3) To the northeast of the shear zone, the magnetic patterns suggest a series of W-verging nappes indicative of strong E-W oriented shortening. Based on the above observations, we relate the evolution of the ASZ to Neoproterozoic E-W collision between East and West Gondwana. This collision produced E-W contraction resulting in W-verging thrusts

  13. Feasibility of a large cohort study in sub-Saharan Africa assessed through a four-country study

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Shona; Holmes, Michelle D.; Laurence, Carien; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Njelekela, Marina; Adebamowo, Clement; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Chiwanga, Faraja S.; Volmink, Jimmy; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Kalyesubula, Robert; Reid, Todd G.; Dockery, Douglas; Hemenway, David; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2015-01-01

    Background Large prospective epidemiologic studies are vital in determining disease etiology and forming national health policy. Yet, such studies do not exist in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) notwithstanding the growing burden of chronic diseases. Objective We explored the feasibility of establishing a large-scale multicountry prospective study at five sites in four sub-Saharan countries. Design Based on country-specific considerations of feasibility, Nigeria enrolled health care professionals, South Africa and Tanzania enrolled teachers, and Uganda enrolled village residents at one rural and one periurban site each. All sites used a 6-month follow-up period but different approaches for data collection, namely standardized questionnaires filled out by participants or face-to-face interviews. Results We enrolled 1415 participants from five sites (range 200–489) with a median age of 41 years. Approximately half had access to clean-burning cooking fuel and 70% to piped drinking water, yet 92% had access to a mobile phone. The prevalence of chronic diseases was 49% among 45- to 54-year-olds and was dominated by hypertension (21.7% overall) – ranging from 4.5 to 31.2% across sites – and a serious injury in the past 12 months (12.4% overall). About 80% of participants indicated willingness to provide blood samples. At 6-month follow-up, 68% completed a questionnaire (45 to 96% across sites) with evidence that mobile phones were particularly useful. Conclusions Our pilot study indicates that a large-scale prospective study in SSA is feasible, and the burden of chronic disease in SSA may already be substantial necessitating urgent etiologic research and primary prevention. PMID:26015082

  14. POVERTY, LIFE EVENTS AND THE RISK FOR DEPRESSION IN UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the determinants of major depression in sub-Saharan Africa is important for planning effective intervention strategies. Objective To investigate the social and life-event determinants of major depressive disorder in the African socio-cultural context of rural Uganda. Methods A cross-section survey was carried out in 14 districts in Uganda from 1st June 2003-30th October 2004. 4660 randomly selected respondents (15 years and above) were interviewed. The primary outcome was the presence of major depressive disorder as assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25). Results The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 29.3% (95% confidence interval, 28.0%-30.6%). Factors independently associated with depression in both genders included: the ecological factor, district; age (increase with each age category after 35 years); indices of poverty and deprivation (no formal education, having no employment, broken family, and socio-economic classes III-V). Only a few adverse life events, notably those suggestive of a disrupted family background (death of a father in females and death of a mother in males) were associated with increased risk. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors operating at both ecological and the individual level are the strongest independent determinants of depression. Adverse life events were less strongly associated with depression in this sample. PMID:19916062

  15. Conventialization of Numerals in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajoro, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The supposed pre-eminence of an external examination can exert a disproportionate influence on a curriculum and the associated learning and teaching. Teaching can easily subordinate learning and understanding to curriculum coverage if the society develops a culture that appears to make such demands. This study focuses on Tanzania and provides the…

  16. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction.

    Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground.

    Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center).

    The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses

  17. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  18. Women for women's health: Uganda.

    PubMed

    Andrews, C M

    1996-01-01

    The primary health care model targets social, political, and economic environments as key determinants of health for populations, as well as for individuals. If nursing in Uganda is to make a difference in health care outcomes and in the health of all Ugandans, nurses must look broadly at situations and be educated to practice primary health care nursing. After 14 years of civil war, Uganda is finally experiencing a period of reconstruction and rehabilitation: the whole infrastructure is undergoing a face-lift. Ugandan nurses recognize that their educational preparation has stagnated for many years and that it was not only the political unrest in their country that put them behind professionally. They realize that, given the new directions set by the government, they must become prepared to implement primary health care. They are demanding a university education so they may take their place alongside other health care providers prepared at the university level. Some of the most convincing arguments for a university program for nurses came from doctors at the university who spoke about the need to raise the standards of nursing practice, the quality of teachers, and the morale of practitioners. One nurse said: "If we lose hope for a BScN program, I think all the nurses will quit and we won't have any new students going into the profession." This program is designed to improve the health and well-being of all Ugandans, especially the most vulnerable groups of women and children in rural areas, through strengthening and expanding health services by targeting the educational preparation of nurses. Health planners in Uganda envision the professional nurse as key to the implementation of the national health policy of primary health care. University-educated nurses should be able to assess problems, make clinically sound decisions, and act appropriately within the scope of nursing practice. They should be able to interact and consult collegially with other health care

  19. When to Randomize: Lessons from Independent Impact Evaluation of Reading to Learn (RtL) Programme to Improve Literacy and Numeracy in Kenya and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses; Ngware, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Kassahun, Admassu; Abuya, Benta; Musyoka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In East Africa, there is great effort directed toward ensuring that there is learning and value for money invested in universal education policies initiated over the past decade. Kenya and Uganda are two countries that typify this effort. The effort includes the work of research organisations such as Uwezo, which assess learning levels; RTI, which…

  20. Literacy for Revitalization in the SADCC Countries of Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    The role of literacy in the revitalization of societies is particularly meaningful in the context of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), a group of nine countries (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) surrounding or surrounded by the Republic of South Africa (RSA).…

  1. ADULT EDUCATION IN AFRICA. CURRENT INFORMATION SOURCES, NUMBER 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

    TWENTY-THREE ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS OF RECENT (1962-67) PUBLICATIONS ON ADULT EDUCATION IN AFRICA ARE PROVIDED IN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY. EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AND POLICIES AND SPECIFIC NATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL PROGRAMS IN ETHIOPIA, TANZANIA, KENYA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, RHODESIA, AND NIGERIA ARE FEATURED, WITH COMMUNITY AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT, MANPOWER…

  2. Geophysical characteristics of Aswa shear, Nagasongola discontinuity and ring dyke complex in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotoistenmäki, Tapio

    2014-05-01

    During the years 2008-2012, the geology of most of Uganda was studied within the framework of the Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources Project (SMMRP). During the project, comprehensive airborne magnetic and radiometric surveys were flown over the entire country and geological, petrophysical, geochemical sampling, geological field studies and detailed geophysical field profiles were undertaken in selected sub-areas. This report concentrates on the geophysical properties of three major geophysical structures in the area considered during the project: the Pan-African (0.6-0.7 Ga) Aswa shear zone and Nagasongola discontinuity (suture), and the 1.36 Ga Uganda-Tanzania semi-circular ‘ring dyke' complex. The geophysical profiles across the Aswa shear indicate that the fault zone dips steeply, at about 60° to NE. The structure represents a magnetic, gravimetric (density), radiometric and topographic discontinuity, all diminishing from SW to NE across the zone. The zone is also characterized by complex radiometric anomalies. A schematic reconstruction of the evolution of the Aswa shear zone on the magnetic map suggests a nearly 60 km sinistral horizontal component of displacement along the zone. The Nakasongola zone is another distinct magnetic, gravimetric and radiometric discontinuity, interpreted to represent a collision (suture) zone, where the northern, low-magnetic block has been thrust over the southern, denser and more magnetic block. Modeling of gravity and magnetic data are consistent with a geometry in which the southern, magnetic and high-density block dips gently to great depth beneath the northern block. Bedrock exposures in both the Aswa shear zone and Nagasongola zone areas indicate a very protracted and complex history of tectonic processes commencing in the Archaean-Paleoproterozoic era and culminating in Pan-African orogenies. Both, the Aswa shear zone and Nagasongola discontinuity are cut by continuous younger dykes that show no signs of

  3. Outbreak of type A foodborne botulism at a boarding school, Uganda, 2008.

    PubMed

    Viray, M A; Wamala, J; Fagan, R; Luquez, C; Maslanka, S; Downing, R; Biggerstaff, M; Malimbo, M; Kirenga, J B; Nakibuuka, J; Ddumba, E; Mbabazi, W; Swerdlow, D L

    2014-11-01

    Botulism has rarely been reported in Africa. In October 2008, botulism was reported in three Ugandan boarding-school students. All were hospitalized and one died. A cohort study was performed to assess food exposures among students, and clinical specimens and available food samples were tested for botulinum toxin. Three case-patients were identified; a homemade, oil-based condiment was eaten by all three. In the cohort study, no foods were significantly associated with illness. Botulinum toxin type A was confirmed in clinical samples. This is the first confirmed outbreak of foodborne botulism in Uganda. A homemade, oil-based condiment was the probable source. Consumption of homemade oil-based condiments is widespread in Ugandan schools, putting children at risk. Clinicians and public health authorities in Uganda should consider botulism when clusters of acute flaccid paralysis are seen. Additionally, schools should be warned of the hazard of homemade oil-based condiments, and take steps to prevent their use.

  4. The impact of HIV on agricultural livelihoods in southern Uganda and the challenges of attribution.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ben; Bukenya, Dominic; van Asten, Piet; Agol, Dorice; Pain, Adam; Seeley, Janet

    2011-03-01

    Changes in agriculture and rural livelihoods in Africa are often attributed to the HIV epidemic. While acknowledging that the epidemic has devastated many families and communities because of excess morbidity and mortality, this review explores other causes of change in agriculture practices and production in southern Uganda. Over the past 20 years labour shortages, because of labour migration and changing aspirations (as well as HIV), crop and livestock pests and diseases, declining soil fertility, changes in commodity markets and a growing off-farm sector have contributed to the changes seen in rural southern Uganda. Policy interventions outside agriculture and health have also had an impact on households. The HIV epidemic has not happened in isolation. The perceived impacts of the epidemic cannot be addressed in isolation from these other drivers of change.

  5. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  6. Distribution of haematological and chemical pathology values among infants in Malawi and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kumwenda, Newton I.; Khonje, Tiwonge; Mipando, Linda; Nkanaunena, Kondwani; Katundu, Pauline; Lubega, Irene; Elbireer, Ali; Bolton, Steve; Bagenda, Danstan; Mubiru, Michael; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Taha, Taha E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on paediatric reference laboratory values are limited for sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To describe the distribution of haematological and chemical pathology values among healthy infants from Malawi and Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthy infants, 0–6 months old, born to HIV-uninfected mothers recruited from two settings in Blantyre, Malawi and Kampala, Uganda. Chemical pathology and haematology parameters were determined using standard methods on blood samples. Descriptive analyses by age-group were performed based on 2004 Division of AIDS Toxicity Table age categories. Mean values and interquartile ranges were compared by site and age-group. Results A total of 541 infants were included altogether, 294 from Malawi and 247 from Uganda. Overall, the mean laboratory values were comparable between the two sites. Mean alkaline phosphatase levels were lower among infants aged ≤21 days while aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase were higher in those aged 0–7 days than in older infants. Mean haematocrit, haemoglobin and neutrophil counts were higher in the younger age-groups (<35 days) and overall were lower than US norms. Red and white blood cell counts tended to decrease after birth but increased after ~2 months of age. Mean basophil counts were higher in Malawi than in Uganda in infants aged 0–1 and 2–7 days; mean counts for eosinophils (for age groups 8–21 or older) and platelets (for all age groups) were higher in Ugandan than in Malawian infants. Absolute lymphocyte counts increased with infant age. Conclusion The chemical pathology and haematological values in healthy infants born to HIV-uninfected mothers were comparable in Malawi and Uganda and can serve as useful reference values in these settings. PMID:23164296

  7. Serological and molecular investigation for brucellosis in swine in selected districts of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Erume, Joseph; Roesel, Kristina; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Mboowa, Gerald; Kungu, Joseph M; Akol, Joyce; Pezo, Danilo; El-Adawy, Hosny; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy; Neubauer, Heinrich; Grace, Delia

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a notifiable zoonotic disease affecting livestock, humans, and wildlife in Uganda. Pigs can be infected with human pathogenic Brucella suis biovars 1 and 3 and can be a significant source of brucellosis for humans. Uganda has a rapidly growing pig population, and the pork consumption per capita is the highest in East Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Ugandan pigs. A cross-sectional serosurvey of pigs was conducted in three of the major pig-keeping districts in Uganda (Masaka (n = 381 samples), Mukono (n = 398), and Kamuli (n = 414)). In addition, pigs originating from these districts were sampled in the major pig abattoir in Kampala (n = 472). In total, 1665 serum samples were investigated by serological and molecular tests. Only three putative brucellosis-positive samples were detected serologically using indirect ELISA. These sera were found negative for Brucella antibodies by CFT; however, two had antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica as determined by SAT. Presence of antibodies against Yersiniae was confirmed by Y. enterocolitica antibody-specific ELISA. The two Yersiniae ELISA-positive samples were brucellosis negative using real-time PCR. We tested additional 142 sera from the 1665 samples with real-time PCR. All tested negative. Under this type of production system, we expect a maximum B. suis prevalence of less than 1 % at 95 % confidence level, and therefore, the risk of acquiring brucellosis from the pigs or their products is negligible. However, pigs may harbor the zoonotic Y. enterocolitica. This is the first study to investigate the occurrence of brucellosis in pigs in Uganda and the first study to report Y. enterocolitica antibodies in swine in Uganda. PMID:27142028

  8. Landscape feedbacks, Climate Change, and Food Production Risk in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N.; Pijanowski, B.; Lofgren, B.; Alagarswamy, G.

    2008-12-01

    Land Cover/ Land Use Change (LCLUC) and climate change due to elevated levels of greenhouse gases (GHG) both exert strong influence over agricultural production in developing countries. In addition, LCLUC is a first-order climate forcing capable of mitigating or exacerbating GHG effects on climate. LCLUC and GHG forcings that alter climate may then in turn influence agricultural systems, thereby creating a feedback to LCLUC. These human-land-climate interactions are complex- particularly in heterogeneous landscapes like East Africa- where subsistence farming and highly variable growing season conditions are excellent for investigating the nature and magnitude of these interactions. Here we present results of a sensitivity test exploring these feedbacks in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi. First, we assess the impacts of "aggressive" agricultural expansion and generally warmer, wetter boundary conditions due to large increases in GHG for 2050-2059 using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). These results are contrasted to simulations conducted for 2000- 2009 conditions. Second, we examine simulated changes in agricultural yield using the process-based crop model CERES-Maize; we use maize as a proxy for all East African agricultural productivity. These simulated yields are imported into the Land Transformation Model (LTM), which, informed by socioeconomic constraints, develops a new projection of land cover under the new yield conditions. Third, by comparing the original "aggressive" landscape with the new yield-feedback landscape, we show areas exhibiting sensitivity to LCLUC under elevated GHG conditions. Although this is a mere sensitivity test, we can identify areas prone to potential food production disturbances. These sensitive areas, while unlikely to see climate and landscape changes this dramatic, can serve as "canaries in the coal mine" for predicting larger changes in East African food production. Additionally, we discuss key

  9. Identifying Water Insecurity Hotspots in the Lake Victoria Basin of Eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricope, N. G.; Shukla, S.; Linard, C.; Gaughan, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), one of Africa's most populated transboundary watersheds and home to more than 30 million inhabitants, is increasingly challenged by both water quality problems and water quantity shortages against a backdrop of climate variability and change; and other environmental challenges. As a result of pollution, droughts, more erratic rainfall, heightened demand for water for both consumption and agricultural needs as well as differences in water allocation among the riverine countries of Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi, many parts of this region are already experiencing water scarcity on a recurrent basis. Furthermore, given projected annual population growth rates of 2.5 to 3.5% for the next 20 years, water shortages are likely to be exacerbated in the future. Analyzing historical changes in the water resources of this region is hence important to identify "hot spots" that might be most sensitive to future changes in climate and demography. In this presentation, we report the findings of a comprehensive analysis performed to (i) examine changes in water resources of LVB in recent decades and (ii) identify overlap between regions of significant changes in water resources with land cover changes and high population centers that are also projected to grow the fastest over the coming decades. We first utilize several satellite, stations and model(s) based climatic and hydrologic datasets to assess changes in water resources in this region. We then use a quality-controlled Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product to identify areas of significant land cover changes. Simultaneously we use projections of gridded population density based on differential growth rates for rural and urban population to estimate fastest projected human population growth for 2030 and 2050 relative to 2010 data. Using the outcomes of these change analysis we identify water insecurity hotspots in the LVB.

  10. Family, Community, and Health System Considerations for Reducing the Burden of Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease in Uganda Through Newborn Screening.

    PubMed

    Green, Nancy S; Mathur, Sanyukta; Kiguli, Sarah; Makani, Julie; Fashakin, Victoria; LaRussa, Philip; Lyimo, Magdalena; Abrams, Elaine J; Mulumba, Lukia; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with high mortality for children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Newborn sickle screening program and enhanced capacity for SCD treatment are under development to reduce disease burden in Uganda and elsewhere in the region. Based on an international stakeholder meeting and a family-directed conference on SCD in Kampala in 2015, and interviews with parents, multinational experts, and other key informants, we describe health care, community, and family perspectives in support of these initiatives. Key stakeholder meetings, discussions, and interviews were held to understand perspectives of public health and multinational leadership, patients and families, as well as national progress, resource needs, medical and social barriers to program success, and resources leveraged from HIV/AIDS. Partnering with program leadership, professionals, patients and families, multinational stakeholders, and leveraging resources from existing programs are needed for building successful programs in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Family, Community, and Health System Considerations for Reducing the Burden of Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease in Uganda Through Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Green, Nancy S.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Kiguli, Sarah; Makani, Julie; Fashakin, Victoria; LaRussa, Philip; Lyimo, Magdalena; Abrams, Elaine J.; Mulumba, Lukia; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with high mortality for children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Newborn sickle screening program and enhanced capacity for SCD treatment are under development to reduce disease burden in Uganda and elsewhere in the region. Based on an international stakeholder meeting and a family-directed conference on SCD in Kampala in 2015, and interviews with parents, multinational experts, and other key informants, we describe health care, community, and family perspectives in support of these initiatives. Key stakeholder meetings, discussions, and interviews were held to understand perspectives of public health and multinational leadership, patients and families, as well as national progress, resource needs, medical and social barriers to program success, and resources leveraged from HIV/AIDS. Partnering with program leadership, professionals, patients and families, multinational stakeholders, and leveraging resources from existing programs are needed for building successful programs in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27336011

  12. Family, Community, and Health System Considerations for Reducing the Burden of Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease in Uganda Through Newborn Screening.

    PubMed

    Green, Nancy S; Mathur, Sanyukta; Kiguli, Sarah; Makani, Julie; Fashakin, Victoria; LaRussa, Philip; Lyimo, Magdalena; Abrams, Elaine J; Mulumba, Lukia; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with high mortality for children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Newborn sickle screening program and enhanced capacity for SCD treatment are under development to reduce disease burden in Uganda and elsewhere in the region. Based on an international stakeholder meeting and a family-directed conference on SCD in Kampala in 2015, and interviews with parents, multinational experts, and other key informants, we describe health care, community, and family perspectives in support of these initiatives. Key stakeholder meetings, discussions, and interviews were held to understand perspectives of public health and multinational leadership, patients and families, as well as national progress, resource needs, medical and social barriers to program success, and resources leveraged from HIV/AIDS. Partnering with program leadership, professionals, patients and families, multinational stakeholders, and leveraging resources from existing programs are needed for building successful programs in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27336011

  13. Expert knowledge sourcing for public health surveillance: national tsetse mapping in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Garton, Kelly

    2013-08-01

    In much of sub-Saharan Africa, availability of standardized and reliable public health data is poor or negligible. Despite continued calls for the prioritization of improved health datasets in poor regions, public health surveillance remains a significant global health challenge. Alternate approaches to surveillance and collection of public health data have thus garnered increasing interest, though there remains relatively limited research evaluating these approaches for public health. Herein, we present a case study applying and evaluating the use of expert knowledge sources for public health dataset development, using the case of vector distributions of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. Specific objectives include: 1) Review the use of expert knowledge sourcing methods for public health surveillance, 2) Review current knowledge on tsetse vector distributions of public health importance in Uganda and the methods used for tsetse mapping in Africa; 3) Quantify confidence of the presence or absence of tsetse flies in Uganda based on expert informant reports, and 4) Assess the reliability and potential utility of expert knowledge sourcing as an alternative or complimentary method for public health surveillance in general and tsetse mapping in particular. Information on tsetse presence or absence, and associated confidence, was collected through interviews with District Entomologist and Veterinary Officers to develop a database of tsetse distributions for 952 sub-counties in Uganda. Results show high consistency with existing maps, indicating potential reliability of modeling approaches, though failing to provide evidence for successful tsetse control in past decades. Expert-sourcing methods provide a novel, low-cost and rapid complimentary approach for triangulating data from prediction modeling where field-based validation is not feasible. Data quality is dependent, however, on the level of expertise and documentation to support confidence levels for

  14. Towards Introducing Space Science in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguma, S.; Ayikoru, J.

    This paper discusses the strategies and importance of introducing space science in Uganda. It proposes that Mbarara University, as a new university focusing on science and technology, would be ideally situated to spearhead the introduction of space science in Uganda. It is our expectation that this will have a spin-off effect to other higher institutions of learning and that consequently space science will become fully incorporated into the national teaching curriculum for all schools in Uganda. Based on the fact that the Government has a deliberate policy of popularizing science and technology to accelerate national economic development, the introduction of space science in the school system is to be enhanced by these efforts. We have charted the way forward for space science in Uganda and outlined the conceptual framework illustrating the spin-off effect into the education system.

  15. How Uganda Reversed Its HIV Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Okware, Sam; Naamara, Warren; Sutherland, Don; Flanagan, Donna; Carael, Michel; Blas, Erik; Delay, Paul; Tarantola, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Uganda is one of only two countries in the world that has successfully reversed the course of its HIV epidemic. There remains much controversy about how Uganda's HIV prevalence declined in the 1990s. This article describes the prevention programs and activities that were implemented in Uganda during critical years in its HIV epidemic, 1987 to 1994. Multiple resources were aggregated to fuel HV prevention campaigns at multiple levels to a far greater degree than in neighboring countries. We conclude that the reversed direction of the HIV epidemic in Uganda was the direct result of these interventions and that other countries in the developing world could similarly prevent or reverse the escalation of HIV epidemics with greater availability of HIV prevention resources, and well designed programs that take efforts to a critical breadth and depth of effort. PMID:16858635

  16. Corporal punishment in Tanzania's schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were interviewed. It was found that corporal punishment was the most common form of punishment in secondary schools. The majority of teachers supported its continued use, but believed in moderation. The majority of students and teachers were unaware of national laws to restrict corporal punishment. There was agreement between students and teachers that corporal punishment was used for major and minor student offences such as misbehaviour and tardiness. Students reported disliking the practice and believed it was ineffective and resulted in emotional, as well as physical, distress.

  17. High Frequency of False-Positive Hepatitis C Virus Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mullis, Caroline E.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Reynolds, Steven J.; Ocama, Ponsiano; Quinn, Jeffrey; Boaz, Iga; Gray, Ronald H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Thomas, David L.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. We tested 1000 individuals from Rakai, Uganda, with the Ortho version 3.0 HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All serologically positive samples were tested for HCV RNA. Seventy-six of the 1000 (7.6%) participants were HCV antibody positive; none were confirmed by detection of HCV RNA. PMID:24051866

  18. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  19. "Hakuna Matata": Lakeside Literacy in Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Alan J.

    This paper begins by telling the story of Edward, a preacher/teacher in Tanzania who, although poor and uneducated himself, managed to teach his parishioners how to read. The paper describes the experience of one man and his wife who spent 4 years at Katoke Teachers College in northwest Tanzania during the early 1970s, after which they returned to…

  20. EXTENT AND KINEMATICS OF ASWA SHEAR ZONE IN UGANDA AND SOUTH SUDAN USING AIRBORNE GEOPHYSICAL AND REMOTE SENSING DATA. A. Katumwehe. 1, E. A. Atekwana. 1, M.G. Abdelsalam.1 1Oklahoma State University, Boone Pickens School of Geology, Stillwater, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    katumwehe, A. B.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdel Salam, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Aswa Shear zone (ASZ) is a fundamental Precambrian lithospheric structure playing an important role in the evolution of the Mesozoic South Sudan rifts, the propagation of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS), the eruption of EARS shield volcanoes (Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Elgon), re-organization of drainage systems (the White Nile), and the distribution of recent seismicity in South Sudan. Traces of the shear zone have been mapped extending in central and east Africa in a NW-SE direction from South Sudan in the northwest through Uganda and Tanzania to the southeast and possibly into Madagascar. Gondwana reconstructions suggest that the ASZ continues further southeast into south India. Nonetheless, the kinematics and extent of the ASZ have not been fully understood because of limited exposure. In areas where it is exposed the shear zone is expressed by narrow dominantly NW-trending outcrops. We use recently acquired high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data over Uganda integrated with 90 m spatial resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and 30 m spatial resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data to elucidate the kinematics and ascertain the significance of the ASZ in the development of the EARS and the tectonic architecture of east and central Africa. Vertical derivative, Euler deconvolution and analytical signal filters were applied to the total field magnetic data to image the shallow subsurface structures associated with the ASZ while upward continuation (5000 m) was applied to assess the ASZ depth continuity. We also used radiometric data to create ternary images while SRTM and Landsat TM data were used to map the surface expression of the shear zone. The geophysical data from Uganda suggest that the ASZ is characterised by a 50-60 km wide corridor of ductile deformation associated with NW-trending strike-slip shearing. It is dominated by three, equally-spaced and discrete sinistral strike

  1. Promoting sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in southern and eastern Africa (PREPARE): project design and conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young people in sub-Saharan Africa are affected by the HIV pandemic to a greater extent than young people elsewhere and effective HIV-preventive intervention programmes are urgently needed. The present article presents the rationale behind an EU-funded research project (PREPARE) examining effects of community-based (school delivered) interventions conducted in four sites in sub-Saharan Africa. One intervention focuses on changing beliefs and cognitions related to sexual practices (Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa). Another promotes improved parent-offspring communication on sexuality (Kampala, Uganda). Two further interventions are more comprehensive aiming to promote healthy sexual practices. One of these (Western Cape, South Africa) also aims to reduce intimate partner violence while the other (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) utilises school-based peer education. Methods/design A modified Intervention Mapping approach is used to develop all programmes. Cluster randomised controlled trials of programmes delivered to school students aged 12–14 will be conducted in each study site. Schools will be randomly allocated (after matching or stratification) to intervention and delayed intervention arms. Baseline surveys at each site are followed by interventions and then by one (Kampala and Limpopo) or two (Western Cape and Dar es Salaam) post-intervention data collections. Questionnaires include questions common for all sites and are partly based on a set of social cognition models previously applied to the study of HIV-preventive behaviours. Data from all sites will be merged in order to compare prevalence and associations across sites on core variables. Power is set to .80 or higher and significance level to .05 or lower in order to detect intervention effects. Intraclass correlations will be estimated from previous surveys carried out at each site. Discussion We expect PREPARE interventions to have an impact on hypothesized determinants of risky sexual behaviour

  2. The seismotectonics of Southeastern Tanzania: Implications for the propagation of the eastern branch of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2016-04-01

    Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms in southeastern Tanzania, determined from data recorded on temporary and permanent AfricaArray seismic stations, have been used to investigate the propagation direction of the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System southward from the Northern Tanzania Divergence Zone (NTDZ). Within the NTDZ, the rift zone is defined by three segments, the Eyasi segment to the west, the Manyara segment in the middle, and the Pangani segment to the east. Results show that most of the seismicity (~ 75%) extends to the south of the Manyara segment along the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, and at ~ 6-7° S latitude trends to the SE along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate, connecting with a N-S zone of seismicity offshore southern Tanzania and Mozambique. A lesser amount of seismicity (~ 25%) is found extending from the SE corner of the Tanzania Craton at ~ 6-7° S latitude southwards towards Lake Nyasa. This finding supports a model of rift propagation via the Manyara segment to the southeast of the Tanzania Craton along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate. However, given the limited duration of the seismic recordings used in this study, the possibility of another zone of extension developing to the south towards Lake Nyasa (Malawi) cannot be ruled out. Focal mechanisms along the boundary between the Victoria and the Ruvuma microplates and offshore southeastern Tanzania show a combination of normal and strike slip faulting indicating mainly extension with some sinistral motion, consistent with the mapped geologic faults and a clockwise rotation of the Ruvuma microplate.

  3. Students and Scientists Connect with Nature in Uganda, East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Johnson, Laura R.; Kityo, Robert; Lugumya, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    We studied the impact of environmental education (EE) workshops on Ugandan youth's (N = 84) perceptions of their relationship with nature, self efficacy, and civic attitudes and skills. Two nature-related measures and two measures related to social competencies were administered before and after EE workshops that were designed to educate…

  4. Teacher Use of Economics and Cultural Geography for a Middle School Social Studies Class: Planning a Trip to Kenya and Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This unit was designed by a certified Media and Social Studies teacher to help middle school students in Prince George's County, Maryland, plan a trip to East Africa and specifically to Kenya and Tanzania. Each school has a 90 percent African American student population in grades seven and eight, and both are magnet schools. The teacher has had a…

  5. The Effect of Academic Advising and Demographic Variables on the Perceived Relevance of Graduate Education for Agriculturalists from Tanzania and Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagard, Steven D.

    The effect of academic advising on perceptions of relevance by students from two developing countries in East Africa (Tanzania and Malawi) was studied through a survey. The dependent variable was relevance of education to career goals and to national agricultural development goals. The presence and/or adequacy of academic advising was the…

  6. Earth Science Education in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barifaijo, E.

    1999-05-01

    Uganda has two Government funded universities, five operating private universities and four other universities are due to start soon. Geology was first taught in Uganda at Makerere University in 1968 within the Department of Geography. Through the leadership of Prof. Robert Macdonald it became established as a full department in August 1969 as part of the Faculty of Science. Both pure and applied geology are taught and the courses are designed to suit the current job market. At present, the three-term academic year is being replaced by a semester-based course unit system. At the same time, the 3:2:2 subject combination, requiring a student to do three subjects in first year and two subjects in both second and third years, is to be replaced by a major-minor subject combination. Currently, there are about 50 undergraduate students and four Ph.D. students in the Department. A student Geological Association acts as a forum for the exchange of information on matters of geological concern. An affirmative action policy has improved the intake of women students into the Department. On average, the number of women has increased from about 10% to 33.3% in the years 1984/85 to 1997/98. Their performance parallels that of the male students and they are readily employed. Of the eight members of academic staff, two are women. The Department of Geology has good links with regional and overseas universities through which a number of research programmes are currently supported. In addition, most of the training of manpower for the University and research programmes is supported by regional and international research agencies. Academic staff combine teaching with research and consultancy.

  7. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  8. [Current status of the female condom in Africa].

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F

    1997-01-01

    . However, the sample size is too small to draw any firm conclusions. Commercial sex workers in the studies reviewed were very interested in this new method because it gave them an additional method of safer protection during sex. However, they were occasionally faced with difficult negotiations with some clients, refusal to use the female condom and sexual violence. Reuse of the device was reported in four studies, but the term reuse is seldom defined. In cases where it was defined, the frequency of reuse, with washing of the device, accounted for no more than 1% of the total number of uses. The acceptability of the female condom among women other than prostitutes faces two obstacles, the reaction of the woman's regular partner and attitudes to the device itself (appearance, difficulties or uneasiness concerning its use). However, some women liked it because it provided dual protection against pregnancy and STDs and sexual pleasure. The moderate level of acceptability to male partners may be overestimated because women whose partners disliked the device would be more likely to discontinue its use. The studies of acceptability reviewed here show that use of the female condom in Africa is realistic and that it provides women with more independent protection. Initial negative perceptions of the device are often replaced with a more positive reaction after several uses. The experience gained with use reduces the technical problems. We need to overcome the stereotypes, simplifications and strong opinions that threaten to damage the acceptance of this new method and efforts to encourage women to adopt it. However, we still require further clinical data on the effectiveness of the female condom at preventing pregnancy and HIV transmission. Availability of the female condom is improving in Africa. Pilot marketing studies were launched in 1996 in Guinea, Zambia, South Africa, followed by Uganda and Tanzania. There are local initiatives in Ivory Coast and Zimbabwe. (ABSTRACT TRUNC

  9. Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, Craig; Ikanda, Dennis; Kissui, Bernard; Kushnir, Hadas

    2005-08-18

    Large carnivores inspire opposition to conservation efforts owing to their impact on livestock and human safety. Here we analyse the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in Tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in Africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 Tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308. Attacks have increased dramatically during this time: they peak at harvest time each year and are most frequent in areas with few prey apart from bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), the most common nocturnal crop pest. Our findings provide an important starting point for devising strategies to reduce the risk to rural Tanzanians of lion attacks.

  10. Trends in US President's Malaria Initiative-funded indoor residual spray coverage and insecticide choice in sub-Saharan Africa (2008-2015): urgent need for affordable, long-lasting insecticides.

    PubMed

    Oxborough, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the changing pattern of US President's Malaria Initiative-funded IRS in sub-Saharan Africa between 2008 and 2015. IRS coverage in sub-Saharan Africa increased from <2 % of the at-risk population in 2005, to 11 % or 78 million people in 2010, mainly as a result of increased funding from PMI. The scaling up of IRS coverage in sub-Saharan Africa has been successful in several epidemiological settings and contributed to reduced malaria transmission rates. However, the spread and intensification of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors led many control programmes to spray alternative insecticides. Between 2009 and 2013, pyrethroid spraying decreased from 87 % (13/15) of PMI-funded countries conducting IRS to 44 % (7/16), while bendiocarb use increased from 7 % (1/15) to 56 % (9/16). Long-lasting pirimiphos-methyl CS received WHOPES recommendation in 2013 and was scheduled to be sprayed in 85 % (11/13) of PMI-funded countries conducting IRS in 2015. The gradual replacement of relatively inexpensive pyrethroids, firstly with bendiocarb (carbamate) and subsequently with pirimiphos methyl CS (organophosphate), has contributed to the downscaling of most PMI-funded IRS programmes. Overall, there was a 53 % decrease in the number of structures sprayed between years of peak coverage and 2015, down from 9.04 million to 4.26 million structures. Sizeable reductions in the number of structures sprayed were reported in Madagascar (56 %, 576,320-254,986), Senegal (64 %, 306,916-111,201), Tanzania (68 %, 1,224,095-389,714) and Zambia (63 %, 1,300,000-482,077), while in Angola, Liberia and Malawi PMI-funded spraying was suspended. The most commonly cited reason was increased cost of pesticides, as vector resistance necessitated switching from pyrethroids to organophosphates. There are worrying preliminary reports of malaria resurgence following IRS withdrawal in parts of Benin, Tanzania and Uganda. The increase in malaria cases following the end of the Global

  11. The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Isaac K; Ngowi, Helena; Afonso, Sonia; Matenga, Elizabeth; Boa, Mathias; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Githigia, Samuel; Saimo, Margaret; Sikasunge, Chummy; Maingi, Ndichu; Lubega, George W; Kassuku, Ayub; Michael, Lynne; Siziya, Seter; Krecek, Rosina C; Noormahomed, Emilia; Vilhena, Manuela; Dorny, Pierre; Willingham, A Lee

    2003-06-01

    Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in seven of the ESA countries. Most of the reported findings are based on surveys utilising lingual palpation and post-mortem examination, however, some also used serological assays. In Tanzania, community-based studies on porcine cysticercosis indicate a prevalence of 17.4% in the northern highlands district of Mbulu and a prevalence range of 5.1-16.9% in the southern highlands. In Kenya recent surveys in the southwestern part of the country where smallholder pig keeping is popular indicate that 10-14% of pigs are positive for cysticercosis by lingual examination. Uganda has the most pigs in Eastern Africa, most of which are kept under smallholder conditions. Preliminary surveys in 1998 and 1999 at slaughterhouses in Kampala indicated a prevalence of porcine cysticercosis between 0.12 and 1.2%, however, a rural survey in northern Uganda in 1999 indicated 34-45% of pigs slaughtered in selected villages were infected. Additionally, a new survey of 297 pigs slaughtered in Kampala in 2002 indicated that pigs from the central region of the country were negative for cysticercosis while 33.7% of the pigs coming from the rural Lira district in the north were positive. Interestingly 8 piglet foetuses removed from an infected slaughtered sow coming from Lira district were all found to harbour cysts of T. solium providing evidence of congenital transmission of porcine cysticercosis. In Mozambique, abattoir records indicate that porcine cysticercosis is present in all provinces of the country. A serological survey on pigs in rural Tete Province found 15% of

  12. A qualitative study of the impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural households in Southeastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dawn C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Komwa, Maction K

    2009-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic threatens economic, social, and environmental sustainability throughout sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring interrelationships between HIV/AIDS, labor availability, agricultural productivity, household resources, food consumption, and health status in rural southeastern Uganda. Respondents reported an increase in widow-and-orphan-headed households; labor shortages due to illness and caretaking; degradation of household resources from health-related expenses; loss of land tenure and assets following deaths, especially for widows and orphans; and changes in agricultural practices and productivity. Our study highlights a potential downward spiral of livelihood degradation for vulnerable households and suggests targeted interventions to improve sustainability.

  13. Clinic-based routine voluntary HIV testing in a refugee settlement in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    O’Laughlin, Kelli N.; Kasozi, Julius; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Parker, Robert A.; Faustin, Zikama M.; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Owino, Chris Omara; Bassett, Ingrid V.

    2014-01-01

    We implemented and evaluated a clinic-based routine voluntary HIV testing intervention in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in Uganda. Comparing the SOC period (40 days) to the Intervention period (168 days), the mean HIV-infected clients identified per week increased from 0.9 to 5.6, and there was no significant difference between the HIV prevalence in the two periods (standard of care: 3.3%, intervention: 4.5%; p > 0.5). Clinic-based routine HIV testing in a refugee settlement is effective and should be considered for implementation in refugee settlements in other high prevalence regions in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25162817

  14. Improving knowledge translation in Uganda: more needs to be done

    PubMed Central

    Orem, Juliet Nabyonga; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Nabudere, Harriet; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Meeting the health-related Millennium Development Goals in Africa calls for better access to and higher utilisation of quality evidence. The mechanisms through which research evidence can effectively guide public health policy and implementation of health programmes are not fully understood. Challenges to the use of evidence to inform policy and practice include the lack of a common understanding of what constitutes evidence and limited insight on the effectiveness of different research uptake activities. Available Knowledge Translation (KT) models have mainly been developed in high income countries and may not be directly applicable in resource-limited settings. In this study we examine the uptake of evidence in public health policy making in Uganda. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 17 purposively-selected health policy makers and researchers. The study explored respondents’ perceptions of the role of evidence in public health policy development, their understanding of KT and their views on the appropriateness of different KT activities that are currently implemented in Uganda. Results Although all respondents stated that evidence should inform health policies and programmes, they noted that this occurred infrequently. We noted a lack of conceptual clarity about KT and what precisely constitutes evidence. Respondents reported having been involved in different KT activities, including partnerships and platforms created for knowledge sharing between researchers and end users, but with very mixed results. Conclusion There is need for conceptual clarity on the notion of KT and an understanding of the most appropriate KT strategies in low-income settings. PMID:24624247

  15. Nodule Worm Infection in Humans and Wild Primates in Uganda: Cryptic Species in a Newly Identified Region of Human Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Ria R.; Chapman, Colin A.; Omeja, Patrick A.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Oesophagostomum infection is considered endemic to West Africa but has also been identified in Uganda, East Africa, among primates (including humans). However, the taxonomy and ecology of Oesophagostomum in Uganda have not been studied, except for in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), which are infected by both O. bifurcum and O. stephanostomum. Methods and Findings We studied Oesophagostomum in Uganda in a community of non-human primates that live in close proximity to humans. Prevalence estimates based on microscopy were lower than those based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating greater sensitivity of PCR. Prevalence varied among host species, with humans and red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) infected at lowest prevalence (25% and 41% by PCR, respectively), and chimpanzees, olive baboons (Papio anubis), and l'hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti) infected at highest prevalence (100% by PCR in all three species). Phylogenetic regression showed that primates travelling further and in smaller groups are at greatest risk of infection. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed three cryptic clades of Oesophagostomum that were not distinguishable based on morphological characteristics of their eggs. Of these, the clade with the greatest host range had not previously been described genetically. This novel clade infects humans, as well as five other species of primates. Conclusions Multiple cryptic forms of Oesophagostomum circulate in the people and primates of western Uganda, and parasite clades differ in host range and cross-species transmission potential. Our results expand knowledge about human Oesophagostomum infection beyond the West African countries of Togo and Ghana, where the parasite is a known public health concern. Oesophagostomum infection in humans may be common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and the transmission of this neglected

  16. The Determinants of Traditional Medicine Use in Northern Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Patel, Uptal D.; Karia, Francis; Thielman, Nathan; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilaweh, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Matemu, Oliver; Omolo, Justin; Boyd, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region. Methods Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes. Results Most structured survey participants (68%) reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56%) reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%), chronic diseases (15%), reproductive problems (11%), and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%). We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding. Conclusions In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments

  17. Management of severely ill children at first-level health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa when referral is difficult.

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, Eric A. F.; Peterson, Stefan; Gamatie, Youssouf; Kisanga, Felix S.; Mukasa, Gelasius; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Were, M. Wilson; Weber, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify the main reasons for referral of infants and children from first-level health facilities to referral hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa and to determine what further supplies, equipment, and legal empowerment might be needed to manage such children when referral is difficult. METHODS: In an observational study at first-level health facilities in Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Niger, over 3-5 months, we prospectively documented the diagnoses and severity of diseases in children using the standardized Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines. We reviewed the facilities for supplies and equipment and examined the legal constraints of health personnel working at these facilities. FINDINGS: We studied 7195 children aged 2-59 months, of whom 691 (9.6%) were classified under a severe IMCI classification that required urgent referral to a hospital. Overall, 226 children had general danger signs, 292 had severe pneumonia or very severe disease, 104 were severely dehydrated, 31 had severe persistent diarrhoea, 207 were severely malnourished, and 98 had severe anaemia. Considerably more ill were 415 young infants aged one week to two months: nearly three-quarters of these required referral. Legal constraints and a lack of simple equipment (suction pumps, nebulizers, and oxygen concentrators) and supplies (nasogastric tubes and 50% glucose) could prevent health workers from dealing more appropriately with sick children when referral was not possible. CONCLUSION: When referral is difficult or impossible, some additional supplies and equipment, as well as provision of simple guidelines, may improve management of seriously ill infants and children. PMID:12973645

  18. NeuroAIDS in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2013-01-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region. PMID:20500018

  19. Uganda does what it can for women.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Uganda is a fertile, but poor, predominately rural country that was a British protectorate from 1894 until 1962. Uganda made significant achievements in the delivery of health care and education until the rule of Idi Amin (1971-79), when the country was plunged into chaos. The current Ugandan president enjoys broad-based support and has responded to the health care crisis by creating a national system of Resistance Councils using traditional networks to monitor local health developments. The health priorities for women in Uganda include improving maternal-child health; combating AIDS, rape, and sexual abuse; increasing use of family planning; understanding and working to change the cultural context that shapes reproductive health and sex behavior (such as "sugar daddies," older men who entice sex from young girls with presents and money); and expanding women's rights so that they can improve their health.

  20. World Bank credits Uganda with $50m. -- emphasis on communities, NGOs and health.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1984, the World Bank financed 11 AIDS/STD projects in Africa, most of which tended to cost comparatively small amounts. It increased the amount of its AIDS/STD loans considerably in 1993 and 1994 ($75 million in Zimbabwe and $50 million in Uganda). The Ugandan government, Germany, Sweden, and the UK are also funding the AIDS/STD project. Since the money is from the Bank's International Development Association, Uganda does not need to pay any interest on the loan. About 1.5 million people in Uganda are HIV positive. The number of AIDS patients continues to rise. The AIDS project in Uganda focuses on prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, mitigation of the personal impact of the epidemic, and institutional development. Prevention of sexual transmission activities are: promotion of safer sex behavior, condoms, and STD care-seeking behavior and effective STD care. Support for community-based and home-based health care and social support for people with AIDS, training staff about and providing drugs for opportunistic infections, protective supplies for public and private district health facilities, and diagnosis and case management of tuberculosis comprise mitigation of the personal impact of AIDS activities. Institutional development efforts include strengthening the district level's capacity to plan, coordinate, implement, monitor, and evaluate integrated AIDS-related activities, and the national level's capacity to provide adequate technical support on health issues linked to AIDS. Three key policies of the project are decentralization, community mobilization, and encouragement of nongovernmental organizations to work with communities and to complement government efforts. A large scale AIDS/STD mass media program is planned. Project goals are: 50% of the population knowing at least 2 actual ways to protect themselves from HIV. 50% of the population using condoms, and 70% of people seeking STD care receiving appropriate STD case management.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of disability among older Ugandans: evidence from the Uganda National Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wandera, Stephen O.; Ntozi, James; Kwagala, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Background Nationally representative evidence on the burden and determinants of disability among older people in sub-Saharan Africa in general, and Uganda in particular, is limited. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and investigate the correlates of disability among older people in Uganda. Design We conducted secondary analysis of data from a sample of 2,382 older persons from the Uganda National Household Survey. Disability was operationalized as either: 1) having a lot of difficulty on any one question; 2) being unable to perform on any one question; or, 3) having some difficulty with two of the six domains. We used frequency distributions for description, chi-square tests for initial associations, and multivariable logistic regressions to assess the associations. Results A third of the older population was disabled. Among all older persons, disability was associated with advancement in age (OR=4.91, 95% CI: 3.38–7.13), rural residence (0.56, 0.37–0.85), living alone (1.56, 1.07–2.27), separated or divorced (1.96, 1.31–2.94) or widowed (1.86, 1.32–2.61) marital status, households’ dependence on remittances (1.48, 1.10–1.98), ill health (2.48, 1.95–3.15), and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) (1.81, 0.80–2.33). Gender was not associated with disability among older persons. Conclusions Disability was associated with advancement in age, rural residence, living alone, divorced/separated/widowed marital status, dependence on remittances, ill health, and NCDs. Interventions to improve health and functioning of older people need to focus on addressing social inequalities and on the early preventive interventions and management of NCDs in old age in Uganda. PMID:25413721

  2. The causal effect of education on HIV stigma in Uganda: evidence from a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Venkataramani, Atheendar S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale HIV is highly stigmatized in sub-Saharan Africa. This is an important public health problem because HIV stigma has many adverse effects that threaten to undermine efforts to control the HIV epidemic. Objective The implementation of a universal primary education policy in Uganda in 1997 provided us with a natural experiment to test the hypothesis that education is causally related to HIV stigma. Methods For this analysis, we pooled publicly available, population-based data from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey and the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey. The primary outcomes of interest were negative attitudes toward persons with HIV, elicited using four questions about anticipated stigma and social distance. Results Standard least squares estimates suggested a statistically significant, negative association between years of schooling and HIV stigma (each P<0.001, with t-statistics ranging from 4.9 to 14.7). We then used a natural experiment design, exploiting differences in birth cohort exposure to universal primary education as an instrumental variable. Participants who were <13 years old at the time of the policy change had 1.36 additional years of schooling compared to those who were ≥13 years old. Adjusting for linear age trends before and after the discontinuity, two-stage least squares estimates suggested no statistically significant causal effect of education on HIV stigma (P-values ranged from 0.21 to 0.69). Three of the four estimated regression coefficients were positive, and in all cases the lower confidence limits convincingly excluded the possibility of large negative effect sizes. These instrumental variables estimates have a causal interpretation and were not overturned by several robustness checks. Conclusion We conclude that, for young adults in Uganda, additional years of education in the formal schooling system driven by a universal primary school intervention have not had a causal effect on reducing negative attitudes

  3. World Bank credits Uganda with $50m. -- emphasis on communities, NGOs and health.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1984, the World Bank financed 11 AIDS/STD projects in Africa, most of which tended to cost comparatively small amounts. It increased the amount of its AIDS/STD loans considerably in 1993 and 1994 ($75 million in Zimbabwe and $50 million in Uganda). The Ugandan government, Germany, Sweden, and the UK are also funding the AIDS/STD project. Since the money is from the Bank's International Development Association, Uganda does not need to pay any interest on the loan. About 1.5 million people in Uganda are HIV positive. The number of AIDS patients continues to rise. The AIDS project in Uganda focuses on prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, mitigation of the personal impact of the epidemic, and institutional development. Prevention of sexual transmission activities are: promotion of safer sex behavior, condoms, and STD care-seeking behavior and effective STD care. Support for community-based and home-based health care and social support for people with AIDS, training staff about and providing drugs for opportunistic infections, protective supplies for public and private district health facilities, and diagnosis and case management of tuberculosis comprise mitigation of the personal impact of AIDS activities. Institutional development efforts include strengthening the district level's capacity to plan, coordinate, implement, monitor, and evaluate integrated AIDS-related activities, and the national level's capacity to provide adequate technical support on health issues linked to AIDS. Three key policies of the project are decentralization, community mobilization, and encouragement of nongovernmental organizations to work with communities and to complement government efforts. A large scale AIDS/STD mass media program is planned. Project goals are: 50% of the population knowing at least 2 actual ways to protect themselves from HIV. 50% of the population using condoms, and 70% of people seeking STD care receiving appropriate STD case management. PMID

  4. Unintended pregnancy and abortion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rubina

    2013-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is common in Uganda, leading to high levels of unplanned births, unsafe abortions, and maternal injury and death. Because most pregnancies that end in abortion are unwanted, nearly all ill health and mortality resulting from unsafe abortion is preventable. This report summarizes evidence on the context and consequences of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Uganda, points out gaps in knowledge, and highlights steps that can be taken to reduce levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, and, in turn, the high level of maternal mortality.

  5. A climate trend analysis of Uganda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; White, Libby

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), identifies observed changes in rainfall and temperature in Uganda, based on an analysis of a quality-controlled, long time series of station observations throughout Uganda. Extending recent trends forward, it also provides a current and near-future context for understanding the actual nature of climate change impacts in the country, and a basis for identifying climate adaptations that may protect and improve the country's food security.

  6. STS-55 Earth observation of Lake Natron, Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Lake Natron. Taken with color infrared (CIR) film, the typical red-colored water appears greenish. The drying soda salts in the lakebed are seen in greater detail in this CIR view. From the signatures seen in this photograph, the lake appears to be highly saline and to contain aquatic biota with little or no chlorophyll. The biomass over the rift valley escarpment is clearly defined by the reddish color in this CIR photo. Refer to STS055-93-037 for a comparative view photographed in regular color.

  7. STS-55 Earth observation of Lake Natron, Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Lake Natron in Tansania, in the 35-mile-wide East African Rift Valley. This lake is surrounded by sodium carbonate volcanoes. Through erosion, these salts of volcanic origin are transported into the rift valley lakes. The various shades of bright red reflecting from the lake result from the water chemistry and biotic blooms. The white spots in the lakebed are drying soda salts. The depth and circulation of the water in the southern end of the lake cause it to appear dark blue rather than bright red. In the repeated photographs of this lake from orbit, we have seen the extent and intensity of its colors fluctuate seasonally. In this photograph, the biotic activity appears to be at a peak. Such a large extent of red-colored water was not present in the photos taken from STS-56, just a few days before (04-10-93).

  8. Land Cover Mapping for the Development of Green House Gas (GHG) Inventories in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakhayanga, J. A.; Oduor, P.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are responsible for the largest share of green house gas (GHG) emissions. Research has shown that greenhouse gases cause radioactive forcing in the stratosphere, leading to ozone depletion. Different land cover types act as sources or sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most dominant GHG.Under the oversight of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region countries are developing Sustainable National GHG Inventory Management Systems. While the countries in the ESA region are making substantial progress in setting up GHG inventories, there remains significant constraints in the development of quality and sustainable National GHG Inventory Systems. For instance, there are fundamental challenges in capacity building and technology transfer, which can affect timely and consistent reporting on the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) component of the GHG inventory development. SERVIR Eastern and Southern Africa is a partnership project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), an intergovernmental organization in Africa, with 21 member states in the ESA region. With support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), SERVIR ESA is implementing the GHG Project in 9 countries. The main deliverables of the project are land cover maps for the years 2000 and 2010 (also 1990 for Malawi and Rwanda), and related technical reports, as well as technical training in land cover mapping using replicable methodologies. Landsat imagery which is freely available forms the main component of earth observation input data, in addition to ancillary data collected from each country. Supervised classification using maximum likelihood algorithm is applied to the Landsat images. The work is completed for the initial 6 countries (Malawi, Zambia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Botswana, and

  9. Wetlands and Agriculture in Africa: Major Sources of N2O?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Papyrus wetlands in East Africa are rapidly being converted to agricultural production in an effort to increase food security. This conversion is often seasonal, with wetlands being used for grazing and crop production of maize, sugarcane, and rice during dry seasons, and flooding occurring during wet seasons. An important question with respect to greenhouse gas production is whether wetland conversion to agriculture increases N2O fluxes. This trend has been shown in temperate regions where increased N2O fluxes are positively related to low soil C:N ratios, especially when soil moisture content remains high. In order to examine whether denitrification contributes to N2O flux, we measured potential denitrification rates (PDR by acetylene block method) in intact papyrus wetlands and agricultural converted wetlands in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda, and also performed multivariate analysis to relate soil characteristics to PDR. Agricultural land-cover types included maize, sugarcane, rice, and grazing. Results showed that intact wetlands are potentially important sources of N2O, as PDR in papyrus vegetation were consistently the highest (p<0.05; 128 - 601 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1) while grazing sites showed the lowest (0.1 - 0.5 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1). Rates were second highest in rice fields (2.3 - 303 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1), and intermediate in maize and sugarcane (6.5 - 75 μmg N2O g DW-1 hour-1 and 5 - 30 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1 respectively). PDR across all sites was inversely related to soil C:N ratio, with nitrate consistently limiting PDR in the wetland sites while soil carbon limited PDR in agricultural sites. This is seemingly in contrast with other findings that show that lower C:N ratios result in high N2O fluxes from drained wetland sites. However, flux measurements along with more realistic process-based measurements of denitrification are urgently needed to more fully understand the effect of agricultural conversion of wetlands in East Africa.

  10. Financing Higher Education in Africa: Makerere, the Quiet Revolution. Tertiary Education Thematic Group Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, David

    This article is part of a series examining the state of higher education in Africa at the end of the 20th century. It tells the dramatic story of how Makerere University in Uganda has addressed the pervasive problem of how to provide quality education at the tertiary level without undue financial dependence on the state. It describes the main…

  11. Developing Orthopaedic Trauma Capacity in Uganda: Considerations From the Uganda Sustainable Trauma Orthopaedic Program.

    PubMed

    OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Uganda, like many low-income countries, has a tremendous volume of orthopaedic trauma injuries. The Uganda Sustainable Trauma Orthopaedic Program (USTOP) is a partnership between the University of British Columbia and Makerere University that was initiated in 2007 to reduce the consequences of neglected orthopaedic trauma in Uganda. USTOP works with local collaborators to build orthopaedic trauma capacity through clinical training, skills workshops, system support, technology development, and research. USTOP has maintained a multidisciplinary approach to training, involving colleagues in anaesthesia, nursing, rehabilitation, and sterile reprocessing. Since the program's inception, the number of trained orthopaedic surgeons practicing in Uganda has more than doubled. Many of these newly trained surgeons provide clinical care in the previously underserved regional hospitals. The program has also worked with collaborators to develop several technologies aimed at reducing the cost of providing orthopaedic care without compromising quality. As orthopaedic trauma capacity in Uganda advances, USTOP strives to continually evolve and provide relevant support to colleagues in Uganda. PMID:26356209

  12. Contrasting rainfall declines in northern and southern Tanzania: Potential differential impacts of west Pacific warming and east Pacific cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Pedreros, D. H.; Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Here, we present analysis of a new 1900-2014 rainfall record for the Greater Horn of Africa with high station density (CenTrends), and evaluate potential climate change "hot spots" in Tanzania. We identify recent (1981-2014) downward trends in Tanzanian rainfall, use CenTrends to place these in a longer historical context, and relate rainfall in these regions to decadal changes in global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). To identify areas of concern, we consider the potential food security impacts of the recent rainfall declines and also rapid population growth. Looking forward, we consider what the links to SSTs might mean for rainfall in the next several decades based on SST projections. In addition to CenTrends, we use a variety of geographic data sets, including 1981-2014 rainfall from the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPSv2.0), simulated crop stress from the USGS Geospatial Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (GeoWRSI) model, NOAA Extended Reconstructed SSTs (ERSST v4), SST projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), and land cover and population maps from SERVIR, WorldPOP, and CIESIN's Gridded Population of the World. The long-term CenTrends record allows us to suggest an interesting dichotomy in decadal rainfall forcing. During the March to June season, SSTs in the west Pacific appear to be driving post-1980 rainfall reductions in northern Tanzania. In the 2000s, northern Tanzania's densely populated Pangani River, Internal Drainage, and Lake Victoria basins experienced the driest period in more than a century. During summer, negative trends in southern Tanzania appear linked to a negative SST trend in the Nino3.4 region. Since the SST trend in the west (east) Pacific appears strongly influenced by global warming (natural decadal variability), we suggest that water resources in northern Tanzania may face increasing challenges, but that this will be less the case in southern Tanzania.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Peer Counselling for the Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chola, Lumbwe; Fadnes, Lars T.; Engebretsen, Ingunn M. S.; Nkonki, Lungiswa; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Background Community based breastfeeding promotion programmes have been shown to be effective in increasing breastfeeding prevalence. However, there is limited data on the cost-effectiveness of these programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper evaluates the cost-effectiveness of a breastfeeding promotion intervention targeting mothers and their 0 to 6 month old children. Methods Data were obtained from a community randomized trial conducted in Uganda between 2006–2008, and supplemented with evidence from several studies in sub-Saharan Africa. In the trial, peer counselling was offered to women in intervention clusters. In the control and intervention clusters, women could access standard health facility breastfeeding promotion services (HFP). Thus, two methods of breastfeeding promotion were compared: community based peer counselling (in addition to HFP) and standard HFP alone. A Markov model was used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the two strategies. The model estimated changes in breastfeeding prevalence and disability adjusted life years. Costs were estimated from a provider perspective. Uncertainty around the results was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Findings Peer counselling more than doubled the breastfeeding prevalence as reported by mothers, but there was no observable impact on diarrhoea prevalence. Estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were US$68 per month of exclusive or predominant breastfeeding and U$11,353 per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The findings were robust to parameter variations in the sensitivity analyses Conclusions Our strategy to promote community based peer counselling is unlikely to be cost-effective in reducing diarrhoea prevalence and mortality in Uganda, because its cost per DALY averted far exceeds the commonly assumed willingness-to-pay threshold of three times Uganda’s GDP per capita (US$1653). However, since the

  14. A survey of Simulium control in Africa.

    PubMed

    BROWN, A W

    1962-01-01

    It has become possible to control or even eradicate the Simulium fly vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative organism of onchocerciasis. There are two vectors in Africa-namely, S. damnosum, characteristic of the rivers of West Africa, and S. neavei, which breeds on the carapaces of crabs in the streams of East Africa. The use of DDT applied to the water at a concentration as low as 0.1 p.p.m. for 30 minutes eliminates the larvae of Simulium. Such larvicidal methods have eradicated S. neavei from western Kenya and virtually eradicated S. damnosum from the Victoria Nile in Uganda. Excellent control sufficient to render the transmission of onchocerciasis almost negligible has been obtained at Léopoldville (Republic of the Congo) and in circumscribed areas in southern Chad, Northern Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The following survey describes operational research on Simulium control carried out in Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, Chad, Nigeria, Ghana, Upper Volta and Sierra Leone. PMID:14015908

  15. Mapping Africa Biomass with MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Baccini, A.; Houghton, R.

    2006-12-01

    Central Africa contains the second largest block of tropical forest remaining in the world, and is one of the largest carbon reservoirs on Earth. The carbon dynamics of the region differ substantially from other tropical forests because most deforestation and land use is associated with selective logging and small-scale landholders practicing traditional "slash-and-burn" agriculture. Despite estimates of 1-2 PgC/yr released to the atmosphere from tropical deforestation, the amount released from Central Africa is highly uncertain relative to the amounts released from other tropical forest areas. The uncertainty in carbon fluxes results from inadequate estimates of both rates of deforestation and standing stocks of carbon (forest biomass). Here we present new results mapping above-ground forest biomass for tropical Africa using machine learning techniques to integrate MODIS 1km spectral reflectance with forest inventory measurements to calibrate an empirical relationship. The derived forest biomass at each MODIS pixel shows the spatial distribution of forest biomass over the entire tropical forest region. The model has been tested in Uganda, Mali and part of Republic of Congo where field data were available. The regression tree model based on MODIS NBAR surface reflectance for Uganda, Mali and Republic of Congo explains 94 percent of the variance in above-ground biomass with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 27 Tons/ha. The approach shows promise for use of optical remote sensing data in mapping the spatial distribution of forest biomass across the region.

  16. Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…

  17. Institutional Efficiency in Selected Universities in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amina, Nakimuli; Turyahebwa, Abanis

    2015-01-01

    Universities are accountable This study looked into Institutional Efficiency in selected Universities in Central Uganda. The study was guided by the following objectives; Determine the level of institutional efficiency of the universities in terms of educational efficiency; research efficiency and community service efficiency. The study employed…

  18. Seroprevalence of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Nathan C; Sarosi, George A.; Meya, David B; Bohjanen, Paul R; Richer, Sarah M; Swartzentruber, Samantha; Halupnick, Ryan; Jarrett, Deidre; Wheat, L. Joseph; Boulware, David R

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is endemic to the Midwestern United States, but cases have been reported nearly worldwide. A 1970 study found 3.8% skin test sensitivity to Histoplasma capsulatum in Uganda but no systemic study of histoplasmosis exposure has occurred since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study investigated the seroprevalence of H. capsulatum and sought previously undetected cases of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or urine specimens were obtained from HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis. Specimens were tested for H. capsulatum IgG and IgM by enzyme immune assay and Histoplasma antigen. 147 of the 257 subjects who were enrolled had cryptococcal meningitis. Overall, 1.3% (2/151) of subjects were serum Histoplasma IgG positive, and zero of 151 were IgM positive. Antigen was not detected in any serum (n = 57), urine (n = 37, or CSF (n = 63) samples. Both subjects with serum Histoplasma IgG positivity had cryptococcal meningitis. Histoplasma capsulatum IgG was detected at low levels in persons with HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda. Histoplasmosis is not widespread in Uganda but micro-foci do exist. There appears to be no cross-reactivity between Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma antigen testing, and cryptococcosis appears to be at most, a rare cause of positive Histoplasma IgG. PMID:26527637

  19. Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brar, Sukhdeep; Farley, Sara E.; Hawkins, Robert; Wagner, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda is part of the World Bank Studies series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. This study presents a unique methodology to view science, technology and innovation (STI) in developing countries. The study provides a set…

  20. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  ...

  1. Modeling the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and host snails in Uganda using satellite sensor data and Geographical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Stensgaard, A; Jørgensen, A; Kabatereine, N B; Malone, J B; Kristensen, T K

    2005-03-01

    The potential value of MODIS satellite sensor data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperatures (LST) for describing the distribution of the Schistosoma mansoni-"Biomphalaria pfeifferi"/Biomphalaria sudanica parasite-snail system in inland Uganda, were tested by developing annual and seasonal composite models, and iteratively analysing for their relationship with parasite and snail distribution. The dry season composite model predicted an endemic area that produced the best fit with the distribution of schools with > or =5% prevalence. NDVI values of 151-174, day temperatures of 26-36 degrees C, and night temperatures of 15-20 degrees C were used as criteria for the prediction model. Using the same approach with host snail data indicated that most of Uganda is suitable "B. pfeifferi"/B. sudanica habitat, except for possibly the north-eastern region of the country. The parasite, however, appears to be restricted in its distribution in both the north-eastern and the south-western regions of Uganda. The absence of disease in the south-west can not be attributed to the absence of snail hosts. Results suggest a combination of satellite sensor data on temperature and standard climate data on precipitation, as the best ecological determinants of the S. mansoni-"B. pfeifferi"/B. sudanica system. Satellite composite models and logistic regression analysis, suggest low night time temperature as one of the significant factors inhibiting S. mansoni transmission in the south-western highland areas of Uganda. The developed models are, however, unique, representing species-specific ecologic preferences of the S. mansoni-"B. Pfeifferi"/B. sudanica system in inland Uganda. Further validation studies are needed to test the value of the model in other countries in East Africa. PMID:16044680

  2. Women's property rights and gendered policies: implications for women's long-term welfare in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Peterman, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates effects of community-level women's property and inheritance rights on women's economic outcomes using a 13 year longitudinal panel from rural Tanzania. In the preferred model specification, inverse probability weighting is applied to a woman-level fixed effects model to control for individual-level time invariant heterogeneity and attrition. Results indicate that changes in women's property and inheritance rights are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Results are not limited to sub-groups of marginalised women. Findings indicate lack of gender equity in sub-Saharan Africa may inhibit economic development for women and society as a whole.

  3. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Manoko, Mkabwa L. K.; van Weerden, Gerard M.; van Berg, Ronald G.; Mariani, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits. PMID:23233812

  4. Transfusion Medicine in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conference Summary.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Walter Sunny; Kyeyune, Dorothy; Otekat, Grace; Natukunda, Bernard; Hume, Heather; Kasirye, Phillip G; Ddungu, Henry; Kajja, Isaac; Dhabangi, Aggrey; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Seguin, Claire; Barnes, Linda; Delaney, Meghan

    2015-07-01

    In November 2014, a 3-day conference devoted to transfusion medicine in sub-Saharan Africa was held in Kampala, Uganda. Faculty from academic institutions in Uganda provided a broad overview of issues pertinent to transfusion medicine in Africa. The conference consisted of lectures, demonstrations, and discussions followed by 5 small group workshops held at the Uganda Blood Transfusion Service Laboratories, the Ugandan Cancer Institute, and the Mulago National Referral Hospital. Highlighted topics included the challenges posed by increasing clinical demands for blood, the need for better patient identification at the time of transfusion, inadequate application of the antiglobulin reagent during pretransfusion testing, concern regarding proper recognition and evaluation of transfusion reactions, the expanded role for nurse leadership as a means to improve patient outcomes, and the need for an epidemiologic map of blood usage in Africa. Specialty areas of focus included the potential for broader application of transcranial Doppler and hydroxyurea therapy in sickle cell disease, African-specific guidelines for transfusion support of cancer patients, the challenges of transfusion support in trauma, and the importance of African-centered clinical research in pediatric and obstetric transfusion medicine. The course concluded by summarizing the benefits derived from an organized quality program that extended from the donor to the recipient. As an educational tool, the slide-audio presentation of the lectures will be made freely available at the International Society of Blood Transfusion Academy Web site: http://www.isbtweb.org/academy/.

  5. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  6. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  7. HIV-1 Sequence Data Coverage in Central East Africa from 1959 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Susanna L; Barbier, Andrew E; Ratmann, Oliver; Fraser, Christophe; Rose, Rebecca; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Grabowski, Mary K

    2016-09-01

    Central and Eastern African HIV sequence data have been most critical in understanding the establishment and evolution of the global HIV pandemic. Here we report on the extent of publicly available HIV genetic sequence data in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Sequence Database sampled from 1959 to 2013 from six African countries: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Rwanda. We have summarized these data, including HIV subtypes, the years sampled, and the genomic regions sequenced. We also provide curated alignments for this important geographic area in five HIV genomic regions with substantial coverage. PMID:27353049

  8. A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in East Africa these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but...

  9. Gender Discrimination and Education in West Africa: Strategies for Maintaining Girls in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuwor, Theresa; Sossou, Marie-Antoinette

    2008-01-01

    Girls' enrolment in primary schools has achieved significant increase and parity with male enrolment in many countries in Africa since the 1960s. Some of these countries include Botswana, Namibia and Tanzania. However, in most Sub-Saharan African countries, female enrolment still lags behind male enrolment. This paper examines some of the reasons…

  10. Increased use of Renewable Energy in Africa through a Program of Energy Enterprise Development and Investment

    SciTech Connect

    Christine Eibs Singer

    2005-03-11

    To provide training in enterprise development and technical applications, local partner capacity building, individualized enterprise development services and seed capital investment to catalyze the creation of sustainable renewable energy enterprises that deliver clean energy services to households and businesses in South Africa, Ethiopia and Tanzania.

  11. Making Learning and Web 2.0 Technologies Work for Higher Learning Institutions in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the extent to which learning and Web 2.0 technologies are utilised to support learning and teaching in Africa's higher learning institutions, with a specific focus on Tanzania's public universities. Design/methodology/approach: A combination of content analysis and semi-structured interviews was used to collect…

  12. FIFA 11 for Health Programme: Implementation in Five Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Colin W.; Junge, Astrid; Amaning, Jacob; Kaijage, Rogasian R.; Kaputa, John; Magwende, George; Pambo, Prince; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the FIFA 11 for Health programme in increasing children's knowledge about communicable and non-communicable diseases in five countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Method: A prospective five-cohort study was implemented in schools in Ghana (17), Malawi (12), Namibia (11), Tanzania (18) and Zambia (11). The…

  13. Prevalence and spatial distribution of Theileria parva in cattle under crop-livestock farming systems in Tororo District, Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) present a major economic burden to communities across East Africa. Farmers in East Africa must use acaracides to target ticks and prevent transmission of tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theileriosis; the major causes of cattle mortality and morbidity. The costs of controlling East Coast Fever (ECF), caused by Theileria parva, in Uganda are significant and measures taken to control ticks, to be cost-effective, should take into account the burden of disease. The aim of the present work was to estimate the burden presented by T. parva and its spatial distribution in a crop-livestock production system in Eastern Uganda. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of T. parva in Tororo District, Uganda. Blood samples were taken from all cattle (n: 2,658) in 22 randomly selected villages across Tororo District from September to December 2011. Samples were analysed by PCR and T. parva prevalence and spatial distribution determined. Results The overall prevalence of T. parva was found to be 5.3%. Herd level prevalence ranged from 0% to 21% with majority of the infections located in the North, North-Eastern and South-Eastern parts of Tororo District. No statistically significant differences in risk of infection were found between age classes, sex and cattle breed. Conclusions T. parva infection is widely distributed in Tororo District, Uganda. The prevalence and distribution of T. parva is most likely determined by spatial distribution of R. appendiculatus, restricted grazing of calves and preferential tick control targeting draft animals. PMID:24589227

  14. Ecological Drivers of Mansonella perstans Infection in Uganda and Patterns of Co-endemicity with Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vounatsou, Penelope; Onapa, Ambrose W.; Utzinger, Jürg; Pedersen, Erling M.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mansonella perstans is a widespread, but relatively unknown human filarial parasite transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Although it is found in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, only few studies have been carried out to deepen the understanding of its ecology, epidemiology, and health consequences. Hence, knowledge about ecological drivers of the vector and parasite distribution, integral to develop spatially explicit models for disease prevention, control, and elimination strategies, is limited. Methodology We analyzed data from a comprehensive nationwide survey of M. perstans infection conducted in 76 schools across Uganda in 2000–2003, to identify environmental drivers. A suite of Bayesian geostatistical regression models was fitted, and the best fitting model based on the deviance information criterion was utilized to predict M. perstans infection risk for all of Uganda. Additionally, we investigated co-infection rates and co-distribution with Wuchereria bancrofti and Plasmodium spp. infections observed at the same survey by mapping geographically overlapping areas. Principal Findings Several bioclimatic factors were significantly associated with M. perstans infection levels. A spatial Bayesian regression model showed the best fit, with diurnal temperature range, normalized difference vegetation index, and cattle densities identified as significant covariates. This model was employed to predict M. perstans infection risk at non-sampled locations. The level of co-infection with W. bancrofti was low (0.3%), due to limited geographic overlap. However, where the two infections did overlap geographically, a positive association was found. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first geostatistical risk map for M. perstans in Uganda. We confirmed a widespread distribution of M. perstans, and identified important potential drivers of risk. The results provide new insight about the ecologic preferences of this otherwise poorly known filarial

  15. Expanded Host Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T.; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Gu, Se Hun

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24741077

  16. Expanded host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Gu, Se Hun; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses.

  17. Expanded host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Gu, Se Hun; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24741077

  18. An Overview of HIV Prevention Interventions for People Who Inject Drugs in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Eric A.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Mbwambo, Jessie K. K.; Lambdin, Barrot H.; Voets, Ancella; Pont, Sandrine; Maruyama, Haruka; Kilonzo, Gad P.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, Tanzania has seen a rapid rise in the number of people who inject drugs (PWID), specifically heroin. While the overall HIV prevalence in Tanzania has declined recently to 5.6%, in 2009, the HIV prevalence among PWID remains alarmingly high at 35%. In this paper, we describe how the Tanzania AIDS Prevention Program (TAPP), Médecins du Monde France (MdM-F), and other organisations have been at the forefront of addressing this public health issue in Africa, implementing a wide array of harm reduction interventions including medication-assisted treatment (MAT), needle and syringe programs (NSP), and “sober houses” for residential treatment in the capital, Dar es Salaam, and in Zanzibar. Looking toward the future, we discuss the need to (1) extend existing services and programs to reach more PWID and others at risk for HIV, (2) develop additional programs to strengthen existing programs, and (3) expand activities to include structural interventions to address vulnerabilities that increase HIV risk for all Tanzanians. PMID:23346410

  19. Sexual Behavior of Older Adults Living with HIV in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15%). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42%), while few women shared this opinion (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts.

  20. Narrative review of current context of malaria and management strategies in Uganda (Part I).

    PubMed

    Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Liow, Eric; Rasool, Nabeela

    2015-12-01

    In accordance with international targets, the Uganda National Malaria Control Strategic Plan established specific targets to be achieved by 2010. For children under five, this included increasing the number of children sleeping under mosquito nets and those receiving a first-line antimalarial to 85%, and decreasing case fatality to 2%. This narrative review offers contextual information relevant to malaria management in Uganda since the advent of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as first-line antimalarial treatment in 2004. A comprehensive search using key words and phrases was conducted using the web search engines Google and Google Scholar, as well as the databases of PubMed, ERIC, EMBASE, CINAHL, OvidSP (MEDLINE), PSYC Info, Springer Link, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. A total of 147 relevant international and Ugandan literature sources meeting the inclusion criteria were included. This review provides an insightful understanding on six topic areas: global and local priorities, malarial pathology, disease burden, malaria control, treatment guidelines for uncomplicated malaria, and role of the health system in accessing antimalarial medicines. Plasmodium falciparum remains the most common cause of malaria in Uganda, with children under five being most vulnerable due to their underdeveloped immunity. While international efforts to scale up malaria control measures have resulted in considerable decline in malaria incidence and mortality in several regions of sub-Saharan Africa, this benefit has yet to be substantiated for Uganda. At the local level, key initiatives have included implementation of a new antimalarial drug policy in 2004 and strengthening of government health systems and programs. Examples of such programs include removal of user fees, training of frontline health workers, providing free ACT from government systems and subsidized ACT from licensed private

  1. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  2. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe: Service Delivery Intensity and Modality and Their Influence on the Age of Clients

    PubMed Central

    Ashengo, Tigistu Adamu; Hatzold, Karin; Mahler, Hally; Rock, Amelia; Kanagat, Natasha; Magalona, Sophia; Curran, Kelly; Christensen, Alice; Castor, Delivette; Mugurungi, Owen; Dhlamini, Roy; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to 80% of men aged 15–49 within five years could avert 3.4 million new HIV infections in Eastern and Southern Africa by 2025. Since 2009, Tanzania and Zimbabwe have rapidly expanded VMMC services through different delivery (fixed, outreach or mobile) and intensity (routine services, campaign) models. This review describes the modality and intensity of VMMC services and its influence on the number and age of clients. Methods and Findings Program reviews were conducted using data from implementing partners in Tanzania (MCHIP) and Zimbabwe (PSI). Key informant interviews (N = 13 Tanzania; N = 8 Zimbabwe) were conducted; transcripts were analyzed using Nvivo. Routine VMMC service data for May 2009–December 2012 were analyzed and presented in frequency tables. A descriptive analysis and association was performed using the z-ratio for the significance of the difference. Key informants in both Tanzania and Zimbabwe believe VMMC scale-up can be achieved by using a mix of service delivery modality and intensity approaches. In Tanzania, the majority of clients served during campaigns (59%) were aged 10–14 years while the majority during routine service delivery (64%) were above 15 (p<0.0001). In Zimbabwe, significantly more VMMCs were done during campaigns (64%) than during routine service delivery (36%) (p<0.00001); the difference in the age of clients accessing services in campaign versus non-campaign settings was significant for age groups 10–24 (p<0.05), but not for older groups. Conclusions In Tanzania and Zimbabwe, service delivery modalities and intensities affect client profiles in conjunction with other contextual factors such as implementing campaigns during school holidays in Zimbabwe and cultural preference for circumcision at a young age in Tanzania. Formative research needs to be an integral part of VMMC programs to guide the design of service delivery modalities in the face of, or

  3. Report of the 7th African Rotavirus Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 8th November 2012.

    PubMed

    Seheri, L M; Mwenda, J M; Page, N

    2014-11-12

    The 7th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Cape Town, South Africa, on the 8th November 2012 as a Satellite Symposium at the First International African Vaccinology Conference. Over 150 delegates participated in this symposium including scientists, clinicians, health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers from across Africa. Key topics discussed included rotavirus surveillance, rotavirus vaccine introduction, post rotavirus vaccine impact analysis and intussusception data and surveillance in Africa. The symposium provided early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Botswana) an opportunity to share up-to-date information on vaccine introduction, and allowed colleagues to share experiences in establishing routine rotavirus surveillance (Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda). Overall, the symposium highlighted the high burden of rotavirus in Africa, and the need to continue to strengthen efforts in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa.

  4. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Kimaro, Didas; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986–2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission, but they successfully anticipate most known foci in the region, making possible the development of a risk map of plague. PMID:20207880

  5. Global Health Donor Presence, Variations in HIV/AIDS Prevalence, and External Resources for Health in Developing Countries in Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus Emeka; Singh, Gopal K.; Ekejiuba, Sussan E.; Ashu, Eta; Azuine, Magnus A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The presence of multiple global health aid organizations in donor recipient countries at any point in time has led to arguments for and against aid coordination and aid pluralism. Little data, however, exist to empirically demonstrate the relationship between donor presence and longitudinal disease outcomes in donor-recipient countries. We examined the association between global health donor presence and changes in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 14 developing countries: 12 in Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Burkina Faso and Mali) and compared them with two developing countries in Asia (India and Vietnam). Methods: To conduct our analyses, we conceptualized a framework for examining global health donor presence and disease outcomes. Donor presence data were derived from Mapping the Donor Landscape in Global Health: HIV/AIDS, a report published by the Kaiser Family Foundation, Washington, DC, USA. HIV/AIDS prevalence data were obtained and analyzed from the World Health Statistics and the Demographic and Health Surveys. Percent changes in national HIV/AIDS prevalence between 2009 and 2011 in the 14 developing countries were computed and correlation coefficients between donor presence and prevalence changes were calculated. Results: Between 2009 and 2011, HIV/AIDS prevalence decreased in all but one of the 14 developing countries with the presence of 21 or more global health donors. There was about 40% overall reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence across the 14 countries in our analyses. South Africa recorded the most reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence (-6.7%) followed by Zambia (-6.3, %), and Mozambique (-5.7%). Ethiopia was the only country without a reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence (+0.1%). A correlation coefficient of 0.43 implied greater reductions in HIV/AIDS prevalence associated with increased donor presence. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Our study shows a correlation between

  6. Factors which predict violence victimization in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Lincoln

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violence is a major public health issue, globally and on the African continent. This paper looks at Uganda and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the study results for violence prevention programs. Methods The study includes the responses of 2 399 Ugandans collected in 2011 by the Fifth Round of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 259 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the last year. Results Logistical regression analysis identified six factors that predict physical violence in Uganda. In order, these included being the victim of a property crime, age, gender, fear of crime in the home, poverty, and residential crowding. The surprising findings relate to what may be called target hardening, especially for those likely to be re-victimized. Respondents did tend to be re-victimized, with about 61 percent of violence victims also property crime victims. Fear of crime in home was another predictor of violence victimization, and many of these respondents had been crime victims. Conclusion These findings imply that target hardening should be the basis to begin to implement violence prevention programs in Uganda. The suggestion is crime prevention personnel/ law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimization and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:25918575

  7. Bubonic and pneumonic plague - Uganda, 2006.

    PubMed

    2009-07-24

    Plague is a life-threatening fleaborne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The most common clinical form is bubonic plague, which is characterized by high fever and regional lymphadenitis. Without treatment, infection can spread from lymph nodes to the lungs, resulting in pneumonic plague and the potential for person-to-person transmission through respiratory droplets. In November 2006, the Uganda Ministry of Health received reports of an increase in bubonic plague cases and a possible outbreak of pneumonic plague among residents in the Arua and Nebbi districts. In response, the Uganda Ministry of Health and CDC conducted a joint investigation in the two districts during November 28-December 30, 2006. Overall, 127 clinical plague cases were identified, along with evidence of a focal pneumonic outbreak in Nebbi District. Median age of the patients was 14 years (range: 2 weeks-65 years); 65 (51%) were female. Twenty-eight (22%) of the 127 patients died. Among the 102 patients with documented symptoms, 90 (88%) had bubonic plague, and 12 (12%) had pneumonic plague. The results of this investigation underscore the need to 1) continue efforts to educate residents of rural Uganda regarding the source, signs, and symptoms of plague and the life-saving importance of seeking treatment; 2) strengthen plague surveillance and diagnostic capabilities; and 3) improve emergency response and vector-control capacity, especially in remote regions of the country.

  8. [Trypanosomiasis--a real risk for tourists visiting national parks in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Eelco

    2002-01-10

    African sleeping sickness is no longer a rare disease among tourists visiting national parks in Tanzania. The disease is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, which is transmitted by the tsetse fly. Two species infect humans: Trypanosoma brucci gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; the last form is re-emerging in parts of Africa. Untreated this disease carries a mortality of nearly 100%. This article describes a case of African sleeping sickness in a tourist visiting Tanzania, which was diagnosed at the Nordic Clinic, Dar es Salaam. The most important symptoms, diagnostic investigations as well as the main principles of treatment are described. Patients with this condition need to be admitted and treated at centres with competence in tropical diseases. African sleeping sickness should be kept in mind in tourists returning to their home country with fever after visits to national parks in Eastern Africa. With early treatment, cure is almost certain. The only way to prevent this condition is through protection against bites of the tsetse fly.

  9. The Burden of Rabies in Tanzania and Its Impact on Local Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Maganga; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ferguson, Heather; Lembo, Tiziana; Simon, Cleophas; Urassa, Honorati; Hampson, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Background Rabies remains a major public health threat in many parts of the world and is responsible for an estimated 55,000 human deaths annually. The burden of rabies is estimated to be around US$20 million in Africa, with the highest financial expenditure being the cost of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, these calculations may be substantial underestimates because the costs to households of coping with endemic rabies have not been investigated. We therefore aimed to estimate the household costs, health-seeking behaviour, coping strategies, and outcomes of exposure to rabies in rural and urban communities in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Extensive investigative interviews were used to estimate the incidence of human deaths and bite exposures. Questionnaires with bite victims and their families were used to investigate health-seeking behaviour and costs (medical and non-medical costs) associated with exposure to rabies. We calculated that an average patient in rural Tanzania, where most people live on less than US$1 per day, would need to spend over US$100 to complete WHO recommended PEP schedules. High costs and frequent shortages of PEP led to poor compliance with PEP regimens, delays in presentation to health facilities, and increased risk of death. Conclusion The true costs of obtaining PEP were twice as high as those previously reported from Africa and should be considered in re-evaluations of the burden of rabies. PMID:24244767

  10. Gender and Age-Appropriate Enrolment in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Secondary school enrolment in Uganda has historically favoured males over females. Recently, however, researchers have reported that the secondary enrolment gender gap has significantly diminished, and perhaps even disappeared in Uganda. Even if gender parity is being achieved for enrolment broadly, there may be a gender gap concerning…

  11. Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Circulating in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Byarugaba, Denis K.; Ducatez, Mariette F.; Erima, Bernard; Mworozi, Edison A.; Millard, Monica; Kibuuka, Hannah; Lukwago, Luswa; Bwogi, Josephine; Kaira, Blanche B.; Mimbe, Derrick; Schnabel, David C.; Krauss, Scott; Darnell, Daniel; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability of complete influenza virus genomes is deepening our understanding of influenza evolutionary dynamics and facilitating the selection of vaccine strains. However, only one complete African influenza virus sequence is available in the public domain. Here we present a complete genome analysis of 59 influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from humans in Uganda during the 2008 and 2009 season. Isolates were recovered from hospital-based sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illnesses and their whole genome sequenced. The viruses circulating during these two seasons clearly differed from each other phylogenetically. They showed a slow evolution away from the 2009/10 recommended vaccine strain (A/Brisbane/10/07), instead clustering with the 2010/11 recommended vaccine strain (A/Perth/16/09) in the A/Victoria/208/09 clade, as observed in other global regions. All of the isolates carried the adamantane resistance marker S31N in the M2 gene and carried several markers of enhanced transmission; as expected, none carried any marker of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. The hemagglutinin gene of the 2009 isolates differed from that of the 2008 isolates in antigenic sites A, B, D, and to a lesser extent, C and E indicating evidence of an early phylogenetic shift from the 2008 to 2009 viruses. The internal genes of the 2009 isolates were similar to those of one 2008 isolate, A/Uganda/MUWRP-050/2008. Another 2008 isolate had a truncated PB1-F2 protein. Whole genome sequencing can enhance surveillance of future seasonal changes in the viral genome which is crucial to ensure that selected vaccine strains are protective against the strains circulating in Eastern Africa. This data provides an important baseline for this surveillance. Overall the influenza virus activity in Uganda appears to mirror that observed in other regions of the southern hemisphere. PMID:22132146

  13. Costs of early detection systems for epidemic malaria in highland areas of Kenya and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Dirk H; Abeku, Tarekegn A; Okia, Michael; Rapuoda, Beth; Cox, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria epidemics cause substantial morbidity and mortality in highland areas of Africa. The costs of detecting and controlling these epidemics have not been explored adequately in the past. This study presents the costs of establishing and running an early detection system (EDS) for epidemic malaria in four districts in the highlands of Kenya and Uganda. Methods An economic costing was carried out from the health service provider's perspective in both countries. Staff time for data entry and processing, as well as supervising and coordinating EDS activities at district and national levels was recorded and associated opportunity costs estimated. A threshold analysis was carried out to determine the number of DALYs or deaths that would need to be averted in order for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. Results The total costs of the EDS per district per year ranged between US$ 14,439 and 15,512. Salaries were identified as major cost-drivers, although their relative contribution to overall costs varied by country. Costs of relaying surveillance data between facilities and district offices (typically by hand) were also substantial. Data from Uganda indicated that 4% or more of overall costs could potentially be saved by switching to data transfer via mobile phones. Based on commonly used thresholds, 96 DALYs in Uganda and 103 DALYs in Kenya would need to be averted annually in each district for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion Results from this analysis suggest that EDS are likely to be cost-effective. Further studies that include the costs and effects of the health systems' reaction prompted by EDS will need to be undertaken in order to obtain comprehensive cost-effectiveness estimates. PMID:19149878

  14. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M.; Travis, Dominic A.; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R.; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. Methodology and Principal Findings 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2–40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9–24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4–108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2–3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. Conclusions/Significance The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and “smear-negative malaria” in rural East Africa. PMID:27487398

  15. Two Distinct Yersinia pestis Populations Causing Plague among Humans in the West Nile Region of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B.; Yockey, Brook M.; Acayo, Sarah; Kaggwa, John; Apangu, Titus; Kugeler, Kiersten J.; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Petersen, Jeannine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Plague is a life-threatening disease caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Since the 1990s, Africa has accounted for the majority of reported human cases. In Uganda, plague cases occur in the West Nile region, near the border with Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite the ongoing risk of contracting plague in this region, little is known about Y. pestis genotypes causing human disease. Methodology/Principal Findings During January 2004–December 2012, 1,092 suspect human plague cases were recorded in the West Nile region of Uganda. Sixty-one cases were culture-confirmed. Recovered Y. pestis isolates were analyzed using three typing methods, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and subpopulations analyzed in the context of associated geographic, temporal, and clinical data for source patients. All three methods separated the 61 isolates into two distinct 1.ANT lineages, which persisted throughout the 9 year period and were associated with differences in elevation and geographic distribution. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that human cases of plague in the West Nile region of Uganda are caused by two distinct 1.ANT genetic subpopulations. Notably, all three typing methods used, SNPs, PFGE, and MLVA, identified the two genetic subpopulations, despite recognizing different mutation types in the Y. pestis genome. The geographic and elevation differences between the two subpopulations is suggestive of their maintenance in highly localized enzootic cycles, potentially with differing vector-host community composition. This improved understanding of Y. pestis subpopulations in the West Nile region will be useful for identifying ecologic and environmental factors associated with elevated plague risk. PMID:26866815

  16. East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

    2012-04-01

    ) (Fritz et al., 2009). Majority of data suggest an anticlockwise P-T loop and prolonged, slow cooling at deep crustal levels without significant exhumation. Isobaric cooling is explained by horizontal flow with rates faster than thermal equilibration of the lower crust. Those settings are found in domains of previously thinned lithosphere such as extended passive margins. Such rheolgically weak plate boundaries do not produce self-sustaining one-sided subduction but large areas of magmatic underplating that enable melt enhanced lateral flow of the lower crust. Western Granulites deformed by high-vorticity westwards thrusting at c. 550 Ma (Kuunga orogeny). Rocks exhibit clockwise P-T paths and experienced significant exhumation during isothermal decompression. Overprint between Kuungan structures and 620 Ma East African fabrics resulted in complex interference pattern within the Eastern Granulites. The three orogen portions that converge in Tanzania / Southern Kenya have different orogen styles. The southern ANS formed by transcurrent deformation of an island arc root; the Eastern Granulites by lower crustal channelized flow of a hot inverted passive margin; the Western Granulites by lower to mid crustal stacking of old and cold crustal fragments. Collins, A.S., Pisarevsky, S.A. (2005). Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: The evolution of the Circum-Indian Orogens. Earth-Science Reviews, 71, 229-270. De Waele, B., Kampunzu, A.B., Mapani, B.S.E., Tembo, F. (2006). The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt of Zambia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 46, 36-70 Fritz, H., Tenczer, V., Hauzenberger, C., Wallbrecher, E., Muhongo, S. (2009). Hot granulite nappes — Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa. Tectonophysics, 477, 160-173.

  17. Armies of east and southern Africa fighting a guerrilla war with AIDS. Special report: AIDS and the military.

    PubMed

    Yeager, R

    1995-12-01

    AIDS prevention and care programs administered by the defense forces of Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe embody information, education, and communication, condom promotion, sexually transmitted disease (STD) control, safe blood supply, pre- and post-test counseling, and support for those afflicted. Rules of the UN peacekeeping operations are also observed: training in HIV prevention, testing prior to deployment, and no deployment of troops infected. The militaries' efforts are linked with the endeavors of national AIDS programs run by civilian government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. The various policies towards HIV-infected personnel usually employ discharge provisions only when the soldier is unable to perform his duties. Health education is part of the militaries' programs. In Malawi each unit in military school is educated about HIV/STD transmission and condom use. In Tanzania HIV-positive troops are counseled and those with symptoms are given a sick leave to prepare for retirement. The Ugandan Army operates nine health education centers that offer training and counseling. AIDS widows and orphans are cared for and their property rights are protected. In Zambia the military have trained HIV/AIDS counselors and HIV-positive persons are counseled and treated for up to seven years. In Zimbabwe, HIV-infected but fit servicemen continue service and are treated until death, while their dependents are cared for. Women are also included in the armies of these seven countries, but Malawi and Kenya restrict in-service marriages. Uganda and Zimbabwe have guidelines against sexual harassment and provide better living conditions for married couples. Only the Malawian Army tests all recruits for HIV prior to officer training. Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe have voluntary testing schemes, but reassessment is underway in Zambia where 25% of recruits are infected with HIV. The impact of HIV/AIDS can be reduced

  18. Armies of east and southern Africa fighting a guerrilla war with AIDS. Special report: AIDS and the military.

    PubMed

    Yeager, R

    1995-12-01

    AIDS prevention and care programs administered by the defense forces of Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe embody information, education, and communication, condom promotion, sexually transmitted disease (STD) control, safe blood supply, pre- and post-test counseling, and support for those afflicted. Rules of the UN peacekeeping operations are also observed: training in HIV prevention, testing prior to deployment, and no deployment of troops infected. The militaries' efforts are linked with the endeavors of national AIDS programs run by civilian government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. The various policies towards HIV-infected personnel usually employ discharge provisions only when the soldier is unable to perform his duties. Health education is part of the militaries' programs. In Malawi each unit in military school is educated about HIV/STD transmission and condom use. In Tanzania HIV-positive troops are counseled and those with symptoms are given a sick leave to prepare for retirement. The Ugandan Army operates nine health education centers that offer training and counseling. AIDS widows and orphans are cared for and their property rights are protected. In Zambia the military have trained HIV/AIDS counselors and HIV-positive persons are counseled and treated for up to seven years. In Zimbabwe, HIV-infected but fit servicemen continue service and are treated until death, while their dependents are cared for. Women are also included in the armies of these seven countries, but Malawi and Kenya restrict in-service marriages. Uganda and Zimbabwe have guidelines against sexual harassment and provide better living conditions for married couples. Only the Malawian Army tests all recruits for HIV prior to officer training. Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe have voluntary testing schemes, but reassessment is underway in Zambia where 25% of recruits are infected with HIV. The impact of HIV/AIDS can be reduced

  19. Education and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgwood, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the returns to education in Tanzania, both financial and non-financial, and considers whether these returns translate into poverty reduction. It looks at reasons why achievement of high primary enrolment rates in the past did not lead to the realisation of the associated developmental outcomes, considering factors…

  20. Curriculum Unit: Kenya and Tanzania, Tourist Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This curriculum guide is designed to enable teachers and ninth grade students to develop a clearer understanding of the countries of Kenya and Tanzania and the economic needs of their citizens. A pretest-posttest examination with 20 true or false questions, 2 essay questions, and a list of 50 vocabulary words is provided. Brief descriptions of the…

  1. Evolution of Elections Management in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, A. S.; Mdegella, O. M.; Lubawa, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the evolution of elections management in Tanzania with a focus on technological advancement in administering registration of voters. The paper provides the merits that permanent voters register has brought over the thumb practice. It traces the management of elections during colonialism, after independence…

  2. Land Use Land Cover Change in the Albertine Region of Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Plumptre, A.; Goetz, S. J.

    2003-12-01

    Monitoring threats to protected areas and species is a major challenge for the conservation community. The Albertine Rift region is a hot spot of biodiversity with many endemic vertebrates and plant species. Most of forests east of the Albertine (Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi) are, however, highly fragmented and human population densities are some of the highest of Africa. In this study, we used a series of Landsat images to provide a quantitative assessment of forest loss between the 1980s to year 2000 for the protected areas in the Western Uganda. In this region, monitoring forest conversion to agricultural land and modeling future threats for the protected areas system are important to the maintenance of wildlife populations. By combining remote sensing monitoring techniques with traditional field surveys, it becomes easier to monitor and manage extensive protected area systems. Most of the forest loss (deforestation) was located outside the official protected area limits, indicating that active deforestation during this period is mainly located on non protected lands. The largest forest loss was located in the north around Bugoma, Budonga and Kagombe Forest Reserves and is associated with large scale farming and mechanized logging.

  3. Implementation of a comprehensive AIDS education programme for schools in Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, J; Harrison, S; Kengeya-Kayondo, J; Kanyesigye, E; Musoke, S; Whitworth, J

    1999-10-01

    As part of a large IEC (Information, Education and Communication)/STD intervention trial, a 19-lesson, comprehensive school-based AIDS education programme was implemented and evaluated in 50 primary and 16 secondary schools in 12 parishes of Masaka District, Uganda. A series of three teacher-training and evaluation workshops spread over a year was held in each parish, between which teachers implemented the programme in the classroom. One hundred and forty-eight teachers were trained and about 3,500 students were subsequently exposed to the programme. Both teachers and students responded positively, which suggests that this type of programme has much to offer young people who attend school. However, some problems were encountered: language, programme content, community resistance to teaching about condoms, and several practical issues. Proposed solutions include flexibility with the English language policy, alternative approaches to role play activities, targeting influential individuals with information about the need for young people to learn about safer sex, and a parallel community-based IEC programme to facilitate community acceptance of the need for the programme. In addition, implementation may be incomplete unless comprehensive AIDS education is fully incorporated into the curriculum, and properly examined. These findings are placed in the context of other life skills/AIDS education programmes being introduced both in Uganda and elsewhere in Africa.

  4. The prevalence and clinical course of HIV-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Samuel D; Worodria, William; Davis, JL; Cattamanchi, Adithya; den Boon, Saskia; Kyeyune, Rachel; Kisembo, Harriet; Huang, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence and clinical course of pulmonary cryptococcosis in Sub-Saharan Africa are not well-described. Methods Consecutive HIV-infected adults hospitalized at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) between September 2007 and July 2008 with cough ≥ 2 weeks were enrolled. Patients with negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli were referred for bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL fluid was examined for mycobacteria, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and fungi. Patients were followed two and six months after hospital discharge. Results Of 407 patients enrolled, 132 (32%) underwent bronchoscopy. Of 132 BAL fungal cultures, 15 (11%) grew Cryptococcus neoformans. None of the patients were suspected to have pulmonary cryptococcosis on admission. The median CD4 count among those with pulmonary cryptococcosis was 23 cells/µL (IQR 7–51). Of 13 patients who completed six-month follow-up, four died and nine were improved, including five who had started antiretroviral therapy (ART) but had not received antifungal medication. Conclusions Pulmonary cryptococcosis is common in HIV-infected TB suspects in Uganda. Early initiation of ART in those with isolated pulmonary infection may improve outcomes, even without anti-fungal therapy. This finding suggests that some HIV-infected patients with C. neoformans isolated from respiratory samples may have colonization or localized infection. PMID:20150818

  5. Stroke risk factors differ between rural and urban communities: population survey in central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Furlan, Anthony J; Kayima, James; Ddumba, Edward; Katabira, Elly; Byakika-Tusiime, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic transition is changing urban and rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed stroke risk factors and associated characteristics in urban and rural Uganda. Methods We surveyed 5420 urban and rural participants and assessed stroke risk factor prevalence and socio-behavioural characteristics associated with risk factors. Results Rural participants were older with higher proportions of men and fewer poor compared to urban areas. Most prevalent modifiable stroke risk factors in all areas were hypertension (27.1% rural and 22.4% urban, P=0.004), overweight and obesity (22.0% rural and 42% urban P<0.0001), and elevated waist hip ratio (25.8% rural and 24.1% urban P=0.045). Diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, harmful alcohol consumption were found in ≤5%. Age, family history of hypertension, and waist hip ratio were associated with hypertension in all while BMI, HIV were associated with hypertension only in urban dwellers. Sex and family history of hypertension were associated with BMI in all, while age and socio-economic status, diabetes were associated with BMI in urban dwellers only. Conclusions Stroke risk factors of diabetes, smoking, inactivity and harmful alcohol consumption are rare in Uganda. Rural dwellers tend to be older with hypertension and elevated waist hip ratio. Unlike high-income countries, higher socioeconomic status is associated with overweight and obesity. PMID:25967045

  6. Acceptability of male circumcision for prevention of HIV infection among men and women in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Albert, Lisa M; Akol, Angela; L'Engle, Kelly; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Ramirez, Catalina B; Opio, Alex; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Thomsen, Sarah; Neema, Stella; Baine, Sebastian O

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, three randomized controlled trials in Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda have shown that medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces the sexual transmission of HIV from women to men. Objectives of this assessment were to measure acceptability of adult MMC and circumcision of children to inform policies regarding whether and how to promote MMC as an HIV prevention strategy. This mixed-method study, conducted across four Ugandan districts, included a two-stage household survey of 833 adult males and 842 adult females, focus group discussions, and a health provider survey. Respondents' acceptability of MMC was positive and substantial after being informed about the results of recent randomized trials. In uncircumcised men, between 40% and 62% across the districts would consider getting circumcised. Across the four districts between 60% and 86% of fathers and 49% and 95% of mothers were supportive of MMC for sons. Widespread support exists among men and women in this study for promoting MMC as part of Uganda's current 'ABC + ' HIV prevention strategy. PMID:21732902

  7. Aspirations for quality health care in Uganda: How do we get there?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite significant investments and reforms, health care remains poor for many in Africa. To design an intervention to improve access and quality of health care at health facilities in eastern Uganda, we aimed to understand local priorities for qualities in health care, and factors that enable or prevent these qualities from being enacted. Methods In 2009 to 2010, we carried out 69 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions with 65 health workers at 17 health facilities, and 10 focus group discussions with 113 community members in Tororo District, Uganda. Results Health-care workers and seekers valued technical, interpersonal and resource qualities in their aspirations for health care. However, such qualities were frequently not enacted, and our analysis suggests that meeting aspirations required social and financial resources to negotiate various power structures. Conclusions We argue that achieving aspirations for qualities valued in health care will require a genuine reorientation of focus by health workers and their managers toward patients, through renewed respect and support for these providers as professionals. PMID:23521859

  8. Modeling solutions to Tanzania's physician workforce challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goodell, Alex J.; Kahn, James G.; Ndeki, Sidney S.; Kaale, Eliangiringa; Kaaya, Ephata E.; Macfarlane, Sarah B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a great need for physicians in Tanzania. In 2012, there were approximately 0.31 physicians per 10,000 individuals nationwide, with a lower ratio in the rural areas, where the majority of the population resides. In response, universities across Tanzania have greatly increased the enrollment of medical students. Yet evidence suggests high attrition of medical graduates to other professions and emigration from rural areas where they are most needed. Objective To estimate the future number of physicians practicing in Tanzania and the potential impact of interventions to improve retention, we built a model that tracks medical students from enrollment through clinical practice, from 1990 to 2025. Design We designed a Markov process with 92 potential states capturing the movement of 25,000 medical students and physicians from medical training through employment. Work possibilities included clinical practice (divided into rural or urban, public or private), non-clinical work, and emigration. We populated and calibrated the model using a national 2005/2006 physician mapping survey, as well as graduation records, graduate tracking surveys, and other available data. Results The model projects massive losses to clinical practice between 2016 and 2025, especially in rural areas. Approximately 56% of all medical school students enrolled between 2011 and 2020 will not be practicing medicine in Tanzania in 2025. Even with these losses, the model forecasts an increase in the physician-to-population ratio to 1.4 per 10,000 by 2025. Increasing the absorption of recent graduates into the public sector and/or developing a rural training track would ameliorate physician attrition in the most underserved areas. Conclusions Tanzania is making significant investments in the training of physicians. Without linking these doctors to employment and ensuring their retention, the majority of this investment in medical education will be jeopardized. PMID:27357075

  9. HIV prevention strategies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Menting, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns the administration of governmental and nongovernmental programs for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Africa. A 1986 government campaign in the prevention of HIV in Senegal has been initiated and has been guided consistently. The Society for Women and AIDS in Africa (SWAA) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) which assembles young population, women, and communities, towards their goal to prevent HIV infection. Marocaine de Lutte Contre le SIDA (ALCS), another NGO in Morocco believes that early intervention and education could help prevent further spread of infection. ALCS focused on the education of sex workers and the use of condoms. They also work with a group of men to promote safe sex and tackle the need for better testing facilities. In Uganda, the focus of the organization is to control the high incidence found in couples with only one infected partner. Another organization incorporates accurate HIV/AIDS information during prayers and other religious activities. Another approach was adopted by teaching English in secondary schools with AIDS information, values on education, family, and employment as content. An NGO in Cape Town was established to form loose cooperative to exchange information and resources within the community. An ongoing nationwide campaign for HIV prevention and control especially among high-risk groups and an effort on STD treatment is being organized.

  10. Language promotion for educational purposes: The example of Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubagumya, Casmir M.

    1991-03-01

    Kiswahili is one of the most widely used languages in East and Central Africa. In Tanzania, where it is the national language, attempts have been made to develop it so that it can be used as an efficient tool of communication in all sectors of the society, including education. This paper shows that although Kiswahili has successfully been promoted as the medium of primary and adult education, at secondary and tertiary levels of education, its position is still precarious. The notion that English and Kiswahili are in complementary distribution is rejected. It is argued that the two languages are in conflict, and that those who are in a better socio-political/economic position have more control of, and better access to, English. In such a situation the right question to ask is not in which domains English is used, but why it is used in such domains and who uses it. The paper further argues that the present sociolinguistic environment makes the use of English as a viable medium unsustainable. For this reason, insistence on the use of English adversely affects the learning process. It is suggested that if Kiswahili became the medium of education at secondary school level and English was taught well as a foreign language, this would help to promote both languages without jeopardising the learning process.

  11. Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils of Kenya and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenstock, Todd S.; Mpanda, Mathew; Pelster, David E.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thiong'o, Margaret; Mutuo, Paul; Abwanda, Sheila; Rioux, Janie; Kimaro, Anthony A.; Neufeldt, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in soils is a prerequisite to constrain national, continental, and global GHG budgets. However, data characterizing fluxes from agricultural soils of Africa are markedly limited. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) fluxes at 10 farmer-managed sites of six crop types for 1 year in Kenya and Tanzania using static chambers and gas chromatography. Cumulative emissions ranged between 3.5-15.9 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 0.4-3.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, and -1.2-10.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1, depending on crop type, environmental conditions, and management. Manure inputs increased CO2 (p = 0.03), but not N2O or CH4, emissions. Soil cultivation had no discernable effect on emissions of any of the three gases. Fluxes of CO2 and N2O were 54-208% greater (p < 0.05) during the wet versus the dry seasons for some, but not all, crop types. The heterogeneity and seasonality of fluxes suggest that the available data describing soil fluxes in Africa, based on measurements of limited duration of only a few crop types and agroecological zones, are inadequate to use as a basis for estimating the impact of agricultural soils on GHG budgets. A targeted effort to understand the magnitude and mechanisms underlying African agricultural soil fluxes is necessary to accurately estimate the influence of this source on the global climate system and for determining mitigation strategies.

  12. Homicide of children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Outwater, Anne; Mgaya, Edward; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Becker, Stan; Kinabo, Linna; Menick, Daniel Mbassa

    2014-01-01

    Background Although data are sparse, it has been estimated that the highest rates of homicide death amongst children are in Africa. Little information is available on ages 0 -< 15 years. No reliable quantitative surveillance analysis of neonaticide (killed at less than one week) has been done. Methods A Violent Death Survey following WHO/CDC Guidelines was completed in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania (DSM) (population 2.845 million) in 2005. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered and analyzed using mixed methods techniques. Results The overall age adjusted rate of discarded and killed children in DSM was 2.05. The rate of neonaticide was 27.7 per 100,000) while the rate of homicide incidence for children > one day was Discussion The overall estimated homicide rate for Africa of children under age 15 was 4.53 per 100,000, whereas. The estimated global rate is 1.7 per 100,000 closer to DSM‘s rate. The results in DSM show that broad age groupings such as ” <1 year” or “0–4 years” or “0 – <15 years” may mask a high incidence of neonaticide and an otherwise low incidence of murdered children. The print media provided good in-depth coverage for a few cases but it is not known if the reported cases are representative. Conclusion Eighty percent of homicides of children in DSM are neonaticides. Since it is believed that the forces behind neonaticide are fundamentally different than homicides of older children, it is suggested that data of future surveys be parsed to include neonates, until the phenomenon is more clearly understood and addressed. Further understanding of the mother and father of the deceased is needed. Continued surveillance data collection is important to expand the sample size. PMID:22066333

  13. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  14. Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Results and discussion Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. Conclusions To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological testing, preclinical testing

  15. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Henry; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  16. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  17. Study of the genetic heterogeneity of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-Saharan Africa with specific focus on East Africa.

    PubMed

    Sahle, M; Dwarka, R M; Venter, E H; Vosloo, W

    2007-12-01

    The epidemiology of serotype SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-Saharan Africa by phylogenetic analysis using the 1D gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. Fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to East Africa, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. The genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between East, southern and south-western Africa. One lineage was unique to West Africa. These results established numerous incursions across country borders in East Africa and long term conservation of sequences for periods up to 41 years. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda have all experienced outbreaks from more than one unrelated strain, demonstrating the potential for new introductions. The amount of variation observed within this serotype nearly equalled that which was found between serotypes; this has severe implications for disease control using vaccination. PMID:18453238

  18. Adapting group interpersonal psychotherapy for a developing country: experience in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Verdeli, Helen; Clougherty, Kathleen; Bolton, Paul; Speelman, Liesbeth; Lincoln, Ndogoni; Bass, Judith; Neugebauer, Richard; Weissman, Myrna M

    2003-06-01

    The current prevalence of depressive symptoms in Southwest Uganda, an area greatly affected by the HIV epidemic, has been shown to be as high as 21%. Traditional healers have expressed inability to treat these symptoms. The lack of physicians and high cost of medication make the use of antidepressants unfeasible. Therefore, an evidence-based psychotherapy was considered a reasonable treatment option by a team of health researchers familiar with the local culture, who designed a randomized controlled clinical trial. Interpersonal psychotherapy in a group format (IPT-G) was selected because it was time limited, was described in a manual, and had evidence of efficacy from clinical trials. Moreover, its focus on interpersonal triggers of depression was considered compatible with the culture. This paper describes the process of adapting the psychotherapy manual and the training of the group leaders who undertook the first psychotherapy clinical trial in Africa. PMID:16946913

  19. Adapting group interpersonal psychotherapy for a developing country: experience in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    VERDELI, HELEN; CLOUGHERTY, KATHLEEN; BOLTON, PAUL; SPEELMAN, LIESBETH; LINCOLN, NDOGONI; BASS, JUDITH; NEUGEBAUER, RICHARD; WEISSMAN, MYRNA M

    2003-01-01

    The current prevalence of depressive symptoms in Southwest Uganda, an area greatly affected by the HIV epidemic, has been shown to be as high as 21%. Traditional healers have expressed inability to treat these symptoms. The lack of physicians and high cost of medication make the use of antidepressants unfeasible. Therefore, an evidence-based psychotherapy was considered a reasonable treatment option by a team of health researchers familiar with the local culture, who designed a randomized controlled clinical trial. Interpersonal psychotherapy in a group format (IPT-G) was selected because it was time limited, was described in a manual, and had evidence of efficacy from clinical trials. Moreover, its focus on interpersonal triggers of depression was considered compatible with the culture. This paper describes the process of adapting the psychotherapy manual and the training of the group leaders who undertook the first psychotherapy clinical trial in Africa. PMID:16946913

  20. Coping Strategies for Landslide and Flood Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Mt. Elgon Region, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Osuret, Jimmy; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Mayega, Roy William; Ssentongo, Julius; Tumuhamye, Nathan; Mongo Bua, Grace; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bazeyo, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of landslides and floods in East Africa has increased over the past decades with enormous Public Health implications and massive alterations in the lives of those affected. In Uganda, the Elgon region is reported to have the highest occurrence of landslides and floods making this area vulnerable. This study aimed at understanding both coping strategies and the underlying causes of vulnerability to landslides and floods in the Mt. Elgon region. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in three districts of Bududa, Manafwa and Butalejja in the Mt. Elgon region in eastern Uganda. Six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and eight Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. We used trained research assistants (moderator and note taker) to collect data. All discussions were audio taped, and were transcribed verbatim before analysis. We explored both coping strategies and underlying causes of vulnerability. Data were analysed using latent content analysis; through identifying codes from which basis categories were generated and grouped into themes. Results: The positive coping strategies used to deal with landslides and floods included adoption of good farming methods, support from government and other partners, livelihood diversification and using indigenous knowledge in weather forecasting and preparedness. Relocation was identified as unsustainable because people often returned back to high risk areas. The key underlying causes of vulnerability were; poverty, population pressure making people move to high risk areas, unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness and, cultural beliefs affecting people’s ability to cope. Conclusion: This study revealed that deep rooted links to poverty, culture and unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness were responsible for failure to overcome the effects to landslides and floods in disaster prone communities of Uganda. However, good farming practices and support from the government and

  1. Beyond bushmeat: animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Paige, Sarah B; Frost, Simon D W; Gibson, Mhairi A; Jones, James Holland; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M; Ting, Nelson; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long-term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where "bushmeat hunting" is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission.

  2. Beyond bushmeat: Animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Sarah B.; Frost, Simon D.W.; Gibson, Mhairi A.; Holland, James; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M.; Ting, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/ 1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where “bushmeat hunting” is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:24845574

  3. West Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa     View Larger Image ... the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the ...

  4. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters     ... and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ...

  5. Under-five mortality and maternal HIV status in Tanzania: analysis of trends between 2003 and 2012 using AIDS Indicator Survey data

    PubMed Central

    Arunda, Malachi Ochieng; Choudhry, Vikas; Ekman, Björn; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality among children under five remains a significant health challenge across sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS is one of the leading contributors to the relatively slow decline in under-five mortality in this region. In Tanzania, HIV prevalence among under-five children is high and 90% of all infections are due to mother-to-child transmission. Objectives The study aimed to examine the association between maternal HIV-positive status and under-five mortality in Tanzania. It also aimed to estimate the proportions and trends of under-five mortality attributable to maternal HIV/AIDS in Tanzania between 2003 and 2012. Design Binomial logistic regression was used to analyze cross-sectional survey data from the Tanzania AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine the association between maternal HIV positivity and under-five mortality between 2003 and 2012. Results After controlling for confounders, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.5 (95% CI 1.1–1.9) in 2003–2004, 4.6 (95% CI 2.7–7.8) in 2007–2008, and 2.4 (95% CI 1.2–4.6) in 2011–2012. The maternal HIV-attributable mortality risk percent of under-five children was 3.7 percent in 2003–2004, 11.3 percent in 2007–2008 and 5.6% in 2011–2012. Conclusion Maternal HIV positivity is associated with under-five mortality in Tanzania, making maternal HIV serostatus a relevant determinant of whether a child will survive up to five years of age or not. The impact of maternal HIV/AIDS attributable mortality risk has a significant contribution to the overall under-five mortality in Tanzania. The continued monitoring of HIV and mortality trends is important for policy development and design of interventions. PMID:27329937

  6. Further experience with Kaposi's sarcoma in Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Serwadda, D.; Carswell, W.; Ayuko, W. O.; Wamukota, W.; Madda, P.; Downing, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Four Ugandan patients (1 women, 3 men) with generalized Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) were seen in the Uganda Cancer Institute between October 1983 and December 1984. They presented with generalized lymphadenopathy, plaques/nodules on the body, general swelling of the head, oral and visceral involvement and respiratory distress. Initial responses to adriamycin as a single or a combination chemotherapy of actinomycin D, vincristine, adriamycin and imidazole carboxamide appeared to be favourable but no sustained response was obtained. Serological tests for human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-II) antibodies were positive in all 4 cases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3011052

  7. Cost of individual peer counselling for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months is the recommended form of infant feeding. Support of mothers through individual peer counselling has been proved to be effective in increasing exclusive breastfeeding prevalence. We present a costing study of an individual peer support intervention in Uganda, whose objective was to raise exclusive breastfeeding rates at 3 months of age. Methods We costed the peer support intervention, which was offered to 406 breastfeeding mothers in Uganda. The average number of counselling visits was about 6 per woman. Annual financial and economic costs were collected in 2005-2008. Estimates were made of total project costs, average costs per mother counselled and average costs per peer counselling visit. Alternative intervention packages were explored in the sensitivity analysis. We also estimated the resources required to fund the scale up to district level, of a breastfeeding intervention programme within a public health sector model. Results Annual project costs were estimated to be US$56,308. The largest cost component was peer supporter supervision, which accounted for over 50% of total project costs. The cost per mother counselled was US$139 and the cost per visit was US$26. The cost per week of EBF was estimated to be US$15 at 12 weeks post partum. We estimated that implementing an alternative package modelled on routine public health sector programmes can potentially reduce costs by over 60%. Based on the calculated average costs and annual births, scaling up modelled costs to district level would cost the public sector an additional US$1,813,000. Conclusion Exclusive breastfeeding promotion in sub-Saharan Africa is feasible and can be implemented at a sustainable cost. The results of this study can be incorporated in cost effectiveness analyses of exclusive breastfeeding promotion programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21714877

  8. Consultancy research as a barrier to strengthening social science research capacity in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wight, Daniel; Ahikire, Josephine; Kwesiga, Joy C

    2014-09-01

    There is a shortage of senior African social scientists available to lead or manage research in Africa, undermining the continent's ability to interpret and solve its socio-economic and public health problems. This is despite decades of investment to strengthen research capacity. This study investigated the role of individually commissioned consultancy research in this lack of capacity. In 2006 structured interviews (N = 95) and two group discussions (N = 16 total) were conducted with a fairly representative sample of Ugandan academic social scientists from four universities. Twenty-four senior members of 22 Ugandan and international commissioning organizations were interviewed. Eight key actors were interviewed in greater depth. Much of Ugandan social science research appears to take the form of small, individually contracted consultancy projects. Researchers perceived this to constrain their professional development and, more broadly, social science research capacity across Uganda. Conversely, most research commissioners seemed broadly satisfied with the research expertise available and felt no responsibility to contribute to strengthening research capacity. Most consultancy research does not involve institutional overheads and there seems little awareness of, or interest in, such overheads. Although inequalities in the global knowledge economy are probably perpetuated primarily by macro-level factors, in line with Dependency Theory, meso-level factors are also important. The current research market and institutional structures in Uganda appear to create career paths that seriously impede the development of high quality social science research capacity, undermining donor investments and professional effort to strengthen this capacity. These problems are probably generic to much of sub-Saharan Africa. However, both commissioning and research organizations seem ready, in principle, to establish national guidelines for institutional research consultancies. These

  9. Consultancy research as a barrier to strengthening social science research capacity in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wight, Daniel; Ahikire, Josephine; Kwesiga, Joy C

    2014-09-01

    There is a shortage of senior African social scientists available to lead or manage research in Africa, undermining the continent's ability to interpret and solve its socio-economic and public health problems. This is despite decades of investment to strengthen research capacity. This study investigated the role of individually commissioned consultancy research in this lack of capacity. In 2006 structured interviews (N = 95) and two group discussions (N = 16 total) were conducted with a fairly representative sample of Ugandan academic social scientists from four universities. Twenty-four senior members of 22 Ugandan and international commissioning organizations were interviewed. Eight key actors were interviewed in greater depth. Much of Ugandan social science research appears to take the form of small, individually contracted consultancy projects. Researchers perceived this to constrain their professional development and, more broadly, social science research capacity across Uganda. Conversely, most research commissioners seemed broadly satisfied with the research expertise available and felt no responsibility to contribute to strengthening research capacity. Most consultancy research does not involve institutional overheads and there seems little awareness of, or interest in, such overheads. Although inequalities in the global knowledge economy are probably perpetuated primarily by macro-level factors, in line with Dependency Theory, meso-level factors are also important. The current research market and institutional structures in Uganda appear to create career paths that seriously impede the development of high quality social science research capacity, undermining donor investments and professional effort to strengthen this capacity. These problems are probably generic to much of sub-Saharan Africa. However, both commissioning and research organizations seem ready, in principle, to establish national guidelines for institutional research consultancies. These

  10. A dental experience with the Abayudaya community in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Zwetchkenbaum, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    If anyone told me four months ago that I would be taking out teeth and caring about the future of dental health in Uganda, the land of Idi Amin and Raid on Entebbe, I'd have told them they were crazy. I was going to Kenya for Operation Smile; a string of events led me to Samson Wamani, Medical Director for the Abayudaya community in Uganda, and helped me realize there's a huge difference between dental care here in the U.S., and what it is for fellow Jews of Uganda.

  11. AIDS in Africa: a political overview.

    PubMed

    Fredland, R A

    1989-01-01

    In examining the spread of AIDS throughout Africa, it is important to recognize the differential factors of geography, economics, politics and other sociodemographic factors. Many factors such as increased prostitution and the presence of socially sanctioned promiscuity in certain communities have helped to accelerate the spread of AIDS. Statistics show that the epidemic is affecting larger numbers and is demanding recognition by political and medical authorities. Between the years 1987 and 1988, the number of AIDS cases in Uganda quadrupled. A hospital in Zaire reported that 1/4 of all deaths recorded in its facility were AIDS related. In certain sections of Central and East Africa, 2-15% of pregnant women are HIV-positive. Poor coping systems and weakened economies have prevented countries from instituting expensive health education programs. Other countries hoping to combat the epidemic might replicate the efforts of Ugandans who have worked diligently to distribute 3 million leaflets of information and open 13 screening centers. It is recognized that the AIDS epidemic will negatively affect Africa's workforce, the combined economies of African nations, and social conditions. Research in the areas of population movements and social practices is crucial to forecast the patterns of the epidemic is needed. Western aid in research and educational activities is also important in Africa's battle against AIDS.

  12. A review of HIV-1 in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Plummer, F A; Simonsen, J N; Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Pamba, H

    1988-01-01

    As the AIDS epidemic reaches a dramatic stage of development, the time for African countries to establish effective control programs has come. The history of AIDS in Africa is different from that other regions of the world. The disease developed among heterosexual communities. By 1987, over 8,000 cases of AIDS had been reported from 37 of the 47 nations of Africa. Over 2,000 of these cases were found in Uganda. However, under-reporting and under-representation of the number of actual cases is still a problem. In many cases, there has been a failure to recognize the disease. The demographic and geographic distribution of seroprevalence is discussed. Because of the inaccuracies in AIDS reporting in Africa, epidemic forecasting is difficult. If 5 million are currently infected, a potential 50 million Africans may be infected by 1993. A further discussion of the risk factors for HIV-1 holds that promiscuity is the major problem. Cures and inexpensive treatments for the infection are years away. Energy, resources, and national committees in Africa and the world must be coordinated to combat the ultimate crisis of this century.

  13. Care-seeking patterns for fatal malaria in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    de Savigny, Don; Mayombana, Charles; Mwageni, Eleuther; Masanja, Honorati; Minhaj, Abdulatif; Mkilindi, Yahya; Mbuya, Conrad; Kasale, Harun; Reid, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Background Once malaria occurs, deaths can be prevented by prompt treatment with relatively affordable and efficacious drugs. Yet this goal is elusive in Africa. The paradox of a continuing but easily preventable cause of high mortality raises important questions for policy makers concerning care-seeking and access to health systems. Although patterns of care-seeking during uncomplicated malaria episodes are well known, studies in cases of fatal malaria are rare. Care-seeking behaviours may differ between these groups. Methods This study documents care-seeking events in 320 children less than five years of age with fatal malaria seen between 1999 and 2001 during over 240,000 person-years of follow-up in a stable perennial malaria transmission setting in southern Tanzania. Accounts of care-seeking recorded in verbal autopsy histories were analysed to determine providers attended and the sequence of choices made as the patients' condition deteriorated. Results As first resort to care, 78.7% of malaria-attributable deaths used modern biomedical care in the form of antimalarial pharmaceuticals from shops or government or non-governmental heath facilities, 9.4% used initial traditional care at home or from traditional practitioners and 11.9% sought no care of any kind. There were no differences in patterns of choice by sex of the child, sex of the head of the household, socioeconomic status of the household or presence or absence of convulsions. In malaria deaths of all ages who sought care more than once, modern care was included in the first or second resort to care in 90.0% and 99.4% with and without convulsions respectively. Conclusions In this study of fatal malaria in southern Tanzania, biomedical care is the preferred choice of an overwhelming majority of suspected malaria cases, even those complicated by convulsions. Traditional care is no longer a significant delaying factor. To reduce mortality further will require greater emphasis on recognizing danger signs

  14. Emergence of virulence to SrTmp in the Ug99 race group of wheat stem rust, Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ug99 race (TTKSK) of wheat stem rust was first detected in Uganda in 1998, and since then seven additional variants have been reported, i.e., TTKSF, TTKST, TTTSK, TTKSP, PTKSK, PTKST, and TTKSF+. In this study, 84 stem rust samples from the 2014 surveys of wheat fields in east Africa (Kenya, 9; ...

  15. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8–13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pangani, Ismail N.; Kiplamai, Festus K.; Kamau, Jane W.; Onywera, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The understanding of obesity as a growing health problem in Africa and Tanzania in particular is hampered by lack of data as well as sociocultural beliefs in which overweight and obesity are revered. This study sought to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 8–13 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Method. A cross-sectional analytical research design was used to study overweight and obesity in primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The target population was 150,000 children aged 8–13 years. Stratified random sampling was used to select 1781 children. Weight and height were taken and WHO standards for children were used to determine weight status. Results. Findings showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.9% and 6.7%, respectively (N = 1781). However, 6.2% of the children were underweight. There were significant differences in mean BMI between children in private and public schools (p = 0.021), between male and female (p < 0.001), and across age groups of 8–10 and 11–13 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children is significant and requires management and prevention strategies. PMID:27403343

  16. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8-13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pangani, Ismail N; Kiplamai, Festus K; Kamau, Jane W; Onywera, Vincent O

    2016-01-01

    Background. The understanding of obesity as a growing health problem in Africa and Tanzania in particular is hampered by lack of data as well as sociocultural beliefs in which overweight and obesity are revered. This study sought to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 8-13 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Method. A cross-sectional analytical research design was used to study overweight and obesity in primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The target population was 150,000 children aged 8-13 years. Stratified random sampling was used to select 1781 children. Weight and height were taken and WHO standards for children were used to determine weight status. Results. Findings showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.9% and 6.7%, respectively (N = 1781). However, 6.2% of the children were underweight. There were significant differences in mean BMI between children in private and public schools (p = 0.021), between male and female (p < 0.001), and across age groups of 8-10 and 11-13 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children is significant and requires management and prevention strategies. PMID:27403343

  17. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  18. USAID and FINCA: helping women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Henderson, K

    2000-01-01

    In Tanzania, the international microfinance network FINCA set up shop and began training its first Village Banking Groups in June 1998, disbursing its first loans in July with a grant from the US Agency for International Development. Within 2 months, the program reached 757 low-income women and distributed loans worth US$57,183 using the group support system in which 30-50 neighbors come together to guarantee one another's loans. With the loans from FINCA, entrepreneurs quickly became involved in a range of business activities, from selling tomatoes to starting a hair salon. Located in Mwanza, in the Lake Zone, FINCA Tanzania's clients include many members of the Sukuma tribe. It is noted that in this region there are a few job opportunities in the formal economy. In 1999, FINCA Tanzania reached 3632 clients, exceeding its targets despite a difficult economic environment. In that same year, FINCA partnered with Freedom from Hunger in launching a program that offers some of its members health education and basic business training at Village Banking Group meetings.

  19. Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

  20. Second assessment of NeuroAIDS in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kevin; Kopnisky, Kathy; Hakim, James; Merry, Concepta; Nakasujja, Noeline; Hall, Colin; Traore, Moussa; Sacktor, Ned; Clifford, David; Newton, Charles; Van Rie, Annelies; Holding, Penny; Clements, Janice; Zink, Christine; Mielke, Jens; Hosseinipour, Mina; Lalloo, Umesh; Amod, Farida; Marra, Christina; Evans, Scott; Liner, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In July of 2006, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS (CMHRA) sponsored the second conference on the Assessment of NeuroAIDS in Africa, which was held in Arusha, Tanzania. The conference mission was to address the regional variations in epidemiology of HIV-related neurological disorders as well as the assessment and diagnosis of these disorders. Participants discussed and presented data regarding the relevance and translation of neuroAIDS assessment measures developed in resource intensive settings and the challenges of neuro-assessment in Africa, including the applicability of current tools, higher prevalence of confounding diseases, and the complexity of diverse cultural settings. The conference presentations summarized here highlight the need for further research on neuroAIDS in Africa and methods for assessing HIV-related neurological disorders. PMID:18370346

  1. "Finding a Life" among Undocumented Congolese Refugee Children in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that…

  2. Nephrology in Africa--not yet uhuru.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-10-01

    Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling. PMID:23958719

  3. Nephrology in Africa--not yet uhuru.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-10-01

    Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling.

  4. Elevational Distribution and Ecology of Small Mammals on Tanzania's Second Highest Mountain

    PubMed Central

    Kihaule, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Meru is Tanzania’s second highest mountain and the ninth highest in Africa. The distribution and abundance of small mammals on this massif are poorly known. Here we document the distribution of shrews and rodents along an elevational gradient on the southeastern versant of Mt. Meru. Five sites were sampled with elevational center points of 1950, 2300, 2650, 3000, and 3600 m, using a systematic methodology of standard traps and pitfall lines, to inventory the shrews and rodents of the slope. Ten species of mammal were recorded, comprising 2 shrew and 8 rodent species with the greatest diversity for each group at 2300 m. No species previously unrecorded on Mt. Meru was observed. Two rodent genera that occur in nearby Eastern Arc Mountains (Hylomyscus and Beamys) were not recorded. The rodent Lophuromys verhageni and a recently described species of shrew, Crocidura newmarki, are the only endemic mammals on Mt. Meru, and were widespread across the elevational gradient. As in similar small mammal surveys on other mountains of Tanzania, rainfall positively influenced trap success rates for shrews, but not for rodents. This study provides new information on the local small mammal fauna of the massif, but numerous other questions remain to be explored. Comparisons are made to similar surveys of other mountains in Tanzania. PMID:27653635

  5. Establishing an Anaesthesia and Intensive Care partnership and aiming for national impact in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ulisubisya, Mpoki; Jörnvall, Henrik; Irestedt, Lars; Baker, Tim

    2016-03-18

    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care is a neglected specialty in low-income countries. There is an acute shortage of health workers - several low-income countries have less than 1 anaesthesia provider per 100,000 population. Only 1.5% of hospitals in Africa have the intensive care resources needed for managing patients with sepsis. Health partnerships between institutions in high and low-income countries have been proposed as an effective way to strengthen health systems. The aim of this article is to describe the origin and conduct of a health partnership in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care between institutions in Tanzania and Sweden and how the partnership has expanded to have an impact at regional and national levels.The Muhimbili-Karolinska Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Collaboration was initiated in 2008 on the request of the Executive Director of Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. The partnership has conducted training courses, exchanges, research projects and introduced new equipment, routines and guidelines. The partnership has expanded to include all hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Through the newly formed Life Support Foundation, the partnership has had a national impact assisting the reanimation of the Society of Anaesthesiologists of Tanzania and has seen a marked increase of the number of young doctors choosing a residency in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

  6. Distribution and spread of pyrethroid and DDT resistance among the Anopheles gambiae complex in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kabula, B; Tungu, P; Malima, R; Rowland, M; Minja, J; Wililo, R; Ramsan, M; McElroy, P D; Kafuko, J; Kulkarni, M; Protopopoff, N; Magesa, S; Mosha, F; Kisinza, W

    2014-09-01

    The development of insecticide resistance is a threat to the control of malaria in Africa. We report the findings of a national survey carried out in Tanzania in 2011 to monitor the susceptibility of malaria vectors to pyrethroid, organophosphate, carbamate and DDT insecticides, and compare these findings with those identified in 2004 and 2010. Standard World Health Organization (WHO) methods were used to detect knock-down and mortality rates in wild female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) collected from 14 sentinel districts. Diagnostic doses of the pyrethroids deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin, the carbamate propoxur, the organophosphate fenitrothion and the organochlorine DDT were used. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to permethrin in Muleba, where a mortality rate of 11% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6-19%] was recorded, Muheza (mortality rate of 75%, 95% CI 66-83%), Moshi and Arumeru (mortality rates of 74% in both). Similarly, resistance was reported to lambdacyhalothrin in Muleba, Muheza, Moshi and Arumeru (mortality rates of 31-82%), and to deltamethrin in Muleba, Moshi and Muheza (mortality rates of 28-75%). Resistance to DDT was reported in Muleba. No resistance to the carbamate propoxur or the organophosphate fenitrothion was observed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. is becoming resistant to pyrethoids and DDT in several parts of Tanzania. This has coincided with the scaling up of vector control measures. Resistance may impair the effectiveness of these interventions and therefore demands close monitoring and the adoption of a resistance management strategy.

  7. Mercury contamination associated with small-scale gold mining in Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, P

    2000-10-01

    Mercury contamination associated with small-scale gold mining and processing represents a major environmental and human health concern in Eastern and Southern Africa. Approximately 200,000-300,000 persons are involved in small-scale gold mining activities in Tanzania and > 200,000 persons in Zimbabwe. Mercury (Hg) is used mainly for the processing of primary gold quartz veins and supergene gold mineralizations. Gravimetric material flow analyses show that 70-80% of the Hg is lost to the atmosphere during processing, 20-30% are lost to tailings, soils, stream sediments and water. For every 1 g Au produced, 1.2-1.5 g Hg are lost to the environment. Cumulatively, the anthropogenic Hg released annually into the atmosphere is approximately 3-4 t in the whole Lake Victoria Goldfields of Tanzania and > 3 t in Zimbabwe. Tailings are local 'hot spots' with high concentrations of As, Pb, Cu and Hg. Lateral and vertical dispersion of Hg lost to soils and stream sediments is very limited (laterally < 260 m, vertically < 20 cm). Dispersion of mercury from tailings is low because Hg is transported largely in the elemental, metallic form. In addition, Fe-oxide rich laterites and swamps appear to be natural barriers for the dispersion of metals in soils and streams. Ground and surface water quality data indicate very low dispersion rates during the dry season.

  8. AgriSense-STARS: Advancing Methods of Agricultural Monitoring for Food Security in Smallholder Regions - the Case for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempewolf, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ntikha, O.; Hansen, M.; Justice, C. J.; Adusei, B.; Kongo, V.

    2015-12-01

    In-season monitoring of crop conditions provides critical information for agricultural policy and decision making and most importantly for food security planning and management. Nationwide agricultural monitoring in countries dominated by smallholder farming systems, generally relies on extensive networks of field data collectors. In Tanzania, extension agents make up this network and report on conditions across the country, approaching a "near-census". Data is collected on paper which is resource and time intensive, as well as prone to errors. Data quality is ambiguous and there is a general lack of clear and functional feedback loops between farmers, extension agents, analysts and decision makers. Moreover, the data are not spatially explicit, limiting the usefulness for analysis and quality of policy outcomes. Despite significant advances in remote sensing and information communication technologies (ICT) for monitoring agriculture, the full potential of these new tools is yet to be realized in Tanzania. Their use is constrained by the lack of resources, skills and infrastructure to access and process these data. The use of ICT technologies for data collection, processing and analysis is equally limited. The AgriSense-STARS project is developing and testing a system for national-scale in-season monitoring of smallholder agriculture using a combination of three main tools, 1) GLAM-East Africa, an automated MODIS satellite image processing system, 2) field data collection using GeoODK and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and 3) the Tanzania Crop Monitor, a collaborative online portal for data management and reporting. These tools are developed and applied in Tanzania through the National Food Security Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC) within a statistically representative sampling framework (area frame) that ensures data quality, representability and resource efficiency.

  9. Expanding Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in Tanzania: Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Structural Influences on Scale-Up

    PubMed Central

    Giattas, Mary Rose; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Martin, Michelle Y.; Usdan, Stuart Lawrence; Kohler, Connie; Lisovicz, Nedra

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has the highest burden of cervical cancer in East Africa. This study aims to identify perceived barriers and facilitators that influence scale-up of regional and population-level cervical cancer screening and treatment programs in Tanzania. Convenience sampling was used to select participants for this qualitative study among 35 key informants. Twenty-eight stakeholders from public-sector health facilities, academia, government, and nongovernmental organizations completed in-depth interviews, and a seven-member municipal health management team participated in a focus group discussion. The investigation identified themes related to the infrastructure of health services for cervical cancer prevention, service delivery, political will, and sociocultural influences on screening and treatment. Decentralizing service delivery, improving access to screening and treatment, increasing the number of trained health workers, and garnering political will were perceived as key facilitators for enhancing and initiating screening and treatment services. In conclusion, participants perceived that system-level structural factors should be addressed to expand regional and population-level service delivery of screening and treatment. Implications for Practice: Tanzanian women have a high burden of cervical cancer. Understanding the perceived structural factors that may influence screening coverage for cervical cancer and availability of treatment may be beneficial for program scale-up. This study showed that multiple factors contribute to the challenge of cervical cancer screening and treatment in Tanzania. In addition, it highlighted systematic developments aimed at expanding services. This study is important because the themes that emerged from the results may help inform programs that plan to improve screening and treatment in Tanzania and potentially in other areas with high burdens of cervical cancer. PMID:25926351

  10. Impact of Air Temperature and SST Variability on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Shlomit

    2010-05-01

    The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the temperature, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface temperature. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate variability. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air temperature has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate variability has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual variability of air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual temperature time series: Regional scale: a) Air temperature for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface temperature, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air temperature anomaly; b) Sea surface temperature anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following

  11. Human Resource and Funding Constraints for Essential Surgery in District Hospitals in Africa: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Margaret E.; Wladis, Andreas; Mbembati, Naboth; Ndao-Brumblay, S. Khady; Hsia, Renee Y.; Galukande, Moses; Luboga, Sam; Matovu, Alphonsus; de Miranda, Helder; Ozgediz, Doruk; Quiñones, Ana Romàn; Rockers, Peter C.; von Schreeb, Johan; Vaz, Fernando; Debas, Haile T.; Macfarlane, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a growing recognition that the provision of surgical services in low-income countries is inadequate to the need. While constrained health budgets and health worker shortages have been blamed for the low rates of surgery, there has been little empirical data on the providers of surgery and cost of surgical services in Africa. This study described the range of providers of surgical care and anesthesia and estimated the resources dedicated to surgery at district hospitals in three African countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional survey of data from eight district hospitals in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda. There were no specialist surgeons or anesthetists in any of the hospitals. Most of the health workers were nurses (77.5%), followed by mid-level providers (MLPs) not trained to provide surgical care (7.8%), and MLPs trained to perform surgical procedures (3.8%). There were one to six medical doctors per hospital (4.2% of clinical staff). Most major surgical procedures were performed by doctors (54.6%), however over one-third (35.9%) were done by MLPs. Anesthesia was mainly provided by nurses (39.4%). Most of the hospital expenditure was related to staffing. Of the total operating costs, only 7% to 14% was allocated to surgical care, the majority of which was for obstetric surgery. These costs represent a per capita expenditure on surgery ranging from US$0.05 to US$0.14 between the eight hospitals. Conclusion African countries have adopted different policies to ensure the provision of surgical care in their respective district hospitals. Overall, the surgical output per capita was very low, reflecting low staffing ratios and limited expenditures for surgery. We found that most surgical and anesthesia services in the three countries in the study were provided by generalist doctors, MLPs, and nurses. Although more information is needed to estimate unmet need for surgery, increasing the funds allocated to

  12. Bribery in health care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    I examine the role of household permanent income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household expenditure increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rate of 17%. The income elasticity of the bribe amount is about 0.37. Bribes in the Ugandan public sector appear to be fees-for-service extorted from the richer patients amongst those exempted by government policy from paying the official fees. Bribes in the private sector appear to be flat-rate fees paid by patients who do not pay official fees. I do not find evidence that the public health care sector is able to price discriminate less effectively than public institutions with less competition from the private sector. PMID:20638738

  13. Cultural Contexts of Ebola in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Amola, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Technical guidelines for the control of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) indicate that understanding local views and responses to an outbreak is essential. However, few studies with such information exist. Thus, we used qualitative and quantitative methods to determine how local residents of Gulu, Uganda, viewed and responded to the 2000–2001 outbreak of EHF. Results indicated that Acholi people used at least three explanatory models to explain and respond to the outbreak; indigenous epidemic control measures were often implemented and consistent with those being promoted by healthcare workers; and some cultural practices amplified the outbreak (e.g., burial practices). However, most persons were willing to modify and work with national and international healthcare workers. PMID:14609458

  14. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  15. Malaria in the United Republic of Tanzania: cultural considerations and health-seeking behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Oberländer, L.; Elverdan, B.

    2000-01-01

    Malaria is one of the biggest health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Large amounts of resources have been invested to control and treat it. Few studies have recognized that local explanations for the symptoms of malaria may lead to the attribution of different causes for the disease and thus to the seeking of different treatments. This article illustrates the local nosology of Bondei society in the north-eastern part of the United Republic of Tanzania and shows how sociocultural context affects health-seeking behaviour. It shows how in this context therapy is best viewed as a process in which beliefs and actions are continuously debated and evaluated throughout the course of treatment. PMID:11143196

  16. On two pterosaur humeri from the Tendaguru beds (Upper Jurassic, Tanzania).

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabiana R; Kellner, Alexander W A

    2009-12-01

    Jurassic African pterosaur remains are exceptionally rare and only known from the Tendaguru deposits, Upper Jurassic, Tanzania. Here we describe two right humeri of Tendaguru pterosaurs from the Humboldt University of Berlin: specimens MB.R. 2828 (cast MN 6661-V) and MB.R. 2833 (cast MN 6666-V). MB.R. 2828 consists of a three-dimensionally preserved proximal portion. The combination of the morphological features of the deltopectoral crest not observed in other pterosaurs suggests that this specimen belongs to a new dsungaripteroid taxon. MB.R. 2833 is nearly complete, and because of a long and round proximally placed deltopectoral crest it could be referred to the Archaeopterodactyloidea. It is the smallest pterosaur from Africa and one of the smallest flying reptiles ever recorded. These specimens confirm the importance of the Tendaguru deposits for the Jurassic pterosaur record. This potential, however, has to be fully explored with more field work.

  17. Parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein

    2016-11-01

    Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.

  18. A demographic perspective on the Middle to Later Stone Age transition from Nasera rockshelter, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Christian A; Faith, J Tyler

    2016-07-01

    Increased population density is among the proposed drivers of the behavioural changes culminating in the Middle to Later Stone Age (MSA-LSA) transition and human dispersals from East Africa, but reliable archaeological measures of demographic change are lacking. We use Late Pleistocene-Holocene lithic and faunal data from Nasera rockshelter (Tanzania) to show progressive declines in residential mobility-a variable linked to population density-and technological shifts, the latter associated with environmental changes. These data suggest that the MSA-LSA transition is part of a long-term pattern of changes in residential mobility and technology that reflect human responses to increased population density, with dispersals potentially marking a complementary response to larger populations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298469

  19. First Partial Skeleton of a 1.34-Million-Year-Old Paranthropus boisei from Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Baquedano, Enrique; Mabulla, Audax; Mark, Darren F.; Musiba, Charles; Bunn, Henry T.; Uribelarrea, David; Smith, Victoria; Diez-Martin, Fernando; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Sánchez, Policarpo; Santonja, Manuel; Barboni, Doris; Gidna, Agness; Ashley, Gail; Yravedra, José; Heaton, Jason L.; Arriaza, Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Recent excavations in Level 4 at BK (Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) have yielded nine hominin teeth, a distal humerus fragment, a proximal radius with much of its shaft, a femur shaft, and a tibia shaft fragment (cataloged collectively as OH 80). Those elements identified more specifically than to simply Hominidae gen. et sp. indet are attributed to Paranthropus boisei. Before this study, incontrovertible P. boisei partial skeletons, for which postcranial remains occurred in association with taxonomically diagnostic craniodental remains, were unknown. Thus, OH 80 stands as the first unambiguous, dentally associated Paranthropus partial skeleton from East Africa. The morphology and size of its constituent parts suggest that the fossils derived from an extremely robust individual who, at 1.338±0.024 Ma (1 sigma), represents one of the most recent occurrences of Paranthropus before its extinction in East Africa. PMID:24339873

  20. First partial skeleton of a 1.34-million-year-old Paranthropus boisei from Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Baquedano, Enrique; Mabulla, Audax; Mark, Darren F; Musiba, Charles; Bunn, Henry T; Uribelarrea, David; Smith, Victoria; Diez-Martin, Fernando; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Sánchez, Policarpo; Santonja, Manuel; Barboni, Doris; Gidna, Agness; Ashley, Gail; Yravedra, José; Heaton, Jason L; Arriaza, Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Recent excavations in Level 4 at BK (Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) have yielded nine hominin teeth, a distal humerus fragment, a proximal radius with much of its shaft, a femur shaft, and a tibia shaft fragment (cataloged collectively as OH 80). Those elements identified more specifically than to simply Hominidae gen. et sp. indet are attributed to Paranthropus boisei. Before this study, incontrovertible P. boisei partial skeletons, for which postcranial remains occurred in association with taxonomically diagnostic craniodental remains, were unknown. Thus, OH 80 stands as the first unambiguous, dentally associated Paranthropus partial skeleton from East Africa. The morphology and size of its constituent parts suggest that the fossils derived from an extremely robust individual who, at 1.338±0.024 Ma (1 sigma), represents one of the most recent occurrences of Paranthropus before its extinction in East Africa.

  1. First partial skeleton of a 1.34-million-year-old Paranthropus boisei from Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Baquedano, Enrique; Mabulla, Audax; Mark, Darren F; Musiba, Charles; Bunn, Henry T; Uribelarrea, David; Smith, Victoria; Diez-Martin, Fernando; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Sánchez, Policarpo; Santonja, Manuel; Barboni, Doris; Gidna, Agness; Ashley, Gail; Yravedra, José; Heaton, Jason L; Arriaza, Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Recent excavations in Level 4 at BK (Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) have yielded nine hominin teeth, a distal humerus fragment, a proximal radius with much of its shaft, a femur shaft, and a tibia shaft fragment (cataloged collectively as OH 80). Those elements identified more specifically than to simply Hominidae gen. et sp. indet are attributed to Paranthropus boisei. Before this study, incontrovertible P. boisei partial skeletons, for which postcranial remains occurred in association with taxonomically diagnostic craniodental remains, were unknown. Thus, OH 80 stands as the first unambiguous, dentally associated Paranthropus partial skeleton from East Africa. The morphology and size of its constituent parts suggest that the fossils derived from an extremely robust individual who, at 1.338±0.024 Ma (1 sigma), represents one of the most recent occurrences of Paranthropus before its extinction in East Africa. PMID:24339873

  2. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  3. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  4. The Importance of Veterinary Policy in Preventing the Emergence and Re-Emergence of Zoonotic Disease: Examining the Case of Human African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Okello, Anna L.; Welburn, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in human behavior, resource utilization, and other extrinsic environmental factors continue to threaten the current distribution of several endemic and historically neglected zoonoses in many developing regions worldwide. There are numerous examples of zoonotic diseases which have circulated within relatively localized geographical areas for some time, before emerging into new regions as a result of changing human, environmental, or behavioral dynamics. While the world’s focus is currently on the Ebola virus gaining momentum in western Africa, another pertinent example of this phenomenon is zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), endemic to south and eastern Africa, and spread via infected cattle. In recent years, the ongoing northwards spread of this disease in the country has posed a serious public health threat to the human population of Uganda, increasing the pressure on both individual families and government services to control the disease. Moreover, the emergence of HAT into new areas of Uganda in recent years exemplifies the important role of veterinary policy in mitigating the severe human health and economic impacts of zoonotic disease. The systemic challenges surrounding the development and enforcement of veterinary policy described here are similar across sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the necessity to consider and support zoonotic disease control in broader human and animal health systems strengthening and associated development programs on the continent. PMID:25405148

  5. First records of tool-set use for ant-dipping by Eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females.

  6. Depression and HIV risk among men who have sex with men in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ahaneku, Hycienth; Ross, Michael W.; Nyoni, Joyce E.; Selwyn, Beatrice; Troisi, Catherine; Mbwambo, Jessie; Adeboye, Adeniyi; McCurdy, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies have shown high rates of depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developed countries. Studies have also shown association between depression and HIV risk among MSM. However, very little research has been done on depression among African MSM. We assessed depression and HIV risk among a sample of MSM in Tanzania. We reviewed data on 205 MSM who were recruited from two Tanzanian cities using the respondent driven sampling method. Demographic and behavioral data were collected using a structured questionnaire. HIV and sexually transmitted infections data were determined from biological tests. Depression scores were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). For the analysis, depression scores were dichotomized as depressed (PHQ > 4) and not depressed (PHQ ≤ 4). Bivariate and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with depression. The prevalence of depression in the sample was 46.3%. The mean (±SD) age of the sample was 25 (±5) years. In bivariate analysis, depression was associated with self-identifying as gay (p = .001), being HIV positive (p < .001: <8% of MSM knew they were HIV infected) and having a high number of sexual partners in the last 6 months (p = .001). Depression was also associated with sexual (p = .007), physical (p = .003) and verbal (p < .001) abuse. In the Poisson regression analysis, depression was associated with verbal abuse (APR = 1.91, CI = 1.30–2.81). Depression rates were high among MSM in Tanzania. It is also associated with abuse, HIV and HIV risk behaviors. Thus, reducing the risk of depression may be helpful in reducing the risk of HIV among MSM in Africa. We recommend the colocation of mental health and HIV preventive services as a cost-effective means of addressing both depression and HIV risk among MSM in Africa. PMID:27002772

  7. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan®) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p = 0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 2.9–8.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.2, p = 0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p = 0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.7–14.7, p = 0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda

  8. RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

    2011-09-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava.

  9. Palliative care making a difference in rural Uganda, Kenya and Malawi: three rapid evaluation field studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many people live and die in pain in Africa. We set out to describe patient, family and local community perspectives on the impact of three community based palliative care interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Three palliative care programmes in Uganda, Kenya and Malawi were studied using rapid evaluation field techniques in each country, triangulating data from three sources: interviews with key informants, observations of clinical encounters and the local health and social care context, and routine data from local reports and statistics. Results We interviewed 33 patients with advanced illness, 27 family carers, 36 staff, 25 volunteers, and 29 community leaders and observed clinical care of 12 patients. In each site, oral morphine was being used effectively. Patients valued being treated with dignity and respect. Being supported at home reduced physical, emotional and financial burden of travel to, and care at health facilities. Practical support and instruction in feeding and bathing patients facilitated good deaths at home. In each country mobile phones enabled rapid access to clinical and social support networks. Staff and volunteers generally reported that caring for the dying in the face of poverty was stressful, but also rewarding, with resilience fostered by having effective analgesia, and community support networks. Conclusions Programmes were reported to be successful because they integrated symptom control with practical and emotional care, education, and spiritual care. Holistic palliative care can be delivered effectively in the face of poverty, but a public health approach is needed to ensure equitable provision. PMID:21569423

  10. Psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms among HIV-positive persons receiving care and treatment in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Kidder, Daniel; Pals, Sherri; Parent, Julie; Mbatia, Redempta; Chesang, Kipruto; Mbilinyi, Deogratius; Koech, Emily; Nkingwa, Mathias; Katuta, Frieda; Ng'ang'a, Anne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2014-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is considerably greater than that among members of the general population. It is particularly important to treat depressive symptoms among PLHIV because they have been associated with poorer HIV care-related outcomes. This study describes overall psychosocial functioning and factors associated with depressive symptoms among PLHIV attending HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania. Eighteen HIV care and treatment clinics (six per country) enrolled approximately 200 HIV-positive patients (for a total of 3,538 participants) and collected data on patients' physical and mental well-being, medical/health status, and psychosocial functioning. Although the majority of participants did not report clinically significant depressive symptoms (72 %), 28 % reported mild to severe depressive symptoms, with 12 % reporting severe depressive symptoms. Regression models indicated that greater levels of depressive symptoms were associated with: (1) being female, (2) younger age, (3) not being completely adherent to HIV medications, (4) likely dependence on alcohol, (5) disclosure to three or more people (versus one person), (6) experiences of recent violence, (7) less social support, and (8) poorer physical functioning. Participants from Kenya and Namibia reported greater depressive symptoms than those from Tanzania. Approximately 28 % of PLHIV reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. The scale-up of care and treatment services in sub-Saharan Africa provides an opportunity to address psychosocial and mental health needs for PLHIV as part of comprehensive care.

  11. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  12. Use of Modern Technologies in Improving Astronomy Education in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwaji, N. T.

    2006-08-01

    With only the most basic astronomy content officially included in the Physics syllabus of Secondary Schools in Tanzania and a one semester Astrophysics option course offered in the Physics Department of one University, the reasons for apathy towards astronomy education in Tanzania are discussed. Using the current focus on introducing ICT into Primary and Secondary schools in Tanzania, the potential for advancing astronomy education per se and natural sciences in general is presented. Limiting factors such as teachers in general and science and astronomy literate teachers in particular, infrastructure and running costs of providing ICT based education, cultural impediments need to be overcome.

  13. Distribution of Marburg virus in Africa: An evolutionary approach.

    PubMed

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Sorrentino, Chiara; Veo, Carla; Fiaschi, Lisa; Gioffrè, Sonia; Ebranati, Erika; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lai, Alessia; Galli, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the origin and geographical dispersion of Marburg virus, the first member of the Filoviridae family to be discovered. Seventy-three complete genome sequences of Marburg virus isolated from animals and humans were retrieved from public databases and analysed using a Bayesian phylogeographical framework. The phylogenetic tree of the Marburg virus data set showed two significant evolutionary lineages: Ravn virus (RAVV) and Marburg virus (MARV). MARV divided into two main clades; clade A included isolates from Uganda (five from the European epidemic in 1967), Kenya (1980) and Angola (from the epidemic of 2004-2005); clade B included most of the isolates obtained during the 1999-2000 epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and a group of Ugandan isolates obtained in 2007-2009. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of the whole genome was 3.3×10(-4) substitutions/site/year (credibility interval 2.0-4.8). The MARV strain had a mean root time of the most recent common ancestor of 177.9years ago (YA) (95% highest posterior density 87-284), thus indicating that it probably originated in the mid-XIX century, whereas the RAVV strain had a later origin dating back to a mean 33.8 YA. The most probable location of the MARV ancestor was Uganda (state posterior probability, spp=0.41), whereas that of the RAVV ancestor was Kenya (spp=0.71). There were significant migration rates from Uganda to the DRC (Bayes Factor, BF=42.0) and in the opposite direction (BF=5.7). Our data suggest that Uganda may have been the cradle of Marburg virus in Africa. PMID:27282469

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency in Mothers and Newborns in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Santorino, Data; Siedner, Mark J; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Shearer, Martin J; Harrington, Dominic J; Wariyar, Unni

    2015-10-16

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infancy is a serious but preventable cause of mortality or permanent disability. Lack of epidemiologic data for VKDB in sub-Saharan Africa hinders development and implementation of effective prevention strategies. We used convenience sampling to consecutively enroll mothers delivering in a southwestern Uganda Hospital. We collected socio-demographic and dietary information, and paired samples of maternal venous and neonatal cord blood for the immunoassay of undercarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II), a sensitive marker of functional vitamin K (VK) insufficiency. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to identify predictors of VK insufficiency. We detected PIVKA-II of ≥0.2 AU (Arbitrary Units per mL)/mL (indicative of VK insufficiency) in 33.3% (47/141) of mothers and 66% (93/141) of newborns. Importantly, 22% of babies had PIVKA-II concentrations ≥5.0 AU/mL, likely to be associated with abnormal coagulation indices. We found no significant predictors of newborn VK insufficiency, including infant weight (AOR (adjusted odds ratio) 1.85, 95% CI (confidence interval) 0.15-22.49), gender (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26-1.11), term birth (AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.20-2.62), maternal VK-rich diet (AOR 1.13, 95% CI 0.55-2.35) or maternal VK insufficiency (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.47-2.10). VK insufficiency is common among mothers and newborn babies in southwestern Uganda, which in one fifth of babies nears overt deficiency. Lack of identifiable predictors of newborn VK insufficiency support strategies for universal VK prophylaxis to newborns to prevent VKDB.

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency in Mothers and Newborns in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Santorino, Data; Siedner, Mark J.; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Shearer, Martin J.; Harrington, Dominic J.; Wariyar, Unni

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infancy is a serious but preventable cause of mortality or permanent disability. Lack of epidemiologic data for VKDB in sub-Saharan Africa hinders development and implementation of effective prevention strategies. We used convenience sampling to consecutively enroll mothers delivering in a southwestern Uganda Hospital. We collected socio-demographic and dietary information, and paired samples of maternal venous and neonatal cord blood for the immunoassay of undercarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II), a sensitive marker of functional vitamin K (VK) insufficiency. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to identify predictors of VK insufficiency. We detected PIVKA-II of ≥0.2 AU (Arbitrary Units per mL)/mL (indicative of VK insufficiency) in 33.3% (47/141) of mothers and 66% (93/141) of newborns. Importantly, 22% of babies had PIVKA-II concentrations ≥5.0 AU/mL, likely to be associated with abnormal coagulation indices. We found no significant predictors of newborn VK insufficiency, including infant weight (AOR (adjusted odds ratio) 1.85, 95% CI (confidence interval) 0.15–22.49), gender (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26–1.11), term birth (AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.20–2.62), maternal VK-rich diet (AOR 1.13, 95% CI 0.55–2.35) or maternal VK insufficiency (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.47–2.10). VK insufficiency is common among mothers and newborn babies in southwestern Uganda, which in one fifth of babies nears overt deficiency. Lack of identifiable predictors of newborn VK insufficiency support strategies for universal VK prophylaxis to newborns to prevent VKDB. PMID:26501317

  16. Genetic analysis of influenza B viruses isolated in Uganda during the 2009–2010 seasons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza B viruses can cause morbidity and mortality in humans but due to the lack of an animal reservoir are not associated with pandemics. Because of this, there is relatively limited genetic sequences available for influenza B viruses, especially from developing countries. Complete genome analysis of one influenza B virus and several gene segments of other influenza B viruses isolated from Uganda from May 2009 through December 2010 was therefore undertaken in this study. Methods Samples were collected from patients showing influenza like illness and screened for influenza A and B by PCR. Influenza B viruses were isolated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells and selected isolates were subsequently sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Findings Of the 2,089 samples collected during the period, 292 were positive by PCR for influenza A or B; 12.3% of the PCR positives were influenza B. Thirty influenza B viruses were recovered and of these 25 that grew well consistently on subculture were subjected to further analysis. All the isolates belonged to the B/Victoria-lineage as identified by hemagglutination inhibition assay and genetic analysis except one isolate that grouped with the B-Yamagata-lineage. The Ugandan B/Victoria-lineage isolates grouped in clade 1 which was defined by the N75K, N165K and S172P substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) protein clustered together with the B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine strain. The Yamagata-like Ugandan strain, B/Uganda/MUWRP-053/2009, clustered with clade 3 Yamagata viruses such as B/Bangladesh/3333/2007 which is characterized by S150I and N166Y substitutions in HA. Conclusion In general there was limited variation among the Ugandan isolates but they were interestingly closer to viruses from West and North Africa than from neighboring Kenya. Our isolates closely matched the World Health Organization recommended vaccines for the seasons. PMID:23289789

  17. Clinical correlates of suicidality among individuals with HIV infection and AIDS disease in Mbarara, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Kinyanda, Eugene; Mishara, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The association between suicidality and HIV/AIDS has been demonstrated for three decades, but little is know about risk factors that can help understand this association and help identify who is most at risk. Few research studies have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, a region that accounts for more than 70% of the HIV global burden. This paper describes clinical risk factors for suicidality among individuals with HIV infection and AIDS disease in Mbarara, Uganda. In this study, suicidality includes both suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 543 HIV-positive individuals aged 15 years and above, recruited from 2 HIV specialised clinics in Mbarara. Using logistic regression analysis, factors significantly associated with suicidality at 95% confidence interval were identified. The rate of suicidality was 10% (n = 54; 95% CI: 5.00-15.00). Risk factors for suicidality were: perception of poor physical health (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.23-3.99, p = 0.007), physical pain (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.01-3.30, p = 0.049), reducing work due to illness (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.23-3.99, p = 0.004) and recent HIV diagnosis (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001). These findings suggest that HIV/AIDS in south-western Uganda is associated with a considerable burden of suicidality. HIV is associated with several clinical factors that increase vulnerability to suicidality. There is need for more appropriate interventions targeting these clinical risk factors, systematic suicide risk assessment and management of suicidal ideation and behaviours in HIV care. PMID:27681146

  18. Epidemiology and Surveillance of Influenza Viruses in Uganda between 2008 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Mimbe, Derrick E.; Erima, Bernard; Mworozi, Edison A.; Millard, Monica; Kibuuka, Hannah; Bwogi, Josephine; Kiconco, Jocelyn; Tugume, Titus; Mulei, Sophia; Ikomera, Christine; Tsui, Sharon; Malinzi, Stephen; Kasasa, Simon; Coldren, Rodney; Byarugaba, Denis K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Influenza surveillance was conducted in Uganda from October 2008 to December 2014 to identify and understand the epidemiology of circulating influenza strains in out-patient clinic attendees with influenza-like illness and inform control strategies. Methodology Surveillance was conducted at five hospital-based sentinel sites. Nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples, epidemiological and clinical data were collected from enrolled patients. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify and subtype influenza strains. Data were double-entered into an Epi Info 3.5.3 database and exported to STATA 13.0 software for analysis. Results Of the 6,628 patient samples tested, influenza virus infection was detected in 10.4% (n = 687/6,628) of the specimens. Several trends were observed: influenza circulates throughout the year with two peaks; the major one from September to November and a minor one from March to June. The predominant strains of influenza varied over the years: Seasonal Influenza A(H3) virus was predominant from 2008 to 2009 and from 2012 to 2014; Influenza A(H1N1)pdm01 was dominant in 2010; and Influenza B virus was dominant in 2011. The peaks generally coincided with times of higher humidity, lower temperature, and higher rainfall. Conclusion Influenza circulated throughout the year in Uganda with two major peaks of outbreaks with similar strains circulating elsewhere in the region. Data on the circulating strains of influenza and its patterns of occurrence provided critical insights to informing the design and timing of influenza vaccines for influenza prevention in tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27755572

  19. Tsetse Fly (G.f. fuscipes) Distribution in the Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. PMID:25875201

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency in Mothers and Newborns in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Santorino, Data; Siedner, Mark J; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Shearer, Martin J; Harrington, Dominic J; Wariyar, Unni

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infancy is a serious but preventable cause of mortality or permanent disability. Lack of epidemiologic data for VKDB in sub-Saharan Africa hinders development and implementation of effective prevention strategies. We used convenience sampling to consecutively enroll mothers delivering in a southwestern Uganda Hospital. We collected socio-demographic and dietary information, and paired samples of maternal venous and neonatal cord blood for the immunoassay of undercarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II), a sensitive marker of functional vitamin K (VK) insufficiency. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to identify predictors of VK insufficiency. We detected PIVKA-II of ≥0.2 AU (Arbitrary Units per mL)/mL (indicative of VK insufficiency) in 33.3% (47/141) of mothers and 66% (93/141) of newborns. Importantly, 22% of babies had PIVKA-II concentrations ≥5.0 AU/mL, likely to be associated with abnormal coagulation indices. We found no significant predictors of newborn VK insufficiency, including infant weight (AOR (adjusted odds ratio) 1.85, 95% CI (confidence interval) 0.15-22.49), gender (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26-1.11), term birth (AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.20-2.62), maternal VK-rich diet (AOR 1.13, 95% CI 0.55-2.35) or maternal VK insufficiency (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.47-2.10). VK insufficiency is common among mothers and newborn babies in southwestern Uganda, which in one fifth of babies nears overt deficiency. Lack of identifiable predictors of newborn VK insufficiency support strategies for universal VK prophylaxis to newborns to prevent VKDB. PMID:26501317

  1. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes) distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  2. Impact of malaria morbidity on gross domestic product in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of malaria is a key challenge to both human and economic development in malaria endemic countries. The impact of malaria can be categorized from three dimensions, namely: health, social and economic. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of malaria morbidity on gross domestic product (GDP) of Uganda. Methods The impact of malaria morbidity on GDP of Uganda was estimated using double-log econometric model. The 1997-2003 time series macro-data used in the analysis were for 28 quarters, i.e. 7 years times 4 quarters per year. It was obtained from national and international secondary sources. Results The slope coefficient for Malaria Index (M) was -0.00767; which indicates that when malaria morbidity increases by one unit, while holding all other explanatory variables constant, per capita GDP decreases by US$0.00767 per year. In 2003 Uganda lost US$ 49,825,003 of GDP due to malaria morbidity. Dividing the total loss of US$49.8 million by a population of 25,827,000 yields a loss in GDP of US$1.93 per person in Uganda in 2003. Conclusion Malaria morbidity results in a substantive loss in GDP of Uganda. The high burden of malaria leads to decreased long-term economic growth, and works against poverty eradication efforts and socioeconomic development of the country. PMID:22439685

  3. A scoping study on task shifting; the case of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Task shifting has been implemented in Uganda for decades with little documentation. This study’s objectives were to; gather evidence on task-shifting experiences in Uganda, establish its acceptability and perceptions among health managers and policymakers, and make recommendations. Methods This was a qualitative study. Data collection involved; review of published and gray literature, and key informant interviews of stakeholders in health policy and decision making in Uganda. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results Task shifting was the mainstay of health service delivery in Uganda. Lower cadre of health workers performed duties of specialized health workers. However, Uganda has no task shifting policy and guidelines, and task shifting was practiced informally. Lower cadre of health workers were deemed to be incompetent to handle shifted roles and already overworked, and support supervision was poor. Advocates of task shifting argued that lower cadre of health workers already performed the roles of highly trained health workers. They needed a supporting policy and support supervision. Opponents argued that lower cadre of health workers were; incompetent, overworked, and task shifting was more expensive than recruiting appropriately trained health workers. Conclusions Task shifting was unacceptable to most health managers and policy makers because lower cadres of health workers were; incompetent, overworked and support supervision was poor. Recruitment of existing unemployed well trained health workers, implementation of human resource motivation and retention strategies, and government sponsored graduates to work for a defined mandatory period of time were recommended. PMID:24754917

  4. Understanding the relationship between fire, climate, and population in central Uganda from 1990--2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Ashley

    Fire is a form of natural disturbance that can keep ecosystems in balance, but fire in Africa is neither entirely natural nor anthropogenic due to the hundreds of thousands of years of coexistence between fire and humans. In central Uganda fires can easily reach the size of 200 km2 and fire is an effective way for farmers and pastoralists to clear away dead grasses that can give way to new growth. There is little to no research on fire as a disturbance in Uganda, nor on relationships between fire and climate and fire and population. Remotely sensed data allow analysis of geographic regions that may have limited access. This study generated a decision tree using six Landsat (TM and EMT+) bands, three indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), and Tassel Cap transformation) and a DEM to produce classified images. Classified images collected in five years had three classes: no burn, new burn and old burn. These classes provided a way to map fires and quantify the area burned in each scene. Population data were gridded and contained population density for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005, with a spatial resolution of 2.5 degrees, and were provided by the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) from Columbia University. Climate data used were reanaylsis datasets from the collaboration by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which provides continuous global climate data from 1948 to present. The three variables analyzed were: precipitation rate, temperature and, soil moisture from 0-10 cm in depth. Within regions of lower populations and drier climates, there was more burned area than in areas of wetter climate and higher population densities. As a result of the coarse spatial resolution of climate and population data, linkages between climate, fire, and people in Uganda were difficult to ascertain. However, this study suggests that in

  5. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521

  6. 'Africa Alive Corridors': Forging a new future for the people of Africa by the people of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix Toteu, Sadrack; Malcolm Anderson, John; de Wit, Maarten

    2010-11-01

    ' Africa Alive Corridors' (AAC) addresses major stewardship goals in Africa through a selection of 20 heritage Corridors (varying from 1000 to 4000 km in length and 50 to 100 km wide). These include more than 400 heritage nodes (World Heritage Sites, Biosphere Reserves, biodiversity hotspots, Geoparks, etc.). AAC tracks Africa's journey from around 4 billion years ago to the present day through these chronologically sequenced Corridors. And so, the 4-billion-year autobiography of the continent is told. It encompasses the geological, biological and anthropological/cultural history of Africa's 54 nations - a (hi-) story without borders. The wealth of scientific and biographical knowledge archived in this network of Corridors tells the story of continental drift, mega-geohazards, climate variability and change, and the origin and extinction of biodiversity; and includes our human roots, culture and spirituality, our impact on the Earth and our potential to influence its future. In telling this story of Africa, new research avenues will be discovered and new learning methodologies will be experienced and developed and shared. In this way, the AAC provide loci along which the eight UN-Millennium Development Goals may be readily and realistically achieved. In concert, they can form the basis for a new collective endeavour - of Pan African Earth Stewardship Science. In this, the final - 2010 - phase of IYPE (the International Year of Planet Earth), we aim to make a start at bringing the ' Africa Alive Corridors' into real-life context. Whilst the concept of the Corridors has been formulated and presented at various international forums—most recently in Africa at the launch of IYPE in Arusha, Tanzania, in May 2008—here we present in brief their conceptual framework, and summarize the rationale behind the selection of the 20 African Corridors. Then, we describe, for the first time, how the AAC concept might evolve. To achieve the latter, we focus on an exploratory

  7. Factors influencing time to diagnosis and initiation of treatment of endemic Burkitt Lymphoma among children in Uganda and western Kenya: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Survival rates for children diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in Africa are far below those achieved in developed countries. Late stage of presentation contributes to poor prognosis, therefore this study investigated factors leading to delays in BL diagnosis and treatment of children in Uganda and western Kenya. Methods Guardians of children diagnosed with BL were interviewed at the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital (JTRH) and Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) from Jan-Dec 2010. Information on sociodemographics, knowledge, attitudes, illness perceptions, health-seeking behaviors and prior health encounters was collected using a standardized, pre-tested questionnaire. Results Eighty-two guardians were interviewed (20 JTRH, 62 UCI). Median "total delay" (1st symptoms to BL diagnosis) was 12.1 weeks [interquartile range (IQR) 4.9-19.9] in Kenya and 12.9 weeks (IQR 4.3-25.7) in Uganda. In Kenya, median "guardian delay" (1st symptoms to 1st health encounter) and "health system delay" (1st health encounter to BL diagnosis) were 9.0 weeks (IQR 3.6-15.7) and 2.0 weeks (IQR 1.6-5.8), respectively. Data on guardian and health system delay in Uganda were only available for those with < 4 prior health encounters (n = 26). Of these, median guardian delay was 4.3 weeks (range 0.7-149.9), health system delay 2.6 weeks (range 0.1-16.0), and total delay 10.7 weeks (range 1.7-154.3). Guardians in Uganda reported more health encounters than those in Kenya (median 5, range 3–16 vs. median 3, range 2–6). Among Kenyan guardians, source of income was the only independent predictor of delay, whereas in Uganda, guardian delay was influenced by guardians’ beliefs on the curability of cancer, health system delay, by guardians’ perceptions of cancer as a contagious disease, and total delay, by the number of children in the household and guardians’ role as caretaker. Qualitative findings suggest financial costs, transportation, and other

  8. Banana streak virus is very diverse in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Harper, Glyn; Hart, Darren; Moult, Sarah; Hull, Roger

    2004-03-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a badnavirus that causes a viral leaf streak disease of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). Identified in essentially all Musa growing areas of the world, it has a deleterious effect on the productivity of infected plants as well as being a major constraint to Musa breeding programmes and germplasm dissemination. Banana is a staple food in Uganda which is, per capita, one of the worlds largest banana producers and consumers. BSV was isolated from infected plants sampled across the Ugandan Musa growing area and the isolates were analysed using molecular and serological techniques. These analyses showed that BSV is very highly variable in Uganda. They suggest that the variability is, in part, due to a series of introductions of banana into Uganda, each with a different complement of infecting viruses.

  9. Tool-use to obtain honey by chimpanzees at Bulindi: new record from Uganda.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2011-10-01

    Honey-gathering from bee nests has been recorded at chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) study sites across tropical Africa. Different populations employ different strategies, ranging from simple 'smash-and grab' raids to use of sophisticated tool-sets, i.e., two or more types of tool used sequentially in a single task. In this paper I present evidence of tool-use, and the probable use of a tool-set, for honey-gathering by unhabituated chimpanzees at Bulindi, a forest-farm mosaic south of the Budongo Forest in Uganda. Between June and December 2007, 44 stick tools were found in association with 16 holes dug in the ground, corresponding to the period when stingless bees (Meliponula sp.) appeared in chimpanzee dung. In 11 cases the confirmed target was a Meliponula ground nest. Two potential tool types were distinguished: digging sticks encrusted with soil, and more slender and/or flexible sticks largely devoid of soil that may have functioned to probe the bees' narrow entry tubes. Reports of chimpanzees using tools to dig for honey have been largely confined to Central Africa. Honey-digging has not previously been reported for Ugandan chimpanzees. Similarly, use of a tool-set to obtain honey has thus far been described for wild chimpanzee populations only in Central Africa. Evidence strongly suggests that Bulindi chimpanzees also use sticks in predation on carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) nests, perhaps as probes to locate honey or to disable adult bees. These preliminary findings from Bulindi add to our understanding of chimpanzee technological and cultural variation. However, unprotected forests at Bulindi and elsewhere in the region are currently severely threatened by commercial logging and clearance for farming. Populations with potentially unique behavioral and technological repertoires are being lost.

  10. Ebola virus disease in Africa: epidemiology and nosocomial transmission.

    PubMed

    Shears, P; O'Dempsey, T J D

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, has exceeded all previous Ebola outbreaks in the number of cases and in international response. There have been 20 significant outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Sub-Saharan Africa prior to the 2014 outbreak, the largest being that in Uganda in 2000, with 425 cases and a mortality of 53%. Since the first outbreaks in Sudan and Zaire in 1976, transmission within health facilities has been of major concern, affecting healthcare workers and acting as amplifiers of spread into the community. The lack of resources for infection control and personal protective equipment are the main reasons for nosocomial transmission. Local strategies to improve infection control, and a greater understanding of local community views on the disease, have helped to bring outbreaks under control. Recommendations from previous outbreaks include improved disease surveillance to enable more rapid health responses, the wider availability of personal protective equipment, and greater international preparedness.

  11. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Initiatives in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Bill; Parthesius, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.

  12. The general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda: a platform for communicable and non-communicable disease studies

    PubMed Central

    Asiki, Gershim; Murphy, Georgina; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Seeley, Janet; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Karabarinde, Alex; Waswa, Laban; Biraro, Sam; Kasamba, Ivan; Pomilla, Cristina; Maher, Dermot; Young, Elizabeth H; Kamali, Anatoli; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2013-01-01

    The General Population Cohort (GPC) was set up in 1989 to examine trends in HIV prevalence and incidence, and their determinants in rural south-western Uganda. Recently, the research questions have included the epidemiology and genetics of communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) to address the limited data on the burden and risk factors for NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa. The cohort comprises all residents (52% aged ≥13years, men and women in equal proportions) within one-half of a rural sub-county, residing in scattered houses, and largely farmers of three major ethnic groups. Data collected through annual surveys include; mapping for spatial analysis and participant location; census for individual socio-demographic and household socioeconomic status assessment; and a medical survey for health, lifestyle and biophysical and blood measurements to ascertain disease outcomes and risk factors for selected participants. This cohort offers a rich platform to investigate the interplay between communicable diseases and NCDs. There is robust infrastructure for data management, sample processing and storage, and diverse expertise in epidemiology, social and basic sciences. For any data access enquiries you may contact the director, MRC/UVRI, Uganda Research Unit on AIDS by email to mrc@mrcuganda.org or the corresponding author. PMID:23364209

  13. Barriers to Condom Use among High Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Matovu, Joseph K. B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Mujisha, Geoffrey; Kiguli, Juliet; Arinaitwe, Jim; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unprotected sexual intercourse is a major risk factor for HIV transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) face challenges in accessing HIV prevention services, including condoms. However, there is limited in-depth assessment and documentation of the barriers to condom use among MSM in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we examine the barriers to condom use among MSM in Uganda. Methods The data for this study were extracted from a larger qualitative study conducted among 85 self-identified adult (>18 years) MSM in 11 districts in Uganda between July and December 2013. Data on sexual behaviours and access and barriers to condom use were collected using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. This paper presents an analysis of data for 33 MSM who did not use condoms at last sex, with a focus on barriers to condom use. Analysis was conducted using the content analysis approach. Results Six major barriers to condom use were identified: Difficulties with using condoms, access challenges, lack of knowledge and misinformation about condom use, partner and relationship related issues, financial incentives and socio-economic vulnerability, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion The findings suggest that several reasons account for lack of condom use among high-risk MSM. The findings are valuable to inform interventions needed to increase condom use among MSM. PMID:26172374

  14. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  15. Burden of tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Guwatudde, David; Zalwango, Sarah; Kamya, Moses R.; Debanne, Sara M.; Diaz, Mireya I.; Okwera, Alphonse; Mugerwa, Roy D.; King, Charles; Whalen, Christopher C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis in one of Uganda's poor peri-urban areas. METHODS: Multi-stage sampling was used to select a sample of households whose members were evaluated for presence of signs and/or symptoms of active tuberculosis; history of tuberculosis treatment; and relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and household environment characteristics. Patients with suspected tuberculosis underwent standardized evaluation for active disease. FINDINGS: A sample of 263 households with 1142 individuals was evaluated. Nineteen people were classified as having had tuberculosis during the one-year reference period (May 2001-April 2002): nine (47%) cases already had been diagnosed through the health care system, while 10 cases (53%) were diagnosed through the survey. The prevalences for all forms of tuberculosis and for sputum smear-positive tuberculosis were 14.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8-20.3) and 4.4 (CI = 0.83-7.89) per thousand, respectively. The incidences for all forms of tuberculosis and for sputum smear-positive tuberculosis were 9.2 (CI = 3.97-14.4) and 3.7 (CI = 0.39-6.95) per thousand per year, respectively. CONCLUSION: The rate of tuberculosis in this peri-urban community was exceptionally high and may be underestimated by current surveillance systems. The need for interventions aimed at reducing tuberculosis transmission in this, and other similar communities with high case rates, is urgent. PMID:14758406

  16. Discontinuation of cost sharing in Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Gilbert M.; Pariyo, George; Galiwango, Edward; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of ending cost sharing on use of outpatient services and how this was perceived by health workers and members of a health unit management committee. METHODS: From 10 districts across Uganda, 78 health facilities were selected. Attendance at these facilities was assessed for eight months before and 12 months after cost sharing ended. The data represented 1 966 522 outpatient visits. Perceptions about the impact of ending cost sharing were obtained from the 73 health workers and 78 members of the health unit management committee who were available. FINDINGS: With the end of cost sharing, the mean monthly number of new visits increased by 17 928 (53.3%), but among children aged <5 years the increase was 3611 (27.3%). Mean monthly reattendances increased by 2838 (81.3%) among children aged <5 years and 1889 (24.3%) among all people. Attendances for immunizations, antenatal clinics, and family planning all increased, despite these services having always been free. Health workers reported a decline in morale, and many health unit management committees no longer met regularly. CONCLUSION: Use of all services increased - even those that had never before been subject to fees. The loss of some autonomy by the health facility and diminished community governance of health facilities may have long term negative effects. PMID:15112007

  17. Dynamics of Cholera Outbreaks in Great Lakes Region of Africa, 1978–2008

    PubMed Central

    Nkoko, Didier Bompangue; Giraudoux, Patrick; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Tinda, Annie Mutombo; Piarroux, Martine; Sudre, Bertrand; Horion, Stephanie; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Ilunga, Benoît Kebela

    2011-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya almost every year since 1977–1978, when the disease emerged in these countries. We used a multiscale, geographic information system–based approach to assess the link between cholera outbreaks, climate, and environmental variables. We performed time-series analyses and field investigations in the main affected areas. Results showed that cholera greatly increased during El Niño warm events (abnormally warm El Niños) but decreased or remained stable between these events. Most epidemics occurred in a few hotspots in lakeside areas, where the weekly incidence of cholera varied by season, rainfall, fluctuations of plankton, and fishing activities. During lull periods, persistence of cholera was explained by outbreak dynamics, which suggested a metapopulation pattern, and by endemic foci around the lakes. These links between cholera outbreaks, climate, and lake environments need additional, multidisciplinary study. PMID:22099090

  18. Contribution to the knowledge of Afrotropical Dryinidae, Embolemidae and Sclerogibbidae (Hymenoptera), with description of new species from Central African Republic and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Olmi, Massimo; van Noort, Simon; Guglielmino, Adalgisa

    2016-01-01

    , 1963 (Sclerogibbidae); from Ivory Coast: Adryinus oweni Olmi, 1984 (Gonatopodinae); from Cameroon and South Africa: Gonatopus operosus Olmi, 1993 (Gonatopodinae); from Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Neodryinus antiquus Benoit, 1954 (Gonatopodinae); from South Africa: Anteon striatum Olmi, 2005b (Anteoninae). Including the above new records, 23 species of Dryinidae (previously six), two species of Embolemidae (previously none) and three species of Sclerogibbidae (previously two) are now known from Central African Republic. For Uganda, 39 species of Dryinidae (previously 23), one species of Embolemidae (previously none) and four species of Sclerogibbidae (previously four) are now known. Additional new faunistic records are provided for Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Mali, South Africa and Zambia. PMID:27110196

  19. Contribution to the knowledge of Afrotropical Dryinidae, Embolemidae and Sclerogibbidae (Hymenoptera), with description of new species from Central African Republic and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Olmi, Massimo; van Noort, Simon; Guglielmino, Adalgisa

    2016-01-01

    Benoit, 1963 (Sclerogibbidae); from Ivory Coast: Adryinus oweni Olmi, 1984 (Gonatopodinae); from Cameroon and South Africa: Gonatopus operosus Olmi, 1993 (Gonatopodinae); from Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Neodryinus antiquus Benoit, 1954 (Gonatopodinae); from South Africa: Anteon striatum Olmi, 2005b (Anteoninae). Including the above new records, 23 species of Dryinidae (previously six), two species of Embolemidae (previously none) and three species of Sclerogibbidae (previously two) are now known from Central African Republic. For Uganda, 39 species of Dryinidae (previously 23), one species of Embolemidae (previously none) and four species of Sclerogibbidae (previously four) are now known. Additional new faunistic records are provided for Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Mali, South Africa and Zambia. PMID:27110196

  20. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-10-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  1. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-10-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  2. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-01-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients’ rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers’ fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  3. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Shelley; Dunger, David B.; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of impaired glucose tolerance first recognised during pregnancy. Most women with GDM revert to normal glucose metabolism after delivery of their babies; however, they are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life as are their offspring. Determining a country’s GDM prevalence can assist with policy guidelines regarding GDM screening and management, and can highlight areas requiring research. This systematic review assesses GDM prevalence in Africa. Methods and Findings Three electronic databases were searched without language restrictions; PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library. Thirty-one search terms were searched. Eligible articles defined GDM, stated what GDM screening approaches were employed and reported GDM prevalence. The reporting quality and risk of bias within each study was assessed. The PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. The literature search identified 466 unique records. Sixty full text articles were reviewed of which 14 were included in the systematic review. One abstract, for which the full text article could not be obtained, was also included. Information regarding GDM classification, screening methods and prevalence was obtained for six African countries; Ethiopia (n = 1), Morocco (n = 1), Mozambique (n = 1), Nigeria (n = 6), South Africa (n = 4) and Tanzania (n = 1). Prevalence figures ranged from 0% (Tanzania) to 13.9% (Nigeria) with some studies focussing on women with GDM risk factors. Most studies utilised the two hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and applied the World Health Organization’s diagnostic criteria. Conclusions Six countries, equating to 11% of the African continent, were represented in this systematic review. This indicates how little is known about GDM in Africa and highlights the need for further research. Considering the increasing public health burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes, it is essential that

  4. Assessing Progress, Impact, and Next Steps in Rolling Out Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in 14 Priority Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa through 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Samuelson, Julia; Schnure, Melissa; Dalal, Shona; Farley, Timothy; Hankins, Catherine; Thomas, Anne G.; Reed, Jason; Stegman, Peter; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) identified 14 priority countries across eastern and southern Africa for scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services. Several years into this effort, we reflect on progress. Methods Using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool (DMPPT) 2.1, we assessed age-specific impact, cost-effectiveness, and coverage attributable to circumcisions performed through 2014. We also compared impact of actual progress to that of achieving 80% coverage among men ages 15–49 in 12 VMMC priority countries and Nyanza Province, Kenya. We populated the models with age-disaggregated VMMC service statistics and with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections exported from country-specific Spectrum/Goals files. We assumed each country achieved UNAIDS’ 90-90-90 treatment targets. Results More than 9 million VMMCs were conducted through 2014: 43% of the estimated 20.9 million VMMCs required to reach 80% coverage by the end of 2015. The model assumed each country reaches the UNAIDS targets, and projected that VMMCs conducted through 2014 will avert 240,000 infections by the end of 2025, compared to 1.1 million if each country had reached 80% coverage by the end of 2015. The median estimated cost per HIV infection averted was $4,400. Nyanza Province in Kenya, the 11 priority regions in Tanzania, and Uganda have reached or are approaching MC coverage targets among males ages 15–24, while coverage in other age groups is lower. Across all countries modeled, more than half of the projected HIV infections averted were attributable to circumcising 10- to 19-year-olds. Conclusions The priority countries have made considerable progress in VMMC scale-up, and VMMC remains a cost-effective strategy for epidemic impact, even assuming near-universal HIV diagnosis, treatment coverage, and viral suppression. Examining circumcision coverage by five

  5. Classification of Bartonella strains associated with straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) across Africa using a multi-locus sequence typing platform.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Hayman, David T S; McKee, Clifton D; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. To elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across Africa (Cameroon, Annobon island of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) approach based on nucleotide sequences of eight loci (ftsZ, gltA, nuoG, ribC, rpoB, ssrA, ITS, and 16S rRNA). The analysis of each locus but ribC demonstrated clustering of the isolates into six genogroups (E1 - E5 and Ew), while ribC was absent in the isolates belonging to the genogroup Ew. In general, grouping of all isolates by each locus was mutually supportive; however, nuoG, gltA, and rpoB showed some incongruity with other loci in several strains, suggesting a possibility of recombination events, which were confirmed by network analyses and recombination/mutation rate ratio (r/m) estimations. The MLST scheme revealed 45 unique sequence types (ST1 - 45) among the analyzed bartonella isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences supported the discrimination of six phylogenetic lineages (E1 - E5 and Ew) corresponding to separate and unique Bartonella species. One of the defined lineages, Ew, consisted of only two STs (ST1 and ST2), and comprised more than one-quarter of the analyzed isolates, while other lineages contained higher numbers of STs with a smaller number of isolates belonging to each lineage. The low number of allelic polymorphisms of isolates belonging to Ew suggests a more recent origin for this species. Our findings suggest that at least six Bartonella species are associated with straw-colored fruit bats, and that distinct STs can be found across the distribution of this bat species, including in populations of bats which are

  6. Classification of Bartonella Strains Associated with Straw-Colored Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) across Africa Using a Multi-locus Sequence Typing Platform

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ying; Hayman, David T. S.; McKee, Clifton D.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. To elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across Africa (Cameroon, Annobon island of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) approach based on nucleotide sequences of eight loci (ftsZ, gltA, nuoG, ribC, rpoB, ssrA, ITS, and 16S rRNA). The analysis of each locus but ribC demonstrated clustering of the isolates into six genogroups (E1 – E5 and Ew), while ribC was absent in the isolates belonging to the genogroup Ew. In general, grouping of all isolates by each locus was mutually supportive; however, nuoG, gltA, and rpoB showed some incongruity with other loci in several strains, suggesting a possibility of recombination events, which were confirmed by network analyses and recombination/mutation rate ratio (r/m) estimations. The MLST scheme revealed 45 unique sequence types (ST1 – 45) among the analyzed bartonella isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences supported the discrimination of six phylogenetic lineages (E1 – E5 and Ew) corresponding to separate and unique Bartonella species. One of the defined lineages, Ew, consisted of only two STs (ST1 and ST2), and comprised more than one-quarter of the analyzed isolates, while other lineages contained higher numbers of STs with a smaller number of isolates belonging to each lineage. The low number of allelic polymorphisms of isolates belonging to Ew suggests a more recent origin for this species. Our findings suggest that at least six Bartonella species are associated with straw-colored fruit bats, and that distinct STs can be found across the distribution of this bat species, including in populations of bats which are

  7. Classification of Bartonella strains associated with straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) across Africa using a multi-locus sequence typing platform.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Hayman, David T S; McKee, Clifton D; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. To elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across Africa (Cameroon, Annobon island of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) approach based on nucleotide sequences of eight loci (ftsZ, gltA, nuoG, ribC, rpoB, ssrA, ITS, and 16S rRNA). The analysis of each locus but ribC demonstrated clustering of the isolates into six genogroups (E1 - E5 and Ew), while ribC was absent in the isolates belonging to the genogroup Ew. In general, grouping of all isolates by each locus was mutually supportive; however, nuoG, gltA, and rpoB showed some incongruity with other loci in several strains, suggesting a possibility of recombination events, which were confirmed by network analyses and recombination/mutation rate ratio (r/m) estimations. The MLST scheme revealed 45 unique sequence types (ST1 - 45) among the analyzed bartonella isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences supported the discrimination of six phylogenetic lineages (E1 - E5 and Ew) corresponding to separate and unique Bartonella species. One of the defined lineages, Ew, consisted of only two STs (ST1 and ST2), and comprised more than one-quarter of the analyzed isolates, while other lineages contained higher numbers of STs with a smaller number of isolates belonging to each lineage. The low number of allelic polymorphisms of isolates belonging to Ew suggests a more recent origin for this species. Our findings suggest that at least six Bartonella species are associated with straw-colored fruit bats, and that distinct STs can be found across the distribution of this bat species, including in populations of bats which are

  8. A Multi-Model Real Time Forecasting Prototype System in the Mara Basin (Kenya/Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Valdes, J. B.; Valdes, R.; Demaria, E. M.; Durcik, M.; Maitaria, K.; Roy, T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing data and hydrologic models can respond to monitoring and forecasting needs in Africa and other poorly gauged regions. We present here the progress to date in developing a multi-model platform to provide hydrologic monitoring and forecasting using real time remote sensing observations. Satellite precipitation products such as CMORPH, TMPA (at 0.25° resolution) and PERSIANN-CCS (at 4km resolution) are used to force two models of different structure. One model is physically based and distributed, and the other is conceptual and lumped at the sub-basin level. The performance of both models is evaluated using different metrics, and the uncertainty in their predictions based on the errors incurred during the historical simulations period is computed. The models were compared and the potential increase in performance from using both models versus a single one will be assessed. This work provides insights into the advantages of a multi-model platform over a single model, with respect to different management and decision-making purposes. The methods were applied to the Mara Basin (Kenya/Tanzania), where growing human demands on water and land use are likely to alter significantly the hydrologic balance of the basin and the ecosystems that depend on it. These efforts are part of the Applied Sciences Team of the NASA SERVIR Program in collaboration with its East Africa Hub at the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (Nairobi,Kenya).

  9. Prevalence, Risk Factors, Awareness, and Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Mafia Island, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Nagri, Z. I.; Manji, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of hypertension in Africa ranges from 29.7% in Cameroon to 47% in South Africa. Only 10% receive treatment in Cameroon while 32% are on medications in Ghana. Control rates vary from 0.4% to 16.8%. This study was done to assess prevalence, risk factors, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Mafia Island, Tanzania, which has never been documented before, so that necessary interventions can be undertaken accordingly. Methodology. Data was collected through questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were taken. Descriptive statistics were done and potential correlations were analyzed. Results. Out of 570 adults who were included in the study, 154 (27%) were aged 41–50 and the male-to-female ratio was 1 : 1.05. Almost half (49.5%) of the participants fit into the criteria of hypertension. Out of the 118 participants who were aware of having hypertension, 68 (57.6%) were currently taking medication. From those taking medication, only 14 (20.6%) had controlled hypertension. Conclusion. This study tried to show the extent of hypertension and find out risk factors which could explain the high prevalence of hypertension. This is very alarming and a dire need to raise awareness through health education, availability of screening, and treating and follow-up should be given priority. PMID:27525113

  10. Helium isotopes at Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania, and the origin of East African Plateaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, D. R.; Halldórsson, S. A.; Barry, P. H.; Fischer, T. P.; de Moor, J. M.; Ramirez, C. J.; Mangasini, F.; Scarsi, P.

    2011-11-01

    We report helium isotope ratios (3He/4He) of lavas and tephra of the Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP) in southern Tanzania. Values as high as 15RA (RA = air 3He/4He) far exceed typical upper mantle values, and are the first observation of plume-like ratios south of the Turkana Depression which separates the topographic highs of the Ethiopia and Kenya domes. The African Superplume - a tilted low-velocity seismic anomaly extending to the core-mantle boundary beneath southern Africa - is the likely source of these high 3He/4He ratios. High 3He/4He ratios at RVP together with similarly-high values along the Main Ethiopian Rift and in Afar provide compelling evidence that the African Superplume is a feature that extends through the 670-km seismic discontinuity and provides dynamic support - either as a single plume or via multiple upwellings - for the two main topographic features of the East Africa Rift System as well as heat and mass to drive continuing rift-related magmatism.

  11. A New Horned Crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid Sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Christopher A.; Njau, Jackson; Blumenschine, Robert J.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The fossil record reveals surprising crocodile diversity in the Neogene of Africa, but relationships with their living relatives and the biogeographic origins of the modern African crocodylian fauna are poorly understood. A Plio-Pleistocene crocodile from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, represents a new extinct species and shows that high crocodylian diversity in Africa persisted after the Miocene. It had prominent triangular “horns” over the ears and a relatively deep snout, these resemble those of the recently extinct Malagasy crocodile Voay robustus, but the new species lacks features found among osteolaemines and shares derived similarities with living species of Crocodylus. Methodology/Principal Findings The holotype consists of a partial skull and skeleton and was collected on the surface between two tuffs dated to approximately 1.84 million years (Ma), in the same interval near the type localities for the hominids Homo habilis and Australopithecus boisei. It was compared with previously-collected material from Olduvai Gorge referable to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis places the new form within or adjacent to crown Crocodylus. Conclusions/Significance The new crocodile species was the largest predator encountered by our ancestors at Olduvai Gorge, as indicated by hominid specimens preserving crocodile bite marks from these sites. The new species also reinforces the emerging view of high crocodylian diversity throughout the Neogene, and it represents one of the few extinct species referable to crown genus Crocodylus. PMID:20195356

  12. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers.

  13. The power of AIDS: kinship, mobility and the valuing of social and ritual relationships in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Hansjörg

    2006-09-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa has become a test case of the effects of globalisation, in that it demonstrates how international processes may affect regional life situations and how 'the local' can simultaneously develop in its own way, through the processes of appropriating, modifying, and resisting global influences. Drawing on fieldwork in Tanzania, I show how the Luo in the Mara region define HIV/AIDS as an outcome of modernity and globalisation, which to them have become embodied in processes of migration, the collapse of generational and gender hierarchies, and an increased immorality in contemporary society. While social and moral ruptures in Mara become further condensed in tensions between lineages and AIDS-sick relatives, mourning and burial rituals (including widow cleansing), disputes over inheritance rights, and the attribution of illness to the breaking of a taboo (chira) have become essential for negotiating and maintaining social and cultural relationships in an era of AIDS. In conclusion I argue that the concepts of vitality and moral practice may assist an understanding of how different social actors in sub-Saharan Africa have responded to the breakdowns associated with increased suffering and death, and to describe some social and moral developments observable in the context of internationally driven public health campaigns in the region.

  14. Prevalence, Risk Factors, Awareness, and Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Mafia Island, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Muhamedhussein, M S; Nagri, Z I; Manji, K P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of hypertension in Africa ranges from 29.7% in Cameroon to 47% in South Africa. Only 10% receive treatment in Cameroon while 32% are on medications in Ghana. Control rates vary from 0.4% to 16.8%. This study was done to assess prevalence, risk factors, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Mafia Island, Tanzania, which has never been documented before, so that necessary interventions can be undertaken accordingly. Methodology. Data was collected through questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were taken. Descriptive statistics were done and potential correlations were analyzed. Results. Out of 570 adults who were included in the study, 154 (27%) were aged 41-50 and the male-to-female ratio was 1 : 1.05. Almost half (49.5%) of the participants fit into the criteria of hypertension. Out of the 118 participants who were aware of having hypertension, 68 (57.6%) were currently taking medication. From those taking medication, only 14 (20.6%) had controlled hypertension. Conclusion. This study tried to show the extent of hypertension and find out risk factors which could explain the high prevalence of hypertension. This is very alarming and a dire need to raise awareness through health education, availability of screening, and treating and follow-up should be given priority. PMID:27525113

  15. Malaria vaccine offers hope. International / Africa.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) may soon sign an agreement with the Colombian government to build a plant in Colombia for the mass production of the malaria vaccine SPf66. SPf66 consists of a combination of synthetic peptides. It will eventually be available in Africa, where 90% of all recorded malaria cases occur each year. 1 million of the 1.5-3 million malaria-related deaths each year also occur in Africa. Many of these deaths take place in children. The indirect costs of malaria in Africa is expected to increase from $800 million to $1.8 billion between 1987 and the end of 1995. Based on findings from the various clinical trials in Colombia, Thailand, The Gambia, and Tanzania, WHO's director of Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) claims that, if SPf66 can reduce the malaria incidence rate by 50% and thereby also the malaria-related death rate, the lives of 500,000 children in Africa would be spared. TDR will meet in mid-1996 to sort through all the SPf66 findings and then develop a policy for further development or production and use of SPf66. The price of each SPf66 vaccination should be around $5, comparable with the higher range of costs of other vaccines provided by WHO's Expanded Program of Immunization and UNICEF. At the 1992 WHO summit in Amsterdam, the president of the Congo called for the international community to join forces to eliminate malaria. When it was first tested on humans, in Colombia, the protection rate of SPf66 ranged from 22% to 77%, with the best results among the young and the very old. It has not caused any harmful side effects.

  16. Natrocarbonatite tephra of Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Richard L.

    1983-10-01

    Carbonatite tephra was discharged in the final eruptive phase of Kerimasi, an extinct nephelinite volcano in the eastern rift valley of northern Tanzania. The tephra was dominantly of alkali carbonatite composition, thus providing the first well-documented example of premodern natrocarbonatite volcanism. The principal carbonate mineral was nyerereite, which is the dominant mineral in modern natrocarbonatite lava flows of the adjacent volcano Oldoinyo Lengai. The nyerereite of Kerimasi was leached of its alkalis by meteoric water and is now represented by calcite pseudomorphs. Natrocarbonatite tephra of Kerimasi shows that the alkali-rich eruptive rocks of Oldoinyo Lengai are not unique, thus supporting the hypothesis that carbonatite magmas associated with nephelinite volcanism were originally alkaline and that the subvolcanic calcitic carbonatites are a residuum from which the alkalis have been removed, either by volcanism or fenetizing fluids. A hypothesis to be tested is that eruptive carbonatite magma is, worldwide, commonly and perhaps dominantly of natrocarbonatite composition.

  17. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Van Dongen, Stefan; Davis, Stephen; Neerinckx, Simon; Deckers, Jozef; Libois, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P. irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because they provide an indicator that can be surveyed to assess the risk for plague. PMID:17553245

  18. Furuncular myiasis of the foot caused by the tumbu fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga: report in a medical student returning from a medical mission trip to Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, James R; North, Dwayne; Santo, Arben

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous myiasis in humans is a temporary parasitic infestation of the skin by fly larvae or maggots of a variety of Dipteran families. In the United States, autochthonous cases of myiasis are infrequently seen. Most cases of cutaneous myiasis are acquired when traveling to tropical areas of Africa, Central America or South America. This case report involves a 26-year-old male medical student who visited Tanzania on a medical mission trip. Three weeks following his return to the United States he developed a furuncular lesion on the side of the fifth digit on his right foot, which contained the larva of the tumbu fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga. PMID:23843710

  19. Furuncular myiasis of the foot caused by the tumbu fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga: report in a medical student returning from a medical mission trip to Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, James R; North, Dwayne; Santo, Arben

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous myiasis in humans is a temporary parasitic infestation of the skin by fly larvae or maggots of a variety of Dipteran families. In the United States, autochthonous cases of myiasis are infrequently seen. Most cases of cutaneous myiasis are acquired when traveling to tropical areas of Africa, Central America or South America. This case report involves a 26-year-old male medical student who visited Tanzania on a medical mission trip. Three weeks following his return to the United States he developed a furuncular lesion on the side of the fifth digit on his right foot, which contained the larva of the tumbu fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga.

  20. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M

    2002-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case

  1. Spectroscopy of red dravite from northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Naumenko, Ievgen V.; Vyshnevsky, Olexij A.

    2015-07-01

    Low-Fe dravite with a formula of Na0.66Ca0.16Mg2.62Fe0.33Mn0.02Ti0.02Al5.95B3Si6.04O27(OH)4 is described from Engusero Sambu, northern Tanzania (On maps, Engusero Sambu may be found to be marked as belonging to Kenya, but in reality, it is located near the border in northern Tanzania). The sample has an unusual red color that is distinctly different from the red dravite from the Osarara, Narok district, in Kenya that was formerly studied by Mattson and Rossman (Phys Chem Miner 14:225-234, 1984) and Taran and Rossman (Am Mineral 87:1148-1153, 2002). This unique sample has been characterized by optical and Mössbauer spectral measurements to investigate underlying cause of the intense bands in absorption spectra that give rise to the red color. These features are shown to be caused by exchange-coupled Fe3+-Fe3+ interactions. Thermal annealing of the samples causes an increase in Fe3+ contents due to oxidation of [Y]Fe2+. However, heat treatment does not change the high-energy absorption edge, which is probably caused by intense ligand-to-Fe3+ charge-transfer UV bands. In fact, Mössbauer results show that high-temperature annealing initiates breakdown of the tourmaline into an Fe oxide and causes accompanying redistribution of Fe3+ within the structure. Because of the popularity of tourmaline as a gemstone, this work has implications for understanding the causes of color in tourmaline, facilitating recognition of the distinctions between naturally occurring and treated tourmalines in the gem industry and enabling heat treatments for color enhancement.

  2. Nutrition Transition in Rural Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keding, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    All three types of malnutrition - underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiency - are experienced in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, and they can occur in parallel in one community or even one household. To combat this triple burden of malnutrition, a combination of different strategies will be necessary, including a focus on food-based strategies that promote the consumption of a wide range of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. In addition to a literature review, data from our own nutrition studies in both Tanzania and Kenya are presented in this paper. The literature review revealed an average of 10% of children in urban areas of Kenya and Tanzania with overweight and obesity, which is an alarming trend, and it is suggested that interventions need to start not only at school but also with adolescent girls and pregnant women to target the '1,000-day window'. From own study data, dietary patterns were generated that included a 'purchase' pattern dominated by bought and processed foods, indicating a possible nutrition transition even in the rural areas of both countries. Vegetable and especially fruit consumption was low in both countries. In addition, in Kenya, study participants exceeded the suggested maximum level of sugar consumption per day, which will most likely contribute to increasing levels in overweight and obesity prevalence and other noncommunicable diseases in general. As sugar was mainly consumed in combination with black tea, next to eating habits, changing drinking habits is also an important part of the nutrition transition and needs to receive more attention. A 'healthy eating at school and at home strategy' is suggested, which needs the support of both schools and parents/caregivers. In general, to take countermeasures against the negative trends of nutrition transition, joint efforts from all players in the field - not only those in nutrition, health and medicine, but also those in education and agriculture

  3. Researchers confirm AIDS epidemic in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kingman, S

    1993-06-12

    Study findings into the AIDS epidemic were presented at a public lecture at the London School of Hygiene and Public Health to counter press and television reports that the problem of AIDS is greatly exaggerated. A study funded by the Medical Research Council is Britain found that more than 50% of all adult deaths and 80-90% of all deaths among those aged 13-44 in rural part of Uganda are due to HIV infection. 10,000 people of 15 neighboring villages in the Masaka district of southwest Uganda were followed with annual medical examinations and censuses starting in September 1990. 4.8% were infected with HIV overall; 8.2% were infected among those aged 13 and over. The incidence of HIV infection during the 1st year of follow up was 1%. Almost 25% of adults infected with HIV died during the 2-year follow up period of the study suggesting a rate of disease progression twice that observed in industrialized countries. There was excess mortality of 17/1000 among people aged 25-34 and mortality among people infected with HIV was 11.6%/year. Among those who died it was also observed that less than 10% had clinical signs of AIDS at medical examination before death; 44% had no major symptom; 48% had 1 or more major symptoms; and 50% rapidly progressed from being asymptomatic to having fatal AIDS. It was observed in the study that infection with HIV increased the risk of death within 1 year by 60-fold. AIDS in Africa is not being overdiagnosed, but cases of advanced HIV disease are not being recognized. Researchers do not know why the epidemic in Africa is different from those in Europe and the US. It is thought, however, that the most important social conditions promoting the heterosexual spread of HIV are poverty and the lack of women's empowerment. In response, some audience members accused the speakers of racism and blaming female sex workers in Africa for the epidemic.

  4. Environmental Education in the Formal Sector of Education in Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucunguzi, P.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a critical review of the present state of environmental education in the formal sector of education in Uganda. Recommends an improved approach to formal environmental education based on a multidisciplinary foundation that embraces the biophysical environment, people, culture, politics, and socioeconomic systems. (LZ)

  5. A Review of Non-formal Environmental Education in Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucunguzi, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    Reviews contemporary environmental education in Uganda. Presents a new approach that emphasizes the adoption of multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, people-centered, and participatory programs in environmental concerns. Embraces the diversity of the biophysical, social, and economic environments and is closely associated with permanent…

  6. Christianity and Rural Community Literacy Practices in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openjuru, George Ladaah; Lyster, Elda

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we examine how Christianity provides the impetus for local literacy practices in a rural community in Uganda. These Christian literacy practices form a central part of the literacy activities of the community and are manifested in a variety of contexts from public to private, using a wide variety of readily available religious…

  7. Schistosomiasis among Recreational Users of Upper Nile River, Uganda, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Brunette, Gary; Kapella, Bryan K.; McAuliffe, Isabel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Li, Wenkai; Marano, Nina; Okware, Sam; Olsen, Sonja J.; Secor, W. Evan; Tappero, Jordan W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Montgomery, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    After recreational exposure to river water in Uganda, 12 (17%) of 69 persons had evidence of schistosome infection. Eighteen percent self-medicated with praziquantel prophylaxis immediately after exposure, which was not appropriate. Travelers to schistosomiasis-endemic areas should consult a travel medicine physician. PMID:20409387

  8. Indigenous Adaptation: Uganda's Village Schools, ca. 1880-1937

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Holly Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    In Uganda, the implementation of universal primary education (UPE) in 1997 and universal secondary education (USE) in 2005 have led educational policy makers, teachers, parents, and students to seek creative solutions to the problem of ensuring educational quality as schools incorporate 4 million more students. Some Ugandans worry about…

  9. Universal Secondary Education in Uganda: The Head Teachers' Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Burton, Lisa; Werner, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Uganda has received considerable international attention for being the first and, to date, only African country to adopt a policy of free universal secondary education (USE). However, the policy was adopted with little attention to system capacity or involvement of secondary head teachers, even though there is considerable research documenting the…

  10. Forensic medicine services in Uganda--present and future.

    PubMed

    Bimenya, G S; Bhootra, B L; Mukasa, Nsereko

    2005-04-01

    Forensic medicine services (medico-legal services) as it is provided today in Uganda is discussed with special reference to forensic pathology and also to future plans for improvement to ensure quality service. Forensic medicine services are divided into clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Uganda, these services are rendered partly by pathologists attached to University, by pathologists and medical officers employed by police and by medical officers attached to hospitals. In Uganda, all types of unnatural deaths are reported to nearest police station and appointed investigating police officer(s) will take necessary action to have a medico-legal postmortem done as soon as possible. Currently there is no qualified forensic pathologist in Uganda. Suggestions are made with regard to the enactment of a Forensic Medicine Services Act by the Department of Health, the creation of a forensic medicine unit with, under the administrative umbrella of pathology department, in medical schools and imparting of forensic medicine training to anatomical pathologists to act as a qualified, specialist forensic pathologists.

  11. Multilingual Cultural Resources in Child-Headed Families in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual…

  12. Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

  13. Higher Education Research in Uganda: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owoeye, J. S.; Oyebade, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Research is regarded as essential for development and the application of new knowledge for the benefit of society. Higher education in Uganda has expanded rapidly in the last 20 years. Universities have become the most important institutions in the achievement of national and international goals in enhancing the quality of life, wealth creation,…

  14. Viral infections in travellers from tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, A W; Bowen, E T; Platt, G S

    1978-04-15

    Examination of sera from 86 travellers to Britain from tropical Africa disclosed evidence of past infection with 10 identifiable viruses, of which the most important were O'nyong-nyong, dengue, chikungunya, and Ntaya. The findings indicate that infection with O'nyong-nyong may be acquired sporadically in Nigeria, Ghana, and Sierra Leone, where it has not previously been identified. Chikungunya infection had not been recorded in West Africa other than Nigeria and Senegal. Patients from Sierra Leone and contiguous Liberia had antibodies to this infection. An outbread of dengue fever in the Seychelles in early 1977 was confirmed. Ntaya virus, though known in Uganda, Cameroon, and Zaire, appears also to be transmitted in Kenya, Nigeria, and Zambia. Clinical studies indicated that chikungunya infection may present with alimentary features, possibly with jaundice. The clinical features of Ntaya infection may include kizarre neurological manifestations in addition to fever. The absence of Lassa antibodies among these travellers suggested that this infection is not a common hazard among such persons.

  15. Limited accessibility to HIV services for persons with disabilities living with HIV in Ghana, Uganda and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Waimar; Okal, Jerry; Schenk, Katie; Esantsi, Selina; Mutale, Felix; Kyeremaa, Rita Kusi; Ngirabakunzi, Edson; Asiah, Hilary; McClain-Nhlapo, Charlotte; Moono, Grimond

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge about experiences in accessing HIV services among persons with disabilities who are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. Although HIV transmission among persons with disabilities in Africa is increasingly acknowledged, there is a need to bring to life the experiences and voices from persons with disabilities living with HIV to raise awareness of programme implementers and policy makers about their barriers in accessing HIV services. This paper explores how the barriers faced by persons with disabilities living with HIV impede their ability to access HIV-related services and manage their disease. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with 76 persons (41 females; 35 males) with physical, visual and/or hearing impairments who were living with HIV in Ghana, Uganda and Zambia (2012–2013). We explored challenges and facilitators at different levels (individual, psychosocial and structural) of access to HIV services. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. Results Persons with disabilities living with HIV encountered a wide variety of challenges in accessing HIV services. Delays in testing for HIV were common, with most waiting until they were sick to be tested. Reasons for delayed testing included challenges in getting to the health facilities, lack of information about HIV and testing, and HIV- and disability-related stigma. Barriers to HIV-related services, including care and treatment, at health facilities included lack of disability-friendly educational materials and sign interpreters, stigmatizing treatment by providers and other patients, lack of skills to provide tailored services to persons with disabilities living with HIV and physically inaccessible infrastructure, all of which make it extremely difficult for persons with disabilities to initiate and adhere to HIV treatment. Accessibility challenges were greater for women than men due to gender-related roles. Challenges were similar across the

  16. How does population viral load vary with the evolution of a large HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed

    Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Awad, Susanne F

    2014-03-27

    Using mathematical modelling, we describe the temporal evolution of population HIV-1 viral load in Tanzania throughout the epidemic. Population log10 viral load was found to be stable and not sensitive to epidemic dynamics. However, even modest increases in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage were reflected as appreciable reductions in population log10 viral load. As ART coverage expands in sub-Saharan Africa, population log10 viral load will increasingly become a powerful proxy for monitoring ART implementation and HIV incidence trends.

  17. Providing care and facing death: nursing during Ebola outbreaks in central Africa.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, Bonnie L; Hewlett, Barry S

    2005-10-01

    Few studies have focused on describing the experiences of health care workers during rapid killing epidemics. In this article, the views and experiences of nurses during three outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in Central Africa are examined. These three outbreaks occurred in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, 1995); Gulu, Uganda (2000-2001); and Republic of Congo (ROC, 2003). Open-ended and semistructured interviews with individuals and small groups were conducted during the outbreaks in Uganda and ROC; data from DRC are extracted from published sources. Three key themes emerged from the interviews: (a) lack of protective gear, basic equipment, and other resources necessary to provide care, especially during the early phases of the outbreaks; (b) stigmatization by family, coworkers, and community; and (c) exceptional commitment to the nursing profession in a context where the lives of the health care workers were in jeopardy.

  18. Social Capital, Savings, and Educational Performance of Orphaned Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Karimli, Leyla; Chang-Keun, Han; Ismayilova, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of social capital on savings and educational performance of orphaned adolescents participating in a family-level economic strengthening program in Uganda. Findings indicate that if given the opportunity, poor families in Uganda will use financial institutions to save for the education of their adolescent youth. Moreover, although the results are mixed, overall, adolescents with higher levels of social capital and social support, including participation in youth groups, are likely to report better saving performance compared to their counterparts with lower levels of social capital and social support. The results point to: (1) the role for family-economic strengthening programs specifically focused on improving the educational outcomes of orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, and (2) the need for adolescents to be encouraged to participate in youth groups since these groups seem to offer the much needed supportive informal institutional structure for positive adolescent outcomes. PMID:20948971

  19. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    PubMed Central

    Mwesawina, Maurice; Baluku, Yosia; Kanyanda, Setiala S. E.; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control. Materials and Methods We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO. Results A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries. Conclusions Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies). The under-fives and the

  20. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-04-15

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  1. Greenhouse gas exchange in tropical mountain ecosystems in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kikoti, Imani; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Tropical mountain ecosystems with their mostly immense biodiversity are important regions for natural resources but also for agricultural production. Their supportive ecosystem processes are particularly vulnerable to the combined impacts of global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes. Data of impacts of climate and land use change on soil-atmosphere interactions due to GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) exchange from these ecosystems are still scarce, in particular for Africa. Tropical forest soils are underestimated as sinks for atmospheric CH4 with regard to worldwide GHG budgets (Werner et al. 2007, J GEOPHYS RES Vol. 112). Even though these soils are an important source for the atmospheric N2O budget, N2O emissions from tropical forest ecosystems are still poorly characterized (Castaldi et al. 2013, Biogeosciences 10). To obtain an insight of GHG balances of selected ecosystems soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 was investigated along the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We will present results for tropical forests in three different altitudes (lower montane, Ocotea, and Podocarpus forest), home garden (extensive agro-forestry), and coffee plantation (intensive agro-forestry). Therefore we used a combined approach consisting of a laboratory parameterization experiment (3 temperature and 2 moisture levels) and in situ static chamber measurements for GHG exchange. Field measurements were conducted during different hygric seasons throughout two years. Seasonal variation of temperature and especially of soil moisture across the different ecosystems resulted in distinct differences in GHG exchange. In addition environmental parameters like soil bulk density and substrate availability varying in space strongly influenced the GHG fluxes within sites. The results from parameterization experiments and in situ measurements show that natural forest ecosystems and extensive land use had higher uptakes of CH4. For the investigated

  2. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Geissbühler, Yvonne; Chaki, Prosper; Emidi, Basiliana; Govella, Nicodemus J; Shirima, Rudolf; Mayagaya, Valeliana; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Lindsay, Steven W; Kannady, Khadija; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F

    2007-01-01

    Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN) is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of the night was estimated by human landing catch in 216 houses and 1,064 residents were interviewed to determine usage of protection measures and the proportion of each hour of the night spent sleeping indoors, awake indoors, and outdoors. Results Hourly variations in biting activity by members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were consistent with classical reports but the proportion of these vectors caught outdoors in Dar es Salaam was almost double that of rural Tanzania. Overall, ITNs confer less protection against exophagic vectors in Dar es Salaam than in rural southern Tanzania (59% versus 70%). More alarmingly, a biting activity maximum that precedes 10 pm and much lower levels of ITN protection against exposure (38%) were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of modest importance locally, but which predominates transmission in large parts of Africa. Conclusion In a situation of changing mosquito and human behaviour, ITNs may confer lower, but still useful, levels of personal protection which can be complemented by communal transmission suppression at high coverage. Mosquito-proofing houses appeared to be the intervention of choice amongst residents and further options for preventing outdoor transmission include larviciding and environmental management. PMID:17880679

  3. The Use of Guidelines for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Tanzania: A Lesson from Kilimanjaro Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Mbwele, B; Slot, A; De Mast, Q; Kweka, P; Msuya, M; Hulscher, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluations of the guidelines for the management of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Tanzania is scant. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of the current Tanzanian treatment guideline for the management lower respiratory tract infection. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study in 11 hospitals of different levels in the Kilimanjaro region Data were collected from May 2012 to July 2012 by semi-structured interview for clinicians using 2 dummy cases for practical assessment. Data were analyzed by STATA v11 (StataCorp, TX, USA). Qualitative narratives from the interviews were translated, transcribed then coded by colors into meaningful themes. Results: A variety of principles for diagnosing and managing LRTI were demonstrated by 53 clinicians of Kilimanjaro. For the awareness, 67.9% (36/53) clinicians knew their responsibility to use Standard Treatment Guideline for managing LRTI. The content derived from Standard Treatment Guideline could be cited by 11.3% of clinicians (6/53) however they all showed concern of gaps in the guideline. Previous training in the management of patients with LRTI was reported by 25.9% (14/53), majority were pulmonary TB related. Correct microorganisms causing different forms of LRTI were mentioned by 11.3% (6/53). Exact cause of Atypical pneumonia and Q fever as an example was stated by 13.0% (7/53) from whom the need of developing the guideline for LRTI was explicitly elaborated. Conclusion: The current guidelines have not been used effectively for the management of LRTI in Tanzania. There is a need to review its content for the current practical use. PMID:27213093

  4. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Joel M.; Weiss, Helen A.; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15–24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. Results A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47–70% ever users and 20–45% current users) than females (24–54% ever users and 12–47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11–28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Conclusions Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking

  5. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection against malignant catarrhal fever in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lankester, F.; Russell, G.C.; Lugelo, A.; Ndabigaye, A.; Mnyambwa, N.; Keyyu, J.; Kazwala, R.; Grant, D.; Percival, A.; Deane, D.; Haig, D.M.; Cleaveland, S.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases. PMID:26706270

  6. Feasibility of nurse-led antidepressant medication management of depression in an HIV clinic in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Julie L.; Almond, Maria L. G.; Ringo, Edward J.; Shangali, Wahida H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest HIV prevalence worldwide and depression is highly prevalent among those infected. The negative impact of depression on HIV outcomes highlights the need to identify and treat it in this population. A model for doing this in lower-resourced settings involves task-shifting depression treatment to primary care; however, HIV-infected individuals are often treated in a parallel HIV specialty setting. We adapted a model of task-shifting, measurement based care (MBC), for an HIV clinic setting and tested its feasibility in Tanzania. MBC involves measuring depressive symptoms at meaningful intervals and adjusting antidepressant medication treatment based on the measure of illness. Method Twenty adults presenting for care at an outpatient HIV clinic in Tanzania were enrolled and followed by a nurse care manager who measured depressive symptoms at baseline and every four weeks for 12 weeks. An algorithm-based decision-support tool was utilized by the care manager to recommend individualized antidepressant medication doses to participants’ HIV providers at each visit. Results Retention was high and fidelity of the care manager to the MBC protocol was exceptional. Follow through of antidepressant prescription dosing recommendations by the prescriber was low. Limited availability of antidepressants was also noted. Despite challenges, baseline depression scores decreased over the 12- week period. Conclusions Overall, the model of algorithm-based nursing support of prescription decisions was feasible. Future studies should address implementation issues of medication supply and dosing. Further task-shifting to relatively more abundant and lower-skilled health workers, such as nurses’ aides warrants examination. PMID:22849034

  7. Access to artemisinin-based anti-malarial treatment and its related factors in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) has been widely adopted as one of the main malaria control strategies. However, its promise to save thousands of lives in sub-Saharan Africa depends on how effective the use of ACT is within the routine health system. The INESS platform evaluated effective coverage of ACT in several African countries. Timely access within 24 hours to an authorized ACT outlet is one of the determinants of effective coverage and was assessed for artemether-lumefantrine (Alu), in two district health systems in rural Tanzania. Methods From October 2009 to June 2011we conducted continuous rolling household surveys in the Kilombero-Ulanga and the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Surveys were linked to the routine HDSS update rounds. Members of randomly pre-selected households that had experienced a fever episode in the previous two weeks were eligible for a structured interview. Data on individual treatment seeking, access to treatment, timing, source of treatment and household costs per episode were collected. Data are presented on timely access from a total of 2,112 interviews in relation to demographics, seasonality, and socio economic status. Results In Kilombero-Ulanga, 41.8% (CI: 36.6–45.1) and in Rufiji 36.8% (33.7–40.1) of fever cases had access to an authorized ACT provider within 24 hours of fever onset. In neither of the HDSS site was age, sex, socio-economic status or seasonality of malaria found to be significantly correlated with timely access. Conclusion Timely access to authorized ACT providers is below 50% despite interventions intended to improve access such as social marketing and accreditation of private dispensing outlets. To improve prompt diagnosis and treatment, access remains a major bottle neck and new more innovative interventions are needed to raise effective coverage of malaria treatment in Tanzania. PMID:23651521

  8. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection against malignant catarrhal fever in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lankester, F; Russell, G C; Lugelo, A; Ndabigaye, A; Mnyambwa, N; Keyyu, J; Kazwala, R; Grant, D; Percival, A; Deane, D; Haig, D M; Cleaveland, S

    2016-02-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases.

  9. Determinants of concurrent sexual partnerships within stable relationships: a qualitative study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Carie Muntifering; Babalola, Stella; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concurrent sexual partnerships (CP) have been identified as a potential driver in the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, making it essential to understand motivating factors for engagement in CP. We aimed to assess community attitudes and beliefs about relationship factors that influence men and women in stable relationships to engage in CP in Tanzania. Social exchange theory was used for interpreting the data. Design Qualitative study with focus group discussions (FGDs). Setting Semiurban/rural communities in four regions across Tanzania (Dar es Salaam, Shinyanga, Iringa and Mbeya). Participants 120 women aged 17–45 years and 111 men aged 18–49 years from four study areas participated in 32 FGDs. Outcome measures FGD participants were asked the following questions about CP: definitions and types, motivations and justifications for engaging or not engaging, cultural factors, gender and socialisation, and local resources and efforts available for addressing CP. Our analysis focused specifically on beliefs about how relationship factors influence engagement in CP. Results Dissatisfaction with a stable relationship was believed to be a contributing factor for engagement in CP for both men and women. Participants more commonly reported financial dissatisfaction as a contributing factor for women engaging in CP within stable relationships, whereas emotional and sexual dissatisfaction were reported as contributing factors for men and women. Furthermore, participants described how potential outside partners are often evaluated based on what they are able to offer compared with stable partners. Conclusions Efforts to reach men and women in stable relationships with HIV prevention messages must consider the various dimensions of motivation for engaging in CP, including relationship dynamics. PMID:24508848

  10. Burns in Tanzania: morbidity and mortality, causes and risk factors: a review

    PubMed Central

    Outwater, Anne H; Ismail, Hawa; Mgalilwa, Lwidiko; Justin Temu, Mary; Mbembati, Naboth A

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries in low and middle income countries still remain a significant health problem, even though numbers of burn injuries in high income countries have decreased showing that such events are not “accidents” but are usually preventable. WHO states that the vast majority (over 95%) of fire-related burns occur in low and middle income countries. Burn injuries are a major cause of prolonged hospital stays, disfigurement, disability, and death in Africa Region. Evidence shows that prevention strategies can work. However prevention strategies need to be tailored to the specific environment taking into account local risk factors and available resources. An examination of the patterns and causes of burns should allow site specific recommendations for interventions. This literature review, specific to the United Republic of Tanzania, was conducted by researching PubMed, SafetyLit, and African Journals on Line data bases for primary sources using key words <Tanzania> plus . Two sets of student data collected as part of Bachelor’s degree final dissertations at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences were used. In all, twenty two primary sources were found. Risk factors for burn morbidity in Tanzania are: 1/ a young age, especially years 1-3, 2/ home environment, especially around cooking fires, 3/ epilepsy, during seizures, and 4/ perceived inevitability of the incident. It was expected that ground level cooking fires would be found to be a risk factor, but several studies have shown non-significant results about raised cooking fires, types of fuel used, and cooking appliances. Risk factors for burn mortality are: being male, between 20-30 years of age, and being punished for alleged thieving by community mobs. An important factor in reducing burn morbidity, especially in children, is to educate people that burns are preventable in most cases and that most burns occur in the home around

  11. Sexual relationship power and malnutrition among HIV-positive women in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Siedner, Mark J; Tsai, Alexander C; Dworkin, Shari; Mukiibi, Nozmo F B; Emenyonu, Nneka I; Hunt, Peter W; Haberer, Jessica E; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D

    2012-08-01

    Inequality within partner relationships is associated with HIV acquisition and gender violence, but little is known about more pervasive effects on women's health. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of associations between sexual relationship power and nutritional status among women in Uganda. Participants completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. We assessed sexual relationship power using the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS). We performed logistic regression to test for associations between sexual relationship power and poor nutritional status including body mass index, body fat percentage, and mid-upper arm circumference. Women with higher sexual relationship power scores had decreased odds of low body mass index (OR 0.29, p = 0.01), low body fat percentage (OR 0.54, p = 0.04), and low mid-upper arm circumference (OR 0.22, p = 0.01). These relationships persisted in multivariable models adjusted for potential confounders. Targeted interventions to improve intimate partner relationship equality should be explored to improve health status among women living with HIV in rural Africa.

  12. Biomaterials use in Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda: Access and affordability.

    PubMed

    Bakwatanisa, Bosco; Enywaku, Alfred; Kiwanuka, Martin; Lamunu, Claire; Mbowa, Nicholas; Mukiibi, Denis; Namayega, Catherine; Ngabirano, Beryl; Ntambi, Henry; Reichert, William

    2016-01-01

    Students in Biomaterials BBE3102 at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda were assigned semester long group projects in the first semester of the 2014-15 academic year to determine the biomaterials type and usage in Mulago National Referral Hospital, which is emblematic of large public hospitals across East Africa. Information gathering was conducted through student interviews with Mulago physicians because there were no archival records. The students divided themselves into seven project groups covering biomaterials use in the areas of wound closure, dental and oral surgery, cardiology, burn care, bone repair, ophthalmology and total joint replacement. As in the developed world, the majority of biomaterials used in Mulago are basic wound closure materials, dental materials, and bone fixation materials, all of which are comparatively inexpensive, easy to store, and readily available from either the government or local suppliers; however, there were significant issues with the implant supply chain, affordability, and patient compliance and follow-up in cases where specialty expertise and expensive implants were employed. PMID:26190587

  13. Psychosocial challenges and strategies for coping with HIV among adolescents in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mutumba, Massy; Bauermeister, José A; Musiime, Victor; Byaruhanga, Judith; Francis, Kiweewa; Snow, Rachel C; Tsai, Alexander C

    2015-02-01

    Although more than 90% of youth perinatally infected with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the psychosocial factors that impact their wellbeing, or how these youth cope with these challenges. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial challenges and coping strategies among perinatal HIV-infected adolescents in Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 38 HIV-infected adolescents aged 12-19 years at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala. Data were analyzed thematically to identify themes and domains related to stressors and specific coping strategies. Psychosocial challenges included stigma/discrimination, relationship challenges such as HIV status disclosure, and medication difficulties. Coping strategies included medication adherence, concealment or limited disclosure of HIV status, treatment optimism, social support, rationalizing, social comparison, spirituality/religiosity, avoidance, and distraction. Age and gender differences also emerged: younger participants generally lacked specific coping strategies; compared to females, male adolescents reported greater use of avoidance/distraction techniques. Findings underscore the need to address stigma within homes and schools, and to equip adolescents with the comprehensive knowledge and skills to address their varied challenges.

  14. Disclosure of HIV results among discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda: a facilitated couple counselling approach.

    PubMed

    Kairania, Robert; Gray, Ronald H; Kiwanuka, Noah; Makumbi, Fredrick; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred; Kigozi, Godfrey; Semanda, John; Wawer, Maria J

    2010-09-01

    Disclosure of HIV sero-positive results among HIV-discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa is generally low. We describe a facilitated couple counselling approach to enhance disclosure among HIV-discordant couples. Using unique identifiers, 293 HIV-discordant couples were identified through retrospective linkage of married or cohabiting consenting adults individually enrolled into a cohort study and into two randomised trials of male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. HIV-discordant couples and a random sample of HIV-infected concordant and HIV-negative concordant couples (to mask HIV status) were invited to sensitisation meetings to discuss the benefits of disclosure and couple counselling. HIV-infected partners were subsequently contacted to encourage HIV disclosure to their HIV-uninfected partners. If the index positive partner agreed, the counsellor facilitated the disclosure of HIV results, and provided ongoing support. The proportion of disclosure was determined. Eighty-one per cent of HIV-positive partners in discordant relationships disclosed their status to their HIV-uninfected partners in the presence of the counsellor. The rates of disclosure were 81.3% in male HIV-positive and 80.2% in female HIV-positive discordant couples. Disclosure did not vary by age, education or occupation. In summary, disclosure of HIV-positive results in discordant couples using facilitated couple counselling approach is high, but requires a stepwise process of sensitisation and agreement by the infected partner.

  15. Neurasthenia at Mengo Hospital, Uganda: A case study in psychiatry and a diagnosis, 1906–50

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Yolana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article uses a case-study approach to examine the complex and contradictory nature of diagnoses like neurasthenia in colonial Africa. Drawing on the case notes of European and African patients diagnosed with neurasthenia at the Church Missionary Society's Mengo Hospital, Uganda, it argues that in practice, and outside the colonial asylum in particular, ideas about race and mental illness were more nuanced than histories of psychiatry and empire might imply. At Mengo, the tales of pain and suffering recorded by the doctors remind us that there is more to the history of neurasthenia than colonial anxieties and socio-political control. This was a diagnosis that was negotiated in hospital examination rooms as much as in medical journals. Significantly, it was also a diagnosis that was not always reserved exclusively for white colonisers—at Mengo Hospital from the early 1900s neurasthenia was diagnosed in African patients too. It became part of a wider discussion about detribalisation, in which a person's social environment was as important as race. PMID:27335533

  16. Newly Discovered Ebola Virus Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Jonathan S.; Sealy, Tara K.; Khristova, Marina L.; Albariño, César G.; Conlan, Sean; Reeder, Serena A.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Lipkin, W. Ian; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Okware, Samuel; Lutwama, Julius; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Kayiwa, John; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses have been responsible for large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with case fatalities ranging from 53% to 90%, while a third species, Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, caused a single non-fatal HF case. In November 2007, HF cases were reported in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda. Laboratory investigation of the initial 29 suspect-case blood specimens by classic methods (antigen capture, IgM and IgG ELISA) and a recently developed random-primed pyrosequencing approach quickly identified this to be an Ebola HF outbreak associated with a newly discovered ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) distantly related to the Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus found in western Africa. Due to the sequence divergence of this new virus relative to all previously recognized ebolaviruses, these findings have important implications for design of future diagnostic assays to monitor Ebola HF disease in humans and animals, and ongoing efforts to develop effective antivirals and vaccines. PMID:19023410

  17. What Is Required In Uganda? The 2007 Report Of The Japan Sci-edu. Support Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Tatsuhiro

    2010-07-01

    The development of ability for technology and invention is required as self-sustaining growth of science and technology in Asian and African developing countries. Science education that connects to the real world is the required education for the self-sustaining growth. But in fact, it is very common to study for the entrance examination. According to C. Camilla, S. and Sjo/berg, [The Re-emergence of Values in the Science Curriculum. Rotterdam, 2007, Sense Publishers], Ugandan students are the most interested ones in science and technology (I would like to be a scientist, I would like to get a job in technology) in the world. Science education should mortgages future of youth. Especially science education of developing countries should be directly connected to the real world. Because they need a lot of engineers as skilled worker, we implemented physics education that was directly connected with manufacturing by the sci-edu. support project in Uganda. The best results were achieved by contrivance in spite of poverty area. Our education method gave one form of New Science Education in Asia and Africa.

  18. Perceptions of health care services and HIV-related health-seeking behavior among Uganda adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hampanda, Karen; Ybarra, Michele; Bull, Sheana

    2014-01-01

    Youth represent almost half of all new HIV infections globally. Although condom use is an effective method of HIV prevention among sexually active youth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), they face substantial barriers in obtaining condoms in environments where adults hold attitudes condemning premarital sex. More research is needed to better understand the multitude of factors that affect SSA youths' behaviors regarding safe sex practices, including factors that may influence their ability to obtain condoms, and decisions to be tested for HIV. In this study of Uganda youth (n = 1503) from five secondary schools, logistic regression models highlight factors that influence perceptions regarding respect and confidentiality at health centers, condom acquisition, and HIV testing. Family support appears to be an especially important factor that affects youth perceptions about how they will be treated when seeking condoms and HIV testing. Condom acquisition and HIV-testing behaviors are also associated with peer influence, self-esteem, and demographic characteristics, such as age. PMID:24625122

  19. Nilotes from Karamoja, Uganda: haplotype data defined by 17 Y-chromosome STRs.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Verónica; Alves, Cíntia; Amorim, António; Carracedo, Angel; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Gusmão, Leonor

    2010-07-01

    In this work 118 Nilote male samples were genotyped from Karamoja region, in Northeast Uganda, through 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)-DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4.1. A total of 94 different haplotypes were found, where 19 were shared by at least two individuals, and haplotype diversity amounted to 0.9958+/-0.0017. When considering only the nine Y-STRs included in the minimal haplotype (YHRD) the haplotype diversity decreased to 0.9807+/-0.0048, a similar value to those found in other African populations such as Mozambique, Angola and Guinea-Bissau. Population comparisons were performed between our sample and nine other African populations. Significant R(st) genetic distances were obtained between the Nilote population from Karamoja and all African populations used for comparison, except Xhosa sample from South Africa. In the multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot, the Karamoja sample is well separated from all other populations, standing between the Ethiopia and the Bantu samples, although closer to this last group. PMID:20457037

  20. Vulnerability of indigenous health to climate change: a case study of Uganda's Batwa Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Dingle, Kathryn; Ford, James D; Lee, Celine; Lwasa, Shuaib; Namanya, Didas B; Henderson, Jim; Llanos, Alejandro; Carcamo, Cesar; Edge, Victoria

    2012-09-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on human health in sub-Saharan Africa are wide-ranging, complex, and largely adverse. The region's Indigenous peoples are considered to be at heightened risk given their relatively poor health outcomes, marginal social status, and resource-based livelihoods; however, little attention has been given to these most vulnerable of the vulnerable. This paper contributes to addressing this gap by taking a bottom-up approach to assessing health vulnerabilities to climate change in two Batwa Pygmy communities in rural Uganda. Rapid Rural Appraisal and PhotoVoice field methods complemented by qualitative data analysis were used to identify key climate-sensitive, community-identified health outcomes, describe determinants of sensitivity at multiple scales, and characterize adaptive capacity of Batwa health systems. The findings stress the importance of human drivers of vulnerability and adaptive capacity and the need to address social determinants of health in order to reduce the potential disease burden of climate change. PMID:22703884

  1. Association between malaria exposure and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seropositivity in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nalwoga, Angela; Cose, Stephen; Wakeham, Katie; Miley, Wendell; Ndibazza, Juliet; Drakeley, Christopher; Elliott, Alison; Whitby, Denise; Newton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unlike other herpes viruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is not ubiquitous worldwide and is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons for this are unclear. As part of a wider investigation of factors that facilitate transmission in Uganda, a high prevalence country, we examined the association between antimalaria antibodies and seropositivity against KSHV. Methods Antibodies against P. falciparum merozoite surface protein (PfMSP)-1, P. falciparum apical membrane antigen (PfAMA)-1 and KSHV antigens (ORF73 and K8.1) were measured in samples from 1164 mothers and 1227 children. Results Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seroprevalence was 69% among mothers and 15% children. Among mothers, KSHV seroprevalence increased with malaria antibody titres: from 60% to 82% and from 54% to 77%, comparing those with the lowest and highest titres for PfMSP-1 and PfAMA-1, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among children, only antibodies to PfAMA-1 were significantly associated with KSHV seropositivity, (P < 0.0001). In both mothers and children, anti-ORF73 antibodies were more strongly associated with malaria antibodies than anti-K8.1 antibodies. Conclusion The association between malaria exposure and KSHV seropositivity suggests that malaria is a cofactor for KSHV infection or reactivation. PMID:25611008

  2. Persistence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia after artemisinin combination therapy: evidence from a randomized trial in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Meibalan, Elamaran; Zelin, Justin; Daniels, Rachel; Eziefula, Alice C.; Meyer, Evan C.; Tadesse, Fitsum; Grignard, Lynn; Joice, Regina C.; Drakeley, Chris; Wirth, Dyann F.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Buckee, Caroline; Bousema, Teun; Marti, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin resistance is rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia. The efficacy of artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) continues to be excellent across Africa. We performed parasite transcriptional profiling and genotyping on samples from an antimalarial treatment trial in Uganda. We used qRT-PCR and genotyping to characterize residual circulating parasite populations after treatment with either ACT or ACT-primaquine. Transcripts suggestive of circulating ring stage parasites were present after treatment at a prevalence of >25% until at least 14 days post initiation of treatment. Greater than 98% of all ring stage parasites were cleared within the first 3 days, but subsequently persisted at low concentrations until day 14 after treatment. Genotyping demonstrated a significant decrease in multiplicity of infection within the first 2 days in both ACT and ACT-primaquine arms. However, multiple clone infections persisted until day 14 post treatment. Our data suggest the presence of genetically diverse persisting parasite populations after ACT treatment. Although we did not demonstrate clinical treatment failures after ACT and the viability and transmissibility of persisting ring stage parasites remain to be shown, these findings are of relevance for the interpretation of parasite clearance transmission dynamics and for monitoring drug effects in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. PMID:27197604

  3. Assessing human risk of exposure to plague bacteria in northwestern Uganda based on remotely sensed predictors.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Griffith, Kevin S; Borchert, Jeff N; MacMillan, Katherine; Apangu, Titus; Owor, Nicholas; Acayo, Sara; Acidri, Rogers; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Winters, Anna M; Enscore, Russell E; Schriefer, Martin E; Beard, Charles B; Gage, Kenneth L; Mead, Paul S

    2010-05-01

    Plague, a life-threatening flea-borne zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, has most commonly been reported from eastern Africa and Madagascar in recent decades. In these regions and elsewhere, prevention and control efforts are typically targeted at fine spatial scales, yet risk maps for the disease are often presented at coarse spatial resolutions that are of limited value in allocating scarce prevention and control resources. In our study, we sought to identify sub-village level remotely sensed correlates of elevated risk of human exposure to plague bacteria and to project the model across the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda and into neighboring regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our model yielded an overall accuracy of 81%, with sensitivities and specificities of 89% and 71%, respectively. Risk was higher above 1,300 meters than below, and the remotely sensed covariates that were included in the model implied that localities that are wetter, with less vegetative growth and more bare soil during the dry month of January (when agricultural plots are typically fallow) pose an increased risk of plague case occurrence. Our results suggest that environmental and landscape features play a large part in classifying an area as ecologically conducive to plague activity. However, it is clear that future studies aimed at identifying behavioral and fine-scale ecological risk factors in the West Nile region are required to fully assess the risk of human exposure to Y. pestis.

  4. Cell phone usage among adolescents in Uganda: acceptability for relaying health information.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Bull, Sheana; Kiwanuka, Julius; Ybarra, Michele L

    2011-10-01

    The increase in cell phone use has manifested a growing interest in using this technology for health promotion. The portability and 'always on' features of the cell phone, along with increasing capability for the devices to carry and transfer data suggest that they will reach more people than computers and the Internet in coming years. Self-reported quantitative survey data from 1503 secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda collected in 2008-2009 suggest that 27% currently have cell phones and about half (51%) of all students and 61% of those who owned a cell phone believe that they would access a text messaging-based HIV prevention program if it were available. Other forms of program delivery modality (e.g. Internet, religious organizations, schools) were preferred to text messaging however. We are in need of effective HIV prevention programs that can reach large audiences at low cost and are culturally relevant for the East African context. Researchers are encouraged to consider translation of effective HIV prevention programs for cell phone delivery in Africa.

  5. “Bend a fish when the fish is not yet dry”: Adolescent Boys’ Perceptions of Sexual Risk in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of effort, the spread of HIV/AIDS continues among many African young people. A key contributor is unsafe sexual behavior that is desired, persuaded or coerced. We explored the masculinity norms shaping pubescent boys’ perceptions of and engagement in (unsafe) sexual behaviors in Tanzania. Through a comparative case study in rural and urban Tanzania, qualitative and participatory methods were used with 160 adolescent boys in and out of school to better understand the social and contextual factors promoting unsafe sexual behaviors. Adolescent boys in both the rural and urban sites reported struggling with intense sexual desires, strong peer pressures to have sex, and social norms dissuading condom use. A growing “normalization” of AIDS suggests messages promoting the dangers of HIV infection may be less effective. Findings reinforce the need for interventions with very young adolescents. Research is needed to identify more effective approaches for promoting safer sexual practices among boys in sub-Saharan Africa. Harm reduction approaches and gender transformative approaches might prove more effective than current HIV prevention efforts focused on youth. PMID:25583374

  6. Evaluation of potential impacts of climate change and water management on streamflow in the Rovuma River, Mozambique and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Economic development and public health are tied to water resources development in many parts of the world. Effective use of water management infrastructure investments requires projections of future climatic and water use conditions. This is particularly true in developing countries. We explore in this work water resource availability in the Rovuma River, which lies in a sparsely-populated region of southeastern Africa, on the border of Mozambique and Tanzania. While there are only limited documented observations of flow of the Rovuma River and it's tributaries, particularly in recent years, there is widespread interest in development of the water resources of the region. The national governments are interested in hydropower potential while private companies, many of them large multinational organizations, have started irrigation programs to increase agricultural output. While the Mozambique and Tanzania governments have a joint agreement over the river development, there is a need to assess both current and potential future water resource conditions in the basin. The sustainability of these developments, however, may be affected by climate change. Here we quantify potential changes in streamflow in the Rovuma River under dry and wet climate projection scenarios using the delta method and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro-scale hydrology model. We then evaluate streamflow changes relative to water withdrawals required for a range of irrigated agriculture scenarios. Our analysis is intended to be a starting point for planners to consider potential impacts of both streamflow withdrawal permits (for irrigated agriculture) and future uncertain climate conditions.

  7. Thermal plume models and melt generation in East Africa: A dynamic modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Chiao, Ling-Yun; van Keken, Peter E.

    2005-08-01

    The hypothesis that thermal plumes contribute to the Cenozoic magmatism in East Africa is now widely accepted. The controversy lies on how many plumes exist and where they may be located. In this study we show numerical experiments of mantle convection models for a number of thermal plume models and discuss the implications for the melt generation in East Africa. We investigate how the plume(s), the Tanzania craton, and the African lithospheric structure may interplay to result in the magmatism distribution in East Africa since the Eocene. Our results demonstrate that the variable thickness of the lithosphere modulates melt generation. A single-plume model cannot reproduce the observations consistently. Double-plume models with plumes located at Afar and Kenya regions are viable with reasonable physical properties. The distribution of the plume material, however, is sensitive to the angle at which the Tanzania craton and regions of thick lithosphere approach the plume, as the African plate moves. Models that have present-day location of the second plume (Kenya plume) under the Eastern rift or the interior of the Tanzania craton can best match the basalt distribution. Our model results suggest that the basaltic eruptions associated with the Afar plume tap a relatively deep source of the plume body in general, whereas melting occurs at shallower depths for the Kenya plume except for the Eocene episode. The magmatism is derived from a more depleted mantle source in the low-Ti basalt province of northwestern Ethiopia. Our experiments indicate the thermal influence of the Afar plume but predict an absence of plume-derived melts, suggesting the melt generation within lithosphere triggered by thermal influence of Afar plume in this region. Our model results suggest that plume plays an active role on the initiation of the rifting process in East Africa.

  8. Magmatic constraints on rift development and the uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains in western Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Stephen; Link, Klemens; Tiberindwa, John; Barifaijo, Erasmus

    2010-05-01

    The northern end of the western branch of the East African rift valley in western Uganda is located at the junction between a Proterozoic belt to the south and continuous Archaean crust of the Congo-Tanzania craton to the north (1). The difficulty of rift propagation through the thick Archaean lithosphere may explain the lack of a connection with the eastern rift branch around Lake Turkana. The >5,000m-high Rwenzori Mountains form a block lodged between two rift arms at this junction (2). The location and composition of Pleistocene to Recent volcanic rocks can be used to constrain models for the uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains that explain uplift by delamination of a lithosphere block beneath the rift (3). Six small volcanic fields are located in the Toro Ankole area east and southeast of Rwenzori; they contain carbonatite either as lava flows or as components in lapilli tuffs, as well as unusual K2O-rich, SiO2-poor melt compositions akin to leucitites and potassic melilitites that increase in importance towards the south. Their major and trace element and Sr-, Nd-, Hf-, and Os-isotope compositions are consistent with a source composed not just of peridotite, but also containing mica- and clinopyroxene-rich ultramafic assemblages (4). The requirement for assemblages of this type is greater than for potassic melilitites and nephelinites further south in the rift, and this agrees with their greater abundance as xenoliths in the lavas of the Toro Ankole area. The xenoliths contain no evidence for metasomatic replacement of pre-existing peridotite minerals, but rather appear to be formed by crystallization as liquidus minerals on the walls of magma channelways within the upper mantle. Some are zoned and contain vein margins, indicating more than one episode of melt infiltration. Re-melting of such assemblages partially meets the geochemical requirements of the volcanics (4) and has been shown to produce melts with similar major element compositions in experiments (5

  9. Observation-centered approach to ASD assessment in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ashley J; Zimak, Eric H; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Manji, Karim P; Morrow, Eric M

    2014-10-01

    Abstract In many lower-income countries, there is a paucity of assessment services for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)., Guidelines will be provided for conducting cross-cultural assessments in the context of limited validated resources in Tanzania. By examining behavioral, social, and adaptive differences we were able to provide differential diagnostic evaluations aligning with best practice standards for 41 children in Tanzania age 2-21 years. We describe the utility of a flexible, behavioral observation instrument, the Childhood Autism Rating Scales, Second Edition (CARS2), to gather diagnostic information in a culturally sensitive manner. We observed that the ASD group was characterized by significantly higher scores on the CARS2, F  =  21.09, p < .001, η(2)  =  .37, than the general delay comparison group. Additional recommendations are provided for making cultural adaptations to current assessment instruments for use in a country without normed instruments, such as Tanzania. PMID:25247726

  10. Shear Wave Splitting Across Eastern, Western and Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Ramirez, C.; Bagley, B. C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of the AfricaArray network across eastern, western and southern Africa, in conjunction with seismic data from many PASSCAL deployments over the past 20 years, is helping to fill in major gaps in the global coverage of shear wave splitting measurements. New results from stations in Ghana, Nigeria, Mozambique, Botswana, Angola, Namibia and South Africa are presented in this study that when combined with previously published measurements help to map the pattern of seismic anisotropy over much of the African continent. A general pattern of fast polarization directions, characterized by NE orientations, is found, and superimposed on this subcontinental-scale pattern is local and regional variability, most notably around the Archean Tanzania craton in eastern Africa. The subcontinental-scale pattern, as well as local and regional variations in this pattern, are interpreted in terms of large-scale mantle flow from the African Superplume, fossil anisotropy in the lithosphere, and shape anisotropy in magmatic regions of the East African rift system.

  11. Optical characterization of red blood cells from individuals with sickle cell trait and disease in Tanzania using quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Jung, JaeHwang; Matemba, Lucas E; Lee, KyeoReh; Kazyoba, Paul E; Yoon, Jonghee; Massaga, Julius J; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common across Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the investigation of SCD in this area has been significantly limited mainly due to the lack of research facilities and skilled personnel. Here, we present optical measurements of individual red blood cells from healthy individuals and individuals with SCD and sickle cell trait in Tanzania using the quantitative phase imaging technique. By employing a quantitative phase imaging unit, an existing microscope in a clinic is transformed into a powerful quantitative phase microscope providing measurements on the morphological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of individual cells. The present approach will open up new opportunities for cost-effective investigation and diagnosis of several diseases in low resource environments. PMID:27546097

  12. Optical characterization of red blood cells from individuals with sickle cell trait and disease in Tanzania using quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jaehwang; Matemba, Lucas E.; Lee, Kyeoreh; Kazyoba, Paul E.; Yoon, Jonghee; Massaga, Julius J.; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common across Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the investigation of SCD in this area has been significantly limited mainly due to the lack of research facilities and skilled personnel. Here, we present optical measurements of individual red blood cells from healthy individuals and individuals with SCD and sickle cell trait in Tanzania using the quantitative phase imaging technique. By employing a quantitative phase imaging unit, an existing microscope in a clinic is transformed into a powerful quantitative phase microscope providing measurements on the morphological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of individual cells. The present approach will open up new opportunities for cost-effective investigation and diagnosis of several diseases in low resource environments.

  13. Optical characterization of red blood cells from individuals with sickle cell trait and disease in Tanzania using quantitative phase imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jung, JaeHwang; Matemba, Lucas E.; Lee, KyeoReh; Kazyoba, Paul E.; Yoon, Jonghee; Massaga, Julius J.; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common across Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the investigation of SCD in this area has been significantly limited mainly due to the lack of research facilities and skilled personnel. Here, we present optical measurements of individual red blood cells from healthy individuals and individuals with SCD and sickle cell trait in Tanzania using the quantitative phase imaging technique. By employing a quantitative phase imaging unit, an existing microscope in a clinic is transformed into a powerful quantitative phase microscope providing measurements on the morphological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of individual cells. The present approach will open up new opportunities for cost-effective investigation and diagnosis of several diseases in low resource environments. PMID:27546097

  14. An evaluation of GRACE groundwater estimates over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanteza, J.; Thomas, B. F.; de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The East African (EA) region, comprised of five countries (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi), is among those regions characterized as vulnerable to water stress. The region's freshwater resources, both surface and groundwater, are impacted due to increased pressure from changes in climate and human activities. Better management approaches are required to ensure that these pressures do not significantly impact water availability and accessibility. However, the lack of adequate ground-based observation networks to monitor freshwater resources - especially groundwater (the major source of freshwater in EA), limits effective management of the available water resources. In this study, we explore the potential of using remotely sensed data to monitor freshwater resources over EA. The study uses data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite to estimate groundwater storage variations over EA during the last decade. The satellite's performance in accurately observing changes in groundwater storage is examined by evaluating the GRACE groundwater estimates against spatially interpolated in-situ groundwater observations using goodness of fit criteria including linear regression coefficient, coefficient of determination and root mean square errors. The results demonstrate that GRACE performs well in observing the behavior of groundwater storage. These results can be useful in improving land surface model simulations - a basis for better decision making in water resources management in the region.

  15. The food crisis and environmental conservation in Africa.

    PubMed

    Stiles, D; Brennan, R

    1986-11-01

    In spite of good rains in Africa in 1985, 30-35 million people suffered the effects of famine. Much of Africa is still dependent on food aid. The main causes of insufficient food production are land degradation--desertification--and high population growth. Distribution of the US $2.9 billion in food and non-food aid has been hampered by transport and logistical problems. The major challenge for 1986 is non-food support. Only US $460 million (15.3%) of non-food aid had been received as of March. Country profiles of Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Somalia, Sudan, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia show a pattern of high food assistance needs and displaced refugee populations. The 1st 6 of the group suffer from civil strife. There is some good news; e.g. Niger, which is embarking on agressive agricultural development, and Tanzania, which has enjoyed bumper crops, but the crisis is clearly far from over. Few African Governments have been willing to face the population problem; population in the area will probably continue to increase at 3% yearly. It is shown that desertification: reducing the biological potential of the land through over-exploitation, animal husbandry, and deforestation, is a wordwide problem particularly acute in Africa. Lost production totals $26 billion annually. Straightforward cost-benefit analysis of projects to halt or reverse the problem does not adequately take factors such as human attachment to the land into account. Unfortunately halting desertification does not receive the attention it should receive from donor agencies. Investment goes towards high-return projects, e.g. power dams; sugar factories, when a more careful study reveals that returns from afforestations are much more long-term. There has been increased consciousness of the long-term benefits of dryland rehabilitation, which will hopefully impact policy in the future. But since desertification is a self-accelerating process, there is a need for

  16. Nd, Pb and Sr isotopic data from the Mount Elgon volcano, eastern Uganda-western Kenya: Implications for the origin and evolution of nephelinite lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, A.; Bell, K.

    1995-11-01

    Nd, Pb and Sr isotope ratios for nephelinites from the Tertiary Mount Elgon alkaline volcanic centre, eastern Uganda-western Kenya, are highly variable and indicate open system behaviour. The variation in {143Nd }/{144Nd } (0.51219-0.51286) and {87Sr }/{86Sr } (0.70314-0.70604) ratios span almost the entire range documented for carbonatites from several East African alkaline complexes. The whole rock chemical data, mineralogy, composition of diopside phenocrysts, and variation in isotopic ratios from the Mount Elgon nephelinites are similar to those from the nephelinite lavas from the Tertiary Napak volcano, Uganda (Simonetti and Bell, 1994a). The diopside phenocrysts from Mount Elgon nephelinite lavas reveal large core-to-rim compositional variations (which include normal, oscillatory and reverse zoning), and their Nd, Pb and Sr isotopic ratios are not in isotopic equilibrium with their host lavas. Microprobe data along with textural evidence from the Mount Elgon diopside phenocrysts support a model that involves crystallization in an open magma system that was undergoing continuous chemical and isotopic change. The large variation in Pb isotopic ratios (whole rocks- {206Pb }/{204Pb }: 18.45-21.51; {207Pb }/{204Pb }: 15.61-15.88; {208Pb }/{204Pb }: 38.62-41.02), from the Mount Elgon lavas, best fit a model involving mixing between EM I and HIMU mantle components, and correlations in Pb-Sr and Pb-Nd isotopic plots partly support this interpretation. The isotopic data from Mount Elgon and Napak nephelinites suggest complex evolutionary histories involving magma mixing, and support the presence of a heterogeneous sub-continental source beneath eastern Uganda, similar to that documented for various types of peralkaline nephelinite lavas from the only active carbonatite-nephelinite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania (Bell and Dawson, 1995) and other East African volcanoes (e.g. Vollmer and Norry, 1983). The chemical data and large variation in isotopic ratios for the

  17. How Leadership Styles in Academia Align to Achieve Success within the Tanzanian Catholic Universities System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vumilia, Philbert L.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private universities in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and elsewhere in Africa have been experiencing all-time high expansion since the late 1990s. This rush to expand both public and private universities has seriously impacted both the physical infrastructure as well as the effective leadership that new universities require. At the same…

  18. Sister-Matic: Gender Mainstreaming in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2007-01-01

    This article theorises findings from a research project investigating gender equity in Commonwealth higher education. The study interrogated enablers and impediments to gender equity in South Africa, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Uganda and Tanzania. The focus of inquiry was access, curriculum transformation and staff development. This article examines one…

  19. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  20. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in a malaria endemic region of southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic diversity is a key factor that enables adaptation and persistence of natural populations towards environmental conditions. It is influenced by the interaction of a natural population's dynamics and the environment it inhabits. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis are the two major and widespread malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies have examined the ecology and population dynamics of these vectors. Ecological conditions along the Kilombero valley in Tanzania influence the distribution and population density of these two vector species. It remains unclear whether the ecological diversity within the Kilombero valley has affected the population structure of An. gambiae s.l. populations. The goal of this study was to characterise the genetic structure of sympatric An. gambiae s.s and An. arabiensis populations along the Kilombero valley. Methodology Mosquitoes were collected from seven locations in Tanzania: six from the Kilombero valley and one outside the valley (~700 km away) as an out-group. To archive a genome-wide coverage, 13 microsatellite markers from chromosomes X, 2 and 3 were used. Results High levels of genetic differentiation among An. arabiensis populations was observed, as opposed to An. gambiae s.s., which was genetically undifferentiated across the 6,650 km2 of the Kilombero valley landscape. It appears that genetic differentiation is not attributed to physical barriers or distance, but possibly by ecological diversification within the Kilombero valley. Genetic divergence among An. arabiensis populations (FST = 0.066) was higher than that of the well-known M and S forms of An. gambiae s. s. in West and Central Africa (FST = 0.035), suggesting that these populations are maintained by some level of reproductive isolation. Conclusion It was hypothesized that ecological diversification across the valley may be a driving force for observed An. arabiensis genetic divergence. The impact of the observed An