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Sample records for african abalone haliotis

  1. Transcriptome characterization of the South African abalone Haliotis midae using sequencing-by-synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the genus Haliotis is represented by 56 extant species and several of these are commercially cultured. Among the six abalone species found in South Africa, Haliotis midae is the only aquacultured species. Despite its economic importance, genomic sequence resources for H. midae, and for abalone in general, are still scarce. Next generation sequencing technologies provide a fast and efficient tool to generate large sequence collections that can be used to characterize the transcriptome and identify expressed genes associated with economically important traits like growth and disease resistance. Results More than 25 million short reads generated by the Illumina Genome Analyzer were de novo assembled in 22,761 contigs with an average size of 260 bp. With a stringent E-value threshold of 10-10, 3,841 contigs (16.8%) had a BLAST homologous match against the Genbank non-redundant (NR) protein database. Most of these sequences were annotated using the gene ontology (GO) and eukaryotic orthologous groups of proteins (KOG) databases and assigned to various functional categories. According to annotation results, many gene families involved in immune response were identified. Thousands of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were detected. Setting stringent parameters to ensure a high probability of amplification, 420 primer pairs in 181 contigs containing SSR loci were designed. Conclusion This data represents the most comprehensive genomic resource for the South African abalone H. midae to date. The amount of assembled sequences demonstrated the utility of the Illumina sequencing technology in the transcriptome characterization of a non-model species. It allowed the development of several markers and the identification of promising candidate genes for future studies on population and functional genomics in H. midae and in other abalone species. PMID:21396099

  2. Domain repeats related to innate immunity in the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    PubMed

    Picone, Barbara; Rhode, Clint; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-10-01

    Molluscs predominately use the cellular defence system as the primary mechanism of defence against pathogenic infection, in which haemocytes play a pivotal role. Haliotis midae is a commercially important South African species that it is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, fungal and yeast infections in the farming environment. The current study aims to enrich the current knowledge regarding H. midae innate immunity by investigating the presence and evolution of domain repeats. The bioinformatics approach used in this study, detected five repeat families in the H. midae transcriptome. These repeats families include mixed alpha and beta (leucine-rich and ankyrin), spectrin repeats, beta-propellers (WD40) and alfa-structure repeat (TPR-like). The expansion of key gene families related to host defence may be important to abalone adaptation to life in a pathogen-rich environment. PMID:25936498

  3. Transcriptome profiles of wild and cultured South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    PubMed

    Picone, Barbara; Rhode, Clint; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-04-01

    This report describes the use of pyrosequencing technologies to generate the first comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptome data from cultured and wild specimens of the South African abalone. The transcriptome data and database described here provide a significant genomic resource for abalone research. The data set annotated 11,240 genes, which matched genes with known functions in other species. A large number of transmembrane protein domains (4087) that may indicate a high portion of undiscovered gene receptors were identified. Further, we detected an interesting set of transcription factors (516) that are valuable candidates for participating in regulatory events in developmental (such as cell proliferation and differentiation) and reproductive processes. PMID:25622884

  4. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-01

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented. PMID:27137068

  5. Habitat of endangered white abalone, Haliotis sorenseni

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Behrens, M.D.; Davis, G.E.; Haaker, P.L.; Kushner, D.J.; Richards, D. V.; Taniguchi, I. K.; Tegner, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys with a submersible at offshore islands and banks in southern California found that white abalone were most abundant at depths between 43 and 60 m. This is deeper than estimates taken when white abalone were more abundant. Densities were highest at sites far from fishing ports. Controlling for depth and site found that white abalone were significantly more abundant in areas with Laminaria farlowii (an alga) but abalone were not associated with areas high in the cover of other algae (Pelagophycus porra or Eisenia arborea) or the amount of sand in the habitat (except that abalone always occurred on rock). Within an area with abalone, the particular rock they occurred on was significantly larger than unoccupied neighboring rocks. Occupied rocks were not significantly different in algal cover or in sea urchin density than unoccupied neighboring rocks. The position of abalone on a rock was nearer to the rock–sand interface than would be expected based on a random distribution. More white abalone were feeding when in association with red urchins, perhaps because both grazers capture drift algae to eat. These data may aid future efforts to locate white abalone brood stock and identify locations for outplanting.

  6. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for black abalone... HABITAT § 226.221 Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Critical habitat is designated for black abalone as described in this section. The textual descriptions of critical habitat...

  7. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for black abalone... HABITAT § 226.221 Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Critical habitat is designated for black abalone as described in this section. The textual descriptions of critical habitat...

  8. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for black abalone... HABITAT § 226.221 Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Critical habitat is designated for black abalone as described in this section. The textual descriptions of critical habitat...

  9. Withering syndrome in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    PubMed

    Wetchateng, Thanitsara; Friedman, Carolyn S; Wight, Nathan A; Lee, Pei-Yu; Teng, Ping Hua; Sriurairattana, Siriporn; Wongprasert, Kanokphan; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2010-05-18

    Abalone aquaculture is a small but growing industry in Thailand and is based on both the exotic Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and the native H. asinina. Withering syndrome (WS) in abalone is caused by an infection with the Rickettsia-like organism (RLO) 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis' and has been spread to many countries globally. The present study reports the first observation of the WS-RLO agent in the small abalone, H. diversicolor supertexta in Thailand, Taiwan (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Under light microscopy, the RLO was observed as intracytoplasmic inclusions within epithelial cells lining the post-esophagus and, to a minor extent, the intestine of H. diversicolor. Under transmission electron microscopy, inclusions were characterized as colonies of rod-shaped bacteria, 200 x 1800 nm in size, within a vesicle in the cytoplasm of the infected cell. The RLO from the small abalone bound with WS-RLO-specific in situ hybridization probes and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers designed from the 16S rDNA sequence of the original WS-RLO from California, USA. The PCR product of RLO samples from both the PRC and Thailand showed extremely high identity with the California WS-RLO (100 and 99%, respectively). These data combined with the history of abalone movements for aquaculture purposes indicate that RLOs observed in Thailand, Taiwan and the PRC are the WS-RLO that originated from California.

  10. Dietary phosphorus requirement of young abalone Haliotis discus Hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liufu, Zhi-Guo

    2002-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23% 1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2P04). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0% 1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9% 1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  11. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Mathilde; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-07-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level.

  12. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues

    PubMed Central

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-01-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level. PMID:20680682

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Chan; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Jee, Young Ju; Park, Jun-Hyung; Noh, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2015-01-01

    We have sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial DNA of an economically and ecologically important Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai (Haliotidae, Gastropoda). The mitogenome of the Pacific abalone is 16,886 nt total length with a 39.6% G+C composition. Thirty-seven genes were identified including 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. We compared the mitogenome of the Pacific abalone to a putative relative species, H. rubra.

  14. Cryopreservation of sperm in farmed Australian greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yibing; Xu, Tong; Robinson, Nicholas; Qin, Jianguang; Li, Xiaoxu

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated factors important to the development of the liquid nitrogen (LN) vapor sperm cryopreservation technique in farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata, including (1) cryoprotectant agent (CPA) toxicity; (2) cooling temperature (height above LN surface); (3) thawing temperature; (4) sperm to egg ratio; and (5) sugar supplementation, using sperm motility, fertilization rate or integrity/potential of sperm components and organelles as quality assessment indicators. Results suggested that among the single CPAs evaluated 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) would be the most suitable for sperm cryopreservation in this species. The highest post-thaw sperm motility was achieved with the sperm that had been exposed to LN vapor for 10min at 5.2cm above the LN surface, thawed and recovered in 60 and 18°C seawater bathes, respectively after at least 2h storage in LN. The highest fertilization rates were achieved at a sperm to egg ratio of 10,000:1 or 15,000:1. Addition of 1% glucose or 2% sucrose produced significantly higher post-thaw sperm motility than 6% Me2SO alone. Among the three cryoprotectant solutions further trialled, 6% Me2SO+1% glucose produced the highest fertilization rate of 83.6±3.7%. Evaluation of sperm has shown that the addition of glucose could significantly improve the sperm plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrated a positive role of glucose in the improvement of sperm cryopreservation in farmed greenlip abalone. PMID:24440870

  15. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

  16. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health. PMID:18666482

  17. Pseudoruegeria haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Pil Soo; Kim, Joon Yong; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2013-12-01

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WM67(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) collected from the northern coast of Jeju Island in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain WM67(T) clustered in the genus Pseudoruegeria, and the highest sequence similarity was shared with Pseudoruegeria lutimaris (98.0 % similarity to the type strain). Optimal growth of the isolate occurred at 30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 1 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of strain WM67(T) comprised phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 66.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated <17 % genomic relatedness to other members of the genus Pseudoruegeria. The physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WM67(T) represents a novel species of Pseudoruegeria, for which the name Pseudoruegeria haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WM67(T) ( = KACC 17214(T) = JCM 18872(T)).

  18. Shimia haliotis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Pil Soo; Whon, Tae Woong; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2013-11-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WM35(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The cells of the isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7, and with 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain WM35(T) was grouped in the genus Shimia and was closely related to the type strains of Shimia isoporae (98.7 % similarity) and Shimia marina (97.8 % similarity). The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 and C16 : 0 2-OH. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of strain WM35(T) comprised phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 53.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated <16 % genomic relatedness with members of the genus Shimia. The physiological, chemical and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WM35(T) represents a novel species of the genus Shimia, for which the name Shimia haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WM35(T) ( = KACC 17212(T) = JCM 18870(T)).

  19. Cloacibacterium haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Pil Soo; Oh, Sei Joon; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WB5(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain WB5(T) was clustered in the genus Cloacibacterium and shared the highest sequence similarity with C. normanense (98.2 % similarity). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Menaquinone-6 was the major respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content was 29.6 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated <22 % genomic relatedness with other members of the genus Cloacibacterium. The results of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses showed that strain WB5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cloacibacterium, for which the name Cloacibacterium haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WB5(T) ( = KACC 17210(T) = JCM 18869(T)).

  20. Actinomyces haliotis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Pil Soo; Kim, Joon Yong; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2014-02-01

    A novel, Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and coccus-shaped bacterium, strain WL80(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. Optimal growth occurred at 30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 1% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain WL80(T) fell within the cluster of the genus Actinomyces, with highest sequence similarity to the type strains of Actinomyces radicidentis (98.8% similarity) and Actinomyces urogenitalis (97.0% similarity). The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. Menaquinone-10 (H4) was the major respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolate was 70.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values with closely related strains indicated less than 7.6% genomic relatedness. The results of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WL80(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinomyces, for which the name Actinomyces haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WL80(T) ( = KACC 17211(T) = JCM 18848(T)).

  1. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%-3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones. PMID:26593905

  2. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-11-18

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%-3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  3. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%–3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones. PMID:26593905

  4. Cryopreservation of sperm of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salinas-Flores, L.; Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Abalone culture, a developing industry in Baja California, Mexico, would benefit from genetic improvement and controlled breeding. The use of cryopreserved sperm would allow germplasm availability, and this study was designed to develop sperm cryopreservation protocols for red abalone Haliotis rufescens. The acute toxic effects of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY) were assessed after suspending sperm in different concentrations, whereby cryoprotectant treatments of 10% DMSO and 10% GLY equilibrated for 10 min yielded the highest range of motile sperm in preliminary freezing trials and were used for cryopreservation studies. To determine effective cooling rates, three freezing chambers were tested. Replicate samples of sperm from 4 males were placed in 0.5-mL French straws and frozen using a commercial freezing chamber (CFC) used for bull sperm, a programmable rate chamber (PRC), and a manually controlled styrofoam chamber (MCC). For the CFC, the cooling rate was 16??C/min, from 4??C to -140??C. For the PRC and MCC, it was 1??C/min, from -20??C to -30??C. The samples were held at -30??C for 5 min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196??C) for storage, and each sample was thawed in a water bath at 45??C for 8 s. The quality of thawed sperm was determined by estimating percent motility, evaluating membrane integrity using a dual-staining technique and flow cytometry, and estimating fertilization rate. Statistical analyses were performed using 2-way ANOVA where chamber and treatment were the independent variables. Sperm quality parameters were independent. For motilities, a significant interaction was noted between the cryoprotective treatment and the chamber type, whereby motilities for DMSO and GLY were higher (P = 0.0055) using MCC. Membrane integrities were significantly lower after using the PRC than the CFC or the MCC (P = 0.0167). The highest post-thaw motility (48 ?? 7%) was found using sperm

  5. Species identification of the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina, Haliotis ovina, and Haliotis varia) in Thailand using RAPD and SCAR markers.

    PubMed

    Klinbunga, Sirawut; Amparyup, Piti; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2004-03-31

    A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to identify the species- and population-specific markers of abalone; Haliotis asinina, H. ovina, and H. varia in Thai waters. Fifteen species-specific and six population-specific RAPD markers were identified. In addition, an 1650 bp band (UBC195) that was restricted to H. ovina from the Gulf of Thailand (east) was also found. All of the specific RAPD markers were cloned and sequenced. Twenty pairs of primers were designed and specificity-tested (N = 12 and 4 for target and non-target species, respectively). Seven primer pairs (CUHA1, 2, 4, 11, 12, 13, and 14) were specifically amplified by H. asinina DNA, whereas a single pair of primers showed specificity with H. ovina (CUHO3) and H. varia (CUHV1), respectively. Four primer pairs, including CUHA2, CUHA12, CUHO3, and CUHV1, were further examined against 216 individuals of abalone (N = 111, 73, and 32, respectively). Results indicated the species-specific nature of all of them, except CUHO3, with the sensitivity of detection of 100 pg and 20 pg of the target DNA template for CUHA2 and CUHA12 and CUHV1, respectively. The species-origin of the frozen, ethanol-preserved, dried, and boiled H. asinina specimens could also be successfully identified by CUHA2.

  6. Digestive enzymes in juvenile green abalone, Haliotis fulgens, fed natural food.

    PubMed

    García-Carreño, F L; Navarrete del Toro, M A; Serviere-Zaragoza, E

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes responsible for the digestion of food protein by juvenile green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) were studied when fed algae or a sea grass (Phyllospadix torreyi) naturally occurring in the habitat. The effect of food on the composition and activity of the enzymes was also evaluated. Acid, serine proteinases and aminopeptidases, as confirmed by pH profile of activity, specific inhibition and synthetic substrate hydrolysis were found in the digestive organs of juvenile green abalone. Algae and sea grass differentially affected the digestive system in abalone. PMID:12524042

  7. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  8. Different responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai to waterborne and dietary-borne copper and zincexposure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Tu, Riwei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the potential influence of the contamination of copper (Cu) or zinc (Zn), the abalone Haliotis discus hannai was exposed to waterborne or macroalgae-borne Cu or Zn over a period of 8weeks. Both Cu and Zn were effectively accumulated by the abalones from water or macroalgae, but their concentration factors and trophic transfer factors were low due to the regulation of Cu and Zn accumulation. Following waterborne or dietary exposure, the abalones exhibited different accumulation patterns of Cu and Zn. The tissue Zn burden decreased quickly after the initial accumulation, and the incoming Zn was mainly deposited in the viscera. In contrast, the tissue Cu burden increased rapidly and gradually reached a steady state. The abalone muscle exhibited a comparable storage capacity of Cu as the viscera and the accumulated Cu in muscle was mainly derived from the dissolved phase instead of trophic transfer. The feeding and growth of the abalone were not influenced in all the exposure regimes. Moreover, the significant induction of metallothionein indicated that the bioaccumulated metals were actively detoxified. In the metal-exposed abalones, more Cu was distributed into the biologically detoxified fractions (metallothionein-like protein and/or metal-rich granule), whereas no significant subcellular redistribution of Zn was observed. Our study suggested that the abalone may have high endurance to the contamination of Cuor Zn.

  9. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  10. The hydrogen peroxide impact on larval settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangjing; Yang, Zhihui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2008-08-01

    Abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an important economic mollusk. The settlement and metamorphosis are two critical stages during its development period, which has direct influence on abalone survival and production. The influence of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) on abalone embryo and juvenile development were examined in this study. Larvae of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta were induced to settlement and metamorphose by exposure to seawater supplemented with hydrogen peroxide. They had the best performance at 800 μmol/L. The concentration of 1 000 μmol/L or higher was toxic to the larvae, as the larvae could settle down only at benthic diatom plates without complete metamorphosis. In addition, H2O2 adding time was critical to the larval performance. 24h after two-day post-fertilization was proved to be the optimal adding time. In this paper, two action mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide are discussed: (1) hydrogen peroxide has direct toxicity to ciliated cells, thus cause apoptosis; (2) hydrogen peroxide, as a product from catecholamines’ autoxidation process in vivo, can reverse this process to produce neuro-transmitters to induce abalone metamorphosis.

  11. Isolation, identification, and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the shell of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).

    PubMed

    Wang, Z L; Liang, H B; Guo, W; Peng, Z F; Chen, J D; Zhang, Q Q

    2014-07-04

    In this study, two antioxidative substances, a homogeneous polysaccharide [abalone shell polysaccharide (ASP-1), corresponding to the first peak by size exclusion chromatography] and a non-polysaccharide compound [abalone shell compound (ACS-2), corresponding to the second peak by size exclusion chromatography], were extracted from the abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) shell. We primarily focused on the investigation of ASP-1. As a heteropolysaccharide, ASP-1 is comprised of 9.3% uronic acid and 86.4% saccharide, the latter including mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, and two unknown monosaccharides, NO1 and NO2, with a mass ratio of 9.5:10.1:2.2:18.2:21.8:5.5:16.5:16.2. The antioxidant activity assays indicated that 5.0 mg/mL ASP-1 has significant scavenging effects on superoxide radicals (86.2%) compared to the positive control of ascorbic acid (95.6%).

  12. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xuguang; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Minggang; Qu, Lingyun; Zan, Jindong; Zhang, Jinxing

    2008-11-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals’ acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  13. Proteomic profiling of eggs from a hybrid abalone and its parental lines: Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Di, Guilan; Luo, Xuan; Huang, Miaoqin; Chen, Jun; Kong, Xianghui; Miao, Xiulian; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic analysis was performed on the eggs of hybrid abalone and their corresponding parental lines. A total of 915 ± 19 stained protein spots were detected from Haliotis discus hannai♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (DD), 935 ± 16 from H. gigantea♀ × H. gigantea♂ (GG) and 923 ± 13 from H. gigantea♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (GD). The spots from DD and GD were clustered together. The distance between DD and GG was maximal by hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 112 protein gel spots were identified; of these, 59 were abalone proteins. The proteins were involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, immunity, lipid metabolism, electron carrier proteins, protein biosynthesis and decomposition, and cytoskeletal structure. Three of 20 differential expression protein spots involved in energy metabolism exhibited as upregulated in GD, 13 spots exhibited additivity, and four spots exhibited as downregulated in the offspring. Eleven protein spots were expressed at the highest level in DD. The proteins involved in stress responses included superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Two of seven differential expression protein spots involved in response to stress exhibited as upregulated in GD, three exhibited additivity, and two exhibited as downregulated. These results might suggest that proteomic approaches are suitable for the analysis of hybrids and the functional prediction of abalone hybridization. PMID:26447358

  14. Proteomic profiling of eggs from a hybrid abalone and its parental lines: Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Di, Guilan; Luo, Xuan; Huang, Miaoqin; Chen, Jun; Kong, Xianghui; Miao, Xiulian; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic analysis was performed on the eggs of hybrid abalone and their corresponding parental lines. A total of 915 ± 19 stained protein spots were detected from Haliotis discus hannai♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (DD), 935 ± 16 from H. gigantea♀ × H. gigantea♂ (GG) and 923 ± 13 from H. gigantea♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (GD). The spots from DD and GD were clustered together. The distance between DD and GG was maximal by hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 112 protein gel spots were identified; of these, 59 were abalone proteins. The proteins were involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, immunity, lipid metabolism, electron carrier proteins, protein biosynthesis and decomposition, and cytoskeletal structure. Three of 20 differential expression protein spots involved in energy metabolism exhibited as upregulated in GD, 13 spots exhibited additivity, and four spots exhibited as downregulated in the offspring. Eleven protein spots were expressed at the highest level in DD. The proteins involved in stress responses included superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Two of seven differential expression protein spots involved in response to stress exhibited as upregulated in GD, three exhibited additivity, and two exhibited as downregulated. These results might suggest that proteomic approaches are suitable for the analysis of hybrids and the functional prediction of abalone hybridization.

  15. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Dong; Huang, Min; Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone. PMID:26313647

  16. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone. PMID:26313647

  17. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  18. Unusual micrometric calcite-aragonite interface in the abalone shell Haliotis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Meibom, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Species of Haliotis (abalone) show high variety in structure and mineralogy of the shell. One of the European species (Haliotis tuberculata) in particular has an unusual shell structure in which calcite and aragonite coexist at a microscale with small patches of aragonite embedded in larger calcitic zones. A detailed examination of the boundary between calcite and aragonite using analytical microscopies shows that the organic contents of calcite and aragonite differ. Moreover, changes in the chemical composition of the two minerals seem to be gradual and define a micrometric zone of transition between the two main layers. A similar transition zone has been observed between the layers in more classical and regularly structured mollusk shells. The imbrication of microscopic patches of aragonite within a calcitic zone suggests the occurrence of very fast physiological changes in these taxa.

  19. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor. PMID:26438131

  20. Characterization of mucus-associated proteins from abalone (Haliotis) - candidates for chemical signaling.

    PubMed

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Stewart, Michael J; York, Patrick S; Degnan, Bernard M; Sobhon, Prasert; Hanna, Peter J; Chavadej, Jittipan; Cummins, Scott F

    2012-02-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. For free-spawning aquatic animals, such as the abalone (Haliotis), being in the close proximity to potential mating partners enhances reproductive success. In this study, we investigated whether chemical cues could be present in abalone mucus that enable species-specific aggregation. A comparative MS analysis of mucus obtained from trailing or fixed stationary Haliotis asinina, and from seawater surrounding aggregations, indicated that water-soluble biomolecules are present and that these can stimulate sensory activity in conspecifics. Purified extracts of trail mucus contain at least three small proteins [termed H. asinina mucus-associated proteins (Has-MAPs)-1-3], which readily diffuse into the surrounding seawater and evoke a robust cephalic tentacle response in conspecifics. Mature Has-MAP-1 is approximately 9.9 kDa in size, and has a glycine-rich N-terminal region. Has-MAP-2 is approximately 6.2 kDa in size, and has similarities to schistosomin, a protein that is known to play a role in mollusc reproduction. The mature Has-MAP-3 is approximately 12.5 kDa in size, and could only be identified within trail mucus of animals outside of the reproductive season. All three Has-MAP genes are expressed at high levels within secretory cells of the juvenile abalone posterior pedal gland, consistent with a role in scent marking. We infer from these results that abalone mucus-associated proteins are candidate chemical cues that could provide informational cues to conspecifics living in close proximity and, given their apparent stability and hydrophilicity, animals further afield.

  1. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    PubMed

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone.

  2. Diatom diet selectivity by early post-larval abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta under hatchery conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuyu; Gao, Yahui; Liang, Junrong; Chen, Changping; Zhao, Donghai; Li, Xuesong; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenzhong

    2010-11-01

    Benthic diatoms constitute the primary diet of abalone during their early stages of development. To evaluate the dietary preferences of early post-larval abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, we analyzed the gut contents of post-larvae that settled on diatom films. We compared the abundance and species diversity of diatom assemblages in the gut to those of the epiphytic diatom assemblages on the attachment films, and identified 40 benthic diatom species in the gut contents of post-larvae 12 to 24 d after settlement. The most abundant taxa in the gut contents were Navicula spp., Amphora copulate, and Amphora coffeaeformis. Navicula spp. accounted for 64.0% of the cell density. In the attachment films, we identified 110 diatom species belonging to 38 genera. Pennate diatoms were the dominant members including the species Amphiprora alata, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Cylindrotheca closterium, Navicula sp. 2, and A. coffeaeformis. Nano-diatoms (<20 μm in length) accounted for a considerable proportion of the total species number and cell density of the diatom assemblages in the gut contents and on the films. This suggests that nano-diatoms are important to the efficient production of abalone seed. The difference of the composition and abundance of diatoms between in the guts and on the biofilms suggests that early post-larval grazing was selective. An early post-larval abalone preferred nano-diatoms and the genera Navicula and Amphora during the month after settlement.

  3. Microarray analysis of gene expression in disk abalone Haliotis discus discus after bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus challenged by a mixture of three pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes using a cDNA microarray. Upon bacteria challenge, 68 (1.6%) and 112 (2.7%) gene transcripts changed their expression levels ≥2 or ≤2 -fold in gills and digestive tract, respectively. There were 46 tissue-specific transcripts that up-regulated specifically in the digestive tract. In contrast, only 13 transcripts showed gill-specific up-regulation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify microarray data and results revealed that candidate genes namely Krüppell-like factor (KLF), lachesin, muscle lim protein, thioredoxin-2 (TRx-2), nuclear factor interleukin 3 (NFIL-3) and abalone protein 38 were up-regulated. Also, our results further indicated that bacteria challenge may activate the transcription factors or their activators (Krüppell-like factor, inhibitor of NF-κB or Ik-B), inflammatory cytokines (IL-3 regulated protein, allograft inflammatory factor), other cytokines (IFN-44-like protein, SOCS-2), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, thioredoxin-2 and thioredoxin peroxidase), and apoptosis-related proteins (TNF-α, archeron) in abalone. The identification of immune and stress response genes and their expression profiles in this microarray will permit detailed investigation of the stress and immune responses of abalone genes.

  4. Proteomic analysis of muscle between hybrid abalone and parental lines Haliotis gigantea Reeve and Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Di, G; Luo, X; You, W; Zhao, J; Kong, X; Ke, C

    2015-06-01

    To understand the potential molecular mechanism of heterosis, protein expression patterns were compared from hybrids of Haliotis gigantea (G) and Haliotis discus hannai (D) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses. Expression differences were observed in muscle samples from the four groups with 673±21.0 stained spots for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD), 692±25.6 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (GG), 679±16.2 for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) (F1 hybrid) and 700±19 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) (F1 hybrid). Different 2-DE image muscle protein spots had a mirrored relationship between purebreds and the F1 hybrid, suggesting that all stained spots in F1 hybrid muscle were on 2-DEs from parents. DD and DG clustered together first, and then clustered with GD, whereas the distance of DD and GG was maximal according to hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified 136 differentially expressed protein spots involved in major biological processes, including energy metabolism and stress response. Most energy metabolism proteins were additive, and stress-induced proteins displayed additivity or over-dominance. In these 136 identified protein spots, hybrid offspring with additivity or over-dominance accounted for 68.38%. Data show that a proteomic approach can provide functional prediction of abalone interspecific hybridization. PMID:25669609

  5. Proteomic analysis of muscle between hybrid abalone and parental lines Haliotis gigantea Reeve and Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Di, G; Luo, X; You, W; Zhao, J; Kong, X; Ke, C

    2015-06-01

    To understand the potential molecular mechanism of heterosis, protein expression patterns were compared from hybrids of Haliotis gigantea (G) and Haliotis discus hannai (D) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses. Expression differences were observed in muscle samples from the four groups with 673±21.0 stained spots for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD), 692±25.6 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (GG), 679±16.2 for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) (F1 hybrid) and 700±19 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) (F1 hybrid). Different 2-DE image muscle protein spots had a mirrored relationship between purebreds and the F1 hybrid, suggesting that all stained spots in F1 hybrid muscle were on 2-DEs from parents. DD and DG clustered together first, and then clustered with GD, whereas the distance of DD and GG was maximal according to hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified 136 differentially expressed protein spots involved in major biological processes, including energy metabolism and stress response. Most energy metabolism proteins were additive, and stress-induced proteins displayed additivity or over-dominance. In these 136 identified protein spots, hybrid offspring with additivity or over-dominance accounted for 68.38%. Data show that a proteomic approach can provide functional prediction of abalone interspecific hybridization.

  6. Physiological performance of juvenile Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai abalone exposed to the withering syndrome agent.

    PubMed

    González, Roxana C; Brokordt, Katherina; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2012-09-15

    Withering syndrome (WS) is a serious chronic disease caused by infection with the bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, a Rickettsiales-like organism (WS-RLO) that affects multiple abalone species in both natural and farmed populations. However, there is no available information regarding the effects of this disease on the physiological performance of infected abalone. We studied the effect of different levels of infection on components of energy balance and physiological indices (rates of absorption and assimilation, O/N ratio, and scope for growth) in the abalone species Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai. Juveniles were exposed to C. X. californiensis transmission for 130 days, during which time the presence/absence of WS-RLOs was evaluated by PCR (following DNA sequencing-based confirmation of 100% identity with the sequence of C. X. californiensis from California), and the prevalence and intensity of infection were evaluated via histological analysis. Among H. rufescens juveniles exposed to the bacterium, 92% became infected (positive by histology), and the intensity of infection ranged from low (degree 1) to moderate (degree 2). In contrast, no H. discus hannai juveniles were positive for WS-RLO by histology, although 23% were positive by PCR, possibly indicating incipient WS-RLO infection that did not develop during the experimental period or to mere presence of WS-RLO DNA in the sample. Infection of H. rufescens juveniles by WS-RLOs negatively affected all components of the energy balance and physiological indices, such as scope for growth and the O/N ratio, in direct relation to the degree of infection. The most strongly affected functions were the rate of ingestion, standard metabolism, and production of feces, which were reduced by 60-80% in the most highly infected individuals. The reduced energy intake in the organisms produced a strong energy imbalance such that the energy available for growth was reduced by 49% in infected

  7. Physiological performance of juvenile Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai abalone exposed to the withering syndrome agent.

    PubMed

    González, Roxana C; Brokordt, Katherina; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2012-09-15

    Withering syndrome (WS) is a serious chronic disease caused by infection with the bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, a Rickettsiales-like organism (WS-RLO) that affects multiple abalone species in both natural and farmed populations. However, there is no available information regarding the effects of this disease on the physiological performance of infected abalone. We studied the effect of different levels of infection on components of energy balance and physiological indices (rates of absorption and assimilation, O/N ratio, and scope for growth) in the abalone species Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai. Juveniles were exposed to C. X. californiensis transmission for 130 days, during which time the presence/absence of WS-RLOs was evaluated by PCR (following DNA sequencing-based confirmation of 100% identity with the sequence of C. X. californiensis from California), and the prevalence and intensity of infection were evaluated via histological analysis. Among H. rufescens juveniles exposed to the bacterium, 92% became infected (positive by histology), and the intensity of infection ranged from low (degree 1) to moderate (degree 2). In contrast, no H. discus hannai juveniles were positive for WS-RLO by histology, although 23% were positive by PCR, possibly indicating incipient WS-RLO infection that did not develop during the experimental period or to mere presence of WS-RLO DNA in the sample. Infection of H. rufescens juveniles by WS-RLOs negatively affected all components of the energy balance and physiological indices, such as scope for growth and the O/N ratio, in direct relation to the degree of infection. The most strongly affected functions were the rate of ingestion, standard metabolism, and production of feces, which were reduced by 60-80% in the most highly infected individuals. The reduced energy intake in the organisms produced a strong energy imbalance such that the energy available for growth was reduced by 49% in infected

  8. Molecular characterization and gene expression of ferritin in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Salinas-Clarot, Karina; Gutiérrez, Alejandro P; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    Ferritin is the principal iron storage protein in the majority of living organisms. Its capacity to capture the toxic cellular iron in excess in a compact and safe manner, gives to this protein a key role in detoxification and iron storage. It has a main role in cellular homeostasis and in cellular defense against oxidative stress produced by the reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this research, the cDNA coding sequence of ferritin for Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) was obtained, which had an open reading frame (ORF) of 516 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence was consisted of 171 residues with a calculated molecular weight of 19.77 kDa. In addition, tissue expression profiles of ferritin in Red abalone were induced by thermal stress showed an expression peak from 16 °C to 22 °C. The transcriptional level of ferritin was mainly achieved in muscle, digestive gland, gills, foot, mantle and gonad respectively. This research providing more information to better understands the structural and functional properties of this protein in Haliotis. PMID:20888919

  9. Characterization of genic microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Shu, Jing; Zhao, Cui; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Lingfeng; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai). Repeat motifs were found in 4.95% of the ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 10.04 kb of EST sequences, after redundancy elimination. Seventeen polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2-17, with an average of 6.8 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.159 to 0.928 and from 0.132 to 0.922, respectively. Twelve of the 17 loci (70.6%) were successfully amplified in H. diversicolor. Seventeen loci segregated in three families, with three showing the presence of null alleles (17.6%). The adequate level of variability and low frequency of null alleles observed in H. discus hannai, together with the high rate of transportability across Haliotis species, make this set of EST-SSR markers an important tool for comparative mapping, marker-assisted selection, and evolutionary studies, not only in the Pacific abalone, but also in related species.

  10. De novo assembly and annotation of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Harney, Ewan; Dubief, Bruno; Boudry, Pierre; Basuyaux, Olivier; Schilhabel, Markus B; Huchette, Sylvain; Paillard, Christine; Nunes, Flavia L D

    2016-08-01

    The European abalone Haliotis tuberculata is a delicacy and consequently a commercially valuable gastropod species. Aquaculture production and wild populations are subjected to multiple climate-associated stressors and anthropogenic pressures, including rising sea-surface temperatures, ocean acidification and an emerging pathogenic Vibrio infection. Transcript expression data provides a valuable resource for understanding abalone responses to variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. To generate an extensive transcriptome, we performed next-generation sequencing of RNA on larvae exposed to temperature and pH variation and on haemolymph of adults from two wild populations after experimental infection with Vibrio harveyi. We obtained more than 1.5 billion raw paired-end reads, which were assembled into 328,519 contigs. Filtration and clustering produced a transcriptome of 41,099 transcripts, of which 10,626 (25.85%) were annotated with Blast hits, and 7380 of these were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in Blast2Go. A differential expression analysis comparing all samples from the two life stages identified 5690 and 10,759 transcripts with significantly higher expression in larvae and adult haemolymph respectively. This is the greatest sequencing effort yet in the Haliotis genus, and provides the first high-throughput transcriptomic resource for H. tuberculata. PMID:26971316

  11. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibitory effects of an octameric oligopeptide isolated from abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Tinh; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Ryu, Bomi; Kim, Kil-Nam; Kim, Daekyung; Kim, Young-Mog; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Geun Hyung; Je, Jae-Young; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2013-11-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is a marine gastropod, and an important fishery and food industrial resource that is massively maricultured in Asia, Africa, Australia and America. However, its health benefits have rarely been studied for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application. In this study, the purified abalone oligopeptide (AOP) with anti-matrix metalloproteinases (anti-MMPs) effects was isolated from the digests of abalone intestine using recycle HPLC with a JAI W253 column and an OHpak SB-803 HQ column. The AOP was identified as Ala-Glu-Leu-Pro-Ser-Leu-Pro-Gly (MW=782.4 Da) with a de novo peptide sequencing technique using a tandem mass spectrometer. The AOP exhibited a specific inhibitory effect against MMP-2/-9 activity and attenuated protein expression of p50 and p65 in the human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells, dose-dependently. The results presented illustrate that the AOP could inhibit MMP-2/-9 expression in HT1080 cells via the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-mediated pathway. This data suggest that the AOP from H. discus hannai intestine may possess therapeutic and preventive potential for the treatment of MMPs-related disorders such as angiogenesis and cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  14. Formosa haliotis sp. nov., a brown-alga-degrading bacterium isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reiji; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Mizutani, Yukino; Iehata, Shunpei; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Hideo; Mori, Tetsushi; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Bossier, Peter; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Four brown-alga-degrading, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, gliding and rod-shaped bacteria, designated LMG 28520T, LMG 28521, LMG 28522 and LMG 28523, were isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis gigantea obtained in Japan. The four isolates had identical random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns and grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 6.0-9.0 and in the presence of 1.0-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolates in the genus Formosa with Formosa algae and Formosa arctica as closest neighbours. LMG 28520T and LMG 28522 showed 100 % DNA-DNA relatedness to each other, 16-17 % towards F. algae LMG 28216T and 17-20 % towards F. arctica LMG 28318T; they could be differentiated phenotypically from these established species. The predominant fatty acids of isolates LMG 28520T and LMG 28522 were summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0. Isolate LMG 28520T contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the major respiratory quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol% for LMG 28520T and 35.5 mol% for LMG 28522. On the basis of their phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, and differential phenotypic properties, the four isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Formosa, for which the name Formosa haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 28520T ( = NBRC 111189T). PMID:26354496

  15. Two ferritin subunits from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): cloning, characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Jehee

    2007-09-01

    Ferritin plays a key role in cellular iron metabolism, which includes iron storage and detoxification. From disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, the cDNA that encodes the two ferritin subunits abalone ferritin subunit 1 (Abf1) and abalone ferritin subunit 2 (Abf2) were cloned. The complete cDNA coding sequences for Abf1 and Abf2 contained 621 and 549 bp, encoding for 207 and 183 amino acid residues, respectively. The H. discus discus Abf2 subunit contained a highly conserved motif for the ferroxidase center, which consists of seven residues of a typical vertebrate heavy-chain ferritin with a typical stem-loop structure. Abf2 mRNA contains a 27 bp iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'UTR position. This IRE exhibited 96% similarity with pearl and Pacific oyster and 67% similarity with human H type IREs. However, the Abf1 subunit had neither ferroxidase center residues nor the IRE motif sequence; instead, it contained iron-binding region signature 2 (IBRS) residues. Recombinant Abf1 and Abf2 proteins were purified and the respective sizes were about 24 and 21 kDa. Abf1 and Abf2 exhibited iron-chelating activity 44.2% and 22.0%, respectively, at protein concentration of 6 microg/ml. Analysis of tissue-specific expression by RT-PCR revealed that Abf1 and Abf2 ferritin mRNAs were expressed in various abalone tissues, such as gill, mantle, gonad, foot and digestive tract in a wide distribution profile, but Abf2 expression was more prominent than Abf1.

  16. Genetic diversity and molecular markers of the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Klinbunga, S; Pripue, P; Khamnamtong, N; Puanglarp, N; Tassanakajon, A; Jarayabhand, P; Hirono, I; Aoki, T; Menasveta, P

    2003-01-01

    Genetic diversity of abalone in Thailand, Haliotis asinina, H. ovina, and H. varia, was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S and 16S rDNAs, with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Species-specific RAPD markers were found in each abalone species. Restriction analysis of 18S (nuclear) ribosomal DNA with Alu I, Taq I, and Hae III and 16S (mitochondrial) rDNA with Bam HI, Eco RI, Hae III, and Alu I gave 12 and 13 digestion patterns, respectively. A total of 49 composite haplotypes were found. A dendogram obtained by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, constructed from divergence between pairs of composite haplotypes, revealed reproductively isolated gene pools of these abalone and indicated that H. asinina and H. ovina are genetically closer than H. varia. When H. varia was discovered owing to small sample sizes, geographic heterogeneity analysis and FST estimate indicated clear genetic differentiation between H. ovina originating from the Andaman Sea (west) and the Gulf of Thailand (east, P<0.0001), whereas partial differentiation was observed between the Philippines and the remaining H. asinina samples (P<0.0021). The amplified 16S rDNAs of individuals representing composite haplotypes found in this study were cloned and sequenced. A neighbor-joining tree constructed from sequence divergence of 16S rDNA accurately allocated those sequences according to species origins of abalone. Species-specific PCR based on 16S rDNA polymorphism was successfully developed in H. asinina and H. varia but not in H. ovina.

  17. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei-Ping, Tan; Kang-Sen, Mai; Wei, Xu

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  18. Cloning and characterization of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) actin gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongming; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Chen, Hong

    2004-10-01

    An actin encoding gene was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3‧ RACE and 5‧ RACE from abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The full length of the gene is 1532 base pairs, which contains a long 3‧ untranslated region of 307 base pairs and 79 base pairs of 5‧ untranslated sequence. The open reading frame encodes 376 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison with those of human and other mollusks showed high conservation among species at amino acid level. The identities was 96%, 97% and 96% respectively compared with Aplysia californica, Biomphalaria glabrata and Homo sapience β-actin. It is also indicated that this actin is more similar to the human cytoplasmic actin (β-actin) than to human muscle actin.

  19. Heat tolerance in the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii leach, 1814: effects of temperature fluctuatisn and acclimation

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, A.; Anderson, S.; Brisbin, M.

    1980-10-01

    The thermal tolerance of adult Haliotis cracherodii acclimated to 11.5/sup 0/C and 16/sup 0/C was determined for animals exposed to constant temperatures during continuous submergence and to fluctuating temperatures during a simulated tidal cycle. Loss of the ability of an abalone to hold a surface constituted ecological death. The response to elevated temperature was extremely abrupt in that, when lethal temperatures are reached, the temperature range from no mortality to 100% mortality was only about 1.0/sup 0/C for any one experimental group. As determined by probit analysis, the 96 hour ET/sub 50/ value of the 11/sup 0/C acclimated/non-tidal group was 26.1/sup 0/C, that of the 11/sup 0/C acclimated/tidal group was 26.6/sup 0/C, and that of the 16/sup 0/C acclimated/tidal group was 27.2/sup 0/C. The 16/sup 0/C acclimated/non-tidal group in separate tests had a 96 hour ET/sub 50/ value of 27.4/sup 0/C, but it had a thermal tolerance intermediate between the 11/sup 0/C/tidal and the 16/sup 0/C/tidal groups for the test period from 9 to 65 hours. The behavioral response of Haliotis cracherodii to heat stress was described.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA sequence and gene organization in the [corrected] Australian blacklip [corrected] abalone Haliotis rubra (leach).

    PubMed

    Maynard, Ben T; Kerr, Lyndal J; McKiernan, Joanne M; Jansen, Eliza S; Hanna, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA of the blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra (Gastropoda: Mollusca) was cloned and 16,907 base pairs were sequenced. The sequence represents an estimated 99.85% of the mitochondrial genome, and contains 2 ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA, and 13 protein-coding genes found in other metazoan mtDNA. An AT tandem repeat and a possible C-rich domain within the putative control region could not be fully sequenced. The H. rubra mtDNA gene order is novel for mollusks, separated from the black chiton Katharina tunicata by the individual translocations of 3 tRNAs. Compared with other mtDNA regions, sequences from the ATP8, NAD2, NAD4L, NAD6, and 12S rRNA genes, as well as the control region, are the most variable among representatives from Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Rhynchonelliformea, with similar mtDNA arrangements to H. rubra. These sequences are being evaluated as genetic markers within commercially important Haliotis species, and some applications and considerations for their use are discussed. PMID:16206015

  1. Purification and characterisation of aquamarine blue pigment from the shells of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhixing; Wu, Jiulin; Chen, Li; Guo, Wei; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Jiabin; Zhang, Qiqing

    2011-09-01

    Aquamarine blue pigment (ABP) from the shells of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) was extracted using a precipitation adsorption method and further purified via semi-preparative HPLC. The ABP with molecular weight of 582.8 was identified as a polyenic compound by NMR. The colour value of ABP was E1cm(1%)612nm=534.3. ABP can dissolve in water, ethanol, methanol, acetic acid and DMSO but was scarcely soluble in chloroform, aether, acetone, petroleum ether and cyclohexane. ABP was relatively stable between 25 and 100°C, from pH 2 to pH 12, under UV-light and indoor natural light. However, it was bleached by H2O2 and Na2SO3 and even unstable under sunlight. The stability of ABP was slightly influenced by metal ions (Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+) and so on) and food addictives (sodium chloride, sugar, starch and so on). This is the first report on the characterisation of pigment obtained from Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  2. Effects of chemical cues on larval survival, settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis asinina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Bai, Yang; Huang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    Low larval survival, poor settlement, and abnormal metamorphosis are major problems in seed production of donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina. We examined the effects of chemical cues including epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and serotonin on larval survival, settlement, and metamorphosis in order to determine the possibility of using these chemicals to induce the problems. The results show that epinephrine could enhance metamorphosis rate at 10-6 mol/L only but higher concentrations (10-3-10-4 mol/L); and nor-epinephrine could inhibit the performance significantly, and serotonin could increase significantly the performance at a wide-range concentration (10-3-10-6 mol/L). Treatment with serotonin at 10-5 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest settlement rate (42.2%) and survival rate (49.3%), while at 10-4 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest metamorphosis rate (38.8%). Therefore, serotonin may be used as a fast metamorphosis inducer in abalone culture.

  3. Sequences characterization of microsatellite DNA sequences in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Akihiro, Kijima

    2007-01-01

    The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using magnetic bead hybridization selection method, and the microsatellite DNA sequences were analyzed in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Three hundred and fifty white colonies were screened using PCR-based technique, and 84 clones were identified to potentially contain microsatellite repeat motif. The 84 clones were sequenced, and 42 microsatellites and 4 minisatellites with a minimum of five repeats were found (13.1% of white colonies screened). Besides the motif of CA contained in the oligoprobe, we also found other 16 types of microsatellite repeats including a dinucleotide repeat, two tetranucleotide repeats, twelve pentanucleotide repeats and a hexanucleotide repeat. According to Weber (1990), the microsatellite sequences obtained could be categorized structurally into perfect repeats (73.3%), imperfect repeats (13.3%), and compound repeats (13.4%). Among the microsatellite repeats, relatively short arrays (<20 repeats) were most abundant, accounting for 75.0%. The largest length of microsatellites was 48 repeats, and the average number of repeats was 13.4. The data on the composition and length distribution of microsatellites obtained in the present study can be useful for choosing the repeat motifs for microsatellite isolation in other abalone species.

  4. An AFLP genetic linkage map of pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Yanhong, Xu; Ruihai, Yu; Akihiro, Kijima

    2007-07-01

    A genetic linkage map of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) was constructed using AFLP markers based on a two-way pseudo-testeross strategy in a full-sib family. With 33 primer combinations, a total of 455 markers (225 from the female parent and 230 from the male parent) segregated in a 1:1 ratio, corresponding to DNA polymorphism: heterozygous in one parent and null in the other. The female framework map consisted of 174 markers distributed in 18 linkage groups, equivalent to the H. discus hannai haploid chromosome number, and spanning a total length of 2031.4 cM, with an average interval of 13.0 cM between adjacent markers. The male framework map consisted of 195 markers mapped on 19 linkage groups, spanning a total length of 2273.4 cM, with an average spacing of 12.9 cM between adjacent markers. The estimated coverage for the framework linkage maps was 81.2% for the female and 82.1% for the male, on the basis of two estimates of genome length. Fifty-two markers (11.4%) remained unlinked. The level of segregation distortion observed in this cross was 20.4%. These linkage maps will serve as a starting point for linkage studies in the Pacific abalone with potential application for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs.

  5. Expression characterization and activity analysis of a cathepsin B from Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Reng; Liu, Xiao; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Bo-guang

    2013-05-01

    Cathepsin B (EC 3.4.22.1) is a member of lysosomal cysteine protease and has a papain-like fold. In mammals, it is involved in protein degradation and other physiological processes including immune response. However, little is known about the function of cathepsin B in mollusks. In this study, we identified and analyzed a cathepsin B homolog (HdCatB) from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai), an economically important mollusk species cultured in East Asia. HdCatB is composed of 336 amino acid residues and its mature form is predicted to start at residue 86. HdCatB possesses typical domain architecture of cathepsin B and contains a propeptide region and a cysteine protease domain, the latter containing the four active site residues (Q108, C114, H282, and N302) that are conserved in many different organisms. HdCatB shares 40-60% overall sequence identities with the cathepsin Bofa number of vertebrates and invertebrates and is phylogenetically very close to mollusk cathepsin B. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis revealed that HdCatB expression occurred in multiple tissues and was upregulated by bacterial infection. Recombinant HdCatB purified from Escherichia coli exhibited apparent protease activity, which was optimal at 45 °C and pH 6.0. These results indicate that HdCatB is a bioactive protease that is likely to be implicated in the immune response of abalone during bacterial infection.

  6. Effects of polysaccharides from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) on HepG2 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Wu, Feng-Juan; Du, Lei; Li, Guo-Yun; Takahashi, Koretaro; Xue, Yong; Xue, Chang-Hu

    2014-05-01

    Three polysaccharides, AAP, AVAP I, and AVAP II, were isolated from abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. The polysaccharides' compositions were analysed, and their effects on HepG2 cell proliferation were assessed. AVAP I had a greater growth-stimulatory effect than AAP or AVAP II. The oligosaccharide of AVAP I (Oli-AVAP I) exhibited the same growth effects, but rhamnose, the primary monosaccharide of AVAP I and Oli-AVAP I, did not exhibit this activity. Moreover, AVAP I dramatically reduced the mRNA levels of CDK6 and Cyclin E1 but significantly increased Cyclin B1, CDK1 and Cyclin F. Interestingly, AVAP I remained able to induce cell proliferation in a low serum concentration medium. AVAP I could therefore promote HepG2 cell proliferation by regulating gene expression and accelerating the cell cycle process. AVAP I may be useful as a serum supplement for stimulating the proliferation of mammalian cells. Our results offer a comprehensive method for utilising the abalone viscera, which is usually discarded as waste.

  7. Genetic characterization of five hatchery populations of the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Kim, Hyun Chul; Myeong, Jeong-In

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is a popular food in Eastern Asia. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, the growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. We analyzed the genetic structures of five cultured populations in Korea using six microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 15 to 64, with an average of 23.5. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.797 and 0.904, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient F(IS) ranged from 0.054 to 0.184 (mean F(IS) = 0.121 ± 0.056). The genetic differentiation across all populations was low but significant (overall F(ST) = 0.009, P < 0.01). Pairwise multilocus F(ST) tests, estimates of genetic distance, and phylogenetic and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect extensive aquaculture, the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. Thus, for optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the abalone stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both H. discus hannai fisheries and the aquaculture industry.

  8. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST) investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein) protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions. PMID:21050442

  9. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Angell, Alex R; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1)) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1) of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  10. Feeding Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae for the Abalone Haliotis asinina

    PubMed Central

    Angell, Alex R.; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae – or any feedstock – which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g−1) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g−1 of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties. PMID:22719967

  11. Isolation and characterization of testis-specific DMRT1 in the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina).

    PubMed

    Klinbunga, Sirawut; Amparyup, Piti; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Jarayabhand, Padermsak

    2009-02-01

    The Doublesex Male abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor-1 (DMRT1) gene encodes a protein containing the DNA-binding motif called the DM domain, involved in the sexual development of various species. To gain insight into its implications for gonadal differentiation in the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina), a DMRT1 homolog was identified and characterized. The full length cDNA of HADMRT1 (1,740 bp with an ORF of 732 bp corresponding to a putative polypeptide of 243 amino acids) and its DM domain-less variant (HADMRT1-like, 1,430 bp with an ORF of 312 bp, 103 amino acids) were successfully isolated and reported for the first time in molluscs. HADMRT1 was specifically expressed in the testes of adult H. asinina (N = 16) but not in whole juveniles (2, 3, 5 months old, N = 6 for each group) and ovaries (N = 16), and pooled hemocytes (from 50 individuals) of adults. Tissue distribution analysis further revealed testis-specific expression of HADMRT1. Semiquantitative RT-PCR illustrated that the relative expression level of HADMRT1 in developed testes (stages II, III, and IV) was significantly greater than that in undeveloped testes (stage I) of abalone broodstock (P < 0.05).

  12. Characterization of the growth-related transcriptome in California red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) through RNA-Seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    One of the largest detriments in the abalone aquaculture industry is the inherently low growth rate of this marine gastropod. In order to confront this issue, greater molecular knowledge is needed on growth traits. Therefore, transcriptome analyses were performed using RNA-Seq for groups of California red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) cultured under the same conditions, but with high growth rates (HGR) or low growth rates (LGR). De novo assembly generated 44312 contigs used as references for RNA-Seq analysis. Results showed a total of 1437 differentially expressed contigs, among which, 435 were up-regulated in the HGR group and 1002 in LGR individuals. Overall, LGR abalones evidenced a greater number of exclusive transcripts and differentially transcribed genes. These results provide a valuable resource of novel transcripts in this species and further understandings of the molecular bases regulating growth traits in H. rufescens.

  13. Biokinetic behavior of Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a reassessment. [/sup 95m/Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments on other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalone exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by the abalone following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis pyrifera, is high (approx. 45%) and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  14. Characterization of the growth-related transcriptome in California red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) through RNA-Seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    One of the largest detriments in the abalone aquaculture industry is the inherently low growth rate of this marine gastropod. In order to confront this issue, greater molecular knowledge is needed on growth traits. Therefore, transcriptome analyses were performed using RNA-Seq for groups of California red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) cultured under the same conditions, but with high growth rates (HGR) or low growth rates (LGR). De novo assembly generated 44312 contigs used as references for RNA-Seq analysis. Results showed a total of 1437 differentially expressed contigs, among which, 435 were up-regulated in the HGR group and 1002 in LGR individuals. Overall, LGR abalones evidenced a greater number of exclusive transcripts and differentially transcribed genes. These results provide a valuable resource of novel transcripts in this species and further understandings of the molecular bases regulating growth traits in H. rufescens. PMID:26006295

  15. BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yucheol; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2010-11-01

    A BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA was cloned from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated as AbLECT-1. A full-length (705 bp) of AbLECT-1 cDNA was composed of a 576 bp open reading frame that translates into a putative peptide of 192 amino acids. Deduced amino acid sequence of AbLECT-1 had 15.5- and 27.8% identity and similarity to human LECT-1, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis results showed that the mRNA of AbLECT-1 was constitutively expressed in abalone hemocytes, gills, mantle, muscle, digestive tract and hepatopancreas in a tissue-specific manner. Moreover, the AbLECT-1 transcription level was induced in hemocytes after challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes suggesting that it may be involved in immune response reactions in abalone.

  16. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Wei

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78% 0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72% 65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87 55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44 4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9 19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71% 9.33%) and protein (46.68% 49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45% 97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87% 97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  17. Uptake, distribution and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in Australian greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Natalie; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; van Ruth, Paul; van Ginkel, Roel; McNabb, Paul; Hay, Brenda; O'Connor, Wayne; Kiermeier, Andreas; Deveney, Marty; McLeod, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata were fed commercial seaweed-based food pellets or feed pellets supplemented with 8 × 10⁵ Alexandrium minutum dinoflagellate cells g⁻¹ (containing 12 ± 3.0 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹, which was mainly GTX-1,4) every second day for 50 days. Exposure of abalone to PST supplemented feed for 50 days did not affect behaviour or survival but saw accumulation of up to 1.6 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ in the abalone foot tissue (muscle, mouth without oesophagus and epipodial fringe), which is ∼50 times lower than the maximum permissible limit (80 μg 100 g⁻¹ tissue) for PSTs in molluscan shellfish. The PST levels in the foot were reduced to 0.48 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ after scrubbing and removal of the pigment surrounding the epithelium of the epipodial fringe (confirmed by both HPLC and LC-MS/MS). Thus, scrubbing the epipodial fringe, a common procedure during commercial abalone canning, reduced PST levels by ∼70%. Only trace levels of PSTs were detected in the viscera (stomach, gut, heart, gonad, gills and mantle) of the abalone. A toxin reduction of approximately 73% was observed in STX-contaminated abalone held in clean water and fed uncontaminated food over 50 days. The low level of PST uptake when abalone were exposed to high numbers of A. minutum cells over a prolonged period may indicate a low risk of PSP poisoning to humans from the consumption of H. laevigata that has been exposed to a bloom of potentially toxic A. minutum in Australia. Further research is required to establish if non-dietary accumulation can result in significant levels of PSTs in abalone.

  18. Antimicrobial peptide, hdMolluscidin, purified from the gill of the abalone, Haliotis discus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Kil; Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A 4.7 kDa antimicrobial peptide was purified from the acidified gill extract of the Abalone, Haliotis discus, by cation-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparison of the amino acid sequences and molecular weight of this peptide with those of other known antimicrobial peptides revealed that this antimicrobial peptide have high sequence homology with that of cgMolluscidin and was designated hdMolluscidin. hdMolluscidin is composed of 46 amino acid residues containing several dibasic residue repeats like KK or K-R. hdMolluscidin showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal effective concentrations [MECs]; 0.8-19.0 μg/mL) and Gram-negative bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, and Vibrio parahemolyticus ([MECs]; 1.0-4.0 μg/mL) without hemolytic activity. However, hdMolluscidin did not show any significant activity against Candida albicans. The secondary structural prediction suggested that hdMolluscidin might not form an ordered or an amphipathic structure. hdMolluscidin did not show membrane permeabilization or leakage ability. The full-length hdMolluscidin cDNA contained 566-bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 63-bp, a 3'-UTR of 359-bp, and an open reading frame of 144-bp encoding 47 amino acids (containing Met). cDNA study of hdMolluscidin suggests that it is expressed as a mature peptide. Our results indicate that hdMolluscidin could relate to the innate immune defenses in abalone and it may not act directly on bacterial membrane. PMID:27033467

  19. Antimicrobial peptide, hdMolluscidin, purified from the gill of the abalone, Haliotis discus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Kil; Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A 4.7 kDa antimicrobial peptide was purified from the acidified gill extract of the Abalone, Haliotis discus, by cation-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparison of the amino acid sequences and molecular weight of this peptide with those of other known antimicrobial peptides revealed that this antimicrobial peptide have high sequence homology with that of cgMolluscidin and was designated hdMolluscidin. hdMolluscidin is composed of 46 amino acid residues containing several dibasic residue repeats like KK or K-R. hdMolluscidin showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal effective concentrations [MECs]; 0.8-19.0 μg/mL) and Gram-negative bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, and Vibrio parahemolyticus ([MECs]; 1.0-4.0 μg/mL) without hemolytic activity. However, hdMolluscidin did not show any significant activity against Candida albicans. The secondary structural prediction suggested that hdMolluscidin might not form an ordered or an amphipathic structure. hdMolluscidin did not show membrane permeabilization or leakage ability. The full-length hdMolluscidin cDNA contained 566-bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 63-bp, a 3'-UTR of 359-bp, and an open reading frame of 144-bp encoding 47 amino acids (containing Met). cDNA study of hdMolluscidin suggests that it is expressed as a mature peptide. Our results indicate that hdMolluscidin could relate to the innate immune defenses in abalone and it may not act directly on bacterial membrane.

  20. Nanoscale structure and mechanical behavior of growth lines in shell of abalone Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Taro; Kakisawa, Hideki; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    In the natural world, bottom-up hierarchical construction of complex structures results in materials with remarkable properties. A well known example is the nacre of mollusk shells, commonly called "mother of pearl", whose excellent strength and toughness has been the subject of research for many decades. A significant discovery has been the presence of periodic layers called "growth lines". These are thin distinct layers within the bulk of the shell which form periodically, with their structure affected by environmental changes. Studies of their formation and behavior offer valuable insight into the architecture of seashells. In this work, the structure and mechanical behavior of growth lines in shells of abalone Haliotis gigantea were investigated using electron microscopy and nanoindentation. Growth lines form directly out of nacre into layers of blocks and irregular particles. In comparison to nacre, they have basic structures, form rapidly, and are harder, which suggest that they serve a protective role during lifecycle transitions. This exemplifies how natural structures are able to closely control growth architecture in order to form different structures for different functions, all from the same base materials. PMID:21232604

  1. Sublethal toxicity of trace metals to larvae of the blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Jacquelle; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2006-05-01

    The availability of literature regarding sublethal and chronic toxicity of heavy metals to early life stages of marine species is restricted to a few species of invertebrate mollusks. The early life stage of abalone, an important gastropod both environmentally and commercially, has been involved in limited research investigating the effects of heavy metal toxicity. Fertilized eggs of Haliotis rubra were exposed to a range of dissolved nominal concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, and zinc in individual solutions for 48 h. After 48 h of exposure, the test was completed by recording survival success and morphological abnormalities of veliger larvae in each heavy metal treatment. The mean 48-h median effective concentrations affecting normal morphological development of veliger larvae determined in this test shows a decreasing order of toxicity of copper (7 mg/L), mercury (21 mg/L), zinc (35 mg/L), iron (4102 mg/L), cadmium (4515 mg/L), and lead (5111 mg/L). PMID:16704070

  2. Ultrastructure, chemistry and mineralogy of the growing shell of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Badou, Aïcha; Gaume, Béatrice; Berland, Sophie; Helléouet, Marie-Noëlle; Milet, Christian; Huchette, Sylvain

    2010-09-01

    An integrated study of shell formation was initiated covering the entire life cycle of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. Shell microstructure, chemistry and mineralogy were investigated by polarized microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. SEM images of trochophore and veliger larvae showed the different stages of shell growth from the initial shell field to the late calcified protoconch. Cross-sections revealed the microstructural arrangement of biominerals, showing the progressive mineralization of the organic protoconch prior to metamorphosis. To gain more information on mineralogical composition, EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy were performed along the development stages. The results demonstrated that early protoconch was mostly composed of amorphous calcium carbonate, while veliger stages showed a gradually crystallization under the form of aragonite. Post-metamorphic shell contained two distinct parts, the original protoconch supporting the new juvenile shell characterized by a marked sculptural pattern. The shells from post-larval and juvenile abalones were essentially made of aragonite.

  3. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus) via EST database mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Aibin; Bao, Zhenmin; Wang, Mingling; Chang, Dan; Yuan, Jian; Wang, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoli; Liang, Chengzhu; Hu, Jingjie

    2008-05-01

    The EST database of the Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus) was mined for developing microsatellite markers. A total of 1476 EST sequences were registered in GenBank when data mining was performed. Fifty sequences (approximately 3.4%) were found to contain one or more microsatellites. Based on the length and GC content of the flanking regions, cluster analysis and BLASTN, 13 microsatellite-containing ESTs were selected for PCR primer design. The results showed that 10 out of 13 primer pairs could amplify scorable PCR products and showed polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13 and the values of H o and H e varied from 0.1222 to 0.8611 and 0.2449 to 0.9311, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between any pairs of these loci was found, and 6 of 10 loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). These EST-SSRs are therefore potential tools for studies of intraspecies variation and hybrid identification.

  4. Identification and involvement of ferritin in the response to pathogen challenge in the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Jiang, Jingzhe; Gu, Lu; Zhao, Manman; Wang, Ruixuan; Ye, Lingtong; Yao, Tuo; Wang, Jiangyong

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating data has demonstrated that ferritin plays an important role in host defense responses against infection by pathogens in many organisms. In this study, ultracentrifugation was used to isolate ferritin from abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that this ferritin consisted of two subunits (designated as HdFer1 and HdFer2). There are no disulfide bonds between the HdFer1 and HdFer2 subunits; however, these subunits co-assemble to form heteropolymers. A novel ferritin subunit (HdFer2) was cloned from H. diversicolor by 5' and 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) approach. The full-length HdFer2 cDNA sequence consists of 878 bp with an open reading frame of 513 bp that encodes a protein that is 170 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that HdFer1 and HdFer2 were transcribed in various tissues, such as the mantle, gill and hepatopancreas, with the highest levels of expression in the hepatopancreas. Following a challenge with the pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, the expression of HdFer1 and HdFer2 were markedly induced at different times. This study has identified a novel ferritin subunit in H. diversicolor which will contribute to further exploration of the role of ferritin in mollusk innate immune defense against invading pathogens. PMID:26875633

  5. Genetic heterogeneity of the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) revealed by RAPD and microsatellite analyses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sureerat; Popongviwat, Aporn; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2005-03-31

    Genetic heterogeneity of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina was examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellite analyses. One hundred and thirteen polymorphic RAPD fragments were generated. The percentage of polymorphic bands of H. asinina across overall primers was 85.20%. The average genetic distance of natural samples within the Gulf of Thailand (HACAME and HASAME) was 0.0219. Larger distance was observed when those samples were compared with HATRAW from the Andaman Sea (0.2309 and 0.2314). Geographic heterogeneity and F(ST) analyses revealed population differentiation between H. asinina from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea (p < 0.0001). Three microsatellite loci (CUHas1, CUHas4 and CUHas5) indicated relatively high genetic diversity in H. asinina (total number of alleles = 26, 5, 23 and observed heterozygosity = 0.84, 0.42 and 0.33, respectively). Significant population differentiation was also found between samples from different coastal regions (p < 0.0001). Therefore, the gene pool of natural H. asinina in coastal Thai waters can be genetically divided to 2 different populations; the Gulf of Thailand (A) and the Andaman Sea (B).

  6. Identification and involvement of ferritin in the response to pathogen challenge in the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Jiang, Jingzhe; Gu, Lu; Zhao, Manman; Wang, Ruixuan; Ye, Lingtong; Yao, Tuo; Wang, Jiangyong

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating data has demonstrated that ferritin plays an important role in host defense responses against infection by pathogens in many organisms. In this study, ultracentrifugation was used to isolate ferritin from abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that this ferritin consisted of two subunits (designated as HdFer1 and HdFer2). There are no disulfide bonds between the HdFer1 and HdFer2 subunits; however, these subunits co-assemble to form heteropolymers. A novel ferritin subunit (HdFer2) was cloned from H. diversicolor by 5' and 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) approach. The full-length HdFer2 cDNA sequence consists of 878 bp with an open reading frame of 513 bp that encodes a protein that is 170 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that HdFer1 and HdFer2 were transcribed in various tissues, such as the mantle, gill and hepatopancreas, with the highest levels of expression in the hepatopancreas. Following a challenge with the pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, the expression of HdFer1 and HdFer2 were markedly induced at different times. This study has identified a novel ferritin subunit in H. diversicolor which will contribute to further exploration of the role of ferritin in mollusk innate immune defense against invading pathogens.

  7. In vitro growth of flat aragonite crystals between the layers of the insoluble organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis laevigata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Katharina I.; Heinemann, Fabian; Rosenauer, Andreas; Fritz, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Nacre of abalone shells consists of aragonite platelets and organic material, the so-called organic matrix. During the growth process of the shell the aragonite platelets grow into a scaffold formed by the organic matrix. In this work we tried to mimic this growth process by placing a piece of the insoluble organic matrix (which is a part of the organic matrix) of the abalone Haliotis laevigata in a crystallization device which was flowed through by CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions. Using this setup amongst others flat aragonite crystals grow on the insoluble organic matrix. When investigating these crystals in a transmission electron microscope it is possible to recognize similarities to the structure of nacre, like the formation of mineral bridges and growth between layers of the insoluble organic matrix. These similarities are presented in this paper.

  8. Basic nuclear protein pattern and chromatin condensation in the male germ cells of a tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Suphamungmee, Worawit; Apisawetakan, Somjai; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Poomtong, Tanes; Sobhon, Prasert

    2005-02-01

    The basic nuclear proteins (BNPs) in spermatozoa of a tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, were composed of a majority of protamine-like (PL) protein and a small amount of histones H1 and H4. Abalone H1 and PL proteins exhibited strong immunological cross reactivities among themselves as well as with chick H5 and calf thymus H1. Thus, all these proteins may belong to the same family. Immunolocalization by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that H1 and H4 were present in all steps of the male germ cells, however, with decreasing amount in late stage cells, particularly spermatids and spermatozoa. On the other hand, PL was present in middle step cells (secondary spermatocytes) with increasing amount in spermatids and spermatozoa when the chromatin became tightly packed. Thus, PL may be involved in the condensation of chromatin in the spermatozoa of this species.

  9. Evaluation of radiography, ultrasonography and endoscopy for detection of shell lesions in live abalone Haliotis iris (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Nollens, Hendrik H; Schofield, John C; Keogh, Jonathan A; Probert, P Keith

    2002-07-01

    Radiography, ultrasonography and endoscopy were examined for their efficacy as non-destructive techniques for the detection of shell lesions in the marine gastropod Haliotis iris Gmelin. X-rays provided 69% correct diagnoses, with detection being restricted to those lesions which were mineralised. Ultrasound also showed potential to reliably detect lesions (83% correct diagnoses), but only where the lesions demonstrated a clear 3-dimensional relief. Lesion dimensions were underestimated using ultrasound. Endoscopy, applied to anaesthetised individuals, provided the most accurate method (92% correct diagnoses) for lesion detection and, although invasive, had no discernible effect on survival of the abalone 8 mo after screening.

  10. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P < 0.05) less firm and chewy than pre-rigor processed irrespective of muscle type, processing time, or pressure. L values increased with pressure to 68.9 at 300 MPa for pre-rigor processed foot, 73.8 for post-rigor processed foot, 90.9 for pre-rigor processed adductor, and 89.0 for post-rigor processed adductor. Scanning electron microscopy images showed fraying of collagen fibers in processed adductor, but did not show pressure-induced compaction of the foot myofibrils. Post-rigor processed abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value.

  11. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P < 0.05) less firm and chewy than pre-rigor processed irrespective of muscle type, processing time, or pressure. L values increased with pressure to 68.9 at 300 MPa for pre-rigor processed foot, 73.8 for post-rigor processed foot, 90.9 for pre-rigor processed adductor, and 89.0 for post-rigor processed adductor. Scanning electron microscopy images showed fraying of collagen fibers in processed adductor, but did not show pressure-induced compaction of the foot myofibrils. Post-rigor processed abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value. PMID:25471900

  12. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27352998

  13. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to assess crossover interference and homozygosity in gynogenetic diploid Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    PubMed

    Nie, H-T; Li, Q; Kong, L-F

    2014-06-01

    Recombination analysis in gynogenetic diploids is a powerful tool for assessing the degree of inbreeding, investigating crossover events and understanding chiasma interference during meiosis. To estimate the marker-centromere recombination rate, the inheritance pattern of 654 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was examined in the 72-h veliger larvae of two meiogynogenetic diploid families in the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The second-division segregation frequency (y) of the AFLP loci ranged from 0.00 to 0.96, with 23.9% of loci showing y-values higher than 0.67, evidencing the existence of interference. The average recombination frequency across the 654 AFLP loci was 0.45, allowing estimation of the fixation index of 0.55, indicating that meiotic gynogenesis could provide an effective means of rapid inbreeding in the Pacific abalone. The AFLP loci have a small proportion (4.4%) of y-values greater than 0.90, suggesting that a relatively low or intermediate degree of chiasma interference occurred in the abalone chromosomes. The information obtained in this study will enhance our understanding of the abalone genome and will be useful for genetic studies in the species.

  15. Population structure of tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) in coastal waters of Thailand determined using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Tang, S; Tassanakajon, A; Klinbunga, S; Jarayabhand, P; Menasveta, P

    2004-01-01

    Three partial genomic libraries were constructed from genomic DNA of the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) that was digested with AluI, vortexed/sonicated, and digested with mixed enzyme (AluI, HincII, and RsaI). The libraries yielded 0.02%, 0.42%, and 1.46% positive microsatellite-containing clones, respectively. Eleven clones each of perfect, imperfect, and compound microsatellites were isolated. Ten primer pairs (CUHas1-CUHas10) were analyzed to evaluate their polymorphic level. The numbers of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity (H0), and expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 3 to 26 alleles, and varied between 0.27 and 0.85 and between 0.24 and 0.93, respectively. Three microsatellite loci (CUHas2, CUHas3, and CUHas8) were further used for examination of genetic diversity and differentiation of natural H. asinina in coastal waters of Thailand. Genetic variabilities in terms of the effective number of alleles (n(e)), H0, and He were higher in 2 samples from the Gulf of Thailand (n(e)=9.37, 7.66; H0=0.62, 0.78; and He=0.87, 0.86) than those of one sample (n(e)=6.04; H0=0.58; and He=0.62) derived from the Andaman Sea. Assessment of genetic heterogeneity, including allele frequency comparison and pairwise F(ST) analysis, indicated interpopulational differentiation, between natural H. asinina from the Gulf of Thailand and that from the Andaman Sea (P<0.0001).

  16. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-01

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. PMID:27371902

  17. Design of an optimum computer vision-based automatic abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) grading algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggil; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kim, Seonghun; Yang, Yongsu

    2015-04-01

    An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone volume estimation regression formula derived from test results, and the actual volumes and abalone weights regression formula. In the range of abalones weighting from 16.51 to 128.01 g, the results of evaluation of the performance of algorithm via cross-validation indicate root mean square and worst-case prediction errors of are 2.8 and ±8 g, respectively. PMID:25874500

  18. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-01

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition.

  19. Design of an optimum computer vision-based automatic abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) grading algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggil; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kim, Seonghun; Yang, Yongsu

    2015-04-01

    An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone volume estimation regression formula derived from test results, and the actual volumes and abalone weights regression formula. In the range of abalones weighting from 16.51 to 128.01 g, the results of evaluation of the performance of algorithm via cross-validation indicate root mean square and worst-case prediction errors of are 2.8 and ±8 g, respectively.

  20. Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks.

  1. Articulated coralline algae of the genus Amphiroa are highly effective natural inducers of settlement in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Craigie, Alina; Yeates, Alice; Degnan, Sandie M

    2008-08-01

    The initiation of metamorphosis in marine invertebrates is strongly linked to the environment. Planktonic larvae typically are induced to settle and metamorphose by external cues such as coralline algae (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Although coralline algae are globally abundant, invertebrate larvae of many taxa settle in response to a very limited suite of species. This specificity impacts population structure, as only locations with the appropriate coralline species can attract new recruits. Abalone (Gastropoda, Haliotidae) are among those taxa in which closely related species are known to respond to different coralline algae. Here we identify highly inductive natural cues of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. In contrast to reports for other abalone, the greatest proportion of H. asinina larvae are induced to settle and metamorphose (92.8% to 100% metamorphosis by 48 h postinduction) by articulated corallines of the genus Amphiroa. Comparison with field distribution data for different corallines suggests larvae are likely to be settling on the seaward side of the reef crest. We then compare the response of six different H. asinina larval families to five different coralline species to demonstrate that induction by the best inductive cue (Amphiroa spp.) effectively extinguishes substantial intraspecific variation in the timing of settlement.

  2. Actibacter haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, and emended description of the genus Actibacter.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lee, June-Young; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain, designated strain W113(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The isolate was a Gram-staining-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium producing yellow-to-orange carotenoid-type pigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Actibacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae and it shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Actibacter sediminis (98.8 % similarity). Optimal growth occurred at 25 °C, at pH 7 and with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:1 G. Menaquinone-6 was the main respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of the isolate were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified amino lipids, and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.6 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated that the strain shared <18 % genomic relatedness with the most closely related species. The results of the phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain W113(T) represents a novel species in the genus Actibacter, for which the name Actibacter haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W113(T) ( = KACC 17209(T) = JCM 18868(T)). PMID:25269848

  3. Actibacter haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, and emended description of the genus Actibacter.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lee, June-Young; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain, designated strain W113(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The isolate was a Gram-staining-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium producing yellow-to-orange carotenoid-type pigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Actibacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae and it shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Actibacter sediminis (98.8 % similarity). Optimal growth occurred at 25 °C, at pH 7 and with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:1 G. Menaquinone-6 was the main respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of the isolate were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified amino lipids, and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.6 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated that the strain shared <18 % genomic relatedness with the most closely related species. The results of the phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain W113(T) represents a novel species in the genus Actibacter, for which the name Actibacter haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W113(T) ( = KACC 17209(T) = JCM 18868(T)).

  4. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  5. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular cloning, transcriptional regulation against immune challenge and tissue injury.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kim, Yucheol; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-08-01

    Here, we report the identification and characterization of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus that was denoted as AbAIF-1. The full-length cDNA of AbAIF-1 consists of a coding region (453 bp) for 151 amino acids with a 17 kDa molecular mass. Analysis of AbAIF-1 sequence showed that it shares characteristic two EF hand Ca(+2)-binding motifs. Results from phylogenetic analysis further confirm that AbAIF-1 is a member of the AIF-1 family similar to invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts suggesting it has high evolutional conservation. Tissue-specific expression and transcriptional regulation of AbAIF-1 were analyzed after bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) immune challenge and during tissue injury by quantitative real-time PCR. It is shown that the expression of AbAIF-1 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner showing the highest level in hemocytes. Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, AbAIF-1 showed the significant up-regulation in hemocytes than gills. After the tissue injury in shell and mantle, AbAIF-1 and antioxidant selenium-dependant glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx) transcripts were significantly upregulated in abalone hemocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that AIF-1 could response against the pathogenic challenge or tissue injury in abalone like mollusks. Also, AbAIF-1 may involve in wound healing and shell repair after the tissue injury of abalone.

  6. Abhisin: a potential antimicrobial peptide derived from histone H2A of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2009-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in the immune defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, a histone H2A full-length cDNA was cloned from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. We identified a 40-amino acid AMP designated as abhisin from the N-terminus of the abalone histone H2A sequence. Abhisin shows the characteristic features of AMPs including net positive charge (+13), higher hydrophobic residues (27%) and 2.82 kcal/mol protein binding potential. Abhisin shares 80% amino acid identity with the buforin I peptide that is derived from Asian toad histone H2A. We synthesized the synthetic peptide of abhisin, and characterized its antimicrobial activities. Our results showed the growth inhibition of Gram positive (G+) Listeria monocytogenes, Gram negative (G-) Vibrio ichthyoenteri bacteria, and fungi (yeast) Pityrosporum ovale by abhisin treatment at 250 microg/mL. However, stronger activity was displayed against the G+ than G- bacteria. Additionally, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation results confirmed that P. ovale cells were damaged by abhisin treatment. Interestingly, abhisin treatment (50 microg/mL) decreased the viability of THP-1 leukemia cancer cells approximately by 25% but there was no effect on the normal vero cells, suggesting that abhisin has cytotoxicity against cancer cells but not normal cells. Quantitative real time RT-PCR results revealed that histone H2A transcription was significantly induced at 3 h post-infection with bacteria in abalone gills and digestive tract. These results suggest that abhisin is a potential antimicrobial agent, and its precursor histone H2A may be involved in the innate immune defense system in abalone.

  7. Transcriptional up-regulation of a novel ferritin homolog in abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino by dietary iron.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaojie; Ma, Hongming; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2010-11-01

    A novel cDNA encoding ferritin (HdhNFT) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. The deduced protein contains 171 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass (MW) about 19.8 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 4.792. Amino acid alignment revealed that HdhNFT shared high similarity with other known ferritins. The HdhNFT contained a highly conserved motif for the ferroxidase center, which consists of seven residues of a typical vertebrate heavy-chain ferritin with a typical stem-loop structure. HdhNFT mRNA contains a 27 bp iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'-untranslated region. This IRE exhibited 82.14% similarity with abalone H. discus discus and 78.57% similarity with Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas IREs. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of HdhNFT were found to be higher expressed in kidney, hepatopancreas, gill, mantle and muscle than in haemocytes and gonad. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of HdhNFT in the hepatopancreas and haemocytes were measured by real-time PCR in abalone fed with graded levels of dietary iron (29.2, 65.7, 1267.2 and 6264.7 mg/kg). Results showed that the expression of the HdhNFT mRNA increased with dietary iron contents. Furthermore, the maximum value of the HdhNFT mRNA was found in the treatment with 6264.7 mg/kg of dietary iron. These data indicated that dietary iron can up-regulate HdhNFT at transcriptional level in abalone.

  8. Antibacterial activity and immune responses of a molluscan macrophage expressed gene-1 from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Won, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jehee

    2014-08-01

    The membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain-containing proteins play an important role in the innate immune response against invading microbial pathogens. In the current study, a member of the MACPF domain-containing proteins, macrophage expressed gene-1 (MPEG1) encoding 730 amino acids with the theoretical molecular mass of 79.6 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.49 was characterized from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbMPEG1). We found that the characteristic MACPF domain (Val(131)-Tyr(348)) and transmembrane segment (Ala(669)-Ile(691)) of AbMPEG1 are located in the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein, respectively. Ortholog comparison revealed that AbMPEG1 has the highest sequence identity with its pink abalone counterpart, while sequences identities of greater than 90% were observed with MPEG1 members from other abalone species. Likewise, the furin cleavage site KRRRK was highly conserved in all abalone species, but not in other species investigated. We identified an intron-less genomic sequence within disk abalone AbMPEG1, which was similar to other mammalian, avian, and reptilian counterparts. Transcription factor binding sites, which are important for immune responses, were identified in the 5'-flanking region of AbMPEG1. qPCR revealed AbMPEG1 transcripts are present in every tissues examined, with the highest expression level occurring in mantle tissue. Significant up-regulation of AbMPEG1 transcript levels was observed in hemocytes and gill tissues following challenges with pathogens (Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: lipopolysaccharides and poly I:C immunostimulant). Finally, the antibacterial activity of the MACPF domain was characterized against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria using a recombinant peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the biological significance of the AbMPEG1 gene includes a role in

  9. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P < 0.05) in comparison with those fed with TP. High level of dietary 18:2n-6 resulted in higher content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs in abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P < 0.05). The highest contents of 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-9 were observed in abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  10. Expression of POU, Sox, and Pax genes in the brain ganglia of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, E K; Degnan, B M

    2000-11-01

    In gastropod mollusks, neuroendocrine cells in the anterior ganglia have been shown to regulate growth and reproduction. As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these physiological processes in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, we have identified sets of POU, Sox, and Pax transcription factor genes that are expressed in these ganglia. Using highly degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed to anneal to conserved codons in each of these gene families, we have amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction 2 POU genes (HasPOU-III and HasPOU-IV), 2 Sox genes (HasSox-B and HasSox-C), and two Pax genes (HasPax-258 and HasPax-6). Analyses with gene-specific primers indicated that the 6 genes are expressed in the cerebral and pleuropedal ganglia of both reproductively active and spent adults, in a number of sensory structures, and in a subset of other adult tissues.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) from small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Bai, Rongyao; You, Weiwei; Chen, Jun; Huang, Heqing; Ke, Caihuan

    2012-10-01

    GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), a multifunctional protein participating in autophagy process, is evolutionarily conserved and involves in innate immunity in eukaryotic cells, but currently there is no research on the relationship between GABARAP and innate immunity in mollusc. In the present study, the GABARAP full-length cDNA and its genomic DNA were firstly cloned from small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor), which was named as saGABARAP. Its full-length cDNA is 963 bp with a 354 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 117 aa, a 276 bp 5'-UTR, and a 333 bp 3'-UTR including a poly(A) tail, two typical polyadenylation signals (AATAA) and two RNA instability motifs (ATTTA). The deduced protein has an estimated molecular weight of 13.9 kDa and a predicted PI of 8.73. Its genomic DNA comprises 4352 bp, containing three exons and two introns. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that saGABARAP was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas, and was upregulated in hepatopancreas and hemocytes after bacterial challenge. In addition, saGABARAP was ubiquitously expressed at all examined embryonic and larval development stages. These results suggested that saGABARAP could respond to bacteria challenge and may play a vital role in the adult innate immune system against pathogens and the development process of abalone embryo and larvae.

  12. Growth of the European abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata L.) in situ: Seasonality and ageing using stable oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, Sabine; Huchette, Sylvain; Clavier, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    The ormer, Haliotis tuberculata is the only European abalone species commercially exploited. The determination of growth and age in the wild is an important tool for fisheries and aquaculture management. However, the ageing technique used in the past in the field is unreliable. The stable oxygen isotope composition ( 18O/ 16O) of the shell depends on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the ambient sea water. The stable oxygen isotope technique, developed to study paleoclimatological changes in shellfish, was applied to three H. tuberculata specimens collected in north-west Brittany. For the specimens collected, the oxygen isotope ratios of the shell reflected the seasonal cycle in the temperature. From winter-to-winter cycles, estimates of the age and the annual growth increment, ranging from 13 to 55 mm per year were obtained. This study shows that stable oxygen isotopes can be a reliable tool for ageing and growth studies of this abalone species in the wild, and for validating other estimates.

  13. Molecular characterization, gene expression analysis and biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Choong-Gon; Lee, Youn-Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2009-03-01

    The present study reports the molecular characterization, cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of alpha-amylase identified from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus cDNA library. The full length of the alpha-amylase cDNA was 1650 bp, and it encoded a polypeptide of 511 amino acids. The predicted HdAmyI molecular mass of mature protein was 54 kDa and the estimated isoelectric point (pI) was 8.3. The alpha-amylase gene showed its characteristic motifs, catalytic sites, substrate binding sites and conserved regions with other known species of alpha-amylases. Purified recombinant HdAmyI exhibited a relatively low activity of 0.1 U/mg protein towards 1% starch. HdAmyI had an optimum temperature and pH of 50 degrees C and 6.5, respectively. It also demonstrated stability in a wide range of temperatures and pH. Tissue-specific mRNA expression results showed that HdAmyI is expressed only in the digestive tract and hepatopancreas, with the highest levels in the hepatopancreas. Over 8 weeks of starvation, alpha-amylase transcription was decreased significantly relative to basal levels. However, after starvation, mRNA transcription was increased and returned to normal level by the 2nd week of feeding, suggesting that the alpha-amylase mRNA expression changes according to variations in food availability at the transcriptional level in disk abalone.

  14. Tumor suppressor QM-like gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional analysis upon immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chulhong; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Yu Cheol; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-jin; Choi, Young-Ung; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2010-09-01

    We describe molecular characterization and transcriptional analysis of the gene encoding tumor suppressor QM-like protein, AbQM, in the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. The full-length cDNA (765-bp) of AbQM was found to consist of a 654-bp ORF coding for a 218 amino acid protein of a 25 kDa molecular mass with a 10.2 isoelectric point. Analysis of AbQM sequence revealed the presence of characteristic motifs, including the ribosomal protein L10 signature, SH3-binding motif and two antibiotic binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that AbQM is closely related to other mollusk QM proteins, and altogether they form a mollusk QM protein sub-family which displays evolutionary conservation from yeast to human. Tissue-specific expression and transcriptional regulation of AbQM was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in response to bacterial (Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, VHSV) challenge. AbQM transcripts were found to be expressed ubiquitously in all examined tissues in a constitutive manner, as similar expression levels were detected in hemocytes, mantle, digestive tract and muscle. Upon bacterial and VHSV challenge, AbQM showed significant up-regulation in gills, but not in hemocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that AbQM in abalone-like mollusks can respond to and facilitate a defensive effect against pathogenic infection.

  15. Effect of cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration on intracellular ice formation of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) eggs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chiang-Yi; Yeh, Yu-Hui Flora; Lee, Po-Ting; Lin, Ta-Te

    2013-08-01

    The intracellular ice formation (IIF) behavior of Haliotis diversicolor (small abalone) eggs is investigated in this study, in relation to controlling the cooling rate and the concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The IIF phenomena are monitored under a self-developed thermoelectric cooling (TEC) cryomicroscope system which can achieve accurate temperature control without the use of liquid nitrogen. The accuracy of the isothermal and ramp control is within ±0.5 °C. The IIF results indicate that the IIF of small abalone eggs is well suppressed at cooling rates of 1.5, 3, 7 and 12 °C/min with 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0M DMSO in sea water. As 2.0M DMSO in sea water is the minimum concentration that has sufficient IIF suppression, it is selected as the suspension solution for the cryopreservation of small abalone eggs in order to consider the solution's toxicity effect. Moreover, IIF characteristics of the cumulative probability of IIF temperature distribution are shown to be well fitted by the Weibull probabilistic distribution. According to our IIF results and the Weibull distribution parameters, we conclude that cooling at 1.5 °C/min from 20 to -50 °C with 2.0M DMSO in sea water is more feasible than other combinations of cooling rates and DMSO concentrations in our experiments. Applying this protocol and observing the subsequent osmotic activity, 48.8% of small abalone eggs are osmotically active after thawing. In addition, the higher the cooling rate, the less chance of osmotically active eggs. A separate fertility test experiment, with a cryopreservation protocol of 1.5 °C/min cooling rate and 2.0M DMSO in sea water, achieves a hatching rate of 23.7%. This study is the first to characterize the IIF behavior of small abalone eggs in regard to the cooling rate and the DMSO concentration. The Weibull probabilistic model fitting in this study is an approach that can be applied by other researchers for effective cryopreservation variability estimation and

  16. Influences of DMP on the Fertilization Process and Subsequent Embryogenesis of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by Gametes Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis. PMID:22028799

  17. Cathepsin L is an immune-related protein in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--Purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian-Dong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Yan, Long-Jie; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Ke, Caihuan; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Cathepsin L, an immune-related protein, was purified from the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies of SP-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 HR. Purified cathepsin L appeared as two bands with molecular masses of 28.0 and 28.5 kDa (namely cathepsin La and Lb) on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis revealed that peptide fragments of 95 amino acid residues was high similarity to cathepsin L of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata). The optimal temperature and pH of cathepsin L were 35 °C and pH 5.5. Cathepsin L was particularly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors of E-64 and leupeptin, while it was activated by metalloproteinase inhibitors EDTA and EGTA. The full-length cathepsin L cDNA was further cloned from the hepatopancreas by rapid PCR amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the enzyme was 981 bp, encoding 327 amino acid residues, with a conserved catalytic triad (Cys134, His273 and Asn293), a potential N-glycosylation site and conserved ERFNIN, GNYD, and GCGG motifs, which are characteristics of cathepsin L. Western blot and proteinase activity analysis revealed that the expression and enzyme activity of cathepsin L were significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas at 8 h following Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, demonstrating that cathepsin L is involved in the innate immune system of abalone. Our present study for the first time reported the purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and tissue expression of cathepsin L in abalone. PMID:26549175

  18. Cathepsin L is an immune-related protein in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--Purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian-Dong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Yan, Long-Jie; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Ke, Caihuan; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Cathepsin L, an immune-related protein, was purified from the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies of SP-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 HR. Purified cathepsin L appeared as two bands with molecular masses of 28.0 and 28.5 kDa (namely cathepsin La and Lb) on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis revealed that peptide fragments of 95 amino acid residues was high similarity to cathepsin L of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata). The optimal temperature and pH of cathepsin L were 35 °C and pH 5.5. Cathepsin L was particularly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors of E-64 and leupeptin, while it was activated by metalloproteinase inhibitors EDTA and EGTA. The full-length cathepsin L cDNA was further cloned from the hepatopancreas by rapid PCR amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the enzyme was 981 bp, encoding 327 amino acid residues, with a conserved catalytic triad (Cys134, His273 and Asn293), a potential N-glycosylation site and conserved ERFNIN, GNYD, and GCGG motifs, which are characteristics of cathepsin L. Western blot and proteinase activity analysis revealed that the expression and enzyme activity of cathepsin L were significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas at 8 h following Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, demonstrating that cathepsin L is involved in the innate immune system of abalone. Our present study for the first time reported the purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and tissue expression of cathepsin L in abalone.

  19. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were <28%, whereas those from seawater showed large fluctuations in resistance to each of the tested antibiotics. Many strains showed higher resistant rates (>40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. PMID:26494250

  20. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were <28%, whereas those from seawater showed large fluctuations in resistance to each of the tested antibiotics. Many strains showed higher resistant rates (>40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG.

  1. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    PubMed Central

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID

  2. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    PubMed

    Brokordt, Katherina B; González, Roxana C; Farías, William J; Winkler, Federico M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3-16.2% in young adults and of 2.7-8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID:26529324

  3. Ferritin from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai: Analysis of cDNA sequence, expression, and activity.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Reng; Kan, Yunchao; Li, Dandan

    2016-02-01

    Ferritin plays an important role in iron homeostasis due to its ability to bind and sequester large amounts of iron. In this study, the gene encoding a ferritin (HdhFer2) was cloned from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The full-length cDNA of HdhFer2 contains a 5'-UTR of 121 bp, an ORF of 516 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 252 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence of AATAAA and a poly(A) tail. It also contains a 31 bp iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'-UTR position, which is conserved in many ferritins. HdhFer2 consists of 171 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight (MW) ∼19.8 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (PI) of 4.84. The deduced amino acid sequence of HdhFer2 contains two ferritin iron-binding region signatures (IBRSs). HdhFer2 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues and was dominantly expressed in the gill. Infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum significantly upregulated HdhFer2 expression in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant HdhFer2 (rHdhFer2) purified from Escherichia coli was able to bind ferrous iron in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, these results suggest that HdhFer2 is a crucial protein in the iron-withholding defense system, and plays an important role in the innate immune response of abalone. PMID:26766182

  4. Genomic characterization and expression profiles upon bacterial infection of a novel cystatin B homologue from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    Premachandra, H K A; Wan, Qiang; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Choi, Cheol Young; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2012-12-01

    Cystatins are a large family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors which are involved in diverse biological and pathological processes. In the present study, we identified a gene related to cystatin superfamily, AbCyt B, from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and BAC library screening. The complete cDNA sequence of AbCyt B is comprised of 1967 nucleotides with a 306 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for 101 amino acids. The amino acid sequence consists of a single cystatin-like domain, which has a cysteine proteinase inhibitor signature, a conserved Gly in N-terminal region, QVVAG motif and a variant of PW motif. No signal peptide, disulfide bonds or carbohydrate side chains were identified. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence revealed that AbCyt B shares up to 44.7% identity and 65.7% similarity with the cystatin B genes from other organisms. The genomic sequence of AbCyt B is approximately 8.4 Kb, consisting of three exons and two introns. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that AbCyt B was closely related to the cystatin B from pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under the family 1.Functional analysis of recombinant AbCyt B protein exhibited inhibitory activity against the papain, with almost 84% inhibition at a concentration of 3.5 μmol/L. In tissue expression analysis, AbCyt B transcripts were expressed abundantly in the hemocyte, gill, mantle, and digestive tract, while weakly in muscle, testis, and hepatopancreas. After the immune challenge with Vibrio parahemolyticus, the AbCyt B showed significant (P<0.05) up-regulation of relative mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes at 24 and 6 h of post infection, respectively. These results collectively suggest that AbCyst B is a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases and is also potentially involved in immune responses against invading bacterial pathogens in abalone.

  5. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone.

  6. Ferritin from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai: Analysis of cDNA sequence, expression, and activity.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Reng; Kan, Yunchao; Li, Dandan

    2016-02-01

    Ferritin plays an important role in iron homeostasis due to its ability to bind and sequester large amounts of iron. In this study, the gene encoding a ferritin (HdhFer2) was cloned from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The full-length cDNA of HdhFer2 contains a 5'-UTR of 121 bp, an ORF of 516 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 252 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence of AATAAA and a poly(A) tail. It also contains a 31 bp iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'-UTR position, which is conserved in many ferritins. HdhFer2 consists of 171 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight (MW) ∼19.8 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (PI) of 4.84. The deduced amino acid sequence of HdhFer2 contains two ferritin iron-binding region signatures (IBRSs). HdhFer2 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues and was dominantly expressed in the gill. Infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum significantly upregulated HdhFer2 expression in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant HdhFer2 (rHdhFer2) purified from Escherichia coli was able to bind ferrous iron in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, these results suggest that HdhFer2 is a crucial protein in the iron-withholding defense system, and plays an important role in the innate immune response of abalone.

  7. Transcriptome-wide polymorphisms of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) reveal patterns of gene flow and local adaptation.

    PubMed

    De Wit, Pierre; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2013-06-01

    Global climate change is projected to accelerate during the next century, altering oceanic patterns in temperature, pH and oxygen concentrations. Documenting patterns of genetic adaptation to these variables in locations that currently experience geographic variation in them is an important tool in understanding the potential for natural selection to allow populations to adapt as climate change proceeds. We sequenced the mantle transcriptome of 39 red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) individuals from three regions (Monterey Bay, Sonoma, north of Cape Mendocino) distinct in temperature, aragonite saturation, exposure to hypoxia and disease pressure along the California coast. Among 1.17 × 10(6) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in this study (1.37% of the transcriptome), 21 579 could be genotyped for all individuals. A principal components analysis concluded that the vast majority of SNPs show no population structure from Monterey, California to the Oregon border, in corroboration with several previous studies. In contrast, an FST outlier analysis indicated 691 SNPs as exhibiting significantly higher than expected differentiation (experiment-wide P < 0.05). From these, it was possible to identify 163 genes through BLAST annotation, 34 of which contained more than one outlier SNP. A large number of these genes are involved in biomineralization, energy metabolism, heat-, disease- or hypoxia-tolerance. These genes are candidate loci for spatial adaptation to geographic variation that is likely to increase in the future.

  8. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  9. Heterosis and combining ability: a diallel cross of three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuewen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan; Wu, Fucun

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a complete diallel cross among three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino to determine the heterosis and the combining ability of growth traits at the spat stage. The three populations were collected from Qingdao (Q) and Dalian (D) in China, and Miyagi (M) in Japan. We measured the shell length, shell width, and total weight. The magnitude of the general combining ability (GCA) variance was more pronounced than the specific combining ability (SCA) variance, which is evidenced by both the ratio of the genetic component in total variation and the GCA/SCA values. The component variances of GCA and SCA were significant for all three traits ( P<0.05), indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects in determining the expression of these traits. The reciprocal maternal effects (RE) were also significant for these traits ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that population D was the best general combiner in breeding programs to improve growth traits. The DM cross had the highest heterosis values for all three traits.

  10. Effects of the dietary administration of sodium alginate on the immune responses and disease resistance of Taiwan abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Winton; Yu, Jyun-Sian

    2013-03-01

    Sodium alginate extracted from brown algae was reported to enhance the immune response and resistance of fish and shrimp. In this study, survival rates of the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and its non-specific immune parameters such as the total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to V. parahaemolyticus by H. diversicolor supertexta were determined when abalone (4.5 ± 0.4 g) were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹. Abalone fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ for 14 days and at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ for 21 days had significantly higher survival rates than those fed the control diet after challenge with V. parahaemolyticus. The relative survival percentages of abalone fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ sodium alginate-containing diets for 14 and 21 days were 16.1%, 40.0%, and 48.0%, and 63.6%, 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. The PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus of abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the control diet for 14 days. After 21 days, the PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus by abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the other diets. It was concluded that sodium alginate can be used as an immunostimulant for abalone through dietary administration to enhance immune responses of abalone and resistance against V. parahaemolyticus, which were related to the dose and timing of administration.

  11. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.

    2005-01-01

    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae)) in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    PubMed Central

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Hong, Seong Wan

    2012-01-01

    The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp) reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5) was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05). Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05), the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies aimed at developing

  13. Cascading effects from survival to physiological activities, and gene expression of heat shock protein 90 on the abalone Haliotis discus hannai responding to continuous thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiyun; Lee, Jung Sick; Kang, Ju-Chan; Kim, Jae Won; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-02-01

    Increasing temperatures can be a significant stressor for aquatic organisms. Abalones, a type of large marine gastropods, are the most commercially important species in aquaculture for Asia. To evaluate the potential ecological risk posed by temperature stress, we measured biological responses such as survival rate, adhesion ability (falling rate), and foot abnormalities in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Additionally, biochemical and molecular responses were evaluated in H. discus hannai exposed to various temperature gradients. The survival rate was reduced in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (more than 26 °C). Increased temperature stress induced a higher falling rate and abnormal foot structure. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (26 and 28 °C). The activities of superoxide dismutase were induced in a time-dependent manner after high temperature stress. Generally, heat shock protein 90 also increased significantly in H. discus hannai exposed to temperature gradients (more than 24 °C) for 12 h. These results provide valuable information regarding stress responses to increased temperatures, in H. discus hannai: adverse biological and molecular outcomes could be utilized as risk assessments and stress monitoring of marine ecosystems under increased water temperatures. PMID:25449369

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic Shewanella colwelliana WA64, Shewanella olleyana WA65 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Chang, Ya-Qing; Liu, Ming-Tai; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-07-01

    The effects of dietary administration of two probiotics, Shewanella colwelliana WA64 and Shewanella olleyana WA65, on the innate immunity of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino), and survival of juvenile abalone challenged with Vibrio harveyi have been studied. Two groups of abalone were fed with three different diets: one control, and two diets supplemented with 10(9) cell g(-1) of probiotic WA64 (WA64 diet) and WA65 (WA65 diet) for up to four weeks. Results showed that abalone fed diets containing S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 had led to an enhanced cellular and humoral immune response, notably higher haemocytes, respiratory burst activity, serum lysozyme activity and total protein levels were recorded after one week of probiotic administration. On the other hand, mortality after the challenges with V. harveyi in the group fed with control diet ranged from 77 to 80%, while mortality rates observed in the groups fed with diets supplemented with WA64 and WA65 ranged from 27 to 50% and 30-43%, respectively. The results demonstrated potential for S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 to improve innate immunity and disease resistance in H. discus hannai.

  15. Recombinant perlucin nucleates the growth of calcium carbonate crystals: molecular cloning and characterization of perlucin from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Lee, Youn-Ho; Lee, Jehee

    2008-02-01

    Perlucin is well known as an important functional protein regulating pearl formation and shell biomineralization. In this study, we cloned the perlucin gene from the abalone Haliotis discus discus cDNA library. The full-length cDNA of the abalone H. discus discus perlucin gene consisted of 1038 bp nucleotides, encoding a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and a mature protein of 129 amino acids, which shared 55% identity with the homologous protein in greenlip abalone. The mature protein coding sequence was inserted into pMal-c2X expression vector and it expressed the recombinant protein in E. coli (Rosetta-gammi DE3). The maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion perlucin successfully promoted calcium carbonate precipitation and directed calcite crystal morphological modification. The successful expression of active recombinant perlucin suggested that recombinant perlucin gene transfer has the capability by color modification to improve the pearl's value. In the view of molecular structure, perlucin was a typical C-type lectin, which contained one highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that perlucin gene was expressed not only in the mantle, but also in the gill and digestive tract. Further characterization of perlucin in abalone non-self recognition and disease resistance is promising and anticipated.

  16. Cascading effects from survival to physiological activities, and gene expression of heat shock protein 90 on the abalone Haliotis discus hannai responding to continuous thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiyun; Lee, Jung Sick; Kang, Ju-Chan; Kim, Jae Won; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-02-01

    Increasing temperatures can be a significant stressor for aquatic organisms. Abalones, a type of large marine gastropods, are the most commercially important species in aquaculture for Asia. To evaluate the potential ecological risk posed by temperature stress, we measured biological responses such as survival rate, adhesion ability (falling rate), and foot abnormalities in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Additionally, biochemical and molecular responses were evaluated in H. discus hannai exposed to various temperature gradients. The survival rate was reduced in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (more than 26 °C). Increased temperature stress induced a higher falling rate and abnormal foot structure. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (26 and 28 °C). The activities of superoxide dismutase were induced in a time-dependent manner after high temperature stress. Generally, heat shock protein 90 also increased significantly in H. discus hannai exposed to temperature gradients (more than 24 °C) for 12 h. These results provide valuable information regarding stress responses to increased temperatures, in H. discus hannai: adverse biological and molecular outcomes could be utilized as risk assessments and stress monitoring of marine ecosystems under increased water temperatures.

  17. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  18. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  19. Enzymatic properties and primary structures of two α-amylase isozymes from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yuya; Satoh, Takuya; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2013-02-01

    Two α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) isozymes, HdAmy58 and HdAmy82, with approximate molecular masses of 58 kDa and 82 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the digestive fluid of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Optimal temperatures and pHs for HdAmy58 and HdAmy82 were at 30 °C and 6.7, and 30 °C and 6.1, respectively. Both enzymes similarly degraded starch, glycogen, and maltooligosaccharides larger than maltotriose producing maltose and maltotriose as the major degradation products. However, the activity toward maltotetraose was appreciably higher in HdAmy82 than HdAmy58. cDNAs encoding HdAmy58 and HdAmy82 were cloned and the amino-acid sequences of 511 and 694 residues for HdAmy58 and HdAmy82, respectively, were deduced. The putative catalytic domains of HdAmy58 and HdAmy82 were located in the 17-511th and 19-500th amino-acid regions, respectively, and they showed approximately 50% amino-acid identity to each other. These sequences also showed 62-99% amino-acid identity to the catalytic domains of known α-amylases that belong to glycoside-hydrolase-family 13. The difference in the molecular masses between HdAmy58 and HdAmy82 was ascribed to the extension of approximately 190 residues in the C-terminus of HdAmy82. This extended region showed 41-63% amino-acid identity with the ancillary domains of several α-amylases previously reported.

  20. Molecular analysis of two FMRFamide-encoding transcripts expressed during the development of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Scott F; Tollenaere, Alina; Degnan, Bernard M; Croll, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are involved in numerous neural functions across the animal kingdom and serve as important models for understanding the evolution of neuropeptides. Gastropod molluscs have proved to be particularly useful foci for such studies, but the developmental expression of FaRPs and the evolution of specific transcripts for different peptides are unclear within the molluscs. Here we show that FaRPs are encoded by two transcripts that appear to be splice variants of a single gene in the abalone, Haliotis asinina, which represents the basal vetigastropods. Has-FMRF1 comprises 1,438 nucleotides and encodes a precursor protein of 329 amino acids that can potentially produce two copies of FLRFamide, one copy each of TLAGDSFLRFamide, QFYRIamide, SDPDLDDVIRASLLAYSLDDSPNN, and SVATAPVEAKAVEAGNKDIE, and 13 copies of FMRFamide. The second 1,241-nucleotide transcript, Has-FMRF2, encodes a 206-amino acid precursor protein with single copies of FLRFamide and FMRFamide along with such extended forms as NFGEPFLRFamide, FDSYEDKALRFamide, and NGWLHFamide, in addition to SDPGEDMLKSILLRGAPSNNGLQY and DTUDETTUNDNAHSRQ. Both transcripts are present early in life and are expressed in different but overlapping patterns within the developing larval nervous system. Mass spectrometry and immunocytochemistry demonstrate that FaRPs are cleaved from larger precursors and localize to the developing nervous system. Our results confirm previous evidence that FaRPs are expressed early and potentially play many roles during molluscan development and suggest that the last common ancestor to living gastropods used alternative splicing of an FMRFamide gene to generate a diversity of FaRPs in spatially restricted patterns in the nervous system.

  1. Two duplicated chicken-type lysozyme genes in disc abalone Haliotis discus discus: molecular aspects in relevance to structure, genomic organization, mRNA expression and bacteriolytic function.

    PubMed

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-08-01

    Lysozymes are crucial antibacterial proteins that are associated with catalytic cleavage of peptidoglycan and subsequent bacteriolysis. The present study describes the identification of two lysozyme genes from disc abalone Haliotis discus discus and their characterization at sequence-, genomic-, transcriptional- and functional-levels. Two cDNAs and BAC clones bearing lysozyme genes were isolated from abalone transcriptome and BAC genomic libraries, respectively and sequences were determined. Corresponding deduced amino acid sequences harbored a chicken-type lysozyme (LysC) family profile and exhibited conserved characteristics of LysC family members including active residues (Glu and Asp) and GS(S/T)DYGIFQINS motif suggested that they are LysC counterparts in disc abalone and designated as abLysC1 and abLysC2. While abLysC1 represented the homolog recently reported in Ezo abalone [1], abLysC2 shared significant identity with LysC homologs. Unlike other vertebrate LysCs, coding sequence of abLysCs were distributed within five exons interrupted by four introns. Both abLysCs revealed a broader mRNA distribution with highest levels in mantle (abLysC1) and hepatopancreas (abLysC2) suggesting their likely main role in defense and digestion, respectively. Investigation of temporal transcriptional profiles post-LPS and -pathogen challenges revealed induced-responses of abLysCs in gills and hemocytes. The in vitro muramidase activity of purified recombinant (r) abLysCs proteins was evaluated, and findings indicated that they are active in acidic pH range (3.5-6.5) and over a broad temperature range (20-60 °C) and influenced by ionic strength. When the antibacterial spectra of (r)abLysCs were examined, they displayed differential activities against both Gram positive and Gram negative strains providing evidence for their involvement in bacteriolytic function in abalone physiology.

  2. Genetic diversity of wild and domesticated stocks of Thai abalone, Haliotis asinina (Haliotidae), analyzed by single-strand conformational polymorphism of AFLP-derived markers.

    PubMed

    Praipue, P; Klinbunga, S; Jarayabhand, P

    2010-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was carried out on representative individuals of wild Haliotis asinina using 64 primer combinations. Nine polymorphic AFLPs were cloned and sequenced. Sequence-specific primers were designed from six AFLP-derived fragments. Three sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers (HaSCAR(320), HaSCAR(295), HaSCAR(327)) were selected for genotyping of 8-month-old domesticated stocks of H. asinina cultured separately at Sichang Marine Science Research and Training Station (N = 95) and at a hatchery in Trang province (N = 40) using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Genotypes of wild abalone originating from Talibong Island (N = 25), Cambodia (N = 22), and the P(0) progeny established from Samet Island founders (N = 20) were also investigated. Significant genetic differentiation (P<0.0001 for the exact test and F(ST) = 0.8759-0.8919, P<0.001) between abalone from the Gulf of Thailand (Cambodia and Samet Island--east) and the Andaman Sea (Talibong Island--west) were observed. This demonstrated the strong biogeographic structure of H. asinina in Thai waters. Non-overlapping composite genotypes for wild abalone from different coastal regions allow us to determine founder contributions in domesticated abalone stocks. Almost all Sichang Marine Science Research and Training Station and the Trang province hatchery stocks exhibited the east coast genotypes (97% of the 135 samples). We suggest that abalone from the east coast population have better survival rates under cultivated conditions than those from the west coast population.

  3. Transcriptome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) for Abalone (Haliotis midae): Validation and Application Using GoldenGate Medium-Throughput Genotyping Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bester-Van Der Merwe, Aletta; Blaauw, Sonja; Plessis, Jana Du; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2013-01-01

    Haliotis midae is one of the most valuable commercial abalone species in the world, but is highly vulnerable, due to exploitation, habitat destruction and predation. In order to preserve wild and cultured stocks, genetic management and improvement of the species has become crucial. Fundamental to this is the availability and employment of molecular markers, such as microsatellites and single nucleotide (SNPs). Transcriptome sequences generated through sequencing-by-synthesis technology were utilized for the in vitro and in silico identification of 505 putative SNPs from a total of 316 selected contigs. A subset of 234 SNPs were further validated and characterized in wild and cultured abalone using two Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assays. Combined with VeraCode technology, this genotyping platform yielded a 65%–69% conversion rate (percentage polymorphic markers) with a global genotyping success rate of 76%–85% and provided a viable means for validating SNP markers in a non-model species. The utility of 31 of the validated SNPs in population structure analysis was confirmed, while a large number of SNPs (174) were shown to be informative and are, thus, good candidates for linkage map construction. The non-synonymous SNPs (50) located in coding regions of genes that showed similarities with known proteins will also be useful for genetic applications, such as the marker-assisted selection of genes of relevance to abalone aquaculture. PMID:24065109

  4. Acclimation-dependent expression of heat shock protein 70 in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) and its acute response to thermal exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaqi; He, Qingguo; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is one important member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family that is responsible for various stresses, especially thermal stress. Here we examined the response of Hsp70 gene to both chronic and acute thermal exposure in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino). For the chronic exposure, abalones were maintained at 8, 12, 20, and 30°C for four months and their mRNA levels were measured. The highest mRNA level of Hsp70 gene relative to actin gene was detected in the 30°C-acclimated group, followed by the 8°C-acclimated group and then the 12°C- and 20°C-acclimated groups. After the long-term acclimation, gills from each of the above acclimation groups were dissected and exposed to different temperatures between 8°C and 38°C for 30 min. Hsp70 expression in gills acclimated to different temperatures responded differentially to the same temperature exposure. The incubation temperature that induced maximum Hsp70 mRNA expression was higher in the higher temperature acclimation groups than lower temperature groups. Pacific abalones could alter the expression pattern of Hsp70 gene according to environmental thermal conditions, through which they deal with the stress of thermal variations.

  5. Molecular insights of the first gastropod TLR counterpart from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), revealing its transcriptional modulation under pathogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Premachandra, H K A; Whang, Ilson; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2013-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well-characterized pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity, known to induce immune responses against the pathogens by interacting with evolutionarily conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In this study, a novel TLR homolog from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) was identified and characterized at molecular level. The open reading frame (ORF) of AbTLR is 3804 bp in length and encodes a 1268 amino acid peptide with a calculated molecular mass of 143.5 kDa. The deduced protein shows typical TLR domain architecture, with leucine rich repeats (LRR) and the toll-interleukin receptor (TIR) domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close evolutionary relationship for AbTLR to its invertebrate counterparts, with close clustering to the molluscan homologs. Quantitative real-time PCR detected ubiquitous transcription of AbTLR in healthy tissues, but with highest levels in hemocytes. Differential transcriptional modulation of AbTLR was observed in abalone hemocytes and gills upon immune challenge, whereby Vibrio parahaemolyticus and purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced the transcript level prominently. In addition, the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus induced AbTLR transcription in hemocytes and gills, representing the first evidence of viral-induced immune response in mollusks to date. Collectively, our findings support a putative role for AbTLR in abalone antiviral and antibacterial defense.

  6. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  7. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  8. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) Gonad.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Yang, Jingfeng; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Dayong; Qiao, Weizhou; Zhu, Ce; Liu, Shuyin; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33), which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01) of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des) and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity. PMID:27338320

  9. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) Gonad.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Yang, Jingfeng; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Dayong; Qiao, Weizhou; Zhu, Ce; Liu, Shuyin; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-06-08

    In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33), which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01) of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des) and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  10. Molluskan fasciclin-1 domain-containing protein: molecular characterizationand gene expression analysis of fasciclin 1-like protein from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    Premachandra, H K A; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Wickramaarachchi, W D N; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-06-15

    Cell-to-cell contacts play a key role in multicellular systems and organisms. Fasciclin-1 (FAS-1) is a lipid-linked membrane associated glycoprotein that is a member of a newly recognized family of cell adhesion molecules sharing features with the immunoglobulins, cadherins, integrins, and selectins. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of a novel FAS-1 domain-containing cDNA from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), including its gene expression profile and immune response to bacterial stimuli and tissue injuries. Designated as Abfac1, the 909bp open reading frame (ORF) encodes 303 amino acid (aa) residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33kDa and isoelectric (pI) value of 4.9. The aa sequence contains two FAS-1 domains and three conserved regions, FRa motif, H-box, and FRb motif. Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relation to Jellyfish cell adhesion protein. In healthy abalone, Abfac1 expression is highest in hepatopancreas followed by mantle and lowest in digestive gland. In immune-stimulated abalones, relative Abfac1 mRNA expression was increased in hemocytes by ~11-fold at 48h after the Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, by 3.1-fold at 6h after the Listeria monocytogenes infection and by ~9-fold at 6h after the LPS injection. Similarly, tissue injuries caused significant increase of relative mRNA expression by 3.5-fold in hemocytes and by ~10-fold in mantle at 12h post-injury. These results suggest that the novel member of the FAS-1 domain-containing protein family, Abfac1, may be involved in immune response and cell adhesion in disk abalone. PMID:23562785

  11. Identification of normalization factors for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Boguang; Fang, Shasha; Sun, Li; Liu, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in studies of gene expression. In most of these studies, housekeeping genes are used as internal references without validation. To identify appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai, we examined the transcription stability of six housekeeping genes in abalone tissues in the presence and absence of bacterial infection. For this purpose, abalone were infected with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum for 12 h and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the housekeeping genes in five tissues (digestive glands, foot muscle, gill, hemocyte, and mantle) were determined by qRT-PCR. The PCR data was subsequently analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results show that in the absence of bacterial infection, elongation factor-1-alpha and beta-actin were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues, and thus are suitable as cross-tissue type normalization factors. However, we did not identify any universal reference genes post infection because the most stable genes varied between tissue types. Furthermore, for most tissues, the optimal reference genes identified by both algorithms at 12 h and 48 h post-infection differed. These results indicate that bacterial infection induced significant changes in the expression of abalone housekeeping genes in a manner that is dependent on tissue type and duration of infection. As a result, different normalization factors must be used for different tissues at different infection points.

  12. Molluskan fasciclin-1 domain-containing protein: molecular characterizationand gene expression analysis of fasciclin 1-like protein from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    Premachandra, H K A; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Wickramaarachchi, W D N; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-06-15

    Cell-to-cell contacts play a key role in multicellular systems and organisms. Fasciclin-1 (FAS-1) is a lipid-linked membrane associated glycoprotein that is a member of a newly recognized family of cell adhesion molecules sharing features with the immunoglobulins, cadherins, integrins, and selectins. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of a novel FAS-1 domain-containing cDNA from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), including its gene expression profile and immune response to bacterial stimuli and tissue injuries. Designated as Abfac1, the 909bp open reading frame (ORF) encodes 303 amino acid (aa) residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33kDa and isoelectric (pI) value of 4.9. The aa sequence contains two FAS-1 domains and three conserved regions, FRa motif, H-box, and FRb motif. Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relation to Jellyfish cell adhesion protein. In healthy abalone, Abfac1 expression is highest in hepatopancreas followed by mantle and lowest in digestive gland. In immune-stimulated abalones, relative Abfac1 mRNA expression was increased in hemocytes by ~11-fold at 48h after the Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, by 3.1-fold at 6h after the Listeria monocytogenes infection and by ~9-fold at 6h after the LPS injection. Similarly, tissue injuries caused significant increase of relative mRNA expression by 3.5-fold in hemocytes and by ~10-fold in mantle at 12h post-injury. These results suggest that the novel member of the FAS-1 domain-containing protein family, Abfac1, may be involved in immune response and cell adhesion in disk abalone.

  13. Structural and functional characterization of a novel molluskan ortholog of TRAF and TNF receptor-associated protein from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdeuk; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Hyowon; Zoysa, Mahanama De; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Jehee

    2014-09-01

    Immune signaling cascades have an indispensable role in the host defense of almost all the organisms. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is considered as a prominent signaling pathway in vertebrate as well as invertebrate species. Within the signaling cascade, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and TNF receptor-associated protein (TTRAP) has been shown to have a crucial role in the modulation of immune signaling in animals. Here, we attempted to characterize a novel molluskan ortholog of TTRAP (AbTTRAP) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and analyzed its expression levels under pathogenic stress. The complete coding sequence of AbTTRAP consisted of 1071 nucleotides, coding for a 357 amino acid peptide, with a predicted molecular mass of 40 kDa. According to our in-silico analysis, AbTTRAP resembled the typical TTRAP domain architecture, including a 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase domain. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed its common ancestral invertebrate origin, where AbTTRAP was clustered with molluskan counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR showed universally distributed expression of AbTTRAP in selected tissues of abalone, from which more prominent expression was detected in hemocytes. Upon stimulation with two pathogen-derived mitogens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), transcript levels of AbTTRAP in hemocytes and gill tissues were differentially modulated with time. In addition, the recombinant protein of AbTTRAP exhibited prominent endonuclease activity against abalone genomic DNA, which was enhanced by the presence of Mg(2+) in the medium. Collectively, these results reinforce the existence of the TNF signaling cascade in mollusks like disk abalone, further implicating the putative regulatory behavior of TTRAP in invertebrate host pathology.

  14. Selection of reference genes as internal controls for gene expression in tissues of red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca, Vetigastropoda; Swainson, 1822).

    PubMed

    López-Landavery, Edgar A; Portillo-López, Amelia; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

    2014-10-10

    The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is one of the most important species for aquaculture in Baja California, México, and despite this, few gene expression studies have been done in tissues such as gill, head and gonad. For this purpose, reverse transcription and quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool for gene expression evaluation. For a reliable analysis, however, it is necessary to select and validate housekeeping genes that allow proper transcription quantification. Stability of nine housekeeping genes (ACTB, BGLU, TUBB, CY, GAPDH, HPRTI, RPL5, SDHA and UBC) was evaluated in different tissues of red abalone (gill, head and gonad/digestive gland). Four-fold serial dilutions of cDNA (from 25 ngμL(-1) to 0.39 ngμL(-1)) were used to prepare the standard curve, and it showed gene efficiencies between 0.95 and 0.99, with R(2)=0.99. geNorm and NormFinder analysis showed that RPL5 and CY were the most stable genes considering all tissues, whereas in gill HPRTI and BGLU were most stable. In gonad/digestive gland, RPL5 and TUBB were the most stable genes with geNorm, while SDHA and HPRTI were the best using NormFinder. Similarly, in head the best genes were RPL5 and UBC with geNorm, and GAPDH and CY with NormFinder. The technical variability analysis with RPL5 and abalone gonad/digestive gland tissue indicated a high repeatability with a variation coefficient within groups ≤ 0.56% and between groups ≤ 1.89%. These results will help us for further research in reproduction, thermoregulation and endocrinology in red abalone.

  15. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-02-01

    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens. PMID:25463284

  16. IGFBP7 promotes hemocyte proliferation in small abalone Haliotis diversicolor, proved by dsRNA and cap mRNA exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Li, Na; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Longhui; Zhang, Ziping; Wang, Yilei

    2015-10-15

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) binds IGFs with a low affinity, but in contrast, recognizes insulin with a high affinity. Many studies show that IGFBP7 involves several cellular processes of vertebrates and functions as a tumor suppressor gene in different tumors. However, the function of IGFBP7 in invertebrates is unclear. In this research, we studied the function of IGFBP7 in the proliferation of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor hemocytes by exposure to dsRNA or cap mRNA of saIGFBP7. We found that exposure to dsRNA or cap mRNA of saIGFBP7 could significantly affect the mRNA and protein expression of IGFBP7 in cultured small abalone hemocytes (p<0.05). There was a significant increase in hemocyte density and the number of adherent hemocytes after exposure to cap mRNA of saIGFBP7 (p<0.05). Similarly, exposure to dsRNA of saIGFBP7 could significantly decrease the hemocyte density and the number of adherent hemocytes (p<0.05). These findings suggest that IGFBP7 increases hemocyte growth. It is the first time to report the effect of IGFBP7 on the proliferation of marine invertebrate cells. PMID:26115770

  17. HdhCTL1 is a novel C-type lectin of abalone Haliotis discus hannai that agglutinates Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Qiu, Reng; Hu, Yong-hua

    2014-12-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition proteins, which play important roles in the innate immunity of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized a C-type lectin (named HdhCTL1) from Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. HdhCTL1 is composed of 176 amino acid residues and shares low (23.9%) identity with the known CTL of abalone. HdhCTL1 possesses a putative signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) typical of CTLs. The CRD of HdhCTL1 contains four disulfide bond-forming cysteine residues that are highly conserved in CTLs. HdhCTL1 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues and expressed abundantly in the digestive gland. Experimental infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum significantly upregulated HdhCTL1 expression in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant HdhCTL1 (rHdhCTL1) purified from Escherichia coli was able to agglutinate Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The agglutinating ability of rHdhCTL1 was abolished in the presence of mannose. These results suggest that HdhCTL1 is a novel CTL which is likely to be involved in host defense against bacterial infection. PMID:25301718

  18. HdhCTL1 is a novel C-type lectin of abalone Haliotis discus hannai that agglutinates Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Qiu, Reng; Hu, Yong-hua

    2014-12-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition proteins, which play important roles in the innate immunity of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized a C-type lectin (named HdhCTL1) from Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. HdhCTL1 is composed of 176 amino acid residues and shares low (23.9%) identity with the known CTL of abalone. HdhCTL1 possesses a putative signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) typical of CTLs. The CRD of HdhCTL1 contains four disulfide bond-forming cysteine residues that are highly conserved in CTLs. HdhCTL1 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues and expressed abundantly in the digestive gland. Experimental infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum significantly upregulated HdhCTL1 expression in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant HdhCTL1 (rHdhCTL1) purified from Escherichia coli was able to agglutinate Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The agglutinating ability of rHdhCTL1 was abolished in the presence of mannose. These results suggest that HdhCTL1 is a novel CTL which is likely to be involved in host defense against bacterial infection.

  19. Molecular characterization and mRNA expression during metal exposure and thermal stress of copper/zinc- and manganese-superoxide dismutases in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun-Yong; Lee, Sang Yoon; Cho, Young Sun; Bang, In Chul; Kim, Ki Hong; Kim, Dong Soo; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2007-11-01

    Complementary DNAs encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD; SOD1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD; SOD2) were isolated from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus. The open reading frame sequences of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs encoded 154 and 226 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments using the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that both abalone SODs showed considerable sequence similarities with their orthologues from diverse aerobic organisms, in which the amino acid residues forming metal ligands were highly conserved. All phylogenetic trees for both SOD genes inferred from maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses presented the monophyletic status of Teleostei and Aves/Tetrapoda clades, and recovered relatively close genetic affiliation of H. discus discus with some molluscan species. Expression of both SODs at mRNA levels were highly modulated in various tissues (gill, muscle and hepatopancreas from juveniles, and haemocytes from adults) by experimental exposures to heavy metals (copper, zinc and cadmium) and also by thermal treatments (elevation of temperature). The mRNA levels of both SODs were increased in general during the metal or thermal treatments; however, the transcriptional responses of SOD genes were quite variable depending upon isoforms and tissues based on semi-quantitative and/or real-time RT-PCR assays.

  20. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  1. Molluscan death effector domain (DED)-containing caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdeuk; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Yucheol; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Jehee

    2011-02-01

    The caspase family represents aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play key roles in apoptosis and immune signaling. In this study, we cloned the first death effector domain (DED)-containing molluscan caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), which is named as hdCaspase-8. The full-length hdCaspase was 2855 bp, with a 1908 bp open reading frame encoding 636 amino acids. The hdCaspase-8 had 72 kDa predicted molecular mass with an estimated isoelectric point (PI) of 6.0. The hdCaspase-8 amino acid sequence contained the characteristic feature of an N-terminal two DED, a C-terminal catalytic domain and the caspase family cysteine active site ⁵¹³KPKLFFLQACQG⁵²⁴. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that hdCaspase-8 is more similar to the invertebrate Tubifex tubifex (sludge worm) caspase-8. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that hdCaspase-8 constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissue of unchallenged disk abalone. The basal expression level of hdCaspase-8 in gill tissue was higher than all other tested tissues. The hdCaspase-8 mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes was significantly up-regulated by exposure to bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), as compared to control animals. These results suggest that hdCaspase-8 may be involved in immune response reactions in disk abalone.

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of heat shock protein 90 from Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino in response to dietary selenium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Qiyong; Xu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the cDNA of heat shock protein 90 from Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (HdhHSP90) was cloned by the combination of homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of HdhHSP90 was of 2660 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 2187 bp encoding a polypeptide of 728 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 84.134 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 4.619. BLAST analysis revealed that HdhHSP90 shared high similarity with other known HSP90s, and the five conserved amino acid blocks defined as HSP90 protein family signatures were also identified in HdhHSP90, which indicated that HdhHSP90 should be a cytosolic member of the HSP90 family. The expression levels of HdhHSP90 in haemocytes and hepatopancreas were measured by real-time PCR after Pacific abalone were fed with semi-purified diets containing graded levels of selenium (0.15, 1.32 and 48.70 mg Kg(-1)) for 20 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the expression levels of HdhHSP90 transcript were significantly up-regulated and reached the maximum (0.47-fold) in hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone fed with optimal dietary Se (1.32 mg Kg(-1)) (p < 0.05). However, these levels significantly decreased in hepatopancreas at the excessive dietary Se (48.70 mg Kg(-1)) (p < 0.01). In haemocytes, the expression of HdhHSP90 mRNA increased and reached the maximum (0.96-fold) at the excessive dietary Se (48.70 mg Kg(-1)) (p < 0.01). It is implied that the expression levels of HdhHSP90 could be affected by dietary Se in hepatopancreas and haemocytes, and HdhHSP90 was potentially involved in the anti-oxidation responses in Pacific abalone H. discus hannai.

  3. Effects of waterborne nickel on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai during thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Min, Eun Young; Cha, Yong-Joo; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the 96-h LC50 at 22 and 26 °C values was 28.591 and 11.761 mg/L, respectively, for NiCl2 exposure in the abalone. The alteration of physiological and immune-toxicological parameters such as the total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytosis activity was measured in the abalone exposed to nickel (200 and 400 μg/L) under thermal stress for 96 h. In this study, Mg and THC decreased, while Ca, lysozyme, PO, and phagocytosis activity increased in the hemolymph of Pacific abalone exposed to NiCl2 when compared to a control at both 22 and 26 °C. However, these parameters were not affected by a rise in temperature from 22 to 26 °C in non-exposed groups. Our results showed that NiCl2 below 400 μg/L was able to stimulate immune responses in abalone. However, complex stressors, thermal changes, or NiCl2 can modify the immunological response and lead to changes in the physiology of host-pollutant interactions in the abalone. PMID:25943513

  4. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. PMID:25766281

  5. Effects of waterborne nickel on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai during thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Min, Eun Young; Cha, Yong-Joo; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the 96-h LC50 at 22 and 26 °C values was 28.591 and 11.761 mg/L, respectively, for NiCl2 exposure in the abalone. The alteration of physiological and immune-toxicological parameters such as the total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytosis activity was measured in the abalone exposed to nickel (200 and 400 μg/L) under thermal stress for 96 h. In this study, Mg and THC decreased, while Ca, lysozyme, PO, and phagocytosis activity increased in the hemolymph of Pacific abalone exposed to NiCl2 when compared to a control at both 22 and 26 °C. However, these parameters were not affected by a rise in temperature from 22 to 26 °C in non-exposed groups. Our results showed that NiCl2 below 400 μg/L was able to stimulate immune responses in abalone. However, complex stressors, thermal changes, or NiCl2 can modify the immunological response and lead to changes in the physiology of host-pollutant interactions in the abalone.

  6. Structural changes and rheological properties of dry abalone meat ( Haliotis diversicolor) during the process of water restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Zhang, Yaqi; Xu, Jiachao; Sun, Yan; Zhao, Qingxi; Chang, Yaoguang

    2007-10-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological property and water content of dry abalone meat in the process of water restoration were studied. The weight and volume of dry abalone meat increased with water restoration. When observed under a light microscope, structural change in myofibrils was obvious and a distinct network was found. When water restoration time increased from 24 h to 72 h, the instantaneous modulus E 0 and viscosity η 1 increased, whereas the rupture strength and relaxation time ( τ 1) were reduced. There were no significant changes of rheological parameters ( E 0, η 1, τ 1, rupture strength) from 72 h to 96 h of water restoration. Therefore, the dry abalone meat was swollen enough at the time of 72 h. The rheological parameters were obviously influenced by the structural changes.

  7. Metabolomics-based approach for assessing the toxicity mechanisms of dibutyl phthalate to abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Chen, Baiyang; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-04-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous contaminant in the marine environment, and relatively little is known about the toxicological mechanisms of this compound at the metabolite level. In this study, marine gastropods (abalone) were exposed to DBP at environmentally relevant concentrations (2, 10, and 50 μg/L) for 30 days. The plasma metabolite profiles were determined at the 5th, 15th, and 30th. The major metabolite changes corresponding to DBP exposure were related to osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, and environmental stress, and the effects displayed a dose-dependent pattern. The most obvious change was the increase in the levels of intracellular metabolites (betaine, dimethylglycine, homarine, glutamine, and lactate) and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The results revealed that DBP may lead to abalone oxidative stress, lipid metabolism dysfunction, energy metabolism disturbance, and osmoregulation imbalance. These results would be helpful in better understanding the mechanisms of abalone response to DBP stress at the system level. PMID:25416503

  8. Validation of a short-term toxicity test endpoint by comparison with longer-term effects on larval red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, P.T.; Hunt, J.W.; Anderson, B.S.

    1996-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare a short-term 48-h aquatic toxicity test endpoint of abnormal larval shell development with other, more clearly adverse effects. In similar experiments conducted with two different toxicants, zinc sulfate and bleached-kraft mill effluent, red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) embryos were simultaneously exposed to identical dilution series and incubated for three different exposure periods: 48 h, 48 h followed by an 8-d recovery period in clean seawater, and 10 d of continuous exposure. Abnormal larval shell development was assessed in the 48-h short-term tests, and inhibition of metamorphosis was assessed in the exposure-recovery and continuous exposure experiments. For the zinc experiments, the median effective concentration (EC50) values for the 48-h exposure, the exposure-recovery experiment, and the continuous exposure experiment were 40, 34, and 32 {micro}g/L zinc, respectively. For the bleached-kraft mill effluent experiments, the EC50 values were 0.98, 0.76, and 0.69% effluent, respectively. Results indicate that toxicant concentrations causing abnormal larval shell development also inhibit metamorphosis and that larvae exposed to toxicant concentrations which inhibit larval shell development do not recover to metamorphose when transferred to clean seawater. None of the successfully metamorphosed postlarvae had deformed larval shells, indicating that shell deformity precludes survival past the planktonic stage. A longer (15-d) experiment allowed measurement of postlarval shell length in exposed postmetamorphic abalone. Insignificant differences in postlarval shell length indicated that the timing of larval metamorphosis was similar regardless of toxicant exposure and that the effects of the toxicant was to inhibit rather than to delay metamorphosis.

  9. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species. PMID:26672903

  10. Two variants of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus: Molecular characterization and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Whang, Ilson; Won, Seung Hwan; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is an essential member of the antioxidant systems of living organisms and may be involved in immune defense against pathogenic invasion. In the current study, two selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (AbSeGPxs) that shared 54.3% identity were identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. The open reading frames (ORFs) of AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b coded for 222 and 220 amino acids, respectively, with a characteristic selenocysteine residue encoded by an opal stop codon (TGA). The conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element was predicted in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of both isoforms, and they were found to form two stem-loop structures. Amino acid comparison and phylogenetic studies revealed that the AbSeGPxs were closely related to those in other mollusk species and were evolutionarily distinct from those of other taxonomic groups. The SYBR Green qPCR was employed in investigating the transcripts of AbSeGPxs. The expression of AbSeGPxs mRNA was examined in different embryonic developmental stages and differential expression patterns for AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b were noted. Meanwhile, the highest expression of AbSeGPxs was detected in the hepatopancreas of healthy adult animals. Next, transcriptional levels were profiled in hemocytes of adults to determine the immune responses of AbSeGPxs to microbial infections. The results revealed the significant up-regulation of AbSeGPx-a in a time-dependent manner after bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infections. Consequently, these findings indicate that AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b might be involved in the embryonic development of disk abalone and the regulation of immune defense system of adult animals. PMID:26025184

  11. Three novel clade B serine protease inhibitors from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Molecular perspectives and responses to immune challenges and tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Chul; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs) control cellular protease activity in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. The immune and inflammatory responses of invertebrate clade B SERPINs have not been widely reported. In the present study, three proteins with high similarity to clade B SERPINs, referred to as AbSERPIN-1, AbSERPIN-2 and AbSERPIN-3, were identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus). While AbSERPIN-1 (399 aa) was of a typical size for this protein class, AbSERPIN-2 (506 aa) and AbSERPIN-3 (532 aa) were relatively larger. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the characteristic SERPIN domain in each AbSERPIN. In addition, the N-terminal region of both AbSERPIN-2 and AbSERPIN-3 contained a predicted low complexity region (LCR) and a signal peptide, suggesting that these proteins are secretory proteins and are, thus, novel peptides. Tertiary structural models of the AbSERPINs highlighted their structural and functional conservation. Ubiquitous expression of AbSERPIN transcripts was evaluated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) analysis in seven tissue types. AbSERPIN-1, AbSERPIN-2, and AbSERPIN-3 transcript levels were highest in mantle, hemocytes, and muscles, respectively. Temporal expression analysis revealed that AbSERPINs were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in hemocytes during the early/middle stages following the injection of a bacterial pathogen (Vibrio parahaemolyticus or Listeria monocytogenes) or an immuno-stimulant (lipopolysaccharide). Moreover, mantle tissue injury led to significant changes in the temporal expression of AbSERPIN mRNA. Specifically, transcription of AbSERPIN-1 and AbSERPIN-3 was considerably up-regulated, while expression of AbSERPIN-2 was suppressed. These results suggest a potential role of AbSERPINs in response to pathogen invasion and tissue injury in disk abalone. PMID:25917971

  12. Disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) expresses a novel antistasin-like serine protease inhibitor: Molecular cloning and immune response against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Oh, Chulhong; Lee, Youngdeuk; Ekanayake, Prashani Mudika; Whang, Ilson; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2010-04-01

    A novel antistasin-like cDNA homologue named as Ab-Antistasin was isolated from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus normalized cDNA library. The Ab-Antistasin (1398-bp) consisted of an 1185-bp open reading frame encoding 395 amino acid (aa) residues. The predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of Ab-Antistasin was 44 kDa and 8.5, respectively, and showed highest identity (23.1%) to Hydra magnipapillata antistasin. The most striking feature of Ab-Antistasin is the 12-fold internal repeats (IR) of an antistasin-like domain. Ten of the 12 IR domains (26-27 aa) are highly conserved, with 6 cysteines and 1 glycine. Ab-Antistasin was comprised of three Bowman-Birk serine protease inhibitor family motifs. The recombinant Ab-Antistasin (rAb-Antistasin) was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using a pMAL system. rAb-Antistasin (10 microM) was able to inhibit trypsin activity by 66% in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, it exhibited low prolongation activity for coagulation in an APTT assay (86.0 s compared to control 42.0 s) with human blood. Endogenous Ab-Antistasin mRNA was found to be expressed in digestive tract, hepatopancreas, hemocytes, abductor muscle and mantle, with highest expression levels in digestive tract followed by hepatopancreas and hemocytes. Quantitative real time PCR results revealed that Ab-Antistasin transcription was significantly induced at 3 h post-infection (p.i.) after challenged by a mixture of bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in the abalone digestive tract; in the hemocytes, induction occurred at 6 and 12 h. The results indicated that Ab-Antistasin could play an important role in the immune responses of mollusks.

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin 6 from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus and the antioxidant activity of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Choon-Gon; Lee, Youn-Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2009-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) play an important role against various oxidative stresses and intra-cellular signal transduction. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PrxVI) was identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus cDNA library and named HdPrxVI. The full length cDNA of HdPrxVI was 1457 bp with a 654 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 218 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass and estimated isoelectric point (pI) of HdPrxVI were 24 kDa and 7.3, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated the greatest degree (72.4%) of identity with Crassostrea gigas PrxVI. The conserved peroxidase catalytic center (42PVCTTE47) with a conserved cysteine residue (Cys44) and a catalytic center for PLA2 activity (27GGSWA31) were observed in the sequence, indicating that it is a member of 1-Cys Prx. Real time PCR results revealed that HdPrxVI mRNA is constitutively expressed in all tissues in a tissue-specific manner. During exposure to haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), HdPrxVI mRNA transcription was down-regulated in the gill, suggesting that the abalone responded to the viral infection quickly, and HdPrxVI played a physiological role against virus-induced oxidative stress. The purified recombinant HdPrxVI, together with dithiothreitol (DTT), was shown to scavenge H2O2 in human leukemia THP-1 cells and provided protection against H2O2-induced apoptosis.

  14. Identification of a novel molluscan short-type peptidoglycan recognition protein in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) involved in host antibacterial defense.

    PubMed

    Premachandra, H K A; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2014-07-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a widely studied group of pattern recognition receptors found in invertebrate as well as vertebrate lineages, and are involved in bacterial pathogen sensing. However, in addition to this principal role, they can also function in multiple host defense processes, including cell phagocytosis and hydrolysis of peptidoglycans (PGNs). In this study, a novel invertebrate short-type PGRP was identified in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) designated as AbPGRP. The complete coding sequence of AbPGRP was 534 bp, encoding a 178-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 20 kDa. The AbPGRP gene had a bipartite arrangement consisting of two exons separated by a single intron. Homology analysis revealed that AbPGRP shares conserved features, including amino acid residues critical for substrate and ion binding as well as for its amidase activity, with homologs of other species. Phylogenetic analysis of AbPGRP revealed that it likely evolved from a common ancestor of invertebrates, having significant homology with other molluscan PGRPs. Recombinant AbPGRP exhibited detectable, dose-dependent PGN-hydrolyzing activity with the presence of Zn(2+), and strong antibacterial activity against Vibrio tapetis, consistent with the functional properties previously reported for PGRPs in other mollusks. Moreover, AbPGRP transcription was induced upon treatment of healthy abalones with bacterial peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide, although the expression profiles differed with treatment, suggesting a capacity for discriminating between bacterial pathogens through molecular pattern recognition. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that AbPGRP is a true homolog of invertebrate PGRPs and likely plays an indispensable role in host immunity.

  15. Three novel clade B serine protease inhibitors from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Molecular perspectives and responses to immune challenges and tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Chul; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs) control cellular protease activity in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. The immune and inflammatory responses of invertebrate clade B SERPINs have not been widely reported. In the present study, three proteins with high similarity to clade B SERPINs, referred to as AbSERPIN-1, AbSERPIN-2 and AbSERPIN-3, were identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus). While AbSERPIN-1 (399 aa) was of a typical size for this protein class, AbSERPIN-2 (506 aa) and AbSERPIN-3 (532 aa) were relatively larger. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the characteristic SERPIN domain in each AbSERPIN. In addition, the N-terminal region of both AbSERPIN-2 and AbSERPIN-3 contained a predicted low complexity region (LCR) and a signal peptide, suggesting that these proteins are secretory proteins and are, thus, novel peptides. Tertiary structural models of the AbSERPINs highlighted their structural and functional conservation. Ubiquitous expression of AbSERPIN transcripts was evaluated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) analysis in seven tissue types. AbSERPIN-1, AbSERPIN-2, and AbSERPIN-3 transcript levels were highest in mantle, hemocytes, and muscles, respectively. Temporal expression analysis revealed that AbSERPINs were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in hemocytes during the early/middle stages following the injection of a bacterial pathogen (Vibrio parahaemolyticus or Listeria monocytogenes) or an immuno-stimulant (lipopolysaccharide). Moreover, mantle tissue injury led to significant changes in the temporal expression of AbSERPIN mRNA. Specifically, transcription of AbSERPIN-1 and AbSERPIN-3 was considerably up-regulated, while expression of AbSERPIN-2 was suppressed. These results suggest a potential role of AbSERPINs in response to pathogen invasion and tissue injury in disk abalone.

  16. Two variants of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus: Molecular characterization and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Whang, Ilson; Won, Seung Hwan; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is an essential member of the antioxidant systems of living organisms and may be involved in immune defense against pathogenic invasion. In the current study, two selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (AbSeGPxs) that shared 54.3% identity were identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. The open reading frames (ORFs) of AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b coded for 222 and 220 amino acids, respectively, with a characteristic selenocysteine residue encoded by an opal stop codon (TGA). The conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element was predicted in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of both isoforms, and they were found to form two stem-loop structures. Amino acid comparison and phylogenetic studies revealed that the AbSeGPxs were closely related to those in other mollusk species and were evolutionarily distinct from those of other taxonomic groups. The SYBR Green qPCR was employed in investigating the transcripts of AbSeGPxs. The expression of AbSeGPxs mRNA was examined in different embryonic developmental stages and differential expression patterns for AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b were noted. Meanwhile, the highest expression of AbSeGPxs was detected in the hepatopancreas of healthy adult animals. Next, transcriptional levels were profiled in hemocytes of adults to determine the immune responses of AbSeGPxs to microbial infections. The results revealed the significant up-regulation of AbSeGPx-a in a time-dependent manner after bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infections. Consequently, these findings indicate that AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b might be involved in the embryonic development of disk abalone and the regulation of immune defense system of adult animals.

  17. Molecular insights into a molluscan transferrin homolog identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) evidencing its detectable role in host antibacterial defense.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M L P B; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Godahewa, G I; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-11-01

    The basic function of transferrin is to bind iron (III) ions in the medium and to deliver them to the locations where they are required for metabolic processes. It also takes part in the host immune defense mainly via its ability to bind to iron (III) ions. Hence, transferrin is also identified as an important acute-phase protein in host immunity. Abalones are major shellfish aquaculture crops that are susceptible to a range of marine microbial infections. Since transferrin is known to be a major player in innate immunity, in the present study we sought to identify, and molecularly and functionally characterize a transferrin-like gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) named as AbTrf. AbTrf consisted of a 2187-bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a 728 amino acid (aa) protein. The putative amino acid sequence of AbTrf harbored N- and C-terminal transferrin-like domains, active sites for iron binding, and conserved cysteine residues. A constitutive tissue specific AbTrf expression pattern was detected by qPCR in abalones where mantle and muscle showed high AbTrf expression levels. Three immune challenge experiments were conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and LPS as stimuli and, subsequently, AbTrf mRNA expression levels were quantified in gill and hemocytes in a time-course manner. The mRNA expression was greatly induced in both tissues in response to both challenges. Evidencing the functional property of transferrins, recombinant AbTrf N-terminal domain (AbTrf-N) showed dose-dependent iron (III) binding activity detected by chrome azurol S (CAS) assay system. Moreover, recombinant AbTrf-N could significantly inhibit the growth of iron-dependent bacterium, Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner. However, AbTrf-N was unable to show any detectable bacteriostatic activity against iron-independent bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) even at its highest concentration. Collectively, our results suggest that Ab

  18. Molecular insights into a molluscan transferrin homolog identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) evidencing its detectable role in host antibacterial defense.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M L P B; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Godahewa, G I; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-11-01

    The basic function of transferrin is to bind iron (III) ions in the medium and to deliver them to the locations where they are required for metabolic processes. It also takes part in the host immune defense mainly via its ability to bind to iron (III) ions. Hence, transferrin is also identified as an important acute-phase protein in host immunity. Abalones are major shellfish aquaculture crops that are susceptible to a range of marine microbial infections. Since transferrin is known to be a major player in innate immunity, in the present study we sought to identify, and molecularly and functionally characterize a transferrin-like gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) named as AbTrf. AbTrf consisted of a 2187-bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a 728 amino acid (aa) protein. The putative amino acid sequence of AbTrf harbored N- and C-terminal transferrin-like domains, active sites for iron binding, and conserved cysteine residues. A constitutive tissue specific AbTrf expression pattern was detected by qPCR in abalones where mantle and muscle showed high AbTrf expression levels. Three immune challenge experiments were conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and LPS as stimuli and, subsequently, AbTrf mRNA expression levels were quantified in gill and hemocytes in a time-course manner. The mRNA expression was greatly induced in both tissues in response to both challenges. Evidencing the functional property of transferrins, recombinant AbTrf N-terminal domain (AbTrf-N) showed dose-dependent iron (III) binding activity detected by chrome azurol S (CAS) assay system. Moreover, recombinant AbTrf-N could significantly inhibit the growth of iron-dependent bacterium, Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner. However, AbTrf-N was unable to show any detectable bacteriostatic activity against iron-independent bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) even at its highest concentration. Collectively, our results suggest that Ab

  19. A galectin with quadruple-domain from red abalone Haliotis rufescens involved in the immune innate response against to Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska; Teneb, Jaime; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-09-01

    Galectins are proteins that recognize and bind specifically β-galactosidase residues, playing important roles in the innate immune response of vertebrates and invertebrates. The cDNA of a tandem repeat galectin from the red abalone Haliotis rufescens cDNA (HrGal) was cloned and characterized using rapid amplification of cDNA end technique. The full-length cDNA of HrGal was 2471 bp, with a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 131 bp, a 3' UTR of 672 pb, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1668 bp encoding a polypeptide of 556 amino acid. The ORF contains four domains carbohydrate recognition (CRD) with typical conserved motifs, which are important for carbohydrate recognition, and it appear to posses neither a signal peptide nor a transmembrane domain. The deduced amino acid sequence and the multi-domain organization of HrGal were highly similar to those described for other tandem repeat galectins of invertebrate organisms. Quantitative real time PCR analyses indicated that HrGal mRNA was highly expressed in hemocytes and gills tissues. The temporal expression of HrGal mRNA in hemocytes challenged to Vibrio anguillarum was time-dependent, showing u-regulation at 32 h post challenge. The results suggest that HrGal may be involved in the immune innate response against bacterial infection. PMID:24952088

  20. Broad-scale genetic patterns of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis iris, across a distribution spanning 13° latitude and major oceanic water masses.

    PubMed

    Will, Margaret; McCowan, Tom; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-08-01

    The New Zealand black-foot abalone, Haliotis iris, or pāua, is endemic to the rocky reefs surrounding New Zealand, whose main land mass spans 13° of latitude and separates the Tasman Sea from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of this important commercial, cultural and recreational species by genotyping nine microsatellite loci in 485 pāua from 27 locations distributed across mainland New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. We found low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation. Key genetic breaks were identified among the Chatham Islands and mainland samples; patterns that are strongly corroborated by prior work employing mtDNA sequences. AMOVAs indicated that samples from the south of the North Island were more similar to the South Island samples than to other North Island samples, however multivariate analysis and Bayesian clustering could not identify a significant pattern. Differentiation between the Chatham Islands and the mainland is most likely due to isolation by distance, while differentiation of North Island samples corresponds with major components of New Zealand's oceanography, Cook Strait and the East Cape. Despite intense fishing pressure, we detected no signature of genetic bottlenecks in any region suggesting that population sizes have remained relatively stable over recent time or that the census size of this species is much larger than its effective population size. PMID:26050219

  1. Broad-scale genetic patterns of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis iris, across a distribution spanning 13° latitude and major oceanic water masses.

    PubMed

    Will, Margaret; McCowan, Tom; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-08-01

    The New Zealand black-foot abalone, Haliotis iris, or pāua, is endemic to the rocky reefs surrounding New Zealand, whose main land mass spans 13° of latitude and separates the Tasman Sea from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of this important commercial, cultural and recreational species by genotyping nine microsatellite loci in 485 pāua from 27 locations distributed across mainland New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. We found low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation. Key genetic breaks were identified among the Chatham Islands and mainland samples; patterns that are strongly corroborated by prior work employing mtDNA sequences. AMOVAs indicated that samples from the south of the North Island were more similar to the South Island samples than to other North Island samples, however multivariate analysis and Bayesian clustering could not identify a significant pattern. Differentiation between the Chatham Islands and the mainland is most likely due to isolation by distance, while differentiation of North Island samples corresponds with major components of New Zealand's oceanography, Cook Strait and the East Cape. Despite intense fishing pressure, we detected no signature of genetic bottlenecks in any region suggesting that population sizes have remained relatively stable over recent time or that the census size of this species is much larger than its effective population size.

  2. The existence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptides in the neural ganglia and ovary of the abalone, Haliotis asinina L.

    PubMed

    Nuurai, Parinyaporn; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Cummins, Scott; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Hanna, Peter; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2010-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neuropeptide that is conserved in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we have demonstrated the presence and distribution of two isoforms of GnRH-like peptides in neural ganglia and ovary of reproductively mature female abalone, Haliotis asinina, using immunohistochemistry. We found significant immunoreactivities (ir) of anti-lamprey(l) GnRH-III and anti-tunicate(t) GnRH, but with variation of labeling intensity by each anti-GnRH type. lGnRH-III-ir was detected in numerous type 1 neurosecretory cells (NS1) throughout the cerebral and pleuropedal ganglia, whereas tGnRH-I-ir was detected in only a few NS1 cells in the dorsal region of cerebral and pleuropedal ganglia. In addition, a small number of type 2 neurosecretory cells (NS2) in cerebral ganglion showed lGnRH-III-ir. Long nerve fibers in the neuropil of ventral regions of the cerebral and pluropedal ganglia showed strong tGnRH-I-ir. In the ovary, lGnRH-III-ir was found primarily in oogonia and stage I oocytes, whereas tGnRH-ir was observed in stage I oocytes and some stage II oocytes. These results indicate that GnRH produced in neural ganglia may act in neural signaling. Alternatively, GnRH may also be synthesized locally in the ovary where it could induce oocyte development.

  3. Identification, characterization, and expression of the genes TektinA1 and Axonemal protein 66.0 in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Klinbunga, Sirawut; Amparyup, Piti; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Jarayabhand, Padermsak

    2009-06-01

    The genes Tektin A1 and axonemal protein 66.0 were successfully Isolated and characterized in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. The full-length cDNAs of Ha-TekA1 and Ha-Axp66.0 were 2166 and 2038 bp long, with ORFs of 1350 and 1683 bp, respectively. Both Ha-TekA1 and Ha-Axp66.0 were expressed in the testes but not in the ovaries or hemocytes of H. asinina adults. In addition, HaAxp66.0 was not expressed in H. asinina juveniles (2, 3, and 5 months old). A tissue expression analysis showed Ha-Axp66.0 to be expressed specifically in the testes, whereas Ha-TekA1 was expressed abundantly in the testes but weakly in the foot, gill, digestive gland, left hypobranchial gland, and mantle. The relative expression levels of Ha-TekA1 and Ha-Axp66.0 were significantly lower in undeveloped testes (stage I) than in developed testes (stages II, III, and IV) of H. asinina (P < 0.05).

  4. Purification and characterization of a novel extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase produced by Bacillus clausii NM-1 isolated from ezo abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Nobumitsu; Hamada, Naoko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki; Watanabe, Etsuo

    2003-01-01

    A novel extracellular alkaline stable beta-1,3-glucanase produced by Bacillus clausii NM-1 isolated from the ezo abalone Haliotis discus hannai was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose FF ion exchange chromatography and Sephacryl S-200HR gel filtration. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 71 kDa from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was very stable at pH 5.3 to 11.5 but unstable at pH 4.0 to 4.5. The optimum temperature and thermostability of the enzyme increased in the presence of CaC1, The enzyme hydrolyzed R-1,3-glucan from marine organisms, but did not show activity against any other beta-1,3-glucans. The major hydrolysis products of beta-1,3-glucan from Laminaria digitata and Eisenia bicyclis were laminaritriose and laminaritetraose, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was similar to that of several beta-1,3-glucanases in the glycoside hydrolase family 16. PMID:16233365

  5. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26718326

  6. First characterisation of the populations and immune-related activities of hemocytes from two edible gastropod species, the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell, Turbo cornutus.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lambert, Christophe; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-01-01

    The disk abalone Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell Turbo cornutus are edible gastropod species of high economic value, mainly in Asia. Mortality outbreaks and variations in worldwide stock abundance have been reported and suggested to be associated, at least in part, with pathogenic infections. Ecology, biology and immunology of both species are currently not well documented. The characterisation of the immune systems of these species is necessary to further assess the responses of H. discus discus and T. cornutus to environmental, chemical and disease stresses. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and immune-related activities of hemocytes in both species using light microscopy and flow cytometry. Two types of hemocytes were identified in the disk abalone hemolymph, blast-like cells and hyalinocytes; whereas four main hemocyte types were distinguished in the spiny top shell, blast-like cells, type I and II hyalinocytes, and granulocytes. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed differences between cell types in immune-related activities. Three subsets of hemocytes, defined by differing lysosomal characteristics, were observed in the hemolymph of the spiny top shell, and only one in the disk abalone. Phagocytic activity was higher in H. discus discus hemocytes than in T. cornutus hemocytes, and the kinetics of PMA-stimulated oxidative activity was different between hemocytes of the disk abalone and the spiny top shell. Finally our results suggest for the first time a predominant mitochondrial origin of oxidative activity in gastropod hemocytes.

  7. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  8. A bifunctional invertebrate-type lysozyme from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: genome organization, transcriptional profiling and biological activities of recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2013-10-01

    Lysozyme is an important enzyme in the innate immune system that plays a vital role in fighting microbial infections. In the current study, we identified, cloned, and characterized a gene that encodes an invertebrate-type lysozyme from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus (abLysI). The full-length cDNA of abLysI consisted of 545 bp with an open reading frame of 393 bp that encodes 131 amino acids. The theoretical molecular mass of mature abLysI was 12.3 kDa with an isoelectric point of 8.03. Conserved features in other homologs, such as catalytic sites for lytic activity (Glu(30) and Asp(41)), isopeptidase activity (His(107)), and ten cysteine residues were identified in abLysI. Genomic sequence analysis with respect to its cDNA showed that abLysI was organized into four exons interrupted by three introns. Several immune-related transcription factor binding sites were discovered in the putative promoter region. Homology and phylogeny analysis of abLysI depicted high identity and closer proximity, respectively, with an annelid i-type lysozyme from Hirudo medicinalis, and indicated that abLysI is a novel molluscan i-type lysozyme. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that abLysI is mainly transcribed in hepatopancreas followed by mantle. In addition, abLysI mRNA expression was induced following bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) challenges. Recombinantly expressed abLysI [(r)abLysI] demonstrated strong lytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus, isopeptidase activity, and antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, (r)abLysI showed optimum lytic activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C, while exhibiting optimum isopeptidase activity at pH 7.0. Taken together, these results indicate that abLysI is potentially involved in immune responses of the disk abalone to protect it from invaders.

  9. Endoscopy of gastropods: A novel view of the mantle cavities and gills of the keyhole limpet Diodora aspera and the abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    PubMed

    Voltzow, Janice

    2015-07-01

    The gills, or ctenidia, of marine gastropods serve as the sites for respiratory gas exchange. Cilia on the surface provide the pump that moves water through the mantle cavity and enhance diffusion. Because the gills are housed inside the shell, it is difficult to view them while they are functioning. Published images of gills show contracted, fragile structures that are distorted by the processes of dissection and preservation. Members of the families Fissurellidae (keyhole limpets) and Haliotidae (abalone) have openings in their shells through which water enters and/or exits. I inserted an endoscope connected to a video camera into the openings of the shells of living, non-anaesthetized individuals of the fissurellid Diodora aspera and the haliotid Haliotis rufescens. In both species, the dorsal afferent branchial vessel of the afferent gill axis appeared large and inflated, as did the leaflets that extended from either side of the axis. In D. aspera, the leaflets appeared to fill the mantle cavity and responded to touch, particles, and dye in the water by contracting quickly and slowly re-extending. In contrast, the gills of H. rufescens did not noticeably respond to disturbance. On the other hand, these gills showed a regular pattern of pleats that had not been described in the extensive anatomical literature of these common and economically significant animals. These results provide a novel view of the gastropod mantle cavity as a dynamic space filled by the gills, which divide the mantle cavity into distinct incurrent and excurrent chambers and produce a laminar flow of water through the cavity. PMID:25694221

  10. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.

    2012-01-01

    The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

  11. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Premachandra, H K A; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-15

    Repertoires of proteins and small peptides play numerous physiological roles as hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and cellular signaling factors. The beta-thymosins are a group of small acidic peptides involved in processes such as actin sequestration, neuronal development, wound healing, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Recent characterization of the beta thymosins as immunological regulators in invertebrates led to our identification and characterization of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) from Haliotis discus discus. The cDNA possessed an ORF of 132 bp encoding a protein of 44 amino acids with a molecular mass of 4977 Da. The amino acid sequence shows high identity with another molluskan beta-thymosin and has a characteristic actin binding motif (LKKTET) and glutamyl donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with molluskan homologues, as well as its distinct identity and common ancestral origin. Genomic analysis revealed a 3 exon-2 intron structure similar to the other homologues. In silico promoter analysis also revealed significant transcription factor binding sites, providing evidence for the expression of this gene under different cellular conditions, including stress or pathogenic attack. Tissue distribution profiling revealed a ubiquitous presence in all the examined tissues, but with the highest expression in mantle and hemocyte. Immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C and Vibrio parahemolyticus induced beta-thymosin expression in gill and hemocytes, affirming an immune-related role in invertebrates.

  12. Development of a monoclonal antibody detection assay for species-specific identification of abalone.

    PubMed

    Lopata, Andreas L; Luijx, Thomas; Fenemore, Bartha; Sweijd, Neville A; Cook, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    Species identification based on biochemical and molecular techniques has a broad range of applications. These include compliance enforcement, the management and conservation of marine organisms, and commercial quality control. Abalone poaching worldwide and illegal trade in abalone products have increased mainly because of the attractive prices obtained and caused a sharp decline in stocks. Alleged poachers have been acquitted because of lack of evidence to correctly identify species. Therefore, a robust method is required that would identify tissue of abalone origin to species level. The aim of this study was to develop immunologic techniques, using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, to identify 10 different abalone species and subspecies from South Africa, the United States, Australia, and Japan. The combination of 3 developed monoclonal antibodies to South African abalone (Haliotis midae) enabled differentiation between most of the 10 species including the subspecies H. diversicolor supertexta and H. diversicolor diversicolor. In a novel approach, using antibodies of patients with allergy to abalone, the differentiation of additional subspecies, H. discus discus and H. discus hannai, was possible. A field-based immunoassay was developed to identify confiscated tissue of abalone origin. PMID:14961238

  13. Effects of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) gonad polysaccharides on cholecystokinin release in STC-1 cells and its signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Da-Yong; Yang, Jing-Feng; Song, Shuang; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Ce; Song, Yan-Qing; Yu, Chen-Xu; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-10-20

    Abalone gonad polysaccharide (AGP) -31, -32 and -33 prepared in this study had the molecular weight (MW) of 37.8, 32.2 and 27.5kDa, respectively. They all contained mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fucose, with very similar monosaccharide profile. All the three polysaccharides could significantly increase the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) in STC-1 cells. Among them, AGP-32 showed the strongest effect. However, the low-MW fragments of AGP-32 showed significantly lower activity than AGP-32 itself. It was also found that the inhibitors on calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), protein kinase A (PKA), Ca(2+)⁄calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II, p38- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and an intracellular calcium chelator all inhibited AGP-induced CCK secretion. To conclude, Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/CaMK, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA and MAPK pathways are all involved in AGP-induced CCK secretion. PMID:27474567

  14. Effects of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) gonad polysaccharides on cholecystokinin release in STC-1 cells and its signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Da-Yong; Yang, Jing-Feng; Song, Shuang; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Ce; Song, Yan-Qing; Yu, Chen-Xu; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-10-20

    Abalone gonad polysaccharide (AGP) -31, -32 and -33 prepared in this study had the molecular weight (MW) of 37.8, 32.2 and 27.5kDa, respectively. They all contained mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fucose, with very similar monosaccharide profile. All the three polysaccharides could significantly increase the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) in STC-1 cells. Among them, AGP-32 showed the strongest effect. However, the low-MW fragments of AGP-32 showed significantly lower activity than AGP-32 itself. It was also found that the inhibitors on calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), protein kinase A (PKA), Ca(2+)⁄calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II, p38- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and an intracellular calcium chelator all inhibited AGP-induced CCK secretion. To conclude, Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/CaMK, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA and MAPK pathways are all involved in AGP-induced CCK secretion.

  15. Immune response of apoptosis-related cysteine peptidases from the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (HrCas8 and HrCas3): molecular characterization and transcription expression.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-07-01

    Caspases play an important role in the different stages of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, which has been related to the immune response in multicellular organisms. The present study characterized an initiator caspase (HrCas8) and an effector caspase (HrCas3) from the red abalone Haliotis rufescens using the RACE method and qPCR analysis. HrCas8 showed a complete sequence of 2529 base pairs (bp) with an open-reading frame (ORF) of 1911 bp, a 5'UTR of 201 bp, and a 3'UTR of 417 bp. The estimated molecular mass for the 636 amino acids from HrCas8 was 71.5 kDa with an isoelectric point of 6.2. The HrCas8 sequence had two death-effector domains (DEDs) and the subunits p20 and p10, in addition to an active site characteristic of cysteine proteins. Meanwhile, the effector caspase HrCas3 showed a complete sequence of 1404 bp, a 5'UTR of 82 bp, and a 3'UTR of 574 bp. The ORF of this caspase had 747 bp that coded for 248 residues. Moreover, the predicted molecular mass of HrCas3 was 29.4 kDa; the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.70, and the sequence evidenced a conserved caspase recruitment domain (CARD). The distribution of the caspases in distinct tissues revealed that HrCas8 was principally expressed in the hemolymph, while HrCas3 had a higher expression in the gills. A basal level of expression was found for both caspases in muscle tissue. The immune response of caspases in H. rufescens was evaluated through an injection of Vibrio anguillarum. The results showed an increase in the transcription of HrCas8 post-challenge, as well as an activation of HrCas3, which together suggest the initiation of apoptosis as a response to bacterial infection in H. rufescens. PMID:24821426

  16. Subunit organization of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 2 (HtH2), and the cDNA sequence encoding its functional units d, e, f, g and h.

    PubMed

    Lieb, B; Altenhein, B; Lehnert, R; Gebauer, W; Markl, J

    1999-10-01

    We have developed a HPLC procedure to isolate the two different hemocyanin types (HtH1 and HtH2) of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. On the basis of limited proteolytic cleavage, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, PAGE, N-terminal protein sequencing and cDNA sequencing, we have identified eight different 40-60-kDa functional units (FUs) in HtH2, termed HtH2-a to HtH2-h, and determined their linear arrangement within the elongated 400-kDa subunit. From a Haliotis cDNA library, we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone which encodes the five C-terminal FUs d, e, f, g and h of HtH2. As shown by multiple sequence alignments, defg of HtH2 correspond structurally to defg from Octopus dofleini hemocyanin. HtH2-e is the first FU of a gastropod hemocyanin to be sequenced. The new Haliotis hemocyanin sequences are compared to their counterparts in Octopus, Helix pomatia and HtH1 (from the latter, the sequences of FU-f, FU-g and FU-h have recently been determined) and discussed in relation to the recent 2.3 A X-ray structure of FU-g from Octopus hemocyanin and the 15 A three-dimensional reconstruction of the Megathura crenulata hemocyanin didecamer from electron micrographs. This data allows, for the first time, an insight into the evolution of the two functionally different hemocyanin isoforms found in marine gastropods. It appears that they evolved several hundred million years ago within the Prosobranchia, after separation of the latter from the branch leading to the Pulmonata. Moreover, as a structural explanation for the inefficiency of the type 1 hemocyanin to form multidecamers in vivo, the additional N-glycosylation sites in HtH1 compared to HtH2 are discussed. PMID:10491167

  17. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the Vibrio alginolyticus infection of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Tseng, Tzu-Yu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), phenoloxidase (PO), phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic rate (PR) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were enhanced via in-vitro experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, the observed data presented that the haemolymph lysate supernatant (HLS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were not significant enhanced, but the total haemocyte count (THC), O2(-), PO, phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic ratio (PR) and other parameters of immune were significantly promoted after treated with beta-1,3-1,6-glucan. In the challenge experiment, the survival rates of abalone in the 40 and 80 μl/ml groups of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan were observed from 6.67% up to 33.33% and 36.67% after injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. PMID:27150049

  18. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  19. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family.

  20. Three novel C1q domain containing proteins from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus: Genomic organization and analysis of the transcriptional changes in response to bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Jayasinghe, J D H E; Godahewa, G I; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-09-01

    The globular C1q (gC1q) domain containing proteins, commonly referred as C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins, are an essential family of proteins involved in various innate immune responses. In this study, three novel C1qDC proteins were identified from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) transcriptome database and designated as AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3. The cDNA sequences of AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3 consisted of 807, 1305, and 660 bp open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 269, 435, and 220 amino acids (aa), respectively. Putative signal peptides and the N-terminal gC1q domain were identified in all three AbC1qDC proteins. An additional predicted motif region, known as the coiled coil region (CCR), was identified next to the signal sequence of AbC1qDC2. The genomic organization of the AbC1qDCs was determined using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. It was found that the CDS of AbC1qDC1 was distributed among three exons, while the CDSs of AbC1qDC2 and AbC1qDC3 were distributed between two exons. Sequence analysis indicated that the AbC1qDC proteins shared <40% identity with other counterparts from different species. According to the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, the proteins were grouped within an invertebrate group with high evolutionary distances, which suggests that they are new members of the C1qDC family. Higher expression of AbC1qDC1 and AbC1qDC2 was detected in hepatopancreas, muscle, and mantle tissues compare to the other tissues analyzed, using reverse transcription, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using SYBR Green, whereas AbC1qDC3 was predominantly expressed in gill tissues, followed by muscles and the hepatopancreas. The temporal expression of AbC1qDC transcripts in gills after bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and lipopolysaccharide stimulation indicated that AbC1qDCs can be strongly induced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species with different

  1. Three novel C1q domain containing proteins from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus: Genomic organization and analysis of the transcriptional changes in response to bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Jayasinghe, J D H E; Godahewa, G I; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-09-01

    The globular C1q (gC1q) domain containing proteins, commonly referred as C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins, are an essential family of proteins involved in various innate immune responses. In this study, three novel C1qDC proteins were identified from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) transcriptome database and designated as AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3. The cDNA sequences of AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3 consisted of 807, 1305, and 660 bp open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 269, 435, and 220 amino acids (aa), respectively. Putative signal peptides and the N-terminal gC1q domain were identified in all three AbC1qDC proteins. An additional predicted motif region, known as the coiled coil region (CCR), was identified next to the signal sequence of AbC1qDC2. The genomic organization of the AbC1qDCs was determined using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. It was found that the CDS of AbC1qDC1 was distributed among three exons, while the CDSs of AbC1qDC2 and AbC1qDC3 were distributed between two exons. Sequence analysis indicated that the AbC1qDC proteins shared <40% identity with other counterparts from different species. According to the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, the proteins were grouped within an invertebrate group with high evolutionary distances, which suggests that they are new members of the C1qDC family. Higher expression of AbC1qDC1 and AbC1qDC2 was detected in hepatopancreas, muscle, and mantle tissues compare to the other tissues analyzed, using reverse transcription, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using SYBR Green, whereas AbC1qDC3 was predominantly expressed in gill tissues, followed by muscles and the hepatopancreas. The temporal expression of AbC1qDC transcripts in gills after bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and lipopolysaccharide stimulation indicated that AbC1qDCs can be strongly induced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species with different

  2. Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin type 1 (HtH1). Organization of the approximately 400 kDa subunit, and amino acid sequence of its functional units f, g and h.

    PubMed

    Keller, H; Lieb Bp6; Altenhein, B; Gebauer, D; Richter, S; Stricker, S; Markl, J

    1999-08-01

    We have identified two separate hemocyanin types (HtH1 and HtH2) in the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. HtH1/HtH2 hybrid molecules were not found. By selective dissociation of HtH2 we isolated HtH1 which, as revealed by electron microscopy and SDS/PAGE, is present as didecamers of a approximately 400 kDa subunit. Immunologically, HtH1 and HtH2 correspond to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)1 and KLH2, respectively, the two well-studied hemocyanin types of the closely related marine gastropod Megathura crenulata. On the basis of limited proteolytic cleavage, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, SDS/PAGE and N-terminal sequencing, we identified eight different 40-60 kDa functional units in HtH1, termed HtH1-a to HtH1-h, and determined their linear arrangement within the elongated subunit. From Haliotis mantle tissue, rich in hemocyanin-producing pore cells, we isolated mRNA and constructed a cDNA library. By expression screening with HtH-specific rabbit antibodies, a cDNA clone was isolated and sequenced which codes for the three C-terminal functional units f, g and h of HtH1. Their sequences were aligned to those available from other molluscs, notably to functional unit f and functional unit g from the cephalopod Octopus dofleini. HtH1-f, which is the first sequenced functional unit of type f from a gastropod hemocyanin, corresponds to functional unit f from Octopus. Also functional unit g from Haliotis and Octopus correspond to each other. HtH1-h is a gastropod hemocyanin functional unit type which is absent in cephalopods and has not been sequenced previously. It exhibits a unique tail extension of approximately 95 amino acids, which is lacking in functional units a to g and aligns with a published peptide sequence of 48 amino acids from functional unit h of Helix pomatia hemocyanin. The new Haliotis sequences are discussed with respect to their counterparts in Octopus, the 15 A three-dimensional reconstruction of the KLH1 didecamer from electron

  3. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers.

  4. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers. PMID:26471583

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Shewanella sp. Strain UCD-FRSP16_17 and Nine Vibrio Strains Isolated from Abalone Feces

    PubMed Central

    Vater, Ashley; Agbonavbare, Vivian; Carlin, Dylan A.; Carruthers, Griselda M.; Chac, Adam; Doroud, Ladan; Farris, Samuel J.; Gudzeva, Melanya; Jospin, Guillaume; Kintner, John A.; Knauss, Jonathon P.; Lor, Yi; Pechacek, Randi; Rohner, Eden S.; Simmons, Sierra M. V.; Verescshagina, Mayya; Wirawan, Christian S.; Zagal, Leonel

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequences for nine strains of Vibrio (V. cyclitrophicus, V. splendidus, V. tasmaniensis, and three unidentified) and one Shewanella strain. Strains were isolated from red (Haliotis rufescens) and white (Haliotis sorenseni) abalone, with and without exposure to “Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis,” the causative agent of abalone withering syndrome. PMID:27635000

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Shewanella sp. Strain UCD-FRSP16_17 and Nine Vibrio Strains Isolated from Abalone Feces.

    PubMed

    Vater, Ashley; Agbonavbare, Vivian; Carlin, Dylan A; Carruthers, Griselda M; Chac, Adam; Doroud, Ladan; Farris, Samuel J; Gudzeva, Melanya; Jospin, Guillaume; Kintner, John A; Knauss, Jonathon P; Lor, Yi; Pechacek, Randi; Rohner, Eden S; Simmons, Sierra M V; Verescshagina, Mayya; Wirawan, Christian S; Zagal, Leonel; Coil, David A

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequences for nine strains of Vibrio (V. cyclitrophicus, V. splendidus, V. tasmaniensis, and three unidentified) and one Shewanella strain. Strains were isolated from red (Haliotis rufescens) and white (Haliotis sorenseni) abalone, with and without exposure to "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis," the causative agent of abalone withering syndrome. PMID:27635000

  7. An invertebrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic structure, early developmental expression, and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family members are key signaling molecules that transduce cellular responses from the cell membrane to the nucleus upon Janus kinase (JAK) activation. Although seven STAT members have been reported in mammals, very limited information on STAT genes in molluscans is available. In this study, we identified and characterized a STAT paralog that is homologous to STAT5 from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, and designated as AbSTAT5. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence for AbSTAT5 (790 amino acids) with other counterparts revealed conserved residues important for functions and typical domain regions, including the N-terminal domain, coiled-coil domain, DNA-binding domain, linker domain, and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains as mammalian counterparts. Analysis of STAT phylogeny revealed that AbSTAT5 was clustered with the molluscan subgroup in STAT5 clade with distinct evolution. According to the genomic structure of AbSTAT5, the coding sequence was distributed into 20 exons with 19 introns. Immunologically essential transcription factor-binding sites, such as GATA-1, HNF, SP1, C/EBP, Oct-1, AP1, c-Jun, and Sox-2, were predicted at the 5'-proximal region of AbSTAT5. Expression of AbSTAT5 mRNA was detected in different stages of embryonic development and observed at considerably higher levels in the morula and late veliger stages. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that the highest level of AbSTAT5 transcripts was detected in hemocytes, followed by gill tissues. Temporal expressions of AbSTAT5 were analyzed upon live bacterial (Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C) stimulations, and significant elevations indicated immune modulation. These results suggest that AbSTAT5 may be involved in maintaining innate immune responses from developmental to adult stages in

  8. An invertebrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic structure, early developmental expression, and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family members are key signaling molecules that transduce cellular responses from the cell membrane to the nucleus upon Janus kinase (JAK) activation. Although seven STAT members have been reported in mammals, very limited information on STAT genes in molluscans is available. In this study, we identified and characterized a STAT paralog that is homologous to STAT5 from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, and designated as AbSTAT5. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence for AbSTAT5 (790 amino acids) with other counterparts revealed conserved residues important for functions and typical domain regions, including the N-terminal domain, coiled-coil domain, DNA-binding domain, linker domain, and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains as mammalian counterparts. Analysis of STAT phylogeny revealed that AbSTAT5 was clustered with the molluscan subgroup in STAT5 clade with distinct evolution. According to the genomic structure of AbSTAT5, the coding sequence was distributed into 20 exons with 19 introns. Immunologically essential transcription factor-binding sites, such as GATA-1, HNF, SP1, C/EBP, Oct-1, AP1, c-Jun, and Sox-2, were predicted at the 5'-proximal region of AbSTAT5. Expression of AbSTAT5 mRNA was detected in different stages of embryonic development and observed at considerably higher levels in the morula and late veliger stages. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that the highest level of AbSTAT5 transcripts was detected in hemocytes, followed by gill tissues. Temporal expressions of AbSTAT5 were analyzed upon live bacterial (Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C) stimulations, and significant elevations indicated immune modulation. These results suggest that AbSTAT5 may be involved in maintaining innate immune responses from developmental to adult stages in

  9. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair.

  10. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2013-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture. PMID:24367359

  11. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2014-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  12. First report on the gastropod proapoptotic AIF3 counterpart from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) deciphering its transcriptional modulation by induced pathogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a flavoprotein that is involved in oxidative phosphorylation and induces apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. There are three isozymes of AIF that have been identified to date, designated as AIF1, AIF2, and AIF3; the human AIF3 is also known as an AIF-like protein (AIFL). This study aimed to identify and characterize a homologue of AIF3 from disk abalone (AbAIF3) that belongs to the phylum Mollusca. The open reading frame (ORF) of AbAIF3 is 1749 base pairs (bp) in length and encodes a protein of 583 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 63.14 kDa. Based on our in-silico analysis, the AbAIF3 protein harbored the typical domain architecture as that of the known AIF family proteins, consisting of N-terminal Rieske and pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase domain. Comparative protein sequence analysis confirmed that AbAIF3 is a homolog of AIF3. Moreover, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that AbAIF3 had a close evolutionary relationship with the molluscan counterparts. Interestingly, AbAIF3 was shown to induce apoptosis in HEK293T cells using transfection assays followed by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, we found that AbAIF3 mRNA expression was ubiquitous in physiologically important tissues, and significantly modulated upon experimental immune stimulations in hemocytes. Collectively, our study illustrates the indispensable role of AbAIF3 in inducing apoptosis in disk abalones, which in turn might be involved in hosts' immune defense mechanisms against microbial infections. PMID:26455649

  13. First report on the gastropod proapoptotic AIF3 counterpart from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) deciphering its transcriptional modulation by induced pathogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a flavoprotein that is involved in oxidative phosphorylation and induces apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. There are three isozymes of AIF that have been identified to date, designated as AIF1, AIF2, and AIF3; the human AIF3 is also known as an AIF-like protein (AIFL). This study aimed to identify and characterize a homologue of AIF3 from disk abalone (AbAIF3) that belongs to the phylum Mollusca. The open reading frame (ORF) of AbAIF3 is 1749 base pairs (bp) in length and encodes a protein of 583 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 63.14 kDa. Based on our in-silico analysis, the AbAIF3 protein harbored the typical domain architecture as that of the known AIF family proteins, consisting of N-terminal Rieske and pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase domain. Comparative protein sequence analysis confirmed that AbAIF3 is a homolog of AIF3. Moreover, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that AbAIF3 had a close evolutionary relationship with the molluscan counterparts. Interestingly, AbAIF3 was shown to induce apoptosis in HEK293T cells using transfection assays followed by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, we found that AbAIF3 mRNA expression was ubiquitous in physiologically important tissues, and significantly modulated upon experimental immune stimulations in hemocytes. Collectively, our study illustrates the indispensable role of AbAIF3 in inducing apoptosis in disk abalones, which in turn might be involved in hosts' immune defense mechanisms against microbial infections.

  14. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  15. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    SciTech Connect

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Kimura, Kan ); Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru )

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone (Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  16. Identification and expression analysis of immune-related genes linked to Rel/NF-κB signaling pathway under stresses and bacterial challenge from the small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Huang, Yitao; Cai, Xiuhong; Zou, Zhihua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2014-12-01

    Inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and Akirin2 are all important members of Rel/NF-κB signaling pathway, which plays a pivotal role in regulating the innate immune response of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the IκB (SaIκB) and Akirin2 (SaAkirin2) cDNAs of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor were cloned and characterized. The full length cDNA of SaIκB and SaAkirin2 were 1748 bp and 1452 bp respectively, encoding a protein of 401 aa and 187 aa respectively. A conserved degradation motif (DS56GIYS60) and six ankyrin repeats were identified in the SaIκB by SMART analysis. Meanwhile, a typical nuclear localization signal (NLS) was found at the N-terminal region of the SaAkirin2 protein. Also, the mRNA expression level of SaIκB, SaAkirin2, and AbNF-κB were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results revealed that all these three genes were ubiquitously expressed in 7 selected tissues. The expression level of SaIκB in gills was higher than that in other tissues (P < 0.05) while the expression level of AbNF-κB was significantly higher in hepatopancreas and haemocytes. The highest expression level of SaAkirin2 was detected in hepatopancreas, followed by mantle. The mRNA expression levels in either gills or haemocytes of SaIκB, SaAkirin2, and AbNF-κB were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) post thermal stress, hypoxia exposure, thermal plus hypoxia stress and the injection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. These results indicated that these three NF-κB signaling pathway-related genes are involved in response to bacterial infection and play essential roles in response to thermal and hypoxia stress. PMID:25158315

  17. Differential susceptibility to the Withering Syndrome agent and renal coccidia in juvenile Haliotis rufescens, Haliotis discus hannai and the interspecific hybrid.

    PubMed

    González, Roxana; Lohrmann, Karin B; Pizarro, Javiera; Brokordt, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    Withering Syndrome (WS) is a pathogenic chronic disease caused by the intracellular rickettsial-like bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis" (WS-RLOs), which affects many abalone species. The renal coccidium (Margolisiella haliotis) has often been observed concurrent with WS infection. The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is a very susceptible species to WS and is also infected by the coccidium M. haliotis. In contrast, the Japanese abalone Haliotis discus hannai is not infected by these parasites. Interspecific hybridization is a method for improving important traits in animal husbandry. The objective of this study was to determine susceptibility to WS-RLO and M. haliotis infection in the hybrid generated from a cross between red and Japanese abalones. Juveniles from both species and the interspecific hybrid were challenged by exposure to effluent from red abalone adults infected with both parasites. The animals were analyzed by histology at 130days post-challenge. A 33% prevalence WS-RLOs was observed in the red abalone H. rufescens, whereas a 20% prevalence was observed in the hybrid. Infections were graded on a scale of 0-3. Of these red abalones infected, 53% presented grade 1 infection intensity, 10% had grade 2 infections, and 50% had grade 3 infections. However, the hybrids only presented intensities at the extremes of the scale; of those infected 33% showed grade 1 infections and 66% had grade 3 infections. The coccidium prevalence was 7% in red abalone individuals and 13% in the hybrid abalone. In contrast, the Japanese abalone did not present infections with either parasite. As with the prevalence, the infection intensities for the coccidium were higher in the hybrid abalone; of those infected 25% had grade 2 infections, and 75% had grade 3 infections, but the red abalone presented only grade 2 infection intensities. Therefore, the hybrid did not inherited non-susceptibility or resistance characteristics of the parental H. discus hannai and

  18. Effects of a Range-Expanding Sea Urchin on Behaviour of Commercially Fished Abalone

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; Johnson, Craig R.; Thomson, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone. Conclusions/Significance The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour. PMID:24073195

  19. Elasticity analyses of size-based red and white abalone matrix models: management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Leaf, Robert T

    2006-02-01

    Prospective elasticity analyses have been used to aid in the management of fished species and the conservation of endangered species. Elasticities were examined for deterministic size-based matrix models of red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, and white abalone, H. sorenseni, to evaluate which size classes influenced population growth (lambda) the most. In the red abalone matrix, growth transitions were determined from a tag recapture study and grouped into nine size classes. In the white abalone matrix, abalone growth was determined from a laboratory study and grouped into five size classes. Survivorship was estimated from tag recapture data for red abalone using a Jolly-Seber model with size as a covariate and used for both red and white abalone. Reproduction estimates for both models used averages of the number of mature eggs produced by female red and white abalone in each size class from four-year reproduction studies. Population growth rate (lambda) was set to 1.0, and the first-year survival (larval survival through to the first size class) was estimated by iteration. Survival elasticities were higher than fecundity elasticities in both the red and white matrix models. The sizes classes with the greatest survival elasticities, and therefore the most influence on population growth in the model, were the sublegal red abalone (150-178 mm) and the largest white abalone size class (140-175 mm). For red abalone, the existing minimum legal size (178 mm) protects the size class the model suggests is critical to population growth. Implementation of education programs for novice divers coupled with renewed enforcement may serve to minimize incidental mortality of the critical size class. For white abalone, conservation efforts directed at restoring adults may have more of an impact on population growth than efforts focusing on juveniles. Our work is an example of how prospective elasticity analyses of size-structured matrix models can be used to quantitatively evaluate

  20. Variable intertidal temperature explains why disease endangers black abalone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water temperatures. We measured abalone body temperatures in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean temperature and daily temperature variability on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily temperature variability increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water temperatures and was independent of temperature variability. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water temperatures periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors.

  1. Quantitative PCR detection for abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Zhe; Zhu, Zhen-Ni; Zhang, Han; Liang, Ya-Yu; Guo, Zhi-Xun; Liu, Guang-Feng; Su, You-Lu; Wang, Jiang-Yong

    2012-09-01

    Haliotis diversicolor (small abalone) is an important seafood found along the southern coast of China. Since 1999, the yields of cultured abalone in China have been severely affected by an epidemic of continuous outbreaks of a fatal disease. A novel double-stranded DNA virus, abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV), was proven to be one of the main causative agent. Although the pathogenicity and genome of AbSV has been ascertained, the epidemiology of AbSV remains to be investigated. In this study, four pairs of AbSV-specific primers were designed on the basis of the AbSV genome, and were tested for their specificities and sensitivities in quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCRs) after optimization of the annealing temperature. The 3F3/3B3 primer pair was finally chosen with a good specificity and high efficiency of amplification, with a detection limit of about 10 copies of recombinant plasmid containing AbSV genes in a 20-μL reaction mixture. In the detection of AbSV in abalone samples along the southern coast of China, most of the diseased samples had more than 80 virus copies in 1ng host genome DNA. AbSV was also demonstrated in mature hybrid (LY) and juvenile (JH) abalones from assays of healthy animals collected in recent years.

  2. Development of genetic markers in abalone through construction of a SNP database.

    PubMed

    Kang, J-H; Appleyard, S A; Elliott, N G; Jee, Y-J; Lee, J B; Kang, S W; Baek, M K; Han, Y S; Choi, T-J; Lee, Y S

    2011-06-01

    In the absence of a reference genome, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) discovery in a group of abalone species was undertaken by random sequence assembly. A web-based interface was constructed, and 11 932 DNA sequences from the genus Haliotis were assembled, with 1321 contigs built. Of these, 118 contigs that consisted of at least ten annotation groups were selected. The 1577 putative SNPs were identified from the 118 contigs, with SNPs in several HSP70 gene contigs confirmed by PCR amplification of an 809-bp DNA fragment. SNPs in the HSP70 gene were compared across eight abalone species. A total of 129 polymorphic sites, including heterozygote sites within and among species, were observed. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial HSP70 gene region showed separation of the tested abalone into two groups, one reflecting the southern hemisphere species and the other the northern hemisphere species. Interestingly, Haliotis iris from New Zealand showed a closer relationship to species distributed in the northern Pacific region. Although HSP genes are known to be highly conserved among taxa, the validation of polymorphic SNPs from HSP70 in this mollusc demonstrates the applicability of cross-species SNP markers in abalone and the first step towards universal nuclear markers in Haliotis.

  3. Mass Spectrometry and Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal an Abundant and Rapidly Evolving Abalone Sperm Protein

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Melody R.; McDowall, Margo H.; Stewart, Lia; Ouaddi, Aleena; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Abalone, a broadcast spawning marine mollusk, is an important model for molecular interactions and positive selection in fertilization, but the focus has previously been on only two sperm proteins, lysin and sp18.We used genomic and proteomic techniques to bring new insights to this model by characterizing the testis transcriptome and sperm proteome of the Red abalone Haliotis rufescens. One pair of homologous, testis-specific proteins contains a secretion signal and is small, abundant, and associated with the acrosome. Comparative analysis revealed that homologs are extremely divergent between species, and show strong evidence for positive selection. The acrosomal localization and rapid evolution of these proteins indicates that they play an important role in fertilization, and could be involved in the species-specificity of sperm-egg interactions in abalone. Our genomic and proteomic characterization of abalone fertilization resulted in the identification of interesting, novel peptides that have eluded detection in this important model system for 20 years. PMID:23585193

  4. Dynamics and distribution of black abalone populations at San Nicolas Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Hochberg, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    Dense populations of black abalones (Haliotis cracherodii Leach) were monitored in permanent intertidal plots at nine sites on San Nicolas Island from 1981 through 1990. Densities were essentially constant at all four sites along the north shore of the island throughout the study period. Densities at five sites along the south shore were more variable, possibly reflecting asynchronous variation in recruitment, mortality resulting from wave disturbance, and removal by people. Temporal variation of abalone densities apparently was not influenced by sea otters or abalone withering syndrome during this study. Abalones were strongly aggregated in space. Highest densities occurred in areas of irregular substrata, apparently as a result of preference for crevices and vertical faces. The locations of dense patches were persistent in time.

  5. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  6. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: phage therapy and natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Carolyn S.; Wight, Nathan; Crosson, Lisa M.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations. PMID:24672512

  7. Microsatellite genotyping of individual abalone larvae: parentage assignment in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Selvamani, M J; Degnan, S M; Degnan, B M

    2001-09-01

    In aquaculture, microsatellite DNA markers are used to genotype parental broodstock, to assess fertilization success, and to maintain pedigree information for selective breeding. In this study we genotyped individual Haliotis asinina larvae by analyzing a suit of polymorphic microsatellite loci. At least 10 loci can be analyzed from a single abalone veliger larva. We assayed 5 polymorphic loci to identify the parents of individual larvae produced in 3 separate crosses. In all cases, the parents of an individual veliger could be determined from as few as 3 loci. The microsatellite analysis revealed that, in each of our crosses, a single male fathered most of the veligers, despite efforts to normalize the amount of sperm contributed by competing males. These observations suggest that highly controlled breeding practices may be required to ensure that the genetic diversity of an abalone population produced for aquaculture is maintained at the level of diversity of the original broodstock.

  8. Mechanical properties and structure of Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Hemifusus tuba conch shells: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Chen, Chen; Liang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2010-03-01

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (abalone shell) and Hemifusus tuba conch shell have been studied for the purpose to comparatively investigate the mechanisms by which nature designs composites. It is shown that both shells are composed of aragonite and a small amount of proteins while the conch shell shows finer microstructure but lower strength than abalone shell. It is also shown that the fresh shells exhibits better property than those after heat-treatments. It is therefore supposed that the size of inorganic substance is not a dominant factor to improve strength, while both proteins in shells and the microstructure of inorganic matter also play important roles.

  9. Fishing from past to present: continuity and resilience of red abalone fisheries on the Channel Islands, California.

    PubMed

    Braje, Todd J; Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Dayton, Paul K; Hatch, Marco B A

    2009-06-01

    Archaeological data from coastal shell middens provide a window into the structure of ancient marine ecosystems and the nature of human impacts on fisheries that often span millennia. For decades Channel Island archaeologists have studied Middle Holocene shell middens visually dominated by large and often whole shells of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Here we use modern ecological data, historical accounts, commercial red abalone catch records, and zooarchaeological data to examine long-term spatial and temporal variation in the productivity of red abalone fisheries on the Northern Channel Islands, California (USA). Historical patterns of abundance, in which red abalone densities increase from east to west through the islands, extend deep into the Holocene. The correlation of historical and archaeological data argue for long-term spatial continuity in productive red abalone fisheries and a resilience of abalone populations despite dramatic ecological changes and intensive human predation spanning more than 8000 years. Archaeological, historical, and ecological data suggest that California kelp forests and red abalone populations are structured by a complex combination of top-down and bottom-up controls.

  10. Structural and functional biological materials: Abalone nacre, sharp materials, and abalone foot adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Albert Yu-Min

    A three-part study of lessons from nature is presented through the examination of various biological materials, with an emphasis on materials from the mollusk Haliotis rufescens, commonly referred to as the red abalone. The three categories presented are: structural hierarchy, self-assembly, and functionality. Ocean mollusk shells are composed of aragonite/calcite crystals interleaved with layers of a visco-elastic protein, having dense, tailored structures with excellent mechanical properties. The complex nano-laminate structure of this bio-composite material is characterized and related to its mechanical properties. Three levels of structural hierarchy are identified: macroscale mesolayers separating larger regions of tiled aragonite, microscale organization of 0.5 mum by 10 mum aragonite bricks; nanoscale mineral bridges passing through 30 nm layers of organic matrix separating individual aragonite tiles. Composition and growth mechanisms of this nanostructure were observed through close examination of laboratory-grown samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glass slides and nacre pucks were implanted onto the growth surface of living abalone and removed periodically to observe trends in nacre deposition. Various deproteinization and demineralization experiments are used to explore the inorganic and organic components of the nacre's structure. The organic component of the shell is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functionality of various biological materials is described and investigated. Two specific types of functionality are characterized, the ability of some materials to cut and puncture through sharp designs, and the ability for some materials to be used as attachment devices. Aspects of cutting materials employed by a broad range of animals were characterized and compared. In respect to the attachment mechanisms the foot of the abalone and the tree frog were

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Haliotis laevigata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) using MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nick A; Hall, Nathan E; Ross, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Ira R; Shiel, Brett P; Robinson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, is reported. MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing of one individual was assembled to yield a single 16,545 bp contig. The sequence shares 92% identity to the H. rubra mitochondrial genome (a closely related species that hybridize with H. laevigata in the wild). The sequence will be useful for determining the maternal contribution to hybrid populations, for investigating population structure and stock-enhancement effectiveness.

  12. Nacre in Abalone Shell: Organic and Inorganic Components and their effects to the Formation and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Maria Isabel

    Abalone nacre is a natural composite that exhibits exceptional mechanical properties due to its organization that extends to various levels of hierarchy. Most of the toughness has been attributed by nacre's third level of hierarchy which entitles a brick and mortar structure consisting of the CaCO3 tiles and organic interlayers. However, there are other important components that are vital to the structure and strength of red abalone nacre. The process of formation of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre following periods of growth interruption, taking into consideration important environmental factors (access to food and temperature) and to employ high-magnification characterization techniques (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to better understand how the soft tissue (e.g. epithelium and organic membrane) influences the mechanism of growth. The structure-property relationship of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre, focusing in the individual constituents (isolated mineral and isolated organic component) and comparing that to the integrated structure. Mechanical tests such as, tensile tests, microscratch, and nanoindentation is performed on the isolated organic constituent and the isolated mineral of red abalone shell. Specimens are characterized by SEM to verify the toughening and deformation mechanisms. Results obtained from the isolated mineral validate the importance of the organic constituent as the mechanical properties decline greatly as the organic component is removed. This approach forms a general picture of the mechanical response of the organic interlayers and growth bands and their effect on the toughness of the abalone nacre. These results are significant to understand the important characteristics of abalone nacre, such as the structure and mechanical properties, and an attempt to aid in improving the latest attempts to produce novel nacre-inspired materials.

  13. Rapid evolution of reproductive proteins in abalone and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Panhuis, Tami M; Clark, Nathaniel L; Swanson, Willie J

    2006-02-28

    Observations from different taxa, including plants, protozoa, insects and mammals, indicate that proteins involved in reproduction evolve rapidly. Several models of adaptive evolution have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, such as sexual conflict, sexual selection, self versus non-self recognition and pathogen resistance. Here we discuss the potential role of sexual conflict in the rapid evolution of reproductive genes in two different animal systems, abalone (Haliotis) and Drosophila. In abalone, we reveal how specific interacting sperm-egg proteins were identified and discuss this identification in the light of models for rapid protein evolution and speciation. For Drosophila, we describe the genomic approaches taken to identify male accessory gland proteins and female reproductive tract proteins. Patterns of protein evolution from both abalone and Drosophila support the predicted patterns of rapid protein evolution driven by sexual conflict. We stress however that other selective pressures may contribute to the rapid evolution that is observed. We conclude that the key to distinguishing between sexual conflict and other mechanisms of protein evolution will be an integration of genetic, experimental and theoretical data.

  14. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  15. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  16. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations. PMID:27070027

  17. Functional annotation of an expressed sequence tag library from Haliotis diversicolor and analysis of its plant-like sequences.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Zhe; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhi-Xun; Cai, Chen-Chen; Su, You-Lu; Wang, Rui-Xuan; Wang, Jiang-Yong

    2011-09-01

    The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, is a widely distributed and cultured species in the subtropical coastal area of China. To identify and classify functional genes of this important species, a normalized expressed sequence tag (EST) library, including 7069 high quality ESTs from the total body of H. diversicolor, was analyzed. A total of 4781 unigenes were assembled and 2991 novel abalone genes were identified. The GC content, codon and amino acid usage of the transcriptome were analyzed. For the accurate annotation of the abalone library, different influencing factors were evaluated. The gene ontology (GO) database provided a higher annotation rate (69.6%), and sequences longer than 800bp were easily subjected to a BLAST search. The taxonomy of the BLAST results showed that lancelet and invertebrates are most closely related to abalone. Sixty-seven identified plant-like genes were further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing, only seven of these were real transcripts in abalone. Phylogenic trees were also constructed to illustrate the positions of two Cystatin sequences and one Calmodulin protein sequence identified in abalone. To perform functional classification, three different databases (GO, KEGG and COG) were used and 60 immune or disease-related unigenes were determined. This work has greatly enlarged the known gene pool of H. diversicolor and will have important implications for future molecular and genetic analyses in this organism.

  18. Setting realistic recovery targets for two interacting endangered species, sea otter and northern abalone.

    PubMed

    Chadès, Iadine; Curtis, Janelle M R; Martin, Tara G

    2012-12-01

    Failure to account for interactions between endangered species may lead to unexpected population dynamics, inefficient management strategies, waste of scarce resources, and, at worst, increased extinction risk. The importance of species interactions is undisputed, yet recovery targets generally do not account for such interactions. This shortcoming is a consequence of species-centered legislation, but also of uncertainty surrounding the dynamics of species interactions and the complexity of modeling such interactions. The northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) and one of its preferred prey, northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana), are endangered species for which recovery strategies have been developed without consideration of their strong predator-prey interactions. Using simulation-based optimization procedures from artificial intelligence, namely reinforcement learning and stochastic dynamic programming, we combined sea otter and northern abalone population models with functional-response models and examined how different management actions affect population dynamics and the likelihood of achieving recovery targets for each species through time. Recovery targets for these interacting species were difficult to achieve simultaneously in the absence of management. Although sea otters were predicted to recover, achieving abalone recovery targets failed even when threats to abalone such as predation and poaching were reduced. A management strategy entailing a 50% reduction in the poaching of northern abalone was a minimum requirement to reach short-term recovery goals for northern abalone when sea otters were present. Removing sea otters had a marginally positive effect on the abalone population but only when we assumed a functional response with strong predation pressure. Our optimization method could be applied more generally to any interacting threatened or invasive species for which there are multiple conservation objectives.

  19. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  20. Interfacial shear strength in abalone nacre.

    PubMed

    Lin, Albert Yu-Min; Meyers, Marc André

    2009-12-01

    The shear strength of the interface between tiles of aragonite in the nacre of red abalone Haliotis rufescens was investigated through mechanical tensile and shear tests. Dog-bone shaped samples were used to determine the tensile strength of nacre when loaded parallel to the plane of growth; the mean strength was 65 MPa. Shear tests were conducted on a special fixture with a shear gap of 200 microm, approximately 100 microm narrower than the spacing between mesolayers. The shear strength is found to be 36.9+/-15.8 MPa with an average maximum shear strain of 0.3. Assuming the majority of failure occurs through tile pull-out and not through tile fracture, the tensile strength can be converted into a shear strength of 50.9 MPa. Three mechanisms of failure at the tile interfaces are discussed: fracture of mineral bridges, toughening due to friction created through nanoasperities, and toughening due to organic glue. An additional mechanism is fracture through individual tiles.

  1. Polarization-dependent imaging contrast in abalone shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Abrecht, Mike; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Guo, Jinghua; Ariosa, Daniel; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2008-02-01

    Many biominerals contain micro- or nanocrystalline mineral components, organized accurately into architectures that confer the material with improved mechanical performance at the macroscopic scale. We present here an effect which enables us to observe the relative orientation of individual crystals at the submicron scale. We call it polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC), as it is an imaging development of the well-known x-ray linear dichroism. Most importantly, PIC is obtained in situ, in biominerals. We present here PIC in the prismatic and nacreous layers of Haliotis rufescens (red abalone), confirm it in geologic calcite and aragonite, and corroborate the experimental data with theoretical simulated spectra. PIC reveals different and unexpected aspects of nacre architecture that have inspired theoretical models for nacre formation.

  2. Synchrotron X-ray Microbeam Diffraction from Abalone Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimasi, Elaine; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2004-03-01

    Microstructured biomaterials such as mollusk shells receive much attention, due to the promise that advanced materials can be designed and synthesized with biomimetic techniques that take advantage of self-assembly and aqueous, ambient processing conditions. A satisfactory understanding of this process requires characterization of the microstructure at the growth fronts where control over crystal orientation and morphology is enacted. We present synchrotron x-ray microbeam observations near the nacre-prismatic interface of red abalone shell (Haliotis rufescens). The relative orientations of calcite and aragonite grains exhibit differences from the idealizations reported previously. Long calcite grains impinge the boundary at 45^rc angles, suggestive of nucleation on (104) planes followed by c-axis growth. Within 100 μm of the boundary, crystals lose their bulk orientational order. The calcite crystal mosaic measured by x-ray diffraction rocking curves is resolution limited, comparable to geological calcite.

  3. Pyrosequencing of Haliotis diversicolor Transcriptomes: Insights into Early Developmental Molluscan Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zi-Xia; Chen, Zhi-Sen; Ke, Cai-Huan; Zhao, Jing; You, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Jie; Dong, Wei-Ting; Chen, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background The abalone Haliotis diversicolor is a good model for study of the settlement and metamorphosis, which are widespread marine ecological phenomena. However, information on the global gene backgrounds and gene expression profiles for the early development of abalones is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, eight non-normalized and multiplex barcode-labeled transcriptomes were sequenced using a 454 GS system to cover the early developmental stages of the abalone H. diversicolor. The assembly generated 35,415 unigenes, of which 7,566 were assigned GO terms. A global gene expression profile containing 636 scaffolds/contigs was constructed and was proven reliable using qPCR evaluation. It indicated that there may be existing dramatic phase transitions. Bioprocesses were proposed, including the ‘lock system’ in mature eggs, the collagen shells of the trochophore larvae and the development of chambered extracellular matrix (ECM) structures within the earliest postlarvae. Conclusion This study globally details the first 454 sequencing data for larval stages of H. diversicolor. A basic analysis of the larval transcriptomes and cluster of the gene expression profile indicates that each stage possesses a batch of specific genes that are indispensable during embryonic development, especially during the two-cell, trochophore and early postlarval stages. These data will provide a fundamental resource for future physiological works on abalones, revealing the mechanisms of settlement and metamorphosis at the molecular level. PMID:23236463

  4. Nested PCR detection of abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Zhe; Liang, Ya-Yu; Luo, Li-Juan; Guo, Zhi-Xun; Zhuang, Jun; Liu, Guang-Feng; Su, You-Lu; Wang, Jiang-Yong

    2012-09-01

    Haliotis diversicolor (small abalone) is an economic seafood found off the Southern coast of China. Since 1999, the cultured abalone yields in China have been affected severely by continual outbreaks of a fatal epidemic disease caused by abalone shriveling syndrome associated virus (AbSV), a double-stranded DNA virus. Although the pathogenicity and genome of AbSV have been ascertained, the epidemiology of AbSV infection remains to be investigated. In the present study, four pairs of AbSV-specific primers were designed on the basis of open reading frame (ORF)24 and ORF25 sequences in the AbSV genome. Two nested PCR detection methods were established by optimization of the annealing temperatures of primers. The results showed that the specificity of primers for AbSV detection could not be interfered with by the host genome and other aquaculture species or viruses. The detection limits of the two methods were about 10 copies of recombinant plasmid containing AbSV genes in 20μL reaction mixture. The results of detection of the AbSV epidemic showed that AbSV was still present in juvenile abalones in some farms along the Southern coast of China (Fujian and Guangdong).

  5. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.

  6. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  7. Molecular genetics to inform spatial management in benthic invertebrate fisheries: a case study using the Australian greenlip abalone.

    PubMed

    Miller, K J; Mundy, C N; Mayfield, S

    2014-10-01

    Hierarchical sampling and subsequent microsatellite genotyping of >2300 Haliotis laevigata (greenlip abalone) from 19 locations distributed across five biogeographic regions have substantially advanced our knowledge of population structure and connectivity in this commercially important species. The study has found key differences in stock structure of H. laevigata compared with the sympatric and congeneric Haliotis rubra (blacklip abalone) and yielded valuable insights into the management of fisheries targeting species characterized by spatial structure at small scales (i.e. S-fisheries). As with H. rubra, H. laevigata comprise a series of metapopulations with strong self-recruitment. However, the spatial extent of H. laevigata metapopulations (reefal areas around 30 km(2) ; distances of up to 135 km are effective barriers to larval dispersal) was substantially greater than that identified for H. rubra (Miller et al. 2009). Differences in the dynamics and scale of population processes, even between congeneric haliotids as made evident in this study, imply that for S-fisheries, it is difficult to generalize about the potential consequences of life history commonalities. Consequently, species-specific management reflective of the population structure of the target species remains particularly important. This will likely require integration of information about stock structure and connectivity with data on life history and population dynamics to determine the necessary input (e.g. number of fishers, fishing effort) and output (e.g. minimum legal size, total allowable catch) controls to underpin their sustainable management.

  8. Molecular genetics to inform spatial management in benthic invertebrate fisheries: a case study using the Australian greenlip abalone.

    PubMed

    Miller, K J; Mundy, C N; Mayfield, S

    2014-10-01

    Hierarchical sampling and subsequent microsatellite genotyping of >2300 Haliotis laevigata (greenlip abalone) from 19 locations distributed across five biogeographic regions have substantially advanced our knowledge of population structure and connectivity in this commercially important species. The study has found key differences in stock structure of H. laevigata compared with the sympatric and congeneric Haliotis rubra (blacklip abalone) and yielded valuable insights into the management of fisheries targeting species characterized by spatial structure at small scales (i.e. S-fisheries). As with H. rubra, H. laevigata comprise a series of metapopulations with strong self-recruitment. However, the spatial extent of H. laevigata metapopulations (reefal areas around 30 km(2) ; distances of up to 135 km are effective barriers to larval dispersal) was substantially greater than that identified for H. rubra (Miller et al. 2009). Differences in the dynamics and scale of population processes, even between congeneric haliotids as made evident in this study, imply that for S-fisheries, it is difficult to generalize about the potential consequences of life history commonalities. Consequently, species-specific management reflective of the population structure of the target species remains particularly important. This will likely require integration of information about stock structure and connectivity with data on life history and population dynamics to determine the necessary input (e.g. number of fishers, fishing effort) and output (e.g. minimum legal size, total allowable catch) controls to underpin their sustainable management. PMID:25211183

  9. Identification of candidate antimicrobial peptides derived from abalone hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Ping; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2015-03-01

    Hemocyanins present in invertebrate hemolymph are multifunctional proteins, responsible for oxygen transport and contributing to innate immunity through phenoloxidase-like activity. In arthropods, hemocyanin has been identified as a source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides during infection. Conversely, no hemocyanin-derived antimicrobial peptides have been reported for molluscs. The present study describes a putative antimicrobial region, termed haliotisin, located within the linking sequence between the α-helical domain and β-sheet domain of abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin functional unit E. A series of synthetic peptides based on overlapping fragments of the haliotisin region were tested for their bactericidal potential. Incubating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the presence of certain haliotisin peptides, notably peptides 3-4-5 (DTFDYKKFGYRYDSLELEGRSISRIDELIQQRQEKDRTFAGFLLKGFGTSAS) led to reductions in microbial growth. Furthermore, transmission electron micrographs of haliotisin-treated bacteria revealed damages to the microbial cell wall. Data discussed here provides the first evidence to suggest that molluscan hemocyanin may act as a source of anti-infective peptides. PMID:25445903

  10. Settlement specifics: Effective induction of abalone settlement and metamorphosis corresponds to biomolecular composition of natural cues.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Cummins, Scott; Degnan, Sandie M

    2009-07-01

    Chemical signaling plays a major role in shaping life history processes that drive ecology and evolution in marine systems, notably including habitat selection by marine invertebrate larvae that must settle out of the plankton onto the benthos.1 For larvae, the identification of appropriate habitats in which to settle and undergo metamorphosis to the adult form relies heavily on the recognition of cues indicative of a favorable environment. By documenting settlement responses of larvae of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, to a range of coralline algae species, we recently highlighted the species-specific nature of this interaction.2 Here, we demonstrate that this specificity is likely driven by chemical, rather than physical, properties of the algae. Our initial characterization of the surface cell biomarkers from three different algal species shows that inductive cue biomolecular composition correlates with variations in larval settlement response.

  11. Egg-laying-hormone immunoreactivity in the neural ganglia and ovary of Haliotis asinina Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Saitongdee, P; Apisawetakan, S; Anunruang, N; Poomthong, T; Hanna, P; Sobhon, P

    2005-11-01

    Immunoreactivity against the abalone egg-laying hormone (aELH) was detected in the fine granules of type 1 and 2 neurosecretory (NS) cells, neurites in the neuropil, and blood sinuses in the connective tissue sheath of the cerebral, pleuropedal, and visceral ganglia of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina Linnaeus. The number of positive NS cells, and the intensity of staining in the ganglia, varied and might be related to the stage of ovarian cycle. At any stage, positive cells were most numerous in the pleuropedal, and least numerous in the visceral ganglion. In addition, several cells of the statocyst and associated nerves also exhibited the immunoreactivity. In the ovary, the most intense reactivity was detected in the follicular and granular cells adjacent to mature oocytes, in the trabeculae and the ovarian capsule. The cytoplasm of mature oocytes was also moderately stained. The results indicate that the cerebral, pleuropedal, and visceral ganglia are the main sites of aELH-producing cells. The ovary may also produce aELH locally.

  12. [Construction of SSH library from haemocyte of variously colored abalone challenged with bacteria and differential expression analysis of macrophage expressed protein].

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Lin; Xu, Dan-Dan; Qiao, Kun; Cai, Ling; Huang, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Nai; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2008-08-01

    Abalones are considered to be the most precious delicacy from the sea, and become very important commercial seafood in aquaculture worldwide. Variously colored abalone (Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, 1846) has been widely cultured on the southeast coast for more than twenty years. However, abalone culture frequently suffers from bacterial infection and mass mortality of reared abalones causes serious economic losses. Unfortunately, knowledge of the defense mechanism in this animal is still lacking. In this study, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology, a forward SSH library was constructed from haemocytes of H. diversicolor, with the content of 1.37x10(6) pfu and the recombinant rate of 98.18%. After the recombinant plasmids were sequenced, partial cDNA of macrophage expressed protein (MEP) was recognized based on BLAST searches in NCBI, with the size of 1,551 bp, and continuously encoding 517 amino acids. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR results showed that MEP cDNA was distinctly up-regulated in haemocytes of the bacterial-challenged group compared to the unchallenged group. The gene information obtained from this library will provide new insights into the immune mechanism of H. diversicolor and facilitate future study of target genes involved in the response to invading microorganisms.

  13. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  14. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  15. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  16. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  17. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  18. Splice Variants of Perlucin from Haliotis laevigata Modulate the Crystallisation of CaCO3

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Sebastian; Grunwald, Ingo; Kelm, Sørge

    2014-01-01

    Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl) playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation. PMID:24824517

  19. Detrimental effects of reduced seawater pH on the early development of the Pacific abalone.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaqi; Jiang, Zengjie; Zhang, Jihong; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Du, Meirong; Bian, Dapeng; Fang, Jianguang

    2013-09-15

    The hatching process of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai was prolonged at a pH of 7.6 and pH 7.3, and the embryonic developmental success was reduced. The hatching rate at pH 7.3 was significantly (10.8%) lower than that of the control (pH 8.2). The malformation rates at pH 7.9 and pH 8.2 were less than 20% but were 53.8% and 77.3% at pH 7.6 and pH 7.3, respectively. When newly hatched larvae were incubated for 48 h at pH 7.3, only 2.7% of the larvae settled, while more than 70% of the larvae completed settlement in the other three pH treatments. However, most 24 h old larvae could complete metamorphosis in all four pH treatments. Overall, a 0.3-unit reduction in water pH will produce no negative effect on the early development of the Pacific abalone, but further reduction in pH to the values predicted for seawater by the end of this century will have strong detrimental effects.

  20. Rheological properties and structural changes in different sections of boiled abalone meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Gao; Zhixu, Tang; Zhaohui, Zhang; Hiroo, Ogawa

    2003-04-01

    Changes in tissue structures, rheological properties of cross- and vertical section boiled abalone meat were studied in relation to boiling time. The adductor muscle of abalone Haliotis discus which was removed from the shell, was boiled for 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. Then it was cut up and separated into cross- and vertical section meat. When observed by a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope, structural changes in the myofibrils were greatest in the cross section meat compared with the vertical section meat. When boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h, the instantaneous modulus E 0 and rupture strength of both section meat decreased gradually with increased boiling time, and no significant differences were observed between these two section meat for the same boiling time. When boiled for 1 h, the relaxation time of cross section meat was much longer than that of vertical section meat. There were no significant changes in the relaxation time of vertical section for different boiling time, but the relaxation time of cross section meat was reduced gradually with increasing boiling time. These results confirmed that the difference in rheological properties between the cross- and vertical section meat was mainly due to the denaturation level of myofibrils when heated for 1 h, as well as due to the changes in the amount of denatured proteins, and the manner in which the inner denatured protein components were exchanged after boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h.

  1. Iridescence of a shell of mollusk Haliotis Glabra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Wong, D.; Lee, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Pearls and shells of some mollusks are attractive inorganic materials primarily owing to the beauty of their natural lustrous and iridescent surface. The iridescent colors can be explained by diffraction or interference or both, depending on the microstructure of the surface. Strong iridescent colors are very evident on the polished shell of the mollusk Haliotis Glabra, commonly known as abalone. It would be interesting to study how these colors are produced on the surface of the shell. By using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the surface of the shell is found to have a fine-scale diffraction grating structure, and stacks of thin crystalline nacreous layers or platelets are found below the surface. These observations suggest that the iridescent colors are caused by both diffraction and interference. From measurements done on the diffraction patterns that were obtained using a He-Ne laser illuminating the shell, the groove width of the grating structure was derived. Good agreement was found between the derived groove density by diffraction and that measured directly using the SEM. The crystalline structure of the nacreous layers of the shell is studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and SEM observations. The infrared absorption peaks of 700, 713, 862 and 1083 cm-1 confirmed that the nacre of the shell is basically aragonite. The strong iridescent colors of the shell are the result of high groove density on the surface which causes diffraction. The uniform stacking of layers of nacre below the surface of the shell also causes interference effects that contribute to the iridescent colors.

  2. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-13

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1 → 2)-Man, GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of → 2)-α-Man(1 → 4)-β-GlcA(1 → repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 2)-GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-GlcA-(1 → repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly. PMID:26279526

  3. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-13

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1 → 2)-Man, GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of → 2)-α-Man(1 → 4)-β-GlcA(1 → repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 2)-GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-GlcA-(1 → repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly.

  4. Anaphylaxis to grand keyhole limpet (abalone-like shellfish) and abalone.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, A; Kato, M; Tokuyama, K; Kuroume, T; Minoshima, M; Iwata, S

    1990-11-01

    We report five patients who developed moderate to severe anaphylactic reactions induced by the ingestion of grand keyhole limpet (GKL) and abalone. Specific IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to these shellfish was demonstrated by history, prick skin test, and RAST. RAST inhibition technique revealed the cross-antigenicity between GKL, abalone, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin.

  5. Carry-over effect of larval settlement cue on postlarval gene expression in the marine gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Degnan, Sandie M

    2009-11-01

    The drastic shift from pelagic larvae to benthic adult form that occurs during marine invertebrate metamorphosis is often induced by intimate interactions between settling larvae and their benthic environment. Larval experience prior to and during metamorphosis can significantly affect adult fitness, but it is presently unknown whether the exact nature of the inductive cue is an experience that matters, or by what mechanism such carry-over effects are mediated. Here we test for carry-over effects of the specific nature of inductive cues on gene expression in metamorphosing postlarvae of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina. Postlarvae induced by three different species of coralline algae all successfully undergo metamorphosis, yet the expression profiles of 11 of 17 metamorphosis-related genes differ according to which species of algae the larvae settled upon. Significantly, several genes continue to be differentially expressed for at least 40 h after removal of the algae from the postlarvae, clearly demonstrating a carry-over effect of inductive cue on gene expression. We observe a carryover effect in several genes with varying functions and spatial expression patterns, indicating that each algal species impacts global gene expression in a unique manner. These data unexpectedly reveal that transcriptional modulation of metamorphosis-related genes is contingent upon the precise composition of the benthic microenvironment experienced directly at induction of settlement, and highlight transcription as a mechanism that can mediate between larval and postlarval experiences. For new recruits into an abalone population, metamorphosis clearly does not represent a new transcriptional beginning.

  6. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a novel cysteine protease inhibitor from Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianfeng; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-02-01

    The sequence of the cysteine protease inhibitor gene of Haliotis discus hannai (designated HdCpi) was determined using the RACE method. The full-length HdCpi cDNA is 1049 bp long, and contains an open reading frame of 813 bp, encoding a 271-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 29.83 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.57. The deduced amino acid sequence of HdCpi contains two cystatin-like domains, and each has the structural features of the cystatin family, including three evolutionarily conserved motifs known to interact with the active sites of cysteine peptidases: the Gly residue at the N-terminus (Gly(65) and Gly(160)), the Gln-X-Val-X-Gly motif (Q(106)IVSG(110) and Q(202)VVAG(206)), and the less conserved motif at the C-terminus (S(136)W(137) and A(254)W(255)). Many putative transcription-factor-binding sites involved in the immune system and cancer occur in the promoter region of HdCpi. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR detected HdCpi expression in all the tissues examined and in the gills of abalone challenged with the bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. HdCpi transcripts were expressed in the mantle, gill, digestive tract, hemocytes, and muscle, and increased HdCpi expression was observed after bacterial stimulation. These results suggest that HdCpi is a biologically active protease inhibitor that is likely to be involved in the antibacterial response of the abalone. PMID:25463299

  7. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a novel cysteine protease inhibitor from Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianfeng; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-02-01

    The sequence of the cysteine protease inhibitor gene of Haliotis discus hannai (designated HdCpi) was determined using the RACE method. The full-length HdCpi cDNA is 1049 bp long, and contains an open reading frame of 813 bp, encoding a 271-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 29.83 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.57. The deduced amino acid sequence of HdCpi contains two cystatin-like domains, and each has the structural features of the cystatin family, including three evolutionarily conserved motifs known to interact with the active sites of cysteine peptidases: the Gly residue at the N-terminus (Gly(65) and Gly(160)), the Gln-X-Val-X-Gly motif (Q(106)IVSG(110) and Q(202)VVAG(206)), and the less conserved motif at the C-terminus (S(136)W(137) and A(254)W(255)). Many putative transcription-factor-binding sites involved in the immune system and cancer occur in the promoter region of HdCpi. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR detected HdCpi expression in all the tissues examined and in the gills of abalone challenged with the bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. HdCpi transcripts were expressed in the mantle, gill, digestive tract, hemocytes, and muscle, and increased HdCpi expression was observed after bacterial stimulation. These results suggest that HdCpi is a biologically active protease inhibitor that is likely to be involved in the antibacterial response of the abalone.

  8. A novel small heat shock protein of Haliotis discus hannai: characterization, structure modeling, and expression profiles under environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo-Guang; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a class of chaperones with low molecular weight, feathered by a C-terminal α-crystallin domain (ACD). They participate in reestablishing the stability of partially denatured proteins and therefore contribute to cellular homeostasis. In this work, we identified a sHsp homolog (designated as sHsp19) from Haliotis discus hannai, an economically important farmed mollusk in East Asia. sHsp19 possesses a sHsp hallmark domain, which exhibits the typical fold of ACD as revealed by a three-dimensional model constructed through an iterative threading assembly refinement method. The amino acid sequence sHsp19 shares low identities with any other known sHsps, with percentages below 35 %. Besides, sHsp19 shows relatively distant phylogenetic relationships with sHsps of various mollusks, including two other identified sHsps of abalone subspecies. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of sHsp19 occurred in multiple tissues. Upon exposure to thermal, oxidative, and multiple toxic metal stresses, the level of sHsp19 mRNA was rapidly elevated in a persistent fashion, with the maximum increase up to 170.58-, 405.84-, and 361.96-fold, respectively. These results indicate sHsp is a novel sHsp that possesses the distinguishing structural feature of sHsps but has remote homologies with known sHsps. It is likely to be important in stress adaptation of abalone and may be applied as a bioindicator for monitoring pollution or detrimental changes of environment in abalone culture. PMID:27084408

  9. A novel small heat shock protein of Haliotis discus hannai: characterization, structure modeling, and expression profiles under environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo-Guang; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a class of chaperones with low molecular weight, feathered by a C-terminal α-crystallin domain (ACD). They participate in reestablishing the stability of partially denatured proteins and therefore contribute to cellular homeostasis. In this work, we identified a sHsp homolog (designated as sHsp19) from Haliotis discus hannai, an economically important farmed mollusk in East Asia. sHsp19 possesses a sHsp hallmark domain, which exhibits the typical fold of ACD as revealed by a three-dimensional model constructed through an iterative threading assembly refinement method. The amino acid sequence sHsp19 shares low identities with any other known sHsps, with percentages below 35 %. Besides, sHsp19 shows relatively distant phylogenetic relationships with sHsps of various mollusks, including two other identified sHsps of abalone subspecies. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of sHsp19 occurred in multiple tissues. Upon exposure to thermal, oxidative, and multiple toxic metal stresses, the level of sHsp19 mRNA was rapidly elevated in a persistent fashion, with the maximum increase up to 170.58-, 405.84-, and 361.96-fold, respectively. These results indicate sHsp is a novel sHsp that possesses the distinguishing structural feature of sHsps but has remote homologies with known sHsps. It is likely to be important in stress adaptation of abalone and may be applied as a bioindicator for monitoring pollution or detrimental changes of environment in abalone culture.

  10. Widespread transcriptional changes pre-empt the critical pelagic-benthic transition in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Degnan, Bernard M; Gunter, Helen; Jackson, Daniel J; Woodcroft, Ben J; Degnan, Sandie M

    2009-03-01

    Larval settlement is a vital transition period for marine invertebrates and can have far-reaching effects on the ecology and evolution of a species. To explore the molecular mechanisms of this critical process in a nonmodel organism, the abalone Haliotis asinina, we employed cDNA microarrays. By comparing gene expression profiles through mid- to late larval development and metamorphosis, we identified 144 genes as candidates for a role in competence and/or metamorphosis. Gene characterization indicates ~60% of these are significantly similar to known genes from other taxa, while ~40% are novel. A high 49.3% of genes are gastropod or abalone specific, but none appears to be Lophotrochozoan specific, even though metamorphosis is thought to have had a separate origin in this group. Differentially expressed larval and postlarval genes can be clustered into five categories that reveal strikingly different temporal transcriptional patterns occurring during this phase of development. Some gene activation is contingent upon exogenous cues and correlates with initiation of settlement. Importantly, there is also extensive gene activity associated with the endogenous attainment of competence, which occurs before, and independent of, the exogenous induction of settlement. Our results show that as the haliotid veliger larva matures, it requires coordinated regulation of temporally different batteries of genes involved in a wide range of physiological and developmental processes associated with benthic colonization. Although the signalling pathways operating at metamorphosis may be conserved across the animal kingdom, it appears they regulate the expression of novel genes specific to abalone, gastropods and molluscs during H. asinina metamorphosis.

  11. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, M. Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100’s of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  12. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model.

    PubMed

    Jalali, M Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  13. First data on trace elements in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) from southern Italy: Safety issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the concentrations of 10 metals in wild specimens of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) (Linnaeus, 1758) from three sites along the southern Italian coast: Gulf of Catania (CT), the Northern Coast of Messina (ME) and the harbor of Villa San Giovanni (VSG). The species is commonly found in the area and has significant commercial value. Additionally, it is long lived, thus suitable as bioindicator of the environmental monitoring. The potential human health risks due to consumption of Ht have been assessed by estimated average daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of metals, respectively. In particular arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were quantified in the edible tissue of specimens by acid digestion of the samples and ICP-MS determination. The highest concentrations were found in CT sample area for most metals analyzed. Mean values for Pb, Cd and Hg were lower than the maximum levels (MLs) set for bivalve mollusks by Regulation (CE) no. 1881/2006 in all sites, and average intake values below the risk levels for human consumption. PMID:25912965

  14. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patchily distributed benthic environments. Results We have characterised differences in the rate of development between individuals originating from a synchronised fertilisation event in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, a broadcast spawning lecithotrophic vetigastropod. We observed significant differences in the time taken to complete early developmental events (time taken to complete third cleavage and to hatch from the vitelline envelope), mid-larval events (variation in larval shell development) and late larval events (the acquisition of competence to respond to a metamorphosis inducing cue). We also provide estimates of the variation in maternally provided energy reserves that suggest maternal provisioning is unlikely to explain the majority of the variation in developmental rate we report here. Conclusions Significant differences in the rates of development exist both within and between cohorts of synchronously fertilised H. asinina gametes. These differences can be detected shortly after fertilisation and generate larvae of increasingly divergent development states. We discuss the significance of our results within an ecological context, the adaptive significance of mechanisms that might maintain this variation, and potential sources of this variation. PMID:22339806

  15. Expression of anterior Hox genes during larval development of the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Veronica F; O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Richards, Gemma S; Degnan, Bernard M

    2003-01-01

    We report the spatial expression patterns of five anterior Hox genes during larval development of the gastropod mollusc Haliotis asinina, an unsegmented spiralian lophotrochozoan. Molecular alignments and phylogenetic analysis indicate that these genes are homologues of Drosophila HOM-C genes labial, proboscipedia, zen, Deformed, and Sex combs reduced; the abalone genes are named Has-Hox1, -Hox2, -Hox3, -Hox4, and -Hox5. Has-Hox transcripts are first detected in the free-swimming trochophore larval stage and restricted to the posttrochal ectoderm. Has-Hox2, -Hox3, and -Hox4 are expressed in bilaterally symmetrical and overlapping patterns in presumptive neuroectodermal cells on the ventral side of the trochophore. Has-Hox1 expression is restricted to a ring of cells on the dorsoposterior surface, corresponding to the outer mantle edge where new larval shell is being synthesized. There appears to be little change in the expression domains of these Has-Hox genes in pre- and posttorsional veliger larvae, with expression maintained in ectodermal and neuroectodermal tissues. Has-Hox2, -Hox3, -Hox4, and-Hox5 appear to be expressed in a colinear manner in the ganglia and connectives in the twisted nervous system. This pattern is not evident in older larvae. Has-Hox1 and-Hox4 are expressed in the margin of the mantle in the posttorsional veliger, suggesting that Hox genes play a role in gastropod shell formation.

  16. Heat inactivation of a norovirus surrogate in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Young; Bae, San-Cheong; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-03-01

    The current study examined the effects of temperature and heat treatment duration on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) from both viral cell culture lysate (7-8 log10 PFU) and experimentally contaminated abalone meat and viscera (5-6 log10 PFU) as a model of human norovirus (NoV). MNV-1 titers in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 1.93-4.55, 1.79-3.00, and 2.26-3.26 log10 PFU/ml, respectively, after treatment at 70 °C for 1-10 min. Treatment at 85 °C for 1-5 min gradually reduced MNV-1 titers in abalone meat to 2.71-4.15 log10 PFU/ml. MNV-1 titers in abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 2.91-3.46 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 85 °C for 1-3 min. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in MNV-1 titers in the abalone meat and viscera among treatment groups (70 °C for 5 min, 70 °C for 3 min, and 85 °C for 1 min). Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in cell culture lysate was determined at 85 °C for ≥1 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min. Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in abalone was determined at 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for meat, and 85 °C for 5 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for viscera. At treatments at 70 °C, the Td-values (3 log reduction time) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the cell culture lysate (3.38) than for the abalone meat (6.07) and viscera (10.73). Td = 3 values were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between abalone meat (1.78) and abalone viscera (1.33) at treatments at 85 °C. This study suggests that 100 °C for ≥0.5 min could potentially be used to inactivate NoV in molluscan shellfishes, including viscera. PMID:25526718

  17. Morphology and crystalline characterization of abalone shell and mimetic mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiajun; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Ying; Huang, Yaping; Wang, Dujin; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Jinguang; Xu, Duanfu

    2003-05-01

    The microstructure and crystallization habit of natural abalone shells were characterized with the methods of SEM and XRD, etc. The soluble proteins extracted from the abalone shell play an important role on controlling the morphology and transformation of the mineral phase in the abalone shell. In vitro crystallization experiments of calcium carbonate showed that the addition of the soluble protein accelerates the transformation from vaterite to calcite.

  18. The identification of growth lines in abalone shell using a nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettiol, A. A.; Yang, C.; Hawkes, G. P.; Jamieson, D. N.; Malmqvist, K. G.; Day, R. W.

    1999-10-01

    Ionoluminescence (IL) combined with particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) imaging has been employed to identify intrinsic growth bands in the spire region, and extrinsic bands at the growth edge of Australian Black-lip abalone shell ( Haliotis rubra). Previous studies using optical flood cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and Raman spectroscopy on samples from the same population suggest that the visible luminescence is due to Mn 2+ activated calcium carbonate. In this study we confirm Mn 2+ as the activator in both the spire and growth edge regions of the shell. The sensitivity of ionoluminescence to the co-ordination environment of the Mn 2+ activators in the shell allows for the spatial identification of the calcium carbonate polymorph responsible for the growth lines observed optically. Furthermore the detection and mapping of trace elements such as Mn and Sr with the PIXE technique enables comparisons to be made between calcite and aragonite biomineralized in the wild and under laboratory conditions.

  19. Proteomic strategy for identifying mollusc shell proteins using mild chemical degradation and trypsin digestion of insoluble organic shell matrix: a pilot study on Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Bédouet, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Benjamin; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Marin, Frédéric; Milet, Christian

    2012-08-01

    A successful strategy for the identification of shell proteins is based on proteomic analyses where soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from organic shell matrix are digested with trypsin with the aim of generating peptides, which are used to identify novel shell proteins contained in databases. However, using trypsin as a sole degradative agent is limited by the enzyme's cleavage specificity and is dependent upon the occurrence of lysine and arginine in the shell protein sequence. To bypass this limitation, we investigated the ability of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a low-specificity chemical degradative agent, to generate clusters of analyzable peptides from organic shell matrix, suitable for database annotation. Acetic acid-insoluble fractions from Haliotis tuberculata shell were processed by trypsin followed by TFA digestion. The hydrolysates were used to annotate an expressed sequence tag library constructed from the mantle tissue of Haliotis asinina, a tropical abalone species. The characterization of sequences with repeat motifs featured in some of the shell matrix proteins benefited from TFA-induced serial cutting, which can result in peptide ladder series. Using the degradative specificities of TFA and trypsin, we were able to identify five novel shell proteins. This pilot study indicates that a mild chemical digestion of organic shell matrix combined with trypsin generates peptides suitable for proteomic analysis for better characterization of mollusc shell matrix proteins.

  20. Pleistocene isolation and recent gene flow in Haliotis asinina, an Indo-Pacific vetigastropod with limited dispersal capacity.

    PubMed

    Imron; Jeffrey, Benardine; Hale, Peter; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M

    2007-01-01

    Haliotis asinina is a broadcast-spawning mollusc that inhabits Indo-Pacific coral reefs. This tropical abalone develops through a nonfeeding larval stage that is competent to settle on specific species of coralline algae after 3-4 days in the plankton. Failure to contact an inductive algae within 10 days of hatching usually results in death. These life cycle characteristics suggest a limited capacity for dispersal and thus gene flow. This makes H. asinina particularly suitable for elucidating phylogeographical structure throughout the Indo-Malay Archipelagoes, and eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans, all regions of biogeographical complexity and high conservation value. We assayed 482 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene in 206 abalone collected from 16 geographically discrete sites across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Indo-Malay Archipelagoes. DNA sequence variation was analysed via population genetics and phylogenetics, and by nested clade analyses (NCA). Our data resolved clear phylogeographical breaks among major biogeographical regions, with sequence divergences ranging from a high of 3.7% and 3.0% between Indian and Pacific sites and Pacific and Indo-Malay sites, respectively, to a low of 1.1% between Indian and Indo-Malay sites. Despite the apparent limited dispersal capacity of H. asinina, no finer scale phylogeographical structure was resolved within the respective biogeographical regions. However, amova and NCA identified several significant associations between haplotypes and geographical distribution, most notably higher gene flow among geographical populations associated with major ocean currents. Our study provides further evidence that larval dispersal capacity alone is not a good predictor of population genetic structure in marine invertebrates. We infer instead that a combination of historical events (long-term barriers followed by range expansion associated with Pleistocene sea level changes) and contemporary processes

  1. Pleistocene isolation and recent gene flow in Haliotis asinina, an Indo-Pacific vetigastropod with limited dispersal capacity.

    PubMed

    Imron; Jeffrey, Benardine; Hale, Peter; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M

    2007-01-01

    Haliotis asinina is a broadcast-spawning mollusc that inhabits Indo-Pacific coral reefs. This tropical abalone develops through a nonfeeding larval stage that is competent to settle on specific species of coralline algae after 3-4 days in the plankton. Failure to contact an inductive algae within 10 days of hatching usually results in death. These life cycle characteristics suggest a limited capacity for dispersal and thus gene flow. This makes H. asinina particularly suitable for elucidating phylogeographical structure throughout the Indo-Malay Archipelagoes, and eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans, all regions of biogeographical complexity and high conservation value. We assayed 482 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene in 206 abalone collected from 16 geographically discrete sites across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Indo-Malay Archipelagoes. DNA sequence variation was analysed via population genetics and phylogenetics, and by nested clade analyses (NCA). Our data resolved clear phylogeographical breaks among major biogeographical regions, with sequence divergences ranging from a high of 3.7% and 3.0% between Indian and Pacific sites and Pacific and Indo-Malay sites, respectively, to a low of 1.1% between Indian and Indo-Malay sites. Despite the apparent limited dispersal capacity of H. asinina, no finer scale phylogeographical structure was resolved within the respective biogeographical regions. However, amova and NCA identified several significant associations between haplotypes and geographical distribution, most notably higher gene flow among geographical populations associated with major ocean currents. Our study provides further evidence that larval dispersal capacity alone is not a good predictor of population genetic structure in marine invertebrates. We infer instead that a combination of historical events (long-term barriers followed by range expansion associated with Pleistocene sea level changes) and contemporary processes

  2. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle) regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP), a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP) and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP) all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to contribute to the

  3. The effects of intermittent exposure to low-pH and low-oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low-pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low-pH and/or low-oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low-pH (7.5, total scale) and low-O2 (40% saturation, mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h, twice over a 15-day period, juveniles experienced 5-20% higher mortality in the low-oxygen treatments compared to control conditions. Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low-oxygen and low-pH treatments. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when juveniles were exposed simultaneously to low-pH and low-O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low-oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas pH is a crucial factor for their growth. However, the high individual variation in growth rate under low levels of both pH and oxygen suggests that cryptic phenotypic plasticity may promote resistance to prolonged upwelling conditions by a portion of the population.

  4. The effects of intermittent exposure to low pH and oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low pH and/or low oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low pH (7.5, total scale) and low O2 (40% saturation, 5 mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h repeated twice over a 15 day period, juveniles experienced higher mortality in the low oxygen treatments compared to control conditions, regardless of pH levels (pH 7.5 vs. 8.0). Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low pH or low oxygen treatments and the growth was lowest when low pH exposure was combined with low O2. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when they were exposed to low pH and low O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas both pH and oxygen is a crucial factor for their growth. However, given the higher individual variation in growth rate, they may have an ability to adapt to extended exposure to upwelling conditions.

  5. Molecular characterization and analysis of a truncated serotonin receptor gene expressed in neural and reproductive tissues of abalone.

    PubMed

    Panasophonkul, Sasiporn; Apisawetakan, Somjai; Cummins, Scott F; York, Patrick S; Degnan, Bernard M; Hanna, Peter J; Saitongdee, Porncharn; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2009-05-01

    In molluscs, the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) has been linked to a variety of biological roles including gamete maturation and spawning. The possible involvement of 5-HT in abalone gamete release was demonstrated by a dose-dependent increase in Haliotis rubra gonad contractile bioactivity following 5-HT stimulation. Physiological functions associated with 5-HT, are mediated through binding to 5-HT receptors. A cDNA encoding a putative 5-HT receptor consisting of 359 amino acids was isolated from the tropical abalone H. asinina, termed 5-HT(1 ha). The 5-HT(1 ha) shares G-protein-coupled receptor motifs with metazoan 5-HT receptors, including predicted transmembrane domains, active sites for protein kinase action, and N-linked glycosylation sites. However, the third intracellular loop of 5-HT(1 ha) is relatively short, and only six transmembrane domains are predicted, implying a truncated receptor. Phylogenetic analysis with known 5-HT receptor genes suggests that 5-HT(1 ha) belongs to the type 1 5-HT receptor family. Expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that 5-HT(1 ha) mRNA was present in all tissues examined, including the neural ganglia and gonad tissues. Immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of 5-HT(1 ha) specifically within the soma of neuronal cells located in the outer cortex of both cerebral and pleuropedal ganglia. In ovarian and testicular tissues, 5-HT(1 ha) immunoreactivity was observed in epithelial cells of the outer capsule and connective tissue of the trabeculae to which the gamete follicles adhere. Whether this receptor transcript is translated to a functional protein needs to be verified, but if so, it could play a role in reproduction.

  6. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2016-01-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value.

  7. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2016-03-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value. PMID:26880843

  8. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    PubMed

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection. PMID:27088873

  9. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    PubMed

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It’s therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection. PMID:27088873

  11. Structure and reaction studies of biological organic and inorganic composite materials: Abalone shells, diatoms, and a unique birch bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaremba, Charlotte Marie

    Biopolymer/calcium carbonate composites grown on inorganic abiotic substrates implanted between the shell and the shell-secreting epithelium of live red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) results in an unusual highly (104)-oriented aggregate of microcrystalline calcite that precedes nacre deposition. Calcite of this orientation has never before been observed in nature. Also with this method, nacre deposition is found to correct for calcite surface roughness and chemically anomalous surfaces. Pole figure X-ray diffraction studies of these "flat pearls" provide comparisons of preferred orientation of the various mineral components of the abalone shell. Complete conversion of the aragonite in abalone nacre to hydroxyapatite in hydrothermal phosphate solution results in an oriented polycrystalline aggregate with ultrastructure preservation and an unexpected preferred orientation different from that of other biominerals and abiogenic CaCO3 samples subjected to this reaction. The new orientation, which increases with reaction time, may result from the organization of the organic matrix in the nacre, which directs the hydrothermal solution through the material. This orientation suggests strongly that the conversion proceeds via a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, rather than by topotaxy, which was previously proposed. In addition to cellulose I, a highly oriented cellulose-II-like polymer was found in the bark of Prunus serrula, an exceptionally strong, tough, and extensible composite film. The cellulose II polymorph, which has not previously been found in nature, may be accordion-folded in the plane of the bark thickness and contribute to the strength and unusual behavior with plasticization of this natural film. The silica frustule of the diatom Skeletonema costatum has a surface area of 135 mm2/g and contains 1.5--2 wt % occluded organic. This organic includes a water-insoluble scaffolding. When treated with organic oxidizers, the chitin secreted by the diatom

  12. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G.

    2015-01-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  13. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy.

    PubMed

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Diefenbach, Russell J; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G; Cunningham, Anthony L; Dehghani, Fariba

    2016-02-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  14. A national survey of marine biotoxins in wild-caught abalone in Australia.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas; Nimmagadda, Rama; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    The first national survey of Australian wild-caught abalone was conducted between September 2012 and December 2013. The aim of the survey was to determine the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs), and diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in wild-caught abalone at levels above the current Codex marine biotoxin limits during the 2013 fishing season. Abalone (n = 190) were collected from 68 abalone-fishing blocks for which the combined annual harvest accounts for 80 % of Australian production. Concurrent seawater samples were collected and enumerated for potentially toxic phytoplankton. The foot and viscera tissues of each abalone sample were analyzed separately for PSTs, ASTs, and DSTs. No samples (abalone foot or viscera) contained toxins at levels exceeding the marine biotoxin limits stipulated by Codex. The resulting prevalence estimate suggests that less than 1.6 % of the commercially caught wild abalone population in Australia were contaminated with marine biotoxins at levels above the regulatory limit during the survey period. ASTs were detected at very low (trace) levels in the foot and viscera tissue of four and three abalone samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported detection of domoic acid in Australian abalone. PSTs also were detected at very low levels in 17 samples of abalone foot tissue and 6 samples of abalone viscera. The association between the low levels of ASTs and PSTs detected in abalone and the presence of potential toxin-producing phytoplankton in seawater samples was weak. DSTs were not detected in any abalone despite the detection of very low levels of DST-producing phytoplankton in a small number (9 of 77) of seawater samples. The results of this survey should be useful for public health risk assessments and provide additional evidence that the prevalence of marine biotoxins in Australian wild-caught abalone is very low. PMID:25364931

  15. Characterization of an α-glucosidase, HdAgl, from the digestive fluid of Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Takuya; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we isolated two α-amylase isozymes, HdAmy58 and HdAmy82, from the digestive fluid of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (Kumagai et al., 2013, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B 164, 80-88). These enzymes degraded starch producing maltooligosaccharides but not glucose. However, the digestive fluid itself could produce glucose from starch, indicating that the digestive fluid contains α-glucosidase-like enzymes together with the α-amylases. Thus, in the present study, we isolated this α-glucosidase-like enzyme from the digestive fluid and characterized it to some extent. Isolation of this enzyme was carried out by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies and FPLC. The purified enzyme showed an apparent molecular mass of 97kDa on SDS-PAGE, and optimal temperature and pH of 45°C and 3.8-5.5, respectively. This enzyme could degrade various sizes of maltooligosaccharides into glucose and released glucose from starch producing no appreciable intermediate oligosaccharides. We concluded that this enzyme is an α-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) exolitically acting on polymer substrate and named HdAgl. HdAgl efficiently degraded maltose but hardly degraded p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside (α-pNPG) and isomaltose. This enzyme was regarded as a maltase-like α-glucosidase that preferably degrades maltose but scarcely aryl glucosides. When starch was used as a substrate, HdAgl converted approximately 40% (w/w) of the starch to glucose. If an abalone α-amlylase HdAmy58 was added to the reaction mixture, the glucose yield increased to 60% (w/w). These results suggested that both HdAgl and HdAmy58 play important roles for the production of glucose from dietary starch in the digestive fluid. The amino-acid sequence of 887 residues for HdAgl was deduced by the cDNA method. This sequence showed 41-46% amino-acid identities to those of mammalian and avian α-glucosidases belonging to glycoside-hydrolase-family31.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haishan; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Dong, Yunwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82%) and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14%) and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%). The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA)3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies. PMID:25699679

  17. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haishan; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Dong, Yunwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82%) and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14%) and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%). The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA)3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  18. Molecular cloning and expression of IRAK-4, IL-17 and I-κB genes in Haliotis rufescens challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-02-01

    The candidate genes interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4), Interleukin 17 (IL-17) and Inhibitor of NF-κB (I-κB) were cloned and evaluated in Californian abalone (Haliotis rufescens) hemocytes in response to Vibrio anguillarum. Molecular characterization evidenced that HrI-κB has a full cDNA sequence of 3027 bp with an encoding region of 401 amino acids (aa), HrIRAK-4 comprised 1969 bp that encoded for 516 aa, and Hr-IL17 had a full sequence of 806 bp encoding for 165 aa. qPCR analysis showed the higher constitutive expression level of Hr-IL17 in hemocytes; meanwhile Hr-IκB and Hr-IRAK4 gene expression levels were higher in gills and mantle. The assessment of gene expression in hemocytes after infection with V. anguillarum evidences the immune responses of Hr-IκB, Hr-IRAK4, and Hr-IL17 and their relationships through the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:24398261

  19. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries. PMID:27322873

  20. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries.

  1. Health risk management in the Tasmanian abalone diving industry.

    PubMed

    Smart, David

    2010-06-01

    Risk management is a systematic process applied to all aspects of diving operations. The process aims to reduce accidents and adverse outcomes to a minimum. Risk results from a combination of probability and consequence, and where this combination has major or extreme impact, the risk should not be tolerated. Over the four years 2001-2004, the incidence of decompression illness amongst abalone divers in Tasmania was 1.4 cases per 100 divers per year. Risk management in diving encompasses medical fitness, education and training, dive planning, equipment and maintenance, emergency procedures and equipment, and continual vigilance to remedy new risks as they are identified. There is still much to achieve in the Tasmanian abalone diving industry in all areas of risk management.

  2. [A case of anaphylaxis caused by abalone diagosed with prick by prick test].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoichi; Nishioka, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    A 30-year-old man exhibited systemic edema, dyspnea and wheal immediately after eating raw fish and cuttlefish served on an abalone shell. He had history of anaphylaxis after eating abalone and beef 4 years ago and had avoided shellfish including abalone since then. He also had past history of bronchial asthma and anaphylaxis due to shrimp. CAP-FEIA was performed to determine the allergen and was positive for scallop and oyster. Refined extracts made from abalone are not commercially available in Japan. Therefore, we purchased several kinds of shellfish, which are commonly consumed by Japanese, and used them, as is, for skin testing. Prick-by-prick tests were conduced using these shellfish, and yielded positive results for abalone and effluent from washing the abalone shell. Consequently, he was diagnosed with anaphylaxis caused by abalone extracts attached to the surface of raw fish. In our case, prick-by-prick test with shellfish was useful for the diagnosis of type I food allergy. If there are no commercial reagents of suspected food allergens for skin testing or challenge-test is not available, prick-by-prick tests might be performed for the diagnosis of food allergy.

  3. Characterization of a non-fibrillar-related collagen in the mollusc Haliotis tuberculata and its biological activity on human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Christophe; Serpentini, Antoine; Kypriotou, Magdalini; Renard, Emmanuelle; Galéra, Philippe; Lebel, Jean-Marc

    2011-10-01

    In invertebrates, members of the collagen family have been found in various phyla. Surprisingly, in mollusc, little is known about such molecules. In this study, we characterize the full-length abalone type IV collagen and we analysed its biological effects on human fibroblast in order to gain insights about this molecule in molluscs and particularly clues about its roles. We screened a cDNA library of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The expression pattern of the transcript is determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. The close identity between α1(IV) C-terminal domain and the vertebrate homologue led us to produce, purify and test in vitro a recombinant protein corresponding to this region using human dermal fibroblasts cell culture. The biological effects were evaluated on proliferation and on differentiation. We found that the 5,334-bp open reading frame transcript encodes a protein of 1,777 amino acids, including an interrupted 1,502-residue collagenous domain and a 232-residue C-terminal non-collagenous domain. The expression pattern of this transcript is mainly found in the mantle and hemocytes. The recombinant protein corresponding α1(IV) C-terminal domain increased fibroblast proliferation by 69% and doubled collagen synthesis produced in primary cultures. This work provides the first complete primary structure of a mollusc non-fibrillar collagen chain and the biological effects of its C-terminal domain on human cells. In this study, we prove that the NC1 domain from a molluscan collagen can improve human fibroblast proliferation as well as differentiation.

  4. Developmental expression of two Haliotis asinina hemocyanin isoforms.

    PubMed

    Streit, Klaus; Jackson, Daniel; Degnan, Bernard M; Lieb, Bernhard

    2005-09-01

    Hemocyanins are large copper-containing respiratory proteins that play a role in oxygen transport in many molluscs. In some species only one hemocyanin isoform is present while in others two are expressed. The physiological relevance of these isoforms is unclear and the developmental and tissue-specific expression of hemocyanin genes is largely unknown. Here we show that two hemocyanin genes in the gastropod Haliotis asinina, which encode H. asinina hemocyanin (HaH1) and HaH2 isoforms, are developmentally expressed. These genes initially are expressed in a small number of mesenchyme cells at trochophore and pre-torsional veliger stages, with HaH1 expression slightly preceding HaH2. These cells largely are localized to the visceral mass, although a small number of cells are present in head and foot regions. Following metamorphosis the isoforms show overlapping as well as isoform-specific expression profiles, suggesting some degree of isoform-specific function.

  5. [11 cases of anaphylaxis caused by grand keyhole limpet (abalone like shellfish)].

    PubMed

    Maeda, S; Morikawa, A; Kato, M; Motegi, Y; Shigeta, M; Tokuyama, K; Kuroume, T; Naritomi, Y; Suehiro, K; Kusaba, K

    1991-11-01

    We reported 11 cases of patients who developed moderate to severe anaphylactic reactions induced by the ingestion of grand keyhole limpet (GKL) and abalone. Specific IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to these shellfish was demonstrated by history, skin prick test, RAST and immunoblotting. The RAST inhibition technique revealed cross antigenicity between GKL, abalone and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. By immunoblotting analysis, the major antigens of GKL are shown in the MW range of about 38 Kd and 80 Kd.

  6. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  7. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application.

  8. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. PMID:27287112

  9. A new species of Haliotis (Gastropoda) from São Tomé & Príncipe Islands, Gulf of Guinea, with comparisons to other Haliotis found in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Owen, Buzz

    2014-01-01

    The Haliotidae from the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa are reviewed. The distribution of the mainland species Haliotis marmorata Linnaeus, 1758 is confirmed and compared to the insular species from the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe which is described as Haliotis geigeri n. sp. Both species are illustrated and compared to the other known Haliotidae from the eastern Atlantic. PMID:25081762

  10. Acceleration of calcite kinetics by abalone nacre proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G; Qiu, S R; Orme, C A; Morse, D E; De Yoreo, J J

    2005-06-09

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures have long been an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over synthesis of crystalline materials. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineral surfaces. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that bio-organic additives can dramatically alter crystal shapes and growth-rates in vitro. However, previous molecular-scale studies revealing mechanisms of growth modification focused on small molecules such as amino acids or peptides and always observed growth inhibition. In contrast, studies using full proteins were non-quantitative and underlying sources of growth modification were ill-defined. Here we investigate interactions between proteins isolated from abalone shell nacre and growing surfaces of calcite. We find that these proteins significantly accelerate the molecular-scale kinetics and, though much larger than atomic steps, alter growth morphology through step-specific interactions that lower their free energies. We propose that these proteins act as surfactants to promote ion attachment at calcite surfaces.

  11. Photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopic study of undisturbed nacre from red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-07-01

    In this work, photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy has been utilized to study interfacial interactions of undisturbed nacre and nacre powder from red abalone shell. The spectra of both undisturbed nacre and nacre powder showed characteristic bands of aragonite and proteins. Although nacre powder and undisturbed nacre are chemically identical, PA-FTIR spectrum of undisturbed nacre is found to be significantly different from that of nacre powder. A broad and strong band is observed at around 1485 cm -1 in nacre powder. The intensity of this band is notably reduced in undisturbed nacre. This result is explained on the basis of interfacial interactions between aragonite platelets and acidic proteins. It is also observed that band at around 1788 cm -1 originates from three overlapping bands 1797, 1787 and 1778 cm -1. The band at around 1787 cm -1 is assigned to C dbnd O stretching of carboxylate groups of acidic proteins. The other two bands at 1797 and 1778 cm -1, originate from aragonite and have been assigned to combination bands, ν 3 + ν 4a and ν 3 + ν 4b, respectively. For the study of stratification in undisturbed nacre, PA-FTIR spectra have been collected in step scan mode. The variation in spectra with depth can be attributed to changes in conformation of proteins as well as interfacial interactions.

  12. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe2+ chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  13. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-09-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe(2+) chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  14. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of IκB from Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Whang, Ilson; Navaneethaiyer, Umasuthan; Lim, Bong-Soo; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2013-06-01

    Innate immune system relies on the recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns present in the microbes by the pattern recognition receptors leading to the activation of signaling cascade and subsequent synthesis of cytokines. NF-κB is a major stimulus activated transcription factor, which regulates the expression of a diverse array of genes. IκB is an inhibitor of NF-κB, retaining NF-κB in an inactive state in the cytoplasm. In this study, we have reported the characterization of first abalone IκB (HdIκB). The cDNA possessed an ORF of 1200 bp coding for a protein of 400 amino acids with molecular mass of 45 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.7. HdIκB protein possessed a conserved phosphorylation site (58)DSGIFS(63) in the N-terminal region, six ankyrin repeats, and a PEST sequence in the C-terminal region. A casein kinase II phosphorylation site could also be observed in the PEST sequence. Constitutive expression of HdIκB revealed its physiological significance since NF-κB is known to be activated by various stimuli. Elevated expression of HdIκB transcripts could be observed in abalones challenged with various mitogens and live microbes. This novel characterization of abalone IκB would further be a positive approach in the affirmation of evolutionary conservation and significance of this protein as a repressor/inhibitor of a pleiotropic transcription factor like NF-κB.

  15. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.

  16. Chemical induction of feeding in California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus (randall): responses to molecular weight fractions of abalone

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Michel, W.C.; Tyre, J.E.; Case, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Molecular weight fractions of abalone muscle were tested for the ability to induce appetitive feeding and locomotor behavior in the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus. Fractions of <1000, 1000-10,000 and >10,000 daltons were isolated by ultrafiltrations and gel chromatography from a seawater extract of abalone muscle. The two lower-molecular-weight fractions (<1000, 1000-10,000) were the least stimulatory of the three fractions tested, and both were ineffective as feeding stimulants. Solutions combining any two of the three isolated fractions produced behavioral activity equal to that caused by whole extract; thus, no single fraction was essential to the stimulatory capacity of abalone. The >1000-dalton fraction was also highly stimulatory, meaning that large and not small molecules were essential in initiating feeding. Finally, a 75% ethanol-insoluble component of the <10,000 fraction was effective, while the ethanol-soluble portion was not. Since the insoluble material consisted predominantly of peptides and polypeptides, it is probable that these molecules act as principal stimulants in abalone muscle. 37 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  17. Zona localization of shell matrix proteins in mantle of Haliotis tuberculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Jolly, Cécile; Berland, Sophie; Milet, Christian; Borzeix, Sandrine; Lopez, Evelyne; Doumenc, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Organic matrix from molluscan shells has the potential to regulate calcium carbonate deposition and crystallization. Control of crystal growth thus seems to depend on control of matrix protein secretion or activation processes in the mantle cells, about which little is known. Biomineralization is a highly orchestrated biological process. The aim of this work was to provide information about the source of shell matrix macromolecule production, within the external epithelium of the mantle. An in vivo approach was chosen to describe the histologic changes in the outer epithelium and in blood sinus distribution, associated with mantle cells implicated in shell matrix production. Our results characterized a topographic and time-dependent zonation of matrix proteins involved in shell biomineralization in the mantle of Haliotis.

  18. Bio-inspired passive actuator simulating an abalone shell mechanism for structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Henry T. Y.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Bridges, Daniel; Randall, Connor J.; Hansma, Paul K.

    2010-10-01

    An energy dispersion mechanism called 'sacrificial bonds and hidden length', which is found in some biological systems, such as abalone shells and bones, is the inspiration for new strategies for structural control. Sacrificial bonds and hidden length can substantially increase the stiffness and enhance energy dissipation in the constituent molecules of abalone shells and bone. Having been inspired by the usefulness and effectiveness of such a mechanism, which has evolved over millions of years and countless cycles of evolutions, the authors employ the conceptual underpinnings of this mechanism to develop a bio-inspired passive actuator. This paper presents a fundamental method for optimally designing such bio-inspired passive actuators for structural control. To optimize the bio-inspired passive actuator, a simple method utilizing the force-displacement-velocity (FDV) plots based on LQR control is proposed. A linear regression approach is adopted in this research to find the initial values of the desired parameters for the bio-inspired passive actuator. The illustrative examples, conducted by numerical simulation with experimental validation, suggest that the bio-inspired passive actuator based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length may be comparable in performance to state-of-the-art semi-active actuators.

  19. Distribution and characterization of rhogocyte cell types in the mantle tissue of Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Sairi, Fareed; Valtchev, Peter; Gomes, Vincent G; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-04-01

    Molluscan rhogocytes are known to be the only cells able to synthesize hemocyanin that is one of the largest respiratory proteins in nature. However, investigation of rhogocyte cells in vitro is limited due to difficulty in isolating and establishing marine cell culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature and distribution of rhogocyte cells of Haliotis laevigata in the mantle tissue with respect to the expression of the two known isoforms of hemocyanin. Rhogocyte cells were identified using immunofluorescence-fluorescence in situ hybridization (IF-FISH) that involved simultaneous staining of localized hemocyanin by a polyclonal antibody while the mRNA was hybridized with FISH probes. The distribution of rhogocyte cells was demonstrated using flow cytometry, followed by cell sorting with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and confocal microscope imaging for further characterization. Our results suggested that the mantle tissue is dominated by two distinct populations of rhogocyte cells that synthesize hemocyanin type 1. Observation with confocal microscopy of both populations revealed hemocyanin localization in the periphery of the cell membrane. Cell population with higher antibody signal had irregular and elongated cell morphology with punctate mRNA probe signals. The second population with lower antibody signal had ovoid morphology and wide distribution of mRNA probe signals. We suggest that these populations represent two distinct phases of hemocyanin biosynthesis of a single isoform, which is closely related to Haliotis tuberculata type 1 hemocyanin (HtH1). The knowledge acquired in this study enhances the understanding of the biology of rhogocyte cells and biosynthesis of hemocyanin. PMID:25382219

  20. Distribution and characterization of rhogocyte cell types in the mantle tissue of Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Sairi, Fareed; Valtchev, Peter; Gomes, Vincent G; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-04-01

    Molluscan rhogocytes are known to be the only cells able to synthesize hemocyanin that is one of the largest respiratory proteins in nature. However, investigation of rhogocyte cells in vitro is limited due to difficulty in isolating and establishing marine cell culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature and distribution of rhogocyte cells of Haliotis laevigata in the mantle tissue with respect to the expression of the two known isoforms of hemocyanin. Rhogocyte cells were identified using immunofluorescence-fluorescence in situ hybridization (IF-FISH) that involved simultaneous staining of localized hemocyanin by a polyclonal antibody while the mRNA was hybridized with FISH probes. The distribution of rhogocyte cells was demonstrated using flow cytometry, followed by cell sorting with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and confocal microscope imaging for further characterization. Our results suggested that the mantle tissue is dominated by two distinct populations of rhogocyte cells that synthesize hemocyanin type 1. Observation with confocal microscopy of both populations revealed hemocyanin localization in the periphery of the cell membrane. Cell population with higher antibody signal had irregular and elongated cell morphology with punctate mRNA probe signals. The second population with lower antibody signal had ovoid morphology and wide distribution of mRNA probe signals. We suggest that these populations represent two distinct phases of hemocyanin biosynthesis of a single isoform, which is closely related to Haliotis tuberculata type 1 hemocyanin (HtH1). The knowledge acquired in this study enhances the understanding of the biology of rhogocyte cells and biosynthesis of hemocyanin.

  1. Mox homeobox expression in muscle lineage of the gastropod Haliotis asinina: evidence for a conserved role in bilaterian myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hinman, V F; Degnan, B M

    2002-04-01

    Mox homeobox genes are expressed during early vertebrate somitogenesis. Here we describe the expression of Has-Mox, a Mox gene from the gastropod Haliotis asinina. Has-Moxis expressed in the trochophore larva in paraxial mesodermal bands. During larval development, Has-Mox expression remains restricted to mesodermal cells destined to form adult muscle in the foot. This restricted expression of Has-Mox in Haliotis is similar to that observed for vertebrate Mox genes, suggesting a conserved role in myogenesis in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. In contrast, Mox is not expressed in muscle lineages in the ecdysozoan representatives Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila; the C. elegansgenome has lost Mox altogether. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-002-0223-6.

  2. Pleiotropic developmental expression of HasPOU-III, a class III POU gene, in the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-06-01

    HasPOU-III is expressed in multiple cell types during the first 3 days of development of the gastropod Haliotis asinina. HasPOU-III expression begins in two bilaterally symmetrical sets of cells on the ventral ectodermal surface of the trochophore larva; one set are putative foot mucous cells. After torsion, HasPOU-III transcripts transiently appear in the developing ganglia of the central nervous system. At the end of larval morphogenesis, HasPOU-III expression is initiated in dorsoposterior cells of the visceral mass, in the posterior cells of the statocyst and in the developing radular sac. These expression patterns in Haliotis, a spiralian lophotrochozoan, are similar to POU Class III genes in other bilaterians where expression occurs in secretory cells and the developing nervous system.

  3. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P < 0.05). For DPAn-3 the higher level was also found in muscle and gonad of abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P < 0.05). Elongase 2 expression was markedly higher in the muscle of abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P < 0.05), followed by the diet containing 2% FO supplement. For ∆6 desaturase, significantly higher expression was observed in muscle of abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  4. Nanoscale elasticity mappings of micro-constituents of abalone shell by band excitation-contact resonance force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2014-01-01

    The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the elasticity variations of the abalone shell caused by different micro-constituents and crystal orientations are reported, and the elasticity values of the aragonite and calcite nanograins are quantified.The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the

  5. 78 FR 14078 - Endangered Species; File No. 17405

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ..., San Diego, CA 92152 has applied in due form for a permit to take black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii... endangered black abalone (focusing on successful spawning, increased fertilization, increased settlement, and recruitment). No black abalone will be taken from the wild, nor will animals be returned to the wild...

  6. Adenovirus carrying gene encoding Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin induces cancer cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyan; Wu, Liqin; Duan, Xuemei; Cui, Lianzhen; Luo, Jingjing; Li, Gongchu

    2014-06-30

    Lectins exist widely in marine bioresources such as bacteria, algae, invertebrate animals and fishes. Some purified marine lectins have been found to elicit cytotoxicity to cancer cells. However, there are few reports describing the cytotoxic effect of marine lectins on cancer cells through virus-mediated gene delivery. We show here that a replication-deficient adenovirus-carrying gene encoding Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin (Ad.FLAG-HddSBL) suppressed cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, as compared to the control virus Ad.FLAG. A down-regulated level of anti-apoptosis factor Bcl-2 was suggested to be responsible for the apoptosis induced by Ad.FLAG-HddSBL infection. Further subcellular localization studies revealed that HddSBL distributed in cell membrane, ER, and the nucleus, but not in mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. In contrast, a previously reported mannose-binding lectin Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin entered the nucleus as well, but did not distribute in inner membrane systems, suggesting differed intracellular sialylation and mannosylation, which may provide different targets for lectin binding. Further cancer-specific controlling of HddSBL expression and animal studies may help to provide insights into a novel way of anti-cancer marine lectin gene therapy. Lectins may provide a reservoir of anti-cancer genes.

  7. Ultrastructure of the mantle of the gastropod Haliotis asinina and mechanisms of shell regionalization.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Carmel; Green, Kathryn; Jackson, Daniel J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2011-01-01

    The ability of a biological system to drive the formation of a microstructure as complex and ordered as the molluscan shell is of immense interest to the fields of nanotechnology and biomedicine. Although recent studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of the genes involved in shell formation, the mechanism by which matrix proteins are regulated and directed to the appropriate region of the shell, a process critical for microstructure control, is still obscure. The formation of microstructure-specific compartments within the extrapallial cavity may be the outcome of precise regulation of the vesicle trafficking of shell components within secretory cells at the mineralization front and/or the overall organization and morphology of the mantle itself. Here, we investigate the ultrastructure of the mantle of the gastropod Haliotis asinina as current models put forward to describe molluscan shell formation are primarily based on observations from bivalves despite crystallographic and molecular studies indicating large differences between molluscan classes. We find that the H. asinina mantle is structurally complex and comprised of novel cells packed with a diversity of vesicle types consistent with a complex system to control the secretion of the shell matrix and associated factors.

  8. Developmental expression of Hsp90, Hsp70 and HSF during morphogenesis in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have dual functions, participating in both the stress response and a broad range of developmental processes. At physiological temperatures, it has been demonstrated in deuterostomes (vertebrates) and ecdysozoans (insects) that Hsps are expressed in tissues that are undergoing differentiation and morphogenesis. Here we investigate the developmental expression of Hsp70, Hsp90 and their regulatory transcription factor heat shock transcription factor (HSF) in the marine gastropod Haliotis asinina, a representative of the 3rd major lineage of bilaterian animals, the Lophotrochozoa. HasHsp70, HasHsp90 and HasHSF are maternally expressed in H. asinina and are progressively restricted to the micromere lineage during cleavage. During larval morphogenesis, they are expressed in unique and overlapping patterns in the prototroch, foot, and mantle. Hsp expression peaked in these tissues during periods of cell differentiation and morphogenesis, returning to lower levels after morphogenesis was complete. These patterns of Hsp and HSF expression in H. asinina are akin to those observed in ecdysozoans and deuterostomes, with Hsps being activated in cells and tissues undergoing morphogenesis.

  9. Impact of ecologically relevant heat shocks on Hsp developmental function in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2008-07-15

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are essential for cellular maintenance, normal differentiation and morphogenesis, and protection against a range of environmental stresses. It is unknown which of these roles takes precedence when they are required simultaneously. Here we examined the impact of thermal stress on the complex developmental expression patterns of HasHsp70 and HasHsp90A in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina. We find that near-lethal heat shocks do not alter the spatial demarcation of Hsp expression despite such treatments impacting on the external character of the embryos. Using a suite of molecular markers that are both coexpressed with the Hsps (i.e. in ventrolateral ectoderm and prototroch) and expressed in tissues that have lower (basal) Hsp expression (e.g. serotonergic nervous system and shell gland), we determined that Hsp-expressing tissues do not incur markedly less thermal damage than adjacent tissues. To explore the relationship of Hsp expression with sensitivity of specific cell territories to heat shock, we focused on the formation of the prototroch, a tissue where HasHsp70 and HasHsp90A are coexpressed. By heat shocking at specific developmental stages, we determined that the most sensitive period of prototroch development is during its early specification and differentiation, which overlaps with the time the Hsps are expressed at their highest levels in these cells. This correlation is consistent with heat shock impairing the function of Hsps in regions of the H. asinina embryo undergoing morphogenesis.

  10. Expression of prohormone convertase 2 and the generation of neuropeptides in the developing nervous system of the gastropod Haliotis.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Scott F; York, Patrick S; Hanna, Peter H; Degnan, Bernard M; Croll, Roger P

    2009-01-01

    Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) belongs to a family of enzymes involved in the proteolytic maturation of neuropeptide precursors into mature peptides that act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators or neurohormones. Here we show that a gene encoding a PC2-like enzyme (HasPC2) is expressed during larval development and in the adult ganglia of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina. HasPC2 exhibits high sequence identity to other gastropod PC2s and thus is likely to function in peptide processing. Analysis of HasPC2 expression indicates that it is activated early in nervous system development. During trochophore and early veliger larval stages, HasPC2 is expressed in the vicinity of the forming ganglia of the central nervous system and parts of the putative peripheral nervous system. Later in larval development, at the time the veliger becomes competent to interact with the external environment and initiate metamorphosis, HasPC2 expression largely restricts to cells of the major ganglia and their commissures. Profiling of veliger larvae by bioinformatic approaches suggests the expression of a variety of peptides. Direct MALDI-MS-based peptide profiling of juvenile Haliotis cerebral ganglia (brain) reveals an abundance of neuropeptides, including FMRFamide-related peptides and APGWamide, compatible with PC2 functioning in neuropeptide processing in these regions. These results are consistent with PC2 regulating neuropeptide generation in the earliest functioning of the gastropod nervous system.

  11. Purification and characterization of amylases from small abalone (Sulculus diversicolor aquatilis).

    PubMed

    Tsao, Ching-Yu; Pan, Yun-Zu; Jiang, Shann-Tzong

    2003-02-12

    Amylases II-1 and II-2 with molecular weights of 55.7 and 65 kDa, respectively, were purified to electrophoretical homogeneity from small abalone (Sulculus diversicolor aquatilis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sepharose CL-6B, CM-Sepharose CL-6B, and Sephacryl S-100 chromatographs. They had optimal temperatures of 45 and 50 degrees C and an optimal pH of 6.0. The purified amylases were stable at pH 5.0-8.0 and 6.0-8.0, respectively. They were completely or partially inhibited by Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), iodoacetamide, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, and N-ethylmaleimide, suggesting the existence of cysteine at their active sites. Digestion tests against various polysaccharides suggested that the purified amylases II-1 and II-2 are neoamylases which can hydrolyze both alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 glucosidic bonds. Amylase II-2 might be an exo- and II-1 an endo-/exo-amylase.

  12. Characterization of alginate lyase gene using a metagenomic library constructed from the gut microflora of abalone.

    PubMed

    Sim, Su-Jung; Baik, Keun Sik; Park, Seong Chan; Choe, Han Na; Seong, Chi Nam; Shin, Tai-Sun; Woo, Hee Chul; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Duwoon

    2012-04-01

    A metagenomic fosmid library was constructed using a genomic DNA mixture extracted from the gut microflora of abalone. The library gave an alginate lyase positive clone (AlyDW) harboring a 31.7-kbp insert. The AlyDW insert consisted of 22 open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequences of ORFs 11-13 were similar to those of known alginate lyase genes, which are found adjacent in the genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. aerogenes, Vibrio splendidus, and Vibrio sp. belonging to the phylum Gammaproteobacteria. Among the three recombinant proteins expressed from the three ORFs, alginate lyase activity was only observed in the recombinant protein (AlyDW11) coded by ORF 11. The expressed protein (AlyDW11) had the highest alginate lyase activity at pH 7.0 and 45°C in the presence of 1 mM AgNO(3). The alginate lyase activity of ORF 11 was confirmed to be endolytic by thin-layer chromatography. AlyDW11 preferred poly(β-D: -mannuronate) as a substrate over poly(α-L: -guluronate). AlyDW11 contained three highly conserved regions, RSEL, QIH, and YFKAGVYNQ, which may act to stabilize the three-dimensional conformation and function of the alginate lyase.

  13. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, S N; Gilbert, P U P A; Metzler, R A

    2009-03-01

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400 nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the [0 0 1] crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within ±12° from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that greater orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous simulations of a model in which the order develops because of differential tablet growth rates (oriented tablets growing faster than misoriented ones) yield patterns of tablets that agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental measurements. This paper presents an analytical treatment of this model, focusing on how the dynamical development and eventual degree of order depend on model parameters. Dynamical equations for the probability distributions governing tablet orientations are introduced whose form can be determined from symmetry considerations and for which substantial analytic progress can be made. Numerical simulations are performed to relate the parameters used in the analytic theory to those in the microscopic growth model. The analytic theory demonstrates that the dynamical mechanism is able to achieve a much higher degree of order than naive estimates would indicate.

  14. The organic interlamellar layer in abalone nacre: Formation and mechanical response.

    PubMed

    López, Maria Isabel; Meyers, Marc André

    2016-01-01

    The interlamellar organic layer plays a key role in establishing the tensile mechanical response of nacre, while changing the compressive response in only a marginal manner. We conduct observations on the epithelial layer of the abalone foot in direct contact with the extrapallial layer where the deposition process takes place and identify cilia, microvilli, and secretory cells which determine the deposition of chitin to form the interlamellar organic layer. On the basis of these observations we propose a mechanism for the deposition of interlamellar organic layers. We show that the fraction of pores, as well as their diameter, grow rapidly as the interlamellar layer is extended uniaxially or biaxially, and compare these calculations with the observed values. In the calculations we assume a Poisson's ratio equal to zero in the plane of the lamellae. This assumption is justified by the thickness of the organic layer (20-50 nm) being equal to twice the diameter of the chitin fibrils; consequently the expansion of the membrane occurs at a constant thickness. As an illustration of this effect, an externally applied strain of 0.5 increases the initial pore diameter (typically equal to 20-50 nm) to a value of ten times (0.2-0.5 μm). These calculations explain the observations of large pores reported in the literature and interpret them as the result of externally applied loads. PMID:26478281

  15. The relationships between rheological properties and structural changes of chilled abalone meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Gao; Zhaohui, Zhang; Zhixu, Tang; Yuri, Tashiro; Hiroo, Ogawa

    2003-10-01

    The quantitative correlation between rheological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72 h, the instantaneous modulus E 0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48h. The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am, Rvm), and rheological properties (E 1, τ 1, η 1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlation. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristics values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  16. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  17. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  18. Antihyperglycaemic mechanisms of an aceteoside polymer from rose flowers and a polysaccharide-protein complex from abalone mushroom.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong-Rong; Liu, Zhao-Kun; Liu, Fang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Oral administration of an aceteoside polymer from rose Rosa rugosa (P1-b) and a polysaccharide-peptide complex from abalone mushroom Pleurotus abalonus (LB-1b), both with antioxidant activity, produced antihyperglycaemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The expression of insulin, superoxide dismutase and pancreas duodenum homeobox factor-1 essential for pancreatic islet function as estimated by real-time PCR was augmented. The reactive oxygen species-scavenging ability of the rose constituent was notably stronger than the mushroom constituent. Thus, the two biomolecules protected the pancreas from oxidative stress, elevated pancreatic insulin expression and lowered circulating glucose level.

  19. Antihyperglycaemic mechanisms of an aceteoside polymer from rose flowers and a polysaccharide-protein complex from abalone mushroom.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong-Rong; Liu, Zhao-Kun; Liu, Fang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Oral administration of an aceteoside polymer from rose Rosa rugosa (P1-b) and a polysaccharide-peptide complex from abalone mushroom Pleurotus abalonus (LB-1b), both with antioxidant activity, produced antihyperglycaemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The expression of insulin, superoxide dismutase and pancreas duodenum homeobox factor-1 essential for pancreatic islet function as estimated by real-time PCR was augmented. The reactive oxygen species-scavenging ability of the rose constituent was notably stronger than the mushroom constituent. Thus, the two biomolecules protected the pancreas from oxidative stress, elevated pancreatic insulin expression and lowered circulating glucose level. PMID:25200621

  20. Effect of abalone farming on seawater movement and benthic foraminiferal assemblage of Zostera marina in the inner bay of Wando, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Choi, Yang Ho; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jung Jun; Choi, Jae Ung

    2016-08-15

    Tidal current survey as well as geochemical and benthic foraminiferal analyses of sediment cores were conducted in an abalone farm and a Zostera bed to understand the degree to which the abalone farm facilities installed along a channel in a shallow sea affect the benthic environment and ecology. In the abalone farm, Ammonia beccarii-Pseudoparrella naraensis-Elphidium somaense-Rosalina globularis-Trochammina hadai and P. naraensis-E. somaense-A. beccarii-T. hadai assemblages appeared owing to an increase in the total nitrogen content from the biodeposits. The Zostera bed consisted of A. beccarii-P. naraensis-Buccella frigida-T. hadai assemblage owing to the gradual expansion of a brackish shallow-water environment by the rapidly decreasing current speed, and it may have flourished. Moreover, the total sulfur, Zn, Cr, and Cu contents in the sediments decreased remarkably more than those of the pre-abalone farming did, caused by the vigorous activity of Zostera marina physiology.

  1. Effect of abalone farming on seawater movement and benthic foraminiferal assemblage of Zostera marina in the inner bay of Wando, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Choi, Yang Ho; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jung Jun; Choi, Jae Ung

    2016-08-15

    Tidal current survey as well as geochemical and benthic foraminiferal analyses of sediment cores were conducted in an abalone farm and a Zostera bed to understand the degree to which the abalone farm facilities installed along a channel in a shallow sea affect the benthic environment and ecology. In the abalone farm, Ammonia beccarii-Pseudoparrella naraensis-Elphidium somaense-Rosalina globularis-Trochammina hadai and P. naraensis-E. somaense-A. beccarii-T. hadai assemblages appeared owing to an increase in the total nitrogen content from the biodeposits. The Zostera bed consisted of A. beccarii-P. naraensis-Buccella frigida-T. hadai assemblage owing to the gradual expansion of a brackish shallow-water environment by the rapidly decreasing current speed, and it may have flourished. Moreover, the total sulfur, Zn, Cr, and Cu contents in the sediments decreased remarkably more than those of the pre-abalone farming did, caused by the vigorous activity of Zostera marina physiology. PMID:27287862

  2. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  3. Offshore survey provides answers to coastal stability and potential offshore extensions of landslides into Abalone Cove, Palos Verdes peninsula, Calif

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, R.F. ); Slosson, J.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The configuration and stability of the present coast line near Abalone Cove, on the south side of Palos Verdes Peninsula, California is related to the geology, oceanographic conditions, and recent and ancient landslide activity. This case study utilizes offshore high resolution seismic profiles, side-scan sonar, diving, and coring, to relate marine geology to the stability of a coastal region with known active landslides utilizing a desk top computer and off-the-shelf software. Electronic navigation provided precise positioning that when applied to computer generated charts permitted correlation of survey data needed to define the offshore geology and sea floor sediment patterns. A mackintosh desk-top computer and commercially available off-the-shelf software provided the analytical tools for constructing a base chart and a means to superimpose template overlays of topography, isopachs or sediment thickness, bottom roughness and sediment distribution patterns. This composite map of offshore geology and oceanography was then related to an extensive engineering and geological land study of the coastal zone forming Abalone Cove, an area of active landslides. Vibrocoring provided ground sediment data for high resolution seismic traverses. This paper details the systems used, present findings relative to potential landslide movements, coastal erosion and discuss how conclusions were reached to determine whether or not onshore landslide failures extend offshore.

  4. Parasitic castration by the digenian trematode Allopodocotyle sp. alters gene expression in the brain of the host mollusc Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Rice, Tamika; McGraw, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Reverter, Antonio; Jackson, Daniel J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2006-06-26

    Infection of molluscs by digenean trematode parasites typically results in the repression of reproduction -- the so-called parasitic castration. This is known to occur by altering the expression of a range of host neuropeptide genes. Here we analyse the expression levels of 10 members of POU, Pax, Sox and Hox transcription factor gene families, along with genes encoding FMRFamide, prohormone convertase and beta-tubulin, in the brain ganglia of actively reproducing (summer), non-reproducing (winter) and infected Haliotis asinina (a vetigastropod mollusc). A number of the regulatory genes are differentially expressed in parasitised H. asinina, but in only a few cases do expression patterns in infected animals match those occurring in animals where reproduction is normally repressed.

  5. Gene structure and hemocyanin isoform HtH2 from the mollusc Haliotis tuberculata indicate early and late intron hot spots.

    PubMed

    Altenhein, Benjamin; Markl, Jürgen; Lieb, Bernhard

    2002-11-13

    We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs coding for the complete primary structure of HtH2, the second hemocyanin isoform of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. The deduced protein sequence comprises 3399 amino acids, corresponding to a molecular mass of 392 kDa. It shares only 66% of structural identity with the previously analysed first isoform HtH1, and according to a molecular clock, the two isoforms of Haliotis hemocyanin separated ca. 320 million years ago. By genomic polymerase chain reaction and 5' race, we have also sequenced the complete gene of HtH2 (18,598 bp), except of the 5' region in front of the secreted protein. It encompasses 15 exons and 14 introns and shows several microsatellite-rich regions. It mirrors the modular structure of the encoded hemocyanin subunit, with a linear arrangement of eight different functional units separated and bordered by seven phase 1 'linker introns'. In addition, within regions encoding three of the functional units, the HtH2 gene contains six 'internal introns'. Comparison to previously sequenced genes of Octopus dofleini hemocyanin and Haliotis hemocyanin isoform (HtH1) suggests Precambrian and Palaeocoic hot spot of intron gains, followed by 320 million years of absolute stasis. PMID:12490323

  6. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  7. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  8. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Considerations on food safety and source investigation.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Dimartino, Angela; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in wild specimens of Haliotis tuberculata from three sites of the Sothern Ionian Sea. The species Ht is commonly found at these sites and has significant commercial value. Main results revealed mean values of benzo(a)pyrene higher than the threshold set by Regulation No. 835/2011/EU in all sampling sites and the sum of selected PAHs, expressed as ΣPAH4 by EC Regulation, were below the limit set by the same Regulation in ME and VSG. We found generally higher concentrations than literature finding, especially for low molecular weight PAHs, and results of diagnostic ratios highlighted both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The potential human health risks due consumption of Ht by local inhabitants have been assessed by exposure daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and lifetime cancer risk (CR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by EFSA for each class of contaminant. BaP daily intake was below the value of 10 ng/Kg/day, suggested by JFCFA, and CRBaP was slightly higher than the acceptable risk level (ARL) of 1×10(-5). Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) resulted always below 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene was low. PMID:27235950

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Considerations on food safety and source investigation.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Dimartino, Angela; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in wild specimens of Haliotis tuberculata from three sites of the Sothern Ionian Sea. The species Ht is commonly found at these sites and has significant commercial value. Main results revealed mean values of benzo(a)pyrene higher than the threshold set by Regulation No. 835/2011/EU in all sampling sites and the sum of selected PAHs, expressed as ΣPAH4 by EC Regulation, were below the limit set by the same Regulation in ME and VSG. We found generally higher concentrations than literature finding, especially for low molecular weight PAHs, and results of diagnostic ratios highlighted both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The potential human health risks due consumption of Ht by local inhabitants have been assessed by exposure daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and lifetime cancer risk (CR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by EFSA for each class of contaminant. BaP daily intake was below the value of 10 ng/Kg/day, suggested by JFCFA, and CRBaP was slightly higher than the acceptable risk level (ARL) of 1×10(-5). Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) resulted always below 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene was low.

  11. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  12. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  13. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.L.

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  14. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Stein, J L

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  15. A molluscan calreticulin ortholog from Haliotis discus discus: Molecular characterization and transcriptional evidence for its role in host immunity.

    PubMed

    Udayantha, H M V; Godahewa, G I; Bathige, S D N K; Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Jeong, Hyung-Bok; Lim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-05-20

    Calreticulin (CALR), a Ca(2+) binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mainly involved in Ca(2+) storage and signaling. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and immune responses of CALR homolog from disk abalone (AbCALR). The full length AbCALR cDNA (1837 bp) had an ORF of 1224 bp. According to the multiple alignments analysis, N- and P-domains were highly conserved in all the selected members of CALRs. In contrast, the C-domain which terminated with the characteristic ER retrieval signal (HDEL) was relatively less conserved. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all the selected molluscan homologs clustered together. Genomic sequence of AbCALR revealed that cDNA sequence was dispersed into ten exons interconnected with nine introns. AbCALR mRNA expression shows the significant (P < 0.05) up-regulation of AbCALR transcripts in hemocytes upon bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus), viral (Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus; VHSV) and immune stimulants (LPS and poly I:C) challenges at middle and/or late phases. These results collectively implied that AbCALR is able to be stimulated by pathogenic signals and might play a potential role in host immunity. PMID:27086846

  16. A molluscan calreticulin ortholog from Haliotis discus discus: Molecular characterization and transcriptional evidence for its role in host immunity.

    PubMed

    Udayantha, H M V; Godahewa, G I; Bathige, S D N K; Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Jeong, Hyung-Bok; Lim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-05-20

    Calreticulin (CALR), a Ca(2+) binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mainly involved in Ca(2+) storage and signaling. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and immune responses of CALR homolog from disk abalone (AbCALR). The full length AbCALR cDNA (1837 bp) had an ORF of 1224 bp. According to the multiple alignments analysis, N- and P-domains were highly conserved in all the selected members of CALRs. In contrast, the C-domain which terminated with the characteristic ER retrieval signal (HDEL) was relatively less conserved. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all the selected molluscan homologs clustered together. Genomic sequence of AbCALR revealed that cDNA sequence was dispersed into ten exons interconnected with nine introns. AbCALR mRNA expression shows the significant (P < 0.05) up-regulation of AbCALR transcripts in hemocytes upon bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus), viral (Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus; VHSV) and immune stimulants (LPS and poly I:C) challenges at middle and/or late phases. These results collectively implied that AbCALR is able to be stimulated by pathogenic signals and might play a potential role in host immunity.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Nuurai, Parinyaporn; Primphon, Jeerawan; Seangcharoen, Tawanchay; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-02-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a peptide that is conserved in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we have demonstrated the distribution pattern of two isoforms of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of reproductively mature male abalone, H. asinina, by immunohistochemistry and whole mount immunofluorescence. We found octopus (oct) GnRH and tunicate-I (t) GnRH-I immunoreactivities (ir) in type 1 neurosecretory cells (NS1) and they were expressed mostly within the ventral horn of the cerebral ganglion, whereas in pleuropedal ganglia they were localized primarily in the dorsal horn. Furthermore, tGnRH-I-ir were strongly detected in fibers at the caudal part of the cerebral ganglia and both ventral and dorsal horns of the pleuropedal ganglia. In the testis, only octGnRH-ir was found primarily in the granulated cell and central capillaries within the trabeculae. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia which could be the principal source of their production, whereas GnRH may also be synthesized locally in the testis and act as the paracrine control of testicular maturation.

  18. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  19. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  20. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  1. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  2. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  3. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  4. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  5. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  6. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  7. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  8. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  9. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  10. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  11. Utilizing Tritium and CFC-12 to Determine Groundwater Sources in an Unconfined Aquifer Within the Abalone Cove Landslide, Palos Verdes, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, E. L.; Hammond, D. E.; Douglas, R.; Clark, J. F.; Avisar, D.; Dunker, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Abalone Cove landslide occupies 80 acres of an ancient landslide complex on the Palos Verdes peninsula, and was re-activated in 1979. The uphill portion of the ancient landslide complex has remained stable in historic times. Water infiltration into the slide is a short term catalyst for mass movement in the area, so it is important to determine the sources of groundwater throughout the slide mass. Water may enter the slide mass through direct percolation of recent precipitation, inflow along the head scarp of the ancient landslide or by rising through the slide plane from a deeper aquifer. The objective of this contribution is to use geochemical tracers (tritium and CFC-12) in combination with numerical modeling to constrain the importance of each of these sources. Numerical models were constructed to predict geochemical tracer concentrations throughout the basin, assuming that the only source of water to the slide mass is percolation of recent precipitation. Predicted concentrations were then compared to measured tracer values. In the ancient landslide, predicted and measured tracer concentrations are in good agreement, indicating that most of the water in this area is recent precipitation falling within the basin. Groundwater recharged uphill of the ancient landslide contributes minor flow into the complex through the head scarp, with the majority of this water flowing beneath the ancient slide plane. However, predicted tracer concentrations in the toe of the Abalone Cove landslide are not consistent with measured values. Both CFC-12 and tritium concentrations indicate that water is older than predicted and communication between the slide mass and the aquifer beneath the slide plane must occur in this area. Infiltration of this deep circulating water may exert upward hydraulic pressure on the landslide slip surface, increasing the potential for movement. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation that current movement is only occurring in the area in

  12. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  13. English as an African Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  14. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  15. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  16. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  17. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  18. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of extract from Haliotis discus hannai fermented with Cordyceps militaris mycelia in RAW264.7 macrophages through TRIF-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Joung, Hong-Joo; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Suck; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2014-05-01

    In this study, Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai) fermentation was attempted with Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mycelia using a solid culture. We tried to ferment H. discus hannai to determine the optimal conditions fermentation with regards to its anti-inflammatory effects. The extracts of H. discus hannai fermented with C. militaris mycelia (HFCM-5) showed higher nitric oxide inhibitory effects than H. discus hannai and C. militaris alone. HFCM-5 also decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. HFCM-5 did not affect the MyD88-dependent pathway, but decreased phosphorylation of IRF3 and STAT1 which are involved in TRIF-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that HFCM-5 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via TRIF signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a functional food in the regulation of inflammation.

  20. Identifying the germline in an equally cleaving mollusc: Vasa and Nanos expression during embryonic and larval development of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Alexandrea M; Tollenaere, Alina; Norris, Belinda J; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M

    2010-06-15

    Members of the Vasa and Nanos gene families are important for the specification and development of the germline in diverse animals. Here, we determine spatial and temporal expression of Vasa and Nanos to investigate germline development in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina. This is the first time these genes have been examined in an equally cleaving lophotrochozoan species. We find that HasVasa and HasNanos have largely overlapping, but not identical, expression patterns during embryonic and larval development, with both being maternally expressed and localized to the micromere cell lineages during cleavage. As embryonic development continues, HasVasa and HasNanos become progressively more enriched in the dorsal quadrant of the embryo. By the trochophore stage, both HasVasa and HasNanos are expressed in the putative mesodermal bands of the larva. This differs from the unequally cleaving gastropod Illyanasa obsoleta, in which IoVasa and IoNanos expression is detectable only in the early embryo and not during gastrulation and larval development. Our results suggest that the H. asinina germline arises from the 4d cell lineage and that primordial germ cells (PGCs) are not specified exclusively by maternally inherited determinants (preformation). As such, we infer that inductive signals (epigenesis) play an important role in specifying PGCs in H. asinina. We hypothesize that HasVasa is expressed in a population of undifferentiated multipotent cells, from which the PGCs are segregated later during development.

  1. Developmental expression of a class IV POU gene in the gastropod Haliotis asinina supports a conserved role in sensory cell development in bilaterians.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-09-01

    POU-IV genes regulate neuronal development in a number of deuterostomes (chordates) and ecdysozoans (arthropods and nematodes). Currently their function and expression in the third bilaterian clade, the Lophotrochozoa, comprising molluscs, annelids and their affiliates, is unclear. Herein we characterise the developmental expression of HasPOU-IV in the gastropod mollusc, Haliotis asinina. The POU-IV gene is transiently expressed in 11 distinct larval territories during the first 3 days of development. HasPOU-IV is first expressed in sets of ventral epidermal cells in the newly hatched trochophore larvae. As larval morphogenesis proceeds, we observe HasPOU-IV transcripts in cells that putatively form a range of sensory systems including chemo- and mechanosensory cells in the foot, cephalic tentacles, the ctenidia, the geosensory statocyst and the eyes. By comparing HasPOU-IV expression with POU-IV genes in other bilaterians we infer that this class of POU-domain genes had an ancestral role in regulating sensory cell development.

  2. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  3. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  4. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  5. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  6. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  7. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  8. Structural investigation of a uronic acid-containing polysaccharide from abalone by graded acid hydrolysis followed by PMP-HPLC-MSn and NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-xu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-mei; Song, Shuang; Song, Liang; Fu, Ying-huan; Zhang, Li-peng

    2015-01-30

    A new strategy was applied to elucidate the structure of a polysaccharide from abalone gonad (AGSP). It was hydrolyzed by 0.05 M, 0.2 M, 0.5 M, and 2.0 M TFA at 100 °C for 1 h, sequentially. Every hydrolysate was ultrafiltrated (3000 Da) to collect oligo- and monosaccharides, and the final retentate was further hydrolyzed with 2.0 M TFA at 110 °C and 121 °C for 2 h, respectively. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization followed by HPLC-MSn analysis was applied to detect the sugar residues in these hydrolysates, which allowed proposing their location in the polysaccharide structure. The retentate after 0.5 M TFA hydrolysis was confirmed as the polysaccharide backbone, and it was further analyzed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the structural elucidation of AGSP was accomplished, and it has a backbone of →4)-β-GlcA(1→2)-α-Man(1→ repeating unit with Fuc, Xyl and Gal in the branch. The analytical strategy demonstrated was useful to characterize the structure of polysaccharides.

  9. Structural investigation of a uronic acid-containing polysaccharide from abalone by graded acid hydrolysis followed by PMP-HPLC-MSn and NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-xu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-mei; Song, Shuang; Song, Liang; Fu, Ying-huan; Zhang, Li-peng

    2015-01-30

    A new strategy was applied to elucidate the structure of a polysaccharide from abalone gonad (AGSP). It was hydrolyzed by 0.05 M, 0.2 M, 0.5 M, and 2.0 M TFA at 100 °C for 1 h, sequentially. Every hydrolysate was ultrafiltrated (3000 Da) to collect oligo- and monosaccharides, and the final retentate was further hydrolyzed with 2.0 M TFA at 110 °C and 121 °C for 2 h, respectively. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization followed by HPLC-MSn analysis was applied to detect the sugar residues in these hydrolysates, which allowed proposing their location in the polysaccharide structure. The retentate after 0.5 M TFA hydrolysis was confirmed as the polysaccharide backbone, and it was further analyzed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the structural elucidation of AGSP was accomplished, and it has a backbone of →4)-β-GlcA(1→2)-α-Man(1→ repeating unit with Fuc, Xyl and Gal in the branch. The analytical strategy demonstrated was useful to characterize the structure of polysaccharides. PMID:25497339

  10. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  11. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  12. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  13. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  14. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required. PMID:18275594

  15. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  16. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  17. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  18. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  19. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  20. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R.; Bruijnzeels, M.

    2005-01-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  1. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  2. African and African Caribbean users' perceptions of inpatient services.

    PubMed

    Secker, J; Harding, C

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that well-documented differences in African and African Caribbean people's contact with mental health services may stem from the organization, processes and practices of services themselves. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study which explored the inpatient experiences of a sample of African and African Caribbean people. Although some positive experiences were described, in the main, participants' accounts revolved around a sense of loss of control and around experiences of overt and implicit racism. Underpinning these experiences were relationships with staff that were perceived to be unhelpful. On the basis of both the positive and negative experiences described, we draw conclusions about the changes required to ensure that inpatient services more effectively meet the needs of this group.

  3. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  4. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  5. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  6. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  7. 77 FR 12246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... mammals incidental to black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) research surveys. The first of five IHAs for the specified activities was issued to VanBlaricom on September 23, 2003 (68 FR 57427; October 3, 2003); the most recent of these was issued on January 18, 2008 (73 FR 4841; January 28, 2008),...

  8. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa. PMID:26659458

  9. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  10. East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria.

    The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  12. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM) [Gilbert et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008, 130

  13. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  14. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  15. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  16. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  17. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  18. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  20. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  1. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  2. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  3. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  4. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  5. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  6. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  7. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  8. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  9. The Economic Question and the African Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, J. I.

    1989-01-01

    Presents examples of how African novelists express their ideas on the restructuring of African economic orders and the social and political implications that emanate from them. Discusses the present state of the African economy reflected in the visions of these writers, and their visions of future socio-economic health of Africa. (JS)

  10. Content-based Instruction for African Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshi, Lioba

    2001-01-01

    Examines content-based instruction for African languages and considers Schleicher's (2000) expatiation of goal-based instruction for African languages. Focuses on the parameters for content-based instruction, the profile of a content-based instructional program, the nature of content-based instruction, the first steps for African languages, and…

  11. Complex Syntax Production of African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 African American preschoolers and the role of child (gender, age, African American English) and family (home environment) factors. Age, gender, and home environment effects were found for the amount of complex language used. African American English was not related to amount of…

  12. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  13. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  14. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  15. Liberia: America's Closest African Ally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Samuel; Mowell, Barry

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Liberia, the West African nation patterned after the United States and colonized with freed U.S. slaves in the early 19th century. Reviews the country's history and its eruption into civil strife in 1990, showing how tensions have often characterized relationships between Liberians of different ethnic identities. (MJP)

  16. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  17. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  18. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals. PMID:22380900

  19. Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American…

  20. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  1. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis. PMID:25339513

  2. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  3. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  4. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures.

  5. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  6. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  7. 75 FR 14418 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  8. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  9. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  10. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  11. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  12. Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community. PMID:17047727

  13. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  14. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  15. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  16. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  17. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  18. Kenya's Maligned African Press: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotton, James F.

    Kenya's dozen or more newspapers and 50 news sheets edited and published by Africans in the turbulent 1945-52 preindependence period were condemned as irresponsible, inflammatory, antiwhite, and seditious by the Kenya colonial government, and this characterization has been accepted by many scholars and journalists, including Africans. There is…

  19. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  20. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  1. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  2. Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency African iron overload is common in rural areas of central and ... more about the gene associated with African iron overload SLC40A1 Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  3. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  4. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  5. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  6. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  7. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  8. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  9. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  10. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  11. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  12. Kunta Kinte's Struggle to be African

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courlander, Harold

    1986-01-01

    This article reveals the differences between the character Kunta Kinte and the historical record concerning African males in the preslavery period. Kunta's non-African behaviors include displays of blind anger and rage, prudishness, and actions unknown in his Mandinka culture. These represent the many misrepresentations and ambiguities in Alex…

  13. The African Diaspora: A Literary Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duodu, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies historical factors crucial to the evolution of Black literature in America and the Caribbean, including the triangular trade that displaced and destroyed many Africans, the literary movements of Negritude and the Harlem Renaissance, and the literary collaboration between American and African writers. (DMM)

  14. Computer Networks and African Studies Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    The use of electronic communication in the 12 Title VI African Studies Centers is discussed, and the networks available for their use are reviewed. It is argued that the African Studies Centers should be on the cutting edge of contemporary electronic communication and that computer networks should be a fundamental aspect of their programs. An…

  15. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  16. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  17. South African Education Program: An Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Florence C.

    Consequences of participation in the South African Education Program, which enabled 290 South Africans to study in the United States between 1979 and 1985, were evaluated. Attention was directed to outcomes of participation and the educational experience and intellectual and social growth experienced by the students and alumni, who were Black…

  18. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  19. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  20. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  1. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  2. Relationships among obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in African Americans and West Africans.

    PubMed

    Doumatey, Ayo P; Lashley, Kerrie S; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Guanjie; Amoah, Albert; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Oli, Johnnie; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Adebamowo, Clement A; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Rotimi, Charles N

    2010-03-01

    Several research studies in different populations indicate that inflammation may be the link between obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, this relationship has not been adequately explored among African Americans, an ethnic group with disproportionately high rates of obesity and IR. In this study, we conducted a comparative study of the relationship among adiposity, inflammation, and IR in African Americans and West Africans, the ancestral source population for African Americans. The associations between obesity markers (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)), inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), haptoglobin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha), and IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR))) were evaluated in 247 West Africans and 315 African Americans. In average, African Americans were heavier than the West Africans (by an average of 1.6 BMI units for women and 3 BMI units for men). Plasma hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 (but not TNF-alpha level) were higher in African Americans than in West Africans. In both populations, BMI was associated with markers of inflammation and with HOMA(IR), and these associations remained significant after adjusting for sex and age. However, the pattern of associations between measured inflammatory markers and IR was different between the two groups. In West Africans, hsCRP was the only inflammatory marker associated with IR. In contrast, hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 were all associated with IR in African Americans. Interestingly, none of the associations between markers of inflammation and IR remained significant after adjusting for BMI. This finding suggests that in African Americans, the relationship between inflammatory markers and IR is mediated by adiposity.

  3. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  4. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  5. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  6. Racism: perceptions of distress among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Vetta L Sanders

    2002-04-01

    Some scholars have suggested that stressful living conditions are a major source of mental disorder among African Americans (Krieger, 1999; Neighbors, 1990; Kessler & Neighbors, 1986). There has, however, been debate as to whether this higher level of distress is due to racism or the fact that African Americans are more often of lower socioeconomic status. Stressors that play a significant role in mental disorder might be expected to occur more frequently among African Americans than the general population. This paper attempts to provide empirical support for the notion that racism is a separate and unique source of stress for African Americans. Specifically, it was hypothesized that African Americans would report more experiences of (1) daily stress and (2) racism than other groups and (3) the impact of racial stress would be greater among African Americans. One hundred and fifty six participants completed the Daily Stress Inventory and the Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that African Americans reported higher impact of discrimination scores than European Americans. There were no gender or ethnicity differences in daily stress or the number of racial incidents reported. The implications of the data are discussed.

  7. Constraining the African pole of rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Laike M.

    1992-08-01

    In the absence of well defined transform faults in the East African rift system for constraining the plate kinematic reconstruction, the pole of relative motion for the African (Nubian) and Somalian plates has been determined from residual motion. If Africa and Somalia are to continue to drift apart along the East African rift system (which would then evolve into a series of ridges offset by transform faults) then incipient transform faults that may reflect the direction of relative motion should already be in place along the East African rift system. The incipient transforms along the East African rift system are characterized by shear zones, such as the Zambezi shear zone in the south and the Aswa and Hamer shear zones in the north. Some of these shear zones have been associated with recent strike-slip faulting in the NW-SE direction during periods of earthquakes. Provided that these, consistently NW-SE oriented, strike-slip movements in the shear zones give the direction of relative motion of the adjacent plates, then they can be used to constrain the position of the Africa-Somalia Euler pole. Due to the fact that identifying transform faults in the East African rift system is difficult and because the genesis of transform faults characterizing a plate boundary at an inception stage is not well known, the discussion here is limited to the northern segment of the East African rift system where shear zones are better characterized by the existing geophysical data. The characterizing features vary with latitude, indicating the complexity of the problem of the genesis of transform faults. I believe, however, that the relatively well defined intra-continental transform fault in the northern East African rift system, which is characterized by strike-slip faulting and earthquakes, constrains the pole of relative motion for the African and Somalian plates to a position near 1.5°S and 29.0°E.

  8. The Epworth Score in African American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Amanda L.; Spilsbury, James C.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: African Americans have elevated scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) compared to whites. The reason for this difference is not clear. Methods: Responses to the ESS were assessed in 687 patients (52.3% African American) referred to a hospital-based sleep clinic. Differences in total ESS score and the scores on individual Epworth questions were compared in African Americans and whites. Findings were validated in an independent sleep apnea research cohort of 712 subjects (57.3% African Americans). Results: African Americans in the clinic-based population had a higher mean ESS score than whites (11.4 ± 0.3 vs. 9.8 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001). This difference persisted after adjusting for sleepiness risk factors. In adjusted analyses including responses to the other ESS questions, African Americans scored significantly greater on 3 of the 8 ESS component questions: questions 2-“Watching TV,” 6-“Sitting and talking to someone,” and 7-“Sitting quietly after lunch without alcohol.” In the validation cohort, African Americans also had a higher mean ESS score (9.1 ± 0.3, vs. 8.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.04). In addition they had significantly elevated scores on questions 6 and 7 (p = 0.0002, p = 0.012 respectively) even after adjusting for responses to the other Epworth questions. Conclusions: African Americans have greater sleepiness than whites as assessed by the ESS; this is independent of sleepiness risk factors. The difference appears due primarily to differences in responses to questions 6 and 7 of the ESS questions suggesting a difference in the interpretation of these 2 questions. Citation: Hayes AL; Spilsbury JC; Patel SR. The Epworth score in African American populations. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):344-348. PMID:19968012

  9. African American Women's Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.

  10. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-01-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them. PMID:12749683

  11. Substance abuse in African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, L K

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem from which, regardless of sex or race, no one is immune. Each racial and gender group has specific etiological factors relating to the use of illicit drugs. Data regarding substance abuse in African American women has only recently begun to emerge in the literature. Issues such as socio-economic, racism, and sexism, place African American women at particular risk for substance abuse. Limited availability to treatment, a lack of appropriate treatment and poor social supports impact recovery and places these women at risk for relapse. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding substance abuse, treatment and recovery in African American women.

  12. Misconceptions of depression in african americans.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  13. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  14. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not.

  15. Competitive interactions between neotropical pollinators and africanized honey bees.

    PubMed

    Roubik, D W

    1978-09-15

    The Africanized honey bee, a hybrid of European and African honey bees, is thought to displace native pollinators. After experimental introduction of Africanized honey bee hives near flowers, stingless bees became less abundant or harvested-less resource as visitation by Africanized honey bees increased. Shifts in resource use caused by colonizing Africanized honey bees may lead to population decline of Neotropical pollinators. PMID:17743636

  16. Cognition and Health in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Hill, LaBarron K.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite high rates of poor health outcomes, little attention has been focused on associations between prominent health factors and cognitive function in African American men, exclusively. The objective was to examine relationships between cardiovascular and pulmonary health, and cognitive function in African American men. Method Data from 257 men were pooled from two studies of African American aging. The mean age of participants was 58.15 and mean educational attainment was 11.78 years. Participants provided self-reported health and demographic information, completed cognitive measures, and had their blood pressure and peak expiratory flow assessed. Results After adjustment, significant relationships were found between average peak expiratory flow rate (APEFR) and cognitive performance measures. Discussion Results suggest that lung function is important to consider when examining cognitive function in African American men. Understanding the role of health in cognition and implications for quality of life in this population will be critical as life expectancies increase. PMID:25053802

  17. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  18. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke website This content was last reviewed July 2015. ... Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  19. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  20. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R A

    1995-12-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637