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Sample records for african american adolescents

  1. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  2. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  3. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  4. Bullying and victimization among African American adolescents: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-05-01

    Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. African American adolescent males living with obesity.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to explore, through the concepts of self-perception and meaning, the lived experience of obesity in African American males between the ages of 13-17 years. Hermeneutic phenomenological design was used to guide the study. Thirteen inner-city African American males were enrolled. All participants had a documented body mass index of >95th percentile and were actively receiving treatment at a medical obesity clinic. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Self-perception and meaning are interrelated and important factors in understanding obesity uniquely from the adolescents view. If individuals do not understand that they are obese then they are unable to assign meaning to obesity within their life. Four main themes were discovered. The main themes were as follows: (1) It Don't Mean Nuthin'; (2) It's Just Me, Who I Am; (3) Something Bad Might Happen; and (4) I'm Confused and I Feel Bad. Patterns emerged that will allow health care workers to engage adolescents on a personal level, thereby increasing the potential for treatment outcomes consistent with weight management clinic goals. To realize successful outcomes for these adolescents, health care providers must incorporate the adolescents' understanding, knowledge, and values related to obesity in treatment planning. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Exposure to Community Violence and Adolescents' Internalizing Behaviors among African American and Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wan-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to community violence can seriously threaten healthy adolescent development. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between exposure to violence in the community and the internalizing behaviors of Asian American and African American adolescents. Data analyzed was from 901 adolescents (57.9% female and 42.1% male, and 84.7%…

  7. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  8. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  9. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  10. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy Reports among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…

  11. African American adolescents and mental health care: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bains, Ranbir Mangat

    2014-05-01

    African American adolescents access mental health services at lower rates than their Caucasian counterparts, thus resulting in a large disparity. The purpose of the study was to understand the experiences of African American adolescents in dealing with mental health conditions and what led to or hindered their access to mental health services. A metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted using the meta-ethnographic approach by Noblit and Hare. Four reciprocal themes illuminating the experiences of African American adolescents with mental health issues were revealed: uncertainty and soul searching, strength of the inner circle, shame and reluctance, belief in the system. Each of the themes was explored in detail through the rich quotations of the adolescents. The findings provided an insight and understanding into the process the adolescents went through before seeking help and may aid as a framework for designing interventions to better serve this vulnerable population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Predictors of African American Adolescent Sexual Activity: An Ecological Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Bangi, Audrey K.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated predictors of African American adolescent sexual activity, testing an ecological model of risk factors influencing sexual activity. Data collected over three years indicated that risk factors at the personal, familial, and extrafamilial levels of adolescents' social ecology related to being a virgin or not. Males and older adolescents…

  13. African American Adolescent Males: Giving Voice to Their Educational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie A.; Baker, John C.; Brooks, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the educational experiences of African American adolescent boys, particularly their overrepresentation in special education, and the deleterious effects on this population. Using a qualitative methodology, data were collected from adolescent boys participating in an after-school rite of passage program in which the…

  14. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  16. African American adolescents' academic persistence: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima

    2013-09-01

    African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence.

  17. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  18. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  19. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  20. Never-pregnant African American adolescent girls' perceptions of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Childs, Gwendolyn D; Knight, Candace; White, Reashanda

    2015-01-01

    Despite the decrease in adolescent pregnancy rates, rates among African American girls remain higher than other racial/ethnic adolescent groups. This descriptive qualitative study explored never-pregnant African American adolescent girls' perceptions about adolescent pregnancy. Sixty-four participants participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Individual interviews examined beliefs about adolescent pregnancy and perceptions of life changes resulting from becoming pregnant during adolescence. Focus groups were held to validate findings from the interviews. Participants agreed that becoming pregnant during adolescence would negatively impact their education, family, and peers. Participants anticipated feelings of shame and embarrassment in the event that they became pregnant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid repeat pregnancy among unmarried, African American adolescent parent couples.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Constance Miles

    2013-02-01

    This article describes rapid repeat pregnancy (RRP), getting pregnant or giving birth again within 24 months of giving birth, in a group of unmarried, low-income, African American first-time, adolescent parent couples from the perspectives of their kinship systems, that is, the adolescent parents and their parents or parental figures. RRP has been associated with prematurity, low birth weight, inadequate prenatal care, school dropout, increased potential for poverty, and prolonged welfare dependence. There were 21 RRPs among 24 kinship systems: 9 adolescent males who fathered RRPs with new partners and also reported having been denied access to their study babies; 6 adolescent mothers with new partners, who also reported intimate partner violence with the study adolescent father; and 6 study adolescent parent couples, whose paternal family reported doubts about the paternity of the study babies. Adolescent fathers should be offered the same child care and contraceptive information routinely offered to adolescent mothers.

  2. Ecological influences of sexuality on early adolescent African American females.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.

  3. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  4. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  5. Romantic Relationships Trajectories of African American Gay/Bisexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Milbrath, Constance; Peacock, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The interview study reported here sought to identify the perceived trajectory of romantic relationships of a cohort of Oakland African American gay/bisexual adolescents. Biographical interviews were used to identify cultural models of romantic relationships in the study sample and discovered a trajectory of four phases. In the antecedent to the…

  6. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  7. Developing and Nurturing Excellence in African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Deryl F.; Paisley, Pamela O.

    2004-01-01

    High dropout rates and poor academic performance are too often characteristic of the educational experience for African American male adolescents. In response to this dilemma, enrichment initiatives targeting young Black men have been developed. This article provides an in-depth description of "Project: Gentlemen on the Move," a program designed…

  8. Romantic Relationships Trajectories of African American Gay/Bisexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Milbrath, Constance; Peacock, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The interview study reported here sought to identify the perceived trajectory of romantic relationships of a cohort of Oakland African American gay/bisexual adolescents. Biographical interviews were used to identify cultural models of romantic relationships in the study sample and discovered a trajectory of four phases. In the antecedent to the…

  9. Social Cognitive Predictors of African American Adolescents' Career Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…

  10. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  11. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  12. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  13. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  14. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms.

  15. Self-Esteem Enhancing Reasons for Having Sex and the Sexual Behaviors of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…

  16. Self-Esteem Enhancing Reasons for Having Sex and the Sexual Behaviors of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…

  17. Parenting and Perceived Maternal Warmth in European American and African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…

  18. Parenting and Perceived Maternal Warmth in European American and African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…

  19. Ethnic Identity and Psychological Adjustment: A Validity Analysis for European American and African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Miwa; Dorham, Carole LaRue; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    This research studied the role of ethnic identity as a protective factor among European American (n = 77) and African American (n = 82) adolescents identified either as high risk or successful. Adolescents participated in a multiagent, multimethod assessment of depression, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, competence, and academic…

  20. Ethnic Identity and Psychological Adjustment: A Validity Analysis for European American and African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Miwa; Dorham, Carole LaRue; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    This research studied the role of ethnic identity as a protective factor among European American (n = 77) and African American (n = 82) adolescents identified either as high risk or successful. Adolescents participated in a multiagent, multimethod assessment of depression, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, competence, and academic…

  1. Hematologic reference values for African American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robins, Edwin B; Blum, Steve

    2007-07-01

    Anemia is prevalent among African American children. When evaluating pediatric patients for anemia, clinicians refer to the normative hematological reference values in reference textbooks. These reference values are used in spite of evidence that healthy African American people of all ages have average hemoglobin concentrations from 0.5 to 0.73 g/dl below those of Whites. In an earlier study, using samples from 2,161 healthy African American children from 2 to 18 years old, we found a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the mean hemoglobin value for each age group as compared to reference normative mean hemoglobin values. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of the data set from our previous study and the data set from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (NHANES III) 1988-1994. We found no statistically significant difference between these data sets with respect to the hemoglobin values for any age or sex group, confirming that African American children and adolescents have lower mean hemoglobin values than do Whites. Use of the reference hemoglobin values presented here will help prevent the misdiagnosis of anemia in African American children and thereby minimize unnecessary hematological workups and treatment.

  2. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.

  3. Sexually abstinent African American adolescent females' descriptions of abstinence.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Kristin

    2003-01-01

    To describe sexual abstinence from the perspective of abstinent African American female adolescents. Descriptive qualitative. Data were collected from 14 sexually abstinent, African American adolescent girls during two semi-structured interviews. Data were collected using the life history method and were analyzed in the style of narrative analysis. This analysis indicated four themes in descriptions of abstinence: limited information, categorization of sexual behaviors, activities that lead to intercourse, and abstinence as a self-determined choice. For most participants, "having sex" referred to heterosexual vaginal intercourse and being abstinent meant that one chose to refrain from intercourse. The participants' limited definition of abstinence might lead them to unknowingly put themselves at risk by engaging in other forms of genital sexual activities. They may think that they are protected because they believe that they are practicing abstinence.

  4. Contextual stress and health risk behaviors among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress (community violence, neighborhood disorder, and experiences with racial discrimination). Contextual stress in 8th grade was associated with aggressive behavior and substance use 2 years later for boys. For girls, contextual stress predicted later substance use, but not aggressive behavior. High academic competence and self-worth reduced the impact of contextual stress on substance use for boys. Implications for intervention and directions for future research on health risk behaviors among African American adolescents are discussed.

  5. Discussing adolescent sexual health in African-American churches.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C; Griffith, Derek M

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African-American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan, that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education: (1) churches as sources of sexual information, (2) churches as complex communities, and (3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  6. Discussing Adolescent Sexual Health in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terrinieka T.; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C.; Griffith, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education 1) churches as sources of sexual information; 2) churches as complex communities; and 3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:22814618

  7. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  8. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and…

  9. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  10. Natural Mentors, Racial Identity, and Educational Attainment among African American Adolescents: Exploring Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…

  11. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and…

  12. Adolescent Secretive Behavior: African American and Hmong Adolescents' Strategies and Justifications for Managing Parents' Knowledge about Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Jeremy P.; Brown, B. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon the expectancy violation-realignment theory of autonomy development, this qualitative study examined African American and Hmong adolescent autonomy-seeking behaviors and parent-child communication about activities and relationships with peers. Twenty-two African American and 11 Hmong adolescents in grades 6-12 and 14 African American…

  13. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  14. Examining the Writing of Adolescent African American English Speakers: Suggestions for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…

  15. Examining the Writing of Adolescent African American English Speakers: Suggestions for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…

  16. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  17. African American Adolescent Girls in Impoverished Communities: Parenting Style and Adolescent Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Laura D.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship between parenting style and adolescent functioning among African American adolescent girls and their mothers living in impoverished neighborhoods. Found that teens whose mothers were disengaged (low on both parental warmth and supervision/monitoring) had the most negative outcomes related to externalizing and internalizing…

  18. Risk Factors of Sexual Harassment by Peers: A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…

  19. Predictors of African American and European American Adolescents' Endorsement of Race-Conscious Social Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b)…

  20. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  1. School and Peer Influences on the Academic Outcomes of African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.

    2015-01-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  2. Parental responsibility of African-American unwed adolescent fathers.

    PubMed

    Christmon, K

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated factors related to adolescent fathers' willingness to take parental responsibility for their children. Data were collected on a convenience sample of 43 African-American unwed adolescent fathers. Demographic information was gathered, and self-image was measured using the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. An author-developed questionnaire measured father's parental responsibility, his own role expectations, and the perceived role expectations of his partner and parents. The findings indicated that father's parental responsibility was influenced by his own role expectations and self-image. The perceived role expectations of his partner and parents were not related to his willingness to take parental responsibility. This study helps adolescent care providers in various settings to become familiar with some of the issues related to teenage fathers, and assists them in determining appropriate interventions.

  3. Afrocentric perspective of adolescent pregnancy in African American families: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mims, B L

    1998-01-01

    This article gives a detailed overview of the literature on adolescent pregnancy in African American families. According to the latest data available from the National Center for Health Statistics (1998), the greatest decline in adolescent pregnancy was among African Americans. In spite of the decline of 21% from 1991-1996, African American adolescent's birth rate was still almost twice the rate of European Americans. The purpose of this paper was to provide information that may assist health care professionals or others interested in repeat adolescent pregnancy to more effectively provide care and/or to conduct research from an Afrocentric perspective.

  4. Peer Associations and Coping: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity for Urban, African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Jeneka A; O'Neil, Maya E; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; McWhirter, Ellen H; Dishion, Thomas J

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented.

  5. Peer Associations and Coping: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity for Urban, African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Jeneka A.; O’Neil, Maya E.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; McWhirter, Ellen H.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented. PMID:24324283

  6. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2013-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed. PMID:23730121

  7. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  8. Bidialectal African American Adolescents' Beliefs about Spoken Language Expectations in English Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…

  9. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  10. Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…

  11. Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…

  12. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  13. Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

  14. Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

  15. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  16. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  17. Unheard and Unseen: How Housing Insecure African American Adolescents Experience the Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.

    2016-01-01

    This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…

  18. Correlates of Anxiety Sensitivity among African American Adolescents Living in Urban Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lambert, Sharon F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines individual, social, and contextual correlates of anxiety sensitivity among African American adolescents living in public housing. The study also reports prevalence of anxiety sensitivity among this population of youth. Participants included 238 African American adolescents (mean age = 15.6) living in three public housing…

  19. Bidialectal African American Adolescents' Beliefs about Spoken Language Expectations in English Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…

  20. Unheard and Unseen: How Housing Insecure African American Adolescents Experience the Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.

    2016-01-01

    This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…

  1. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  2. Project SHINE: Effects of Parent–Adolescent Communication on Sedentary Behavior in African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Schneider, Elizabeth M.; Alia, Kassandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined parenting variables (communication, monitoring) as moderators of a family-based intervention for reducing sedentary behavior (SB) in African American adolescents. As a secondary aim, a similar model was tested using adolescent weight status as the outcome. Methods African American adolescents (n = 73; 12.45 ± 1.45 years; 60% girls; 63% overweight/obese) and caregivers were randomized to a 6-week interactive, parent-based intervention or general health condition. Parent–adolescent communication and monitoring of health behaviors were self-reported by parents. Adolescent SB was self-reported by youth. Results There was a significant intervention by communication interaction, such that intervention families with more positive communication showed lower adolescent SB than those with less positive communication or those in the comparison condition. No effects were found for monitoring on SB or for the model with weight status as the outcome. Conclusions Parent–adolescent communication may be an effective component to integrate into health promotion programs for African American adolescents. PMID:23685450

  3. Autonomy and Relatedness with Parents and Romantic Development in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Gettman, Denise C.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of adolescents' autonomy and relatedness to parents on romantic relationships was examined longitudinally over 5 years in 76 middle-class African American late adolescents (mean age = 18.43 years). Relatedness to parents in early adolescence led to longer duration and more supportive romantic relationships in late adolescence, but…

  4. Parents' Differential Treatment of Adolescent Siblings in African American Families.

    PubMed

    Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2017-03-01

    Research on European and European American families suggests that parents' differential treatment of siblings has negative implications for youths' adjustment, but few studies have explored these dynamics in minority samples. This study examined parents' differential acceptance and conflict in a sample of mothers, fathers, and two adolescent siblings in 179 African American families who were interviewed on three annual occasions. In an effort to replicate findings from European and European American samples, we assessed the longitudinal associations between differential treatment and adolescent adjustment and tested three sibling characteristics (birth order, gender, and dyad gender composition) as potential moderators of these linkages. To illuminate the sociocultural context of differential treatment and its implications, we also explored parents' cultural socialization practices and experiences of financial stress as potential moderators of these links. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for average parent-child relationship qualities, decreases in parental acceptance and increases in parent-youth conflict over time-relative to the sibling-were associated with increases in youths' risky behavior and depressive symptoms. Links between differential treatment and adjustment were not evident, however, when mothers engaged in high levels of cultural socialization and in families under high financial stress. The discussion highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in family dynamics.

  5. Parent – Adolescent Relationship Qualities and Adolescent Adjustment in Two-Parent African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Stanik, Christine E.; Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent – adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families. PMID:24532863

  6. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  7. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  8. Alcohol consumption among rural African American and White adolescents: The role of religion, parents, and peers.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Danielle D; Jackman, Danielle M; Stanley, Linda R; Swaim, Randall C; Chavez, Ernest L

    2016-05-31

    Although studies have examined ethnic differences in psychosocial factors and adolescent alcohol use, most have not examined these relationships for rural adolescents. The Community Drug and Alcohol Survey (CDAS) was completed by 23,163 rural adolescents attending African American secondary schools. Multilevel analysis tested the hypothesis of stronger relationships of peer use and religiosity with alcohol use and a weaker relationship for parental permissiveness and alcohol use for White compared to African American adolescents. Results suggested that peer use, religiosity, and parental permissiveness were more strongly associated with changes in alcohol use for White adolescents. Findings provide insight for alcohol prevention among rural adolescents.

  9. Middle-Class African American Families' Expectations for Adolescents' Behavioural Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddis, Christopher; Smetana, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Timetables for adolescents' behavioural autonomy were examined using a modified version of Feldman and Quatman's (1988) teen timetable measure with 73 middle-class African American middle adolescents (M age = 14.96 years, SD = 1.29) and their parents (73 mothers and 44 fathers), who were followed longitudinally for 3 years. African American…

  10. Reducing Stress and Preventing Anxiety in African American Adolescents: A Culturally- Grounded Approach

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702

  11. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  12. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  13. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  14. Relationship between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…

  15. Help-Seeking Behaviors and Depression among African American Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Korr, Wynne S.; Broitman, Marina; Bone, Lee; Green, Alan; Leaf, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the help-seeking behaviors of depressed, African American adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 urban, African American boys, ages 14 to 18, who were recruited from community-based mental health centers and after-school programs for youths. Interviews covered sociodemographic information, questions…

  16. Relationship between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…

  17. The Role of Gender in the Racial and Ethnic Socialization of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…

  18. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  19. Performance of African-American Adolescents on a Measure of Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Rosa-Lugo, Linda I.; Hedrick, Dona L.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the frequency of African-American English (AAE) features used by African-American adolescent males (n = 16) and their performance on the seven clusters comprising the "Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery-Revised" (WLPB-R) was investigated. All participants were between the ages of 15 and 19 years who had a…

  20. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  1. The Role of Gender in the Racial and Ethnic Socialization of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…

  2. Connective Complexity: African American Adolescents and the Relational Context of Kinship Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to address racial disproportionality in child welfare must include a focus on the benefits and challenges facing children in kinship care. African American children not only are overrepresented in the child welfare system, but also are placed disproportionately in kinship foster care. Using a sample of 18 African American adolescents ages…

  3. Resilience and Vulnerability in Low Cognitive Functioning African American Adolescents Exposed to Multiple Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eurnestine; Wallander, Jan

    The mental health status of African American adolescents who have been diagnosed with mild cognitive limitations was studied, and the variables that differentiated those who were well adjusted (resilient) from those who were poorly adjusted (vulnerable) are detailed in this presentation. Participating were 205 African American families, each with…

  4. Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical model processes of change associated with consumption of >=5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic...

  5. Process of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of = 5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N = 549; mean (SD) age = 12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participan...

  6. Help-Seeking Behaviors and Depression among African American Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Korr, Wynne S.; Broitman, Marina; Bone, Lee; Green, Alan; Leaf, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the help-seeking behaviors of depressed, African American adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 urban, African American boys, ages 14 to 18, who were recruited from community-based mental health centers and after-school programs for youths. Interviews covered sociodemographic information, questions…

  7. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  8. Racial Identity Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of Academic Disidentification, Racial Identity, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Martinique; Johnson, Samoan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous…

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of Academic Disidentification, Racial Identity, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Martinique; Johnson, Samoan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous…

  11. Association of Financial Resources with Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Rodriguez, Antoinette U.; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Dominguez, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The association of mothers' report of the adequacy of family financial resources with African American mothers' and adolescents' depressive symptoms was assessed. Findings for families with male adolescents revealed that mothers' report of the adequacy of families' financial resources was linked to mothers' and adolescents' depressive…

  12. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…

  13. African American Late Adolescents' Relationships with Parents: Developmental Transitions and Longitudinal Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Five-year longitudinal patterns and the influence of developmental transitions on 76 middle-class African American late adolescents' (M18.43 years) relationships with parents were examined. Late adolescents were closer to mothers than to fathers. Controlling for age, late adolescent females who had left home reported less negative relationships…

  14. Adolescent-Parent Conflict in Middle-Class African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Cheryl; Smetana, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Examined conflicts between middle-class African American preadolescents/early adolescents and their parents. Found that conflicts were relatively frequent, of low intensity, and occurred over issues such as the adolescent's room, chores, activity choices, and homework. Early adolescents rated conflicts as more intense than preadolescents. Mothers'…

  15. Middle-Class African American Parents' Conceptions of Parenting in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith; Chuang, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Examined conceptions of parenting among middle-class African American parents of early adolescents. Found that parents strongly endorsed setting firm limits. Mothers rated limiting adolescents' behavior as more important than permitting or encouraging independence. Mothers of younger adolescent females viewed limits as more important than mothers…

  16. Drug abuse in African American and Hispanic adolescents: culture, development, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Szapocznik, José; Prado, Guillermo; Burlew, Ann Kathleen; Williams, Robert A; Santisteban, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    An understanding of African American and Hispanic adolescent drug abuse occurs at the intersection of context, development, and behavior. The focus of this review is on the impact of racial/ethnic culture as one of the important contexts that influence adolescent development toward or away from prosocial behaviors. Because family plays a major role in both African American and Hispanic cultures, it is also a centerpiece of any discussion of adolescent development in these groups. This review on the state of the science in drug abuse for African American and Hispanic adolescents focuses on epidemiology, culturally specific risk and protective processes, and prevention and treatment research. From the perspective of a broad lens, specific minority groups such as African Americans and Hispanics would appear to have more in common than not. However, each of these groups encompasses considerable genetic, historical, social, and cultural heterogeneity. Investigation across such diversity will yield a more complete picture of the human condition.

  17. Sociocultural Influences on Weight-Related Behaviors in African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tate, Nutrena H; Davis, Jean E; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors related to weight behaviors in African American adolescents utilizing a social ecological approach. A descriptive correlational design included a sample of 145 African American adolescents. Perceived familial socialization, ethnic identity, physical activity, and eating behavior patterns were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and multiple regression equations. Perceived maternal socialization was significantly related to adolescent eating behaviors and physical activity whereas perceived paternal socialization was significantly related only to their physical activity. The adolescents' ethnic identity was not significantly related to their eating behaviors or physical activity. Health care providers who work with adolescents and their families can use the initial findings from this study to encourage healthy weight-related behaviors while reducing the obesity epidemic within the African American adolescent population in a developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive manner.

  18. "I Do But I Don't": The Search for Identity in Urban African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Hoffman, Beth Necowitz; Leff, Stephen S

    2011-01-01

    Achievement of a coherent and strong sense of self is critical to positive academic outcomes for urban minority youth. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore key aspects of identity development for African American adolescents living in a high-poverty, urban neighborhood. Results suggest that efforts to develop a sense of oneself as an individual and in relation to the world are impeded by mixed messages on African American culture and achievement. Findings are discussed in the context of teaching and working with urban African American adolescents in a way that promotes positive identity development.

  19. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094

  20. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W LaVome; Case, Mary H; Whipple, Christopher R; Gooden, Adia S; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9(th,) 10(th) and 11(th) grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed.

  1. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Sex Differences in the Multidimensional Self-Concepts of African American Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Nicole Renick; Zand, Debra H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the gender identities of African American adolescents mediate sex differences found in their multidimensional self-concepts. The sample included 174 African American adolescents who completed the 21-item Children's Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results…

  3. Life Satisfaction among European American, African American, Chinese American, Mexican American, and Dominican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined contextual and personality factors and their relation to perceived life satisfaction among adolescents in five sociocultural groups. Variations in the contribution of specific predictors were noted for the five groups, but no one factor accounted for a large amount of variance in any group. Among the most consistent predictors…

  4. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  5. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  6. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  7. “It Takes a Village:” Familial Messages Regarding Dating Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Gary W.; Timmons, April; Motley, Darnell N.; Tyler, Donald H.; Catania, Joseph A.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Dolcini, M. Margaret

    2012-01-01

    There is a dearth of research regarding the influence of family members on adolescent dating. This study explored messages that African American adolescents received from family members regarding dating attitudes, norms and behaviors. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sexually experienced urban African American heterosexual adolescents (N = 51) between the ages of 15–17. Analyses revealed that participants received a diversity of messages from a range of both nuclear and extended family members, and that these messages were organized around three temporal phases of dating: initiation, maintenance, and termination. Types and sources of messages are discussed, as well as implications for intervention development. PMID:23028256

  8. The influence of parental participation on obesity interventions in african american adolescent females: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michelle; Newman, Susan; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell

    2015-01-01

    African American adolescent females have the highest prevalence rates of obesity among those age 18 and under. The long-term health effects and associated comorbidities of obesity within this cohort threaten the health and well-being of a major section of the U.S. population. There is a need to understand the influence of parental support in reducing obesity related health disparities. Using a social ecological framework to explore parental influence on adolescent obesity interventions allows for greater insight into the complex and dynamic influences affecting the lives of African American adolescent females who are obese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  10. Context Matters: Links between Neighborhood Discrimination, Neighborhood Cohesion and African American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood…

  11. Caregiver Experiences of Discrimination and African American Adolescents' Psychological Health over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Kahlil R.; Hurd, Noelle M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of caregivers' experiences of racial discrimination on their adolescent children's psychological functioning among a sample of 264 African American dyads. Potential relations between caregiver discrimination experiences and a number of indicators of adolescents' (aged 12-17) psychological functioning over time…

  12. Context Matters: Links between Neighborhood Discrimination, Neighborhood Cohesion and African American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood…

  13. Caregiver Experiences of Discrimination and African American Adolescents' Psychological Health over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Kahlil R.; Hurd, Noelle M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of caregivers' experiences of racial discrimination on their adolescent children's psychological functioning among a sample of 264 African American dyads. Potential relations between caregiver discrimination experiences and a number of indicators of adolescents' (aged 12-17) psychological functioning over time…

  14. Pubertal Development and Parent-Child Conflict in Low-Income, Urban, African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; McCormick, Sheila H.; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    1999-01-01

    Examined associations between pubertal development and parent-adolescent conflict in urban, low-income African-American adolescents. Found that parents reported more verbal aggression with sons during midpuberty than early or late puberty, more violent tactics with younger than older daughters, and more "hot" discussions with early-…

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of African American Adolescents' Attributions about Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Akilah D.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2011-01-01

    Developmental, gender, and academic domain differences in causal attributions and the influence of attributions on classroom engagement were explored longitudinally in 115 African American adolescents. In Grades 8 and 11, adolescents reported attributions for success and failure in math, English and writing, and science. In Grade 11, English and…

  16. Validation of the Scale of Racial Socialization for African American Adolescents: Steps toward Multidimensionality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard C. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the factor structure of a measure of racial socialization attitudes for African American adolescents to determine whether the components of the construct are reliable and measure different phenomena. Four factors, based on research with 200 inner-city adolescents, were found to be very meaningful and moderately reliable. Development…

  17. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  18. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  19. Examining Relationships between Ethnic Identity, Family Environment, and Psychological Outcomes for African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…

  20. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Assari, Shervin

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed.

  1. Family and Religious Antecedents of Civic Involvement in Middle Class African American Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    We examined family and religiousspiritual antecedents and correlates of current and intended civic involvement in 76 middle class African American late adolescents (M = 18.43 years) who had been followed longitudinally for 3 years. Adolescents' spirituality/religiosity and mothers' current involvement influenced the overall ratings and more…

  2. Understanding the Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents: Child, Family, and Community Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…

  3. Predicting Parental Home and School Involvement in High School African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, DeMarquis

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of parental home and school involvement for high school adolescents were examined within two groups of urban African American parents from various socioeconomic levels. Home involvement was defined as parent-adolescent communication about school and learning, while school involvement was defined in terms of parent attendance and…

  4. Kinship Support, Family Relations, and Psychological Adjustment among Low-Income African American Mothers and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…

  5. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  6. Perceived Parental Behavior and Peer Affiliations among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lombe. Margaret; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the role of parenting behavior in adolescents' peer group formation using a sample of 238 African American adolescents living in urban public housing projects. The study also assesses the moderating effect of age and gender on the relationship between parenting behavior and peer affiliations. Girls reported significantly…

  7. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454

  8. Future Time Perspective, Hope, and Ethnic Identity among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelabu, Detris Honora

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of academic achievement to future time perspective (FTP), hope, and ethnic identity among low-income, rural and urban African American adolescents ( N = 661). Findings indicate that adolescents who are oriented toward the future, determined to reach their goals (hope), and interested in and have a strong sense…

  9. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  10. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  11. "Sisters of Nia": A Social Justice Advocacy Intervention for School Counselors in Their Work with Adolescent African American Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…

  12. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  13. Developmental trajectories of African American adolescents' family conflict: differences in mental health problems in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Effects of parental marital status, income, and family functioning on African American adolescent self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Mandara, J; Murray, C B

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status, family income, and family functioning on African American adolescents' self-esteem. One hundred sixteen adolescents participated, 64% of whom were female. Compared with boys with nonmarried parents, boys with married parents had higher overall self-esteem, even when family income and family functioning were controlled. Parental marital status had no effect on girls' self-esteem. Family functioning was a very strong predictor of self-esteem for both sexes. However, family relational factors were more important to girls' self-esteem, whereas structural and growth factors were more important for boys. It was concluded that African American adolescent boys with nonmarried parents are at risk for developing low self-esteem compared with other African American adolescents, but a more controlled and structured environment may buffer the effects of having nonmarried parents.

  15. Obesity intervention among African-American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baskin, M L; Ahluwalia, H K; Resnicow, K

    2001-08-01

    Often, researchers and clinicians approach the African-American community from a deficit model with African Americans viewed as having less desirable health practices and higher disease risk; however, in developing interventions for African Americans, it is important to keep in mind positive aspects of black culture as they relate to obesity. For example, the cultural acceptance of a larger body type and less negative views toward overweight individuals need not be viewed as problematic or abnormal. In fact, it could be argued that majority culture has a dysfunctional view of body image and obesity. The fact that whites are less likely to be overweight than African Americans may stem from a value system that places undue emphasis on thinness, youth, and external beauty and a culture that imbues women with shame about how they look and what they eat. Thus, rather than holding whites and majority culture as the ideal, it may be important to incorporate the positive elements of black culture regarding body image and food rather than attempting to shift their values toward those of European Americans. How best to achieve a reduction in obesity and its medical consequences, without inducing undesirable shifts in body image and attitudes toward food, is a formidable but important challenge.

  16. A review of the health effects of sexual assault on African American women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie

    2013-01-01

    To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  17. The Brotherhood: Empowering Adolescent African-American Males toward Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals that African-American males do not achieve at the same academic levels as their White counterparts. This article reports the effectiveness of a school-based male mentoring program established by a professional school counselor in an urban high school that formed a relationship of support for male students…

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  20. The relationship between religiosity and adjustment among African-American, female, urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne

    2003-08-01

    African-American female adolescents living in urban environments are at risk for adverse adjustment outcomes, and thus it is imperative to identify protective factors. Religion has been found to be a significant protective resource against many types of maladaptive adjustment outcomes among adolescent samples. The present study accomplishes the following: (1) Provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens; (2) examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Four-hundred ninety-two African-American females, ages 12-19, completed measures on religiosity, sexual activity, self-esteem, and psychological functioning. Most of the adolescents identified as Christian, reported a belief in God, and attended religious services. Greater overall religiosity was associated with greater self-esteem and better psychological functioning. Adolescents at different levels of self-religiosity, as well as family religiosity, evidenced significantly different self-esteem but not psychological distress or sexual activity. Adolescents with varying levels of church attendance demonstrated differences on all three outcomes. By identifying the ways in which religion may exert a positive impact on African-American female teens, mental health professionals can design interventions that have the potential to help improve the quality of life for these adolescents.

  1. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions regarding Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13-17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life. Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination…

  2. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions regarding Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13-17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life. Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination…

  3. African-American parents' racial and ethnic socialization and adolescent academic grades: teasing out the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tiffany L; Linver, Miriam R; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.

  4. PTSD in Children and Adolescents: The Aftermath of Parental Incarceration among Children and Adolescents within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…

  5. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls.

  6. Dynamic association between parental monitoring and communication and adolescent risk involvement among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongmei; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrel, Lesley; Galbraith, Jennifer; Kaljee, Linda

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine: (1) the relationship between parental monitoring and communication and adolescent risk involvement over time, including consideration of their potential interaction; and (2) the effect of consistent versus inconsistent monitoring and communication over time on adolescent risk behaviors. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up data were collected from 1999-2003. A total of 817 African-American adolescents and their parents were recruited from 35 low-income urban communities in Baltimore, MD. Perceived parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication and seven risk behaviors were assessed. Logistic general estimating equation (GEE) models were performed to assess the dynamic association. RESULTS: Perceived parental monitoring had protective effects on concurrent adolescent risk involvement over two-year observation. The protective effect on girls' sexual abstinence increased significantly over time. Perceived problem communication was associated with increased risk of concurrent involvement in violent behaviors, but the effect did not change over time. For girls, the probability of engaging in sex increased greatly (from 0.3 to 0.6) for those who perceived problem communication, while it remained stable (about 0.4) for those perceiving less problem communication. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm the protective effect of perceived parental monitoring on adolescent risk involvement. It also extends previous findings by showing the importance of consistent parental monitoring and communication. PMID:17534009

  7. Early and mid-adolescence risk factors for later substance abuse by African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had higher exposure to school, family structure, delinquency, and psychosocial factors. School factors and drug-use modeling of peers and family were the most important risk factors for marijuana abuse or dependence for both European and African Americans. CONCLUSION: Personal, familial, and social context factors during early adolescence affect adult drug-use problems, particularly for African Americans. Levels of drug use are lower among African Americans, but exposure to risks is higher and there are clear differences in the long-range impact of risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing and timing appropriate prevention efforts. PMID:12435824

  8. Conduct Disorders in African American Adolescent Males: The Perceptions that Lead to Overdiagnosis and Placement in Special Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eddie, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    African American adolescent males are significantly more likely than their Caucasian peers to receive a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder. In contrast, their Caucasian peers are more often diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Discrepancies in the way diagnosis is made cause more African American adolescent males to be classified …

  9. An empirically supported and culturally specific engagement and intervention strategy for African American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Howard A; Jackson-Gilfort, April; Marvel, Françoise A

    2006-04-01

    The need for effective culturally responsive treatments has become more urgent as the number of ethnic minority clients continues to increase. Previous research with a clinically referred sample of substance-abusing African American inner-city teenagers found that treatment engagement increased when cultural content was incorporated in the therapeutic process (Jackson-Gilfort, Liddle, Tejeda, & Dakof, 2001). This article amplifies these findings by offering clinical guidelines for how to develop and implement culturally specific interventions that contribute to the therapeutic engagement of African American adolescent males. Clinical outcomes may be improved by integrating culturally responsive intervention methods within a multisystemic approach to the adolescent's treatment. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Qualitative analysis of African-American adolescent females' beliefs about emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Christie L; Santarsiero, Elizabeth C; Spatz, Diane

    2002-12-01

    This project was initiated to better understand why some African-American adolescent females do not use emergency contraceptive pills (ECP), despite their widespread availability. Adolescents are considered likely candidates for ECP because they are more likely to inconsistently use birth control and have sporadic sexual behavior patterns. These factors increase the risk of unprotected intercourse and unplanned pregnancy. A qualitative study design was employed to assess the knowledge of African-American adolescent females regarding ECP and their beliefs affecting use and nonuse of ECP. An adolescent clinic at a large, urban, academic children's hospital. Twenty-nine African-American adolescent (age 13-18) females.Interventions. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews lasting 15-20 minutes. Interviews yielded qualitative data that was coded and categorized into themes. Through the interviews, eight themes emerged: Taking Care of Self, Lack of Knowledge of ECP, Inaccurate Information, Sources of Information, Acceptability of Adolescent Pregnancy, Partner's Influence on Adolescent Choices, Discomfort Talking About Sex, and Concern About Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). The results from this qualitative study will contribute to future quantitative research efforts by providing insight into the decision-making process regarding ECP among this population. The themes provide a foundation for clinical implications and educational interventions. Although a large proportion of the sample (24%) had used ECP, misinformation about ECP and basic reproductive health issues was prevalent. Most of the adolescents report they obtain reproductive health information from a complex network of information sharing, in which their primary sources tend to be peers.

  11. Bidirectional linkages between psychological symptoms and sexual activities among African American adolescent girls in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lisa R; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African American youth or in clinical samples. African American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls' risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Two-hundred-sixty-five African American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a 6-month follow-up. Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescent girls in psychiatric care and should be considered in prevention program development.

  12. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment.

  13. Images of sexual stereotypes in rap videos and the health of African American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Shani H; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan

    2007-10-01

    This study sought to determine whether perceiving portrayals of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos was associated with adverse health outcomes among African American adolescent females. African American female adolescents (n = 522) were recruited from community venues. Adolescents completed a survey consisting of questions on sociodemographic characteristics, rap music video viewing habits, and a scale that assessed the primary predictor variable, portrayal of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos. Adolescents also completed an interview that assessed the health outcomes and provided urine for a marijuana screen. In logistic regression analyses, adolescents who perceived more portrayals of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos were more likely to engage in binge drinking (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.32-11.04, p = 0.01), test positive for marijuana (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.19-9.85, p = 0.02), have multiple sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.01-3.71, p = 0.04), and have a negative body image (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.02-2.26, p = 0.04). This is one of the first studies quantitatively examining the relationship between cultural images of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos and a spectrum of adverse health outcomes in African American female adolescents. Greater attention to this social issue may improve the health of all adolescent females.

  14. Factors Associated with Asthma Self-Management in African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Crowder, Sharron J; Hanna, Kathleen M; Carpenter, Janet S; Broome, Marion E

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on asthma self-management in African American adolescents, a group with high rates of the disease. This study examined factors associated with asthma self-management in 133 African Americans aged 14-16 years including gender, asthma impairment, prior asthma education, cognitive and emotional illness representations. Twenty-five percent of the variance in asthma self-management was explained by having attended an asthma education program, perceiving more asthma consequences (illness consequences), and reporting greater understanding of asthma as an illness (illness coherence). Findings suggest that these variables may be important targets of interventions to improve asthma self-management in African American middle adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adherence to asthma medication regimens in urban African American adolescents: application of self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Idalski Carcone, April; Lam, Phebe; Ellis, Deborah A; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Asthma medication adherence is low, particularly among African American adolescents, a high-risk group with respect to asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. This study tested the utility of self-determination theory (SDT), a theory of motivation, to explain adherence to asthma medication regimens in African American adolescents. We used baseline data from 168 urban African American adolescents (Mage = 13.94 years; 61% male) with poorly controlled asthma who were part of a trial testing the efficacy of interventions to improve adherence. Participants and their caregivers were interviewed using the Family Asthma Management System Scale; this study used the Asthma Medication Adherence subscale. Adolescents completed four asthma-specific scales representing the SDT constructs of autonomous motivation (one importance scale), competence (one confidence scale), and relatedness (two scales--family routines and parental support). Using multiple linear regression, we tested the hypothesis that SDT variables would predict adherence. Adherence was significantly correlated with three SDT variables--importance, confidence, and family routines. In multivariate analysis, family routines was the only significant predictor of asthma adherence (p < .001). Asthma management behaviors integrated into and shared among family members was associated with better adherence. Greater confidence was marginally associated with increased adherence (p = .07). Though several variables representing SDT constructs were correlated with adherence, results demonstrate that family routines may be more relevant for African American adolescents' adherence than other SDT constructs. Thus, helping families to share and better integrate asthma care into daily schedules may be an important intervention strategy to improve medication adherence among high-risk African American adolescents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Urban Lit and Sexual Risk Behavior: A Survey of African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors.

  17. Pragmatic Language of African American Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; DeJarnette, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A systematic review and synthesis was performed on published articles and dissertations produced between 1970 and 2013 that focused on selected pragmatic language behaviors of African American children and adolescents. Methods: Electronic databases and hand searches of articles located in the databases were used to identify the published…

  18. School Day Eating Habits of Inner-City, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…

  19. Dietary intake patterns of low-income urban African-American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Improper dietary intake pattern is a risk factor for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African American adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to describe dietary intake patterns including energy, nutrient, food g...

  20. Risk and Protective Effects of Sibling Relationships among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soli, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated associations between sibling relationships and adjustment among 179 African American adolescent siblings (controlling for family factors) and tested moderating effects of familism values and birth order. Two-level random intercept models revealed that familism values moderated sibling relationship-adjustment linkages,…

  1. Unemployment and Work Interruption among African American Single Mothers: Effects on Parenting and Adolescent Socioemotional Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using interview data from 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tested a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influenced adolescent socioemotional functioning. Found that current unemployment, but not past work interruption, contributed to depressive…

  2. African American Adolescent Mothers' Vocational Aspiration-Expectation Gap: Individual, Social and Environmental Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellenga, Kate; Aber, Mark S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the vocational aspirations and expectations of African American adolescent mothers living in urban poverty. Data on girls from an alternative school for pregnant/parenting teens indicated that depressive and anxious symptoms along with childcare provided by relatives were associated with a gap between aspirations and expectations.…

  3. Predictors of Tobacco and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy for Urban and Rural African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corona, Rosalie; Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive…

  4. Urban African American Adolescent Parents: Their Perceptions of Sex, Love, Intimacy, Pregnancy, and Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jewel L. Jones

    1998-01-01

    Examines the perception of urban African-American adolescent mothers and fathers regarding sex, love, intimacy, pregnancy, and parenting. Uses structured interviews and focus groups to gather data. Employs inductive data analysis using constant comparison methods to identify themes and patterns within and across gender groups. (Author/GCP)

  5. Problematic Situations Associated with Dating Experiences and Relationships among Urban African American Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…

  6. Longitudinal Associations between Experienced Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article…

  7. School Day Eating Habits of Inner-City, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…

  8. MyPyramid.gov knowledge and access among rural Southwest Mississippi African-American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our learning outcomes were: 1) To identify need for a culturally specific media campaign on the use of MyPyramid.gov targeting African-American adolescents, and 2) To identify need for nutrition education tools designed to reinforce food guide pyramid recommendations. This study used a qualitative ...

  9. A new measure of dietary social support among African American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate a measure of social support for fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents. Focus groups (N = 30) and pilot testing procedures (N = 17) were used to develop and pretest questionnaire item...

  10. Longitudinal Associations between Experienced Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article…

  11. "I Do but I Don't": The Search for Identity in Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Hoffman, Beth Necowitz; Leff, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    Achievement of a coherent and strong sense of self is critical to positive academic outcomes for urban minority youth. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore key aspects of identity development for African American adolescents living in a high-poverty, urban neighborhood. Results suggest that efforts to develop a sense of…

  12. African American Adolescent Mothers' Vocational Aspiration-Expectation Gap: Individual, Social and Environmental Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellenga, Kate; Aber, Mark S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the vocational aspirations and expectations of African American adolescent mothers living in urban poverty. Data on girls from an alternative school for pregnant/parenting teens indicated that depressive and anxious symptoms along with childcare provided by relatives were associated with a gap between aspirations and expectations.…

  13. Financial Strain, Neighborhood Stress, Parenting Behaviors, and Adolescent Adjustment in Urban African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Gutman, Leslie; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Tokoyawa, Teru

    2005-01-01

    Using latent variable structural equation modeling, we tested a theoretical model linking financial strain, neighborhood stress, parenting behavior, and adolescent adjustment. The sample consisted of 305 African American families living in inner city neighborhoods. Of the families, 40% were living at or below the U.S. poverty threshold. The…

  14. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  15. Perceived Racism and Career Self-Efficacy in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Vanessa B.; Valdez, Jesse N.

    2006-01-01

    African American adolescents' perceptions of racism and career self-efficacy relationships are examined. Participants in a southwestern urban high school completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, Racism and Life Experiences Scale-Personal and -Group, and career decision and career task self-efficacy scales. Results indicate that…

  16. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  17. Financial Strain, Neighborhood Stress, Parenting Behaviors, and Adolescent Adjustment in Urban African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Gutman, Leslie; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Tokoyawa, Teru

    2005-01-01

    Using latent variable structural equation modeling, we tested a theoretical model linking financial strain, neighborhood stress, parenting behavior, and adolescent adjustment. The sample consisted of 305 African American families living in inner city neighborhoods. Of the families, 40% were living at or below the U.S. poverty threshold. The…

  18. The Relationship between Religiosity and Adjustment among African-American, Female, Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…

  19. Health Risk Behaviors of African American Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation: Prevalence Depends on Measurement Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Robert P.; Browne, Dorothy; Wallander, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Health risk behaviors (substance use, violence, suicide, and car safety) of 194 African American urban adolescents with mild mental retardation were measured using either a confidential individual interview or an anonymous group survey. The survey methodology resulted in disclosure of more risk behaviors than the interview methodology. Elevated…

  20. The Relationship between Religiosity and Adjustment among African-American, Female, Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…

  1. The Importance of Family and School Domains in Adolescent Deviance: African American and Caucasian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Pickering, Lloyd E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the importance of family (closeness, monitoring, and conflict) and school (grades, homework time, educational aspirations, and commitment) domains on 809 African American and Caucasian youth. Both developmental domains revealed independent relationships with different measures of adolescent deviance, and results were similar for both…

  2. Romantic Relationship Dynamics of Urban African American Adolescents: Patterns of Monogamy, Commitment, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also…

  3. Developing a Measure of Stigma by Association with African American Adolescents Whose Mothers Have HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Sally; Berger, Barbara; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Sultzman, Vickey; Fendrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: African American urban adolescents are one of the fastest growing groups of children affected by their mother's HIV status. These children experience HIV stigma by association with their HIV-positive mothers. Stigma may contribute to adverse outcomes for these teens. Methods: The authors describe a multistage process of scale…

  4. African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization and Racial Socialization as Distinct Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paasch-Anderson, Julie; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic socialization and racial socialization were examined as discrete concepts using a semistructured interview to assess message content for each form of socialization. We were interested in whether adolescents distinguished between these forms of socialization. Fifty-five African American 11th- and 12th-grade students were asked separate…

  5. Effects of Religiosity and Racial Socialization on Subjective Stigmatization in African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brega, Angela G.; Coleman, Lerita M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the direct effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization among African American adolescents (N=50). Participants who showed strong commitment to the church were more destigmatized as were those who received racial socialization messages stemming from a single primary category. The more racial socialization…

  6. The Meaning of Respect in Romantic Relationships among Low-Income African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Catania, Joseph A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Although interpersonal respect is considered an important quality in successful romantic relationships, limited attention has been paid to this concept. We examined the meaning of respect in romantic relationships as conceptualized by low-income, sexually active, heterosexually identified, African American adolescents aged 15 to 17 (N = 50).…

  7. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  8. Longitudinal Association between Childhood Impulsivity and Bulimic Symptoms in African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodell, Lindsay P.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a longitudinal design, the authors of this study examined the relationship between externalizing problems and impulsivity in early childhood and symptoms of disordered eating in late adolescence. Method: Participants were urban, African American first-grade girls (N = 119) and their parents who were participating in a longitudinal…

  9. Suicide Ideation and Attempts among Low-Income African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    We examined the impact of risk and protective factors on the odds that African American adolescents seriously think about or attempt suicide. Data from students in grades 5-12 in a mostly urban, southeastern U.S. school district were analyzed. Findings support earlier work documenting differences in gender and grades. Risk factors were uniformly…

  10. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  11. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  12. Acting "Tough" in a "Tough" World: An Examination of Fear among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Diane M.; Cassidy, Elaine F.; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2008-01-01

    African American adolescents (132 males and 128 females; age M=14.8 years, SD=0.92) enrolled in an urban community social skills development program participated in a study assessing the relationship among perceptions of family and community social support, fear of calamitous events, depression, and anger expression. Expressing fear of calamitous…

  13. African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Interactions: Kinship Support, Parent-Child Relationships, and Teen Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Nguyen, Dang-Giao T.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined perceived kinship support and parenting practices for 158 African American adolescents in the 9th and 10th grades. Kinship support showed direct associations with teen outcomes that, for work orientation and school orientation, were partially mediated by parenting practices. With a few exceptions, kinship support was positively…

  14. Influence of Perceived Contextual Stress on Self-Esteem and Academic Outcomes in African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Hurley, Megan; Foney, Dana; Hayes, DeMarquis

    2002-01-01

    Studied factors that influence academic success among 84 high-achieving African American students exposed to many stressful life events often associated with life in urban neighborhoods. Results show that adolescent-perceived hassles were indications of parental monitoring, and parental monitoring was positively related to self-esteem. Discusses…

  15. The Meaning of Respect in Romantic Relationships among Low-Income African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Catania, Joseph A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Although interpersonal respect is considered an important quality in successful romantic relationships, limited attention has been paid to this concept. We examined the meaning of respect in romantic relationships as conceptualized by low-income, sexually active, heterosexually identified, African American adolescents aged 15 to 17 (N = 50).…

  16. Romantic Relationship Dynamics of Urban African American Adolescents: Patterns of Monogamy, Commitment, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also…

  17. A Test of Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Crosswhite, Jennifer M.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable empirical support exists for "The General Theory of Crime". However, little work has been completed on members of minority populations in the United States. The current investigation examined whether low self-control predicted deviance in a sample of African American adolescents (n = 661; 55.1 percent female; mean age = 15.7 years).…

  18. An Afrocentric Approach to Group Social Skills Training with Inner-City African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Reginald; And Others

    Social Skills Training (SST) has become a popular and effective means of prevention and intervention with adolescent populations exhibiting behavioral difficulties. Early in their development many African-American youth are exposed to homicide, crime, and interpersonal violence. The acquisition of social skills is critical to the development of…

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Reduce African American Adolescents' Risk for HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 246 African American adolescents either to an educational program or to an 8-week intervention that combined education with behavior skills training. Results indicate that, compared with the education program, youth in behavioral skills training lowered their infection risk to a greater degree, maintained risk reduction changes…

  20. Examining Contextual Factors in the Career Decision Status of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Wallace, Barbara C.; Kindaichi, Mai M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which perceived occupational barriers and perceived parental support predicted career certainty and career indecision in a sample of African American adolescents. Perceived occupational barriers were positively predictive of career indecision, and perceived parental support was positively associated with career…

  1. Family Management Practice, School Achievement, and Problem Behavior in African American Adolescents: Mediating Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, R.D.; Lopez, E.I.

    2005-01-01

    The association of mothers' report of family management practices (e.g., family routine and parental achievement expectations) with school achievement, school engagement, and problem behavior was assessed among African American mothers and adolescents. Findings revealed that family routine was positively associated with school achievement and…

  2. Peer Status in an Ethnic Context: Associations with African American Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Patrick F.; Cole, Daphne J.; Houshyar, Shadi; Lythcott, Mawiyah; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the association between ethnic identity centrality and peer status for African American adolescents who represented a sizable proportion, yet numerical minority within a high school context. Initial analyses indicated that a traditional sociometric nomination procedure did not adequately characterize peer status for…

  3. Influences on Adolescent African American Females' Global Self-Esteem: Body Image and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…

  4. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely, racial centrality, private…

  5. Peer Intervention in Dating Violence: Beliefs of African-American Middle School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, Arlene N.; Black, Beverly M.

    2008-01-01

    This is a qualitative, descriptive study of 202 urban, African-American seventh graders that examines their views of peer intervention in dating violence. After viewing a video vignette showing friends confronting another male about abusing his girlfriend, the adolescents were asked to respond in writing to questions about whose business the…

  6. Problematic Situations Associated with Dating Experiences and Relationships among Urban African American Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…

  7. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  8. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  9. Drug Trafficking and Drug Use among Urban African American Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…

  10. Acting "Tough" in a "Tough" World: An Examination of Fear among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Diane M.; Cassidy, Elaine F.; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2008-01-01

    African American adolescents (132 males and 128 females; age M=14.8 years, SD=0.92) enrolled in an urban community social skills development program participated in a study assessing the relationship among perceptions of family and community social support, fear of calamitous events, depression, and anger expression. Expressing fear of calamitous…

  11. Pragmatic Language of African American Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; DeJarnette, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A systematic review and synthesis was performed on published articles and dissertations produced between 1970 and 2013 that focused on selected pragmatic language behaviors of African American children and adolescents. Methods: Electronic databases and hand searches of articles located in the databases were used to identify the published…

  12. Relationship Characteristics and Sexual Practices of African American Adolescent Girls Who Desire Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Susan L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Person, Sharina D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Dix, Emily S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between African American adolescent girls' desire to become pregnant and their sexual and relationship practices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to detect significant associations between pregnancy desire and the assessed correlates. Of 522 participants (14 to 18 years old), 67 (12.8%) were…

  13. Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.…

  14. The Association of Physical Maturation with Family Hassles among African American Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Dupree, Davido

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relations between physical maturation and youths' perceptions of their family context and the associated daily stresses experienced. Results extend the literature on physical development and urban African American populations. Findings suggest that adolescent-perceived hassles are indications of parental monitoring and more adaptive…

  15. Influences on Adolescent African American Females' Global Self-Esteem: Body Image and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…

  16. Risk and Protective Effects of Sibling Relationships among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soli, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated associations between sibling relationships and adjustment among 179 African American adolescent siblings (controlling for family factors) and tested moderating effects of familism values and birth order. Two-level random intercept models revealed that familism values moderated sibling relationship-adjustment linkages,…

  17. Parental Nurturance and the Mental Health and Parenting of Urban African American Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…

  18. Associations of Future Expectations, Negative Friends, and Academic Achievement in High-Achieving African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Corprew, Charles S., III; Becker, Jonathan E.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of future expectations (general and academic) to academic outcomes were examined in a sample of 129 African American high-achieving adolescents (majority female participants, n = 92). This study was interested in the multidimensional nature of future expectations. Results from the study confirm the hypothesis that academic future…

  19. The Association of Physical Maturation with Family Hassles among African American Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Dupree, Davido

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relations between physical maturation and youths' perceptions of their family context and the associated daily stresses experienced. Results extend the literature on physical development and urban African American populations. Findings suggest that adolescent-perceived hassles are indications of parental monitoring and more adaptive…

  20. Pregnant African American Adolescents: Overcoming Negative Outcomes Associated with Early Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathron, Marsha K.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the comparative value of positive lifestyle changes in experimental and control groups of pregnant African American adolescent high school students to determine whether negative outcomes of early childbearing could be prevented. Experimental group students, who were provided several interventions, avoided negative childbearing outcomes…

  1. Africentric Cultural Values: Their Relation to Positive Mental Health in African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Alleyne, Vanessa L.; Wallace, Barbara C.; Franklin-Jackson, Deidre C.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test a path model exploring the relationships among Africentric cultural values, self-esteem, perceived social support satisfaction, and life satisfaction in a sample of 147 African American adolescent girls. This investigation also examined the possible mediating effects of self-esteem and perceived social…

  2. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  3. Social and Psychological Factors Associated with AIDS Risk Behaviors among Low Income, Urban, African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maureen M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied factors associated with sexual intercourse and substance use among young, low income, African-American adolescents. Found that sexual activity was associated with parental conflict and having sexually active friends. Boys reported less parental monitoring and family and community support than girls and were more likely to report sexual…

  4. Predictors of Tobacco and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy for Urban and Rural African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corona, Rosalie; Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive…

  5. Urban African American adolescent parents: their perceptions of sex, love, intimacy, pregnancy, and parenting.

    PubMed

    Harris, J L

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of twenty-two urban African American adolescent mothers and six adolescent fathers (across seven grade levels and a general education equivalency program) regarding sex, love, intimacy, pregnancy, and parenting. Structured interviews and focus groups were used to gather data. Demographic and personal history information was also obtained. Inductive data analysis using constant comparison methods was employed to identify patterns and themes within and across gender groups.

  6. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  7. African-American and Latino Parents’ Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents’ perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial. PMID:27186064

  8. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  9. The moderating influence of mother-adolescent discussion on early and middle African-American adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    DiIorio, Colleen; McCarty, Frances; Denzmore, Pamela; Landis, Andrea

    2007-04-01

    We examined how African-American mothers' discussions with their adolescents about sex moderated the relationship between adolescents' sex-based discussions with their friends and adolescents' involvement in sexual behaviors. The 425 African-American adolescents were 12 through 15 years of age and had participated in an HIV prevention research project with their mothers. Linear and logistic regression analyses showed that, for girls, age, discussions with friends, and the interaction between mother and friend's sex-based discussions were statistically significant predictors of sexual behaviors. These findings suggest that the level of discussion with mothers had a moderating effect on the relationship between friends' discussions about sex and a girl's involvement in sexual behaviors. Although these results were not apparent for boys, there was a strong relationship between discussions with friends about sex and sexual behaviors among boys.

  10. Drug Refusal Skills Training Does not Enhance Outcomes of African American Adolescents with Substance Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Douglas C.; Tabb, Karen M.; Fisher, Darnell; Cleeland, Leah

    2013-01-01

    In prior research by Witkiewitz and colleagues, African American adults receiving refusal skills training (RST) had fewer heavy drinking days and were categorized as having more successful outcomes. This study extends findings to adolescents receiving the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA). Propensity score matching was used to create three groups equivalent on baseline characteristics, including: African Americans receiving refusal skills training (AA+RST; n=214), African Americans not receiving RST (AA-RST; n=212), and Caucasians receiving RST (CA+RST; n=214). In propensity weighted regression models that controlled for overall A-CRA exposure, racial group by RST status was not a significant predictor of substance use frequency or abstinence/early remission outcomes. Higher exposure to A-CRA, however, was a significant predictor of both outcomes. Universal receipt of RST may not improve the outcomes of African American adolescents with substance use problems, and outcomes may be driven more by the overall number of A-CRA procedures received. PMID:23994049

  11. The protective role of maternal racial socialization for African American adolescents exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jessica S; Lambert, Sharon F; Smith Bynum, Mia

    2015-08-01

    Urban African American youth's disproportionate exposure to community violence and increased risk for its adverse consequences have heightened interest in identifying protective factors that mitigate the effects of community violence exposure for these youth. Thus, the present study examined whether maternal racial socialization messages protect African American adolescents against the adverse effects of community violence exposure. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.41 years) and their female guardians. For community-violence-exposed youth, maternal racial socialization messages protected against aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms, such that maternal messages about cultural pride attenuated the association between community violence exposure and parent-reported aggressive behaviors, and cultural appreciation of legacy messages attenuated the association between community violence exposure and adolescent-reported depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to integrate race-relevant factors into preventive interventions targeting African American youth at risk for or exposed to community violence, and suggest that family interventions promoting parents' efficacy to implement racial socialization practices are useful for youth exposed to violence.

  12. Father Knows Best: Paternal Presence and Sexual Debut in African-American Adolescents Living in Poverty.

    PubMed

    Langley, Cheri

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents found within single-parent families without a residential father have reported higher levels of sexual debut and higher levels of reported pregnancy. Using data from the Mobile Youth Survey, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the presence of a father figure on the sexual debut of African-American adolescents living in poverty and to determine if gender moderates the relationship between the presence of a father figure and sexual debut. Additionally, this study will examine the family processes in which the presence of a father figure can affect the sexual debut of African-American adolescents who live within economically and socially disadvantaged communities. The results revealed that African-American adolescents reporting a father figure had lower rates of sexual debut than those youth reporting no father figure. Gender was not found to be a significant moderator in the relationship between father figure presence and sexual debut. However, existing curfews and family rules did account for some of the effects of presence of a father figure and sexual debut. The results suggest that when adolescents have a father figure in their lives, it may reduce the possibility of early sexual debut. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  13. Text-Messaging-Enhanced HIV Intervention for African American Adolescents: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Judith B.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Boyer, Cherrie; St Lawrence, Janet; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV prevention intervention for African American adolescents delivered via mobile cell phones and looked at intervention-related changes in beliefs and sexual behaviors. We used a longitudinal one-group comparison design with data collected at three points. Forty adolescents, 13–18 years old, participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen intervention followed by the delivery of daily multimedia messages for 3 months. The mobile-cell-phone enhanced intervention was feasible and acceptable to the participants. Greater HIV knowledge, improved attitudes toward condoms, and increased perceived HIV risk scores were observed with older adolescents (16–18 years old). Behavior trends showed a decrease in the number of times participants reported engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse over the previous 2 months. Mobile-cell-phone multimedia-text-messaging boosters tested in this study provided preliminary evidence of efficacy of the enhanced HIV prevention intervention for African American youth. PMID:23122907

  14. Impact of Familial Factors and Psychopathology on Suicidality Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Clarke, Jenell; Ivey, Asha Z.; Kerr, David; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Racial differences in familial factors, psychopathology, perceptions of social support, and socioeconomic status were examined in a matched sample of African American and White suicidal adolescents (N = 90) during a psychiatric hospitalization. Exploratory analyses suggest that significant differences were found in family support and its association with psychopathology, but most noteworthy were the many similarities between the two adolescent groups. The results presented in this study represent new knowledge on the characteristics of African-American adolescents at high risk of suicidal behavior, and replace conventional wisdom with empirical knowledge about an aspect of human behavior for this population. Implications for social work practice, suicide prevention, and future research are discussed. PMID:19672476

  15. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Stanley, Scott M.; Fincham, Frank D.; Hurt, Tera R.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or pre-adolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, a newly-developed program targeting couple and co-caregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of two years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:25844492

  16. Positive youth development among African American adolescents: examining single parents as a factor.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p < .05). The results also showed that as educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.

  17. The use of selected theatre rehearsal technique activities with African-American adolescents labeled "behavior disordered".

    PubMed

    Anderson, M G

    1992-01-01

    The extensive literature on the overrepresentation of adolescent African-American male learners in classes for students identified as behavior disordered has essentially not addressed the problems caused by teacher reactions to adolescent conversational language use, the qualitative differences in language choices, or the impact of the conversational choices of adolescents on their educational treatment. This article explores how the dramaturgical perspective of selected Theatre Rehearsal Technique (TRT) activities can be used as learning experiences in communication with this student population. If these students gain quantifiable success in their social communication interactions, reassessment of their special education placement might facilitate their entrance into less restrictive educational environments.

  18. Influences on Sexual Partnering Among African American Adolescents With Concurrent Sexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah J.; Bangi, Audrey; Sheon, Nicolas; Harper, Gary W.; Catania, Joseph A.; Richards, Kimberly A. M.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents often engage in concurrent sexual partnerships as part of a developmental process of gaining experience with sexuality. The authors qualitatively examined patterns of concurrency and variation in normative and motivational influences on this pattern of sexual partnering among African American adolescents (31 males; 20 females), ages 15 to 17 years. Using content analysis, gender and contextual differences in social norms and motivations for concurrency were explored. Findings describe the normative influences on adolescent males and females with regard to sexual concurrency and the transfer of these norms from one generation to the next. PMID:22505843

  19. Negative and positive peer influence: Relations to positive and negative behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Bean, Roy A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06, SD=1.10). The study found differences and similarities in relation to respondents' ethnicity vis-à-vis indirect peer association and adolescent behavior. Although few ethnic-based differences occurred as a function of indirect negative peer association, indirect positive peer association was not as consistently or as strongly related to behaviors for minority youth as it was for European American youth.

  20. The Moderating Effects of Culture on Peer Deviance and Alcohol Use among High-Risk African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Jagers, Robert J.; Wilson, Karen D.; Owens, Kristal

    2007-01-01

    African-American adolescents have lower rates of alcohol consumption than White youth. However, African-American youth suffer disproportionately more adverse social, mental, and physical health outcomes related to alcohol use. Affiliating with negative peers is a risk factor for alcohol initiation and consumption. Cultural variables have shown…

  1. Planning Ahead: The Relationship among School Support, Parental Involvement, and Future Academic Expectations in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trask-Tate, Angelique J.; Cunningham, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the social supports in the lives of African American adolescents that influence resilient academic outcomes. The authors examined 206 African American students to identify the role of parental involvement as a buffer in the relation between low school support and high academic expectations. Results…

  2. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

  3. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  4. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  5. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

  6. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  7. What African American Male Adolescents Are Telling Us about HIV Infection among Their Peers: Cultural Approaches for HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…

  8. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  9. What African American Male Adolescents Are Telling Us about HIV Infection among Their Peers: Cultural Approaches for HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…

  10. Planning Ahead: The Relationship among School Support, Parental Involvement, and Future Academic Expectations in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trask-Tate, Angelique J.; Cunningham, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the social supports in the lives of African American adolescents that influence resilient academic outcomes. The authors examined 206 African American students to identify the role of parental involvement as a buffer in the relation between low school support and high academic expectations. Results…

  11. Parental involvement and African American and European American adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional development in secondary school.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Hill, Nancy E; Hofkens, Tara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal trajectories of parental involvement across middle and high school, and how these trajectories related to adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional adjustment. In addition, ethnic and socioeconomic status differences in longitudinal associations and the potential moderating role of parental warmth were assessed. Longitudinal growth modeling technique was used to describe trajectories of different types of parental involvement and adolescent outcomes over 7th, 9th, and 11th grades (mean ages = 12.9, 14.3, and 17.2 years, respectively) on an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 1,400 adolescents (51% female, 56% African American, 39% European American, 5% others). Each aspect of parental involvement contributed differentially but significantly to adolescent outcomes. Finally, parental warmth moderated the associations between providing structure at home and adolescent grade point average and problem behavior.

  12. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  13. In the Eye of the Beholder: Subjective and Observer Ratings of Middle-Class African American Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Smetana, Judith G.

    2004-01-01

    Middle-class African American mothers and adolescents (n=81) participated in a dyadic interaction task in early adolescence (M=13.06 years, SD=1.27) and then again 2 years later (M=15.01 years, SD=1.27). Following the task, mothers and adolescents rated their own and their partner's support and involvement in the task; observers rated videotaped…

  14. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.

  15. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings (at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48% female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52% female) and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for three years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents’ depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents’ adjustment. PMID:25893573

  16. Weight Status and Blood Pressure among Adolescent African American Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2015-08-07

    Obesity had not been considered a significant factor contributing to high levels of hypertension among African American males until recently. Epidemiologic research on heart disease among males has primarily focused on adults; however, the significant rise in obesity and hypertension prevalence among African American boys indicates that studies examining the relationship between excess body weight and elevated blood pressure among this high-risk population are critically needed. The purpose of our study was to examine the degree to which weight status has implications for elevated blood pressure among young African American males. The data for this cross-sectional study were drawn from adolescent males (N=105), aged 12-19 years and who participated in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study - an offspring cohort study examining cardiovascular disease risks among adolescent descendants of Jackson Heart Study participants. Blood pressure was the primary outcome of interest and weight status was a key independent variable. Other covariates were fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sleep, and stress. Approximately 49% of adolescent males in the study were overweight or obese. Bivariate and multiple variable analyses suggest that obesity may be correlated with elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels among African American boys. Results from ordinary least squared regression analysis indicate that the DBP for boys carrying excess weight was 4.2 mm Hg (P<.01) higher than the corresponding DBP for their normal weight counterparts, after controlling for age, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and sleep. Additional studies are needed to specify the manner through which excess weight and weight gain can accelerate the development and progression of CVD-related diseases among African American males over the life course, thereby providing evidenced-based information for tailored interventions that can reduce risks for premature morbidity

  17. Prevalence, incidence, and predictors of dating violence: a longitudinal study of African American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raiford, Jerris L; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2007-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined predictors of dating violence, a public health issue that may be more prevalent among African Americans. Our objective was to examine the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of dating violence in an African American sample using the theory of gender and power. A longitudinal design with a 1-year follow-up period was used. Recruiters screened adolescents from a variety of venues, including school health classes, county health department clinics, and adolescent health clinics. Study participants were 522 African American females 14-18 years of age. This study achieved an 85.7% participation rate. Dating violence was defined as ever having experienced verbal or physical abuse perpetrated by a boyfriend. At baseline, 28% of adolescents reported a history of dating violence. To calculate the 1-year incidence of dating violence, adolescents reporting a history of dating violence at baseline were excluded from subsequent longitudinal analyses. In longitudinal analyses, the 1-year incidence of dating violence was 12%. Logistic regression analyses identified four factors at baseline that were predictive of dating violence. This four-factor model correctly classified 87.6% of adolescents according to whether or not they experienced dating violence during the 1-year follow-up. Controlling for public financial assistance, relative to adolescents not experiencing dating violence, those who did were 2.0 times more likely to report less understanding of healthy relationships (CI = 1.1-3.9, p = 0.02), 2.0 times more likely to report using drugs (CI = 1.0-3.7, p = 0.02), and 1.9 times more likely to have viewed X-rated movies (CI = 1.0-3.7, p = 0.03). These findings suggest that secondary prevention of dating violence necessitates educating clinicians on the importance of screening and training practitioners in clinical settings on how to effectively screen adolescents for dating violence, including risk factors for victimization.

  18. Gambling Outcome Expectancies and Gambling Behavior Among African-American Adolescents: Gender as a Moderating Variable.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jessica L; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W; Wickwire, Emerson M

    2016-03-01

    Most high school adolescents have reported past year gambling, and males gamble more frequently and problematically than females. Ethnic minority adolescents appear to be gambling at a higher rate than Caucasian adolescents. There is evidence indicating that adolescent gambling outcome expectancies are correlated with gambling behavior, but limited evidence that this relation differs by gender. In the present study gender was evaluated as a moderator in the relation between gambling outcome expectancies and gambling behaviors in an African-American high school sample. Males gambled more frequently, gambled more problematically and held more positive gambling outcome expectancies than females. Gender was found to moderate the relations between gambling frequency and the expectations of material gain, affect, self-evaluation and parental approval. Gender also moderated the relations between gambling problems and expectations of affect and self-evaluation. These findings should inform future adolescent gambling prevention and intervention programs.

  19. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions.

  20. Help-seeking behaviors and depression among African American adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Michael A; Korr, Wynne S; Broitman, Marina; Bone, Lee; Green, Alan; Leaf, Philip J

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the help-seeking behaviors of depressed, African American adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 urban, African American boys, ages 14 to 18, who were recruited from community-based mental health centers and after-school programs for youths. Interviews covered sociodemographic information, questions regarding depressive symptomotology, and open-ended questions derived from the Network-Episode Model--including knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to problem recognition, help seeking, and perceptions of mental health services. Most often adolescents discussed their problems with their family and often received divergent messages about problem resolution; absent informal network resolution of their problems, professional help would be sought, and those receiving treatment were more likely to get support from friends but were less likely to tell friends that they were actually receiving care. Implications for social work research and practice are discussed.

  1. Receptivity of African American Adolescents to an HIV-Prevention Curriculum Enhanced by Text Messaging

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Judith B.; St Lawrence, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study assessed African American adolescents’ receptivity to an HIV-prevention curriculum enhanced by text messaging. DESIGN AND METHODS Two focus groups were conducted with 14 African American adolescents regarding how an HIV-prevention curriculum could be enhanced for text messaging delivery. RESULTS The adolescents were receptive to the idea of text messaging HIV-prevention information but wanted to receive a maximum of three messages per day during the hours of 4:00–6:00 p.m. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS By taking the findings of this study, nurses, other healthcare providers, and community-based organizations can adapt evidence-based interventions for text messaging delivery to individuals at high risk for HIV infection. PMID:19356206

  2. Romantic Relationship Dynamics of Urban African American Adolescents: Patterns of Monogamy, Commitment, and Trust.

    PubMed

    Towner, Senna L; Dolcini, M Margaret; Harper, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also focused on the differences in these dynamics between and within gender. The way that such dynamics interplay in romantic relationships has the potential to influence STI/HIV acquisition risk. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 African American adolescents aged 14 to 21 living in San Francisco. Our results discuss data related to monogamous behaviors, expectations, and values; trust and respect in romantic relationships; commitment to romantic relationships; and outcomes of mismatched relationship expectations. Incorporating gender-specific romantic relationships dynamics can enhance the effectiveness of prevention programs.

  3. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely racial centrality, private regard, and public regard at three time points. The results indicated that perceived racial discrimination at Time 1 was negatively linked to public regard at Time 2. Nested analyses using age were conducted and perceptions of racial discrimination at Time 2 were negatively linked to private regard at Time 3 among older adolescents. The findings imply that perceived racial discrimination is linked to negative views that the broader society has of African Americans. PMID:19467000

  4. Effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brega, A G; Coleman, L M

    1999-04-01

    The direct effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization among 50 African-American adolescents were investigated. A stigma is a characteristic about which others hold negative attitudes and stereotypes. Subjective stigmatization measures the degree to which an individual internalizes such negative attitudes and stereotypes toward a social group of which he or she is a member. Participants who showed strong commitment to the church were more destigmatized than were participants who did not. Further, participants who received racial socialization messages stemming from a single "primary" category were more destigmatized than those who did not. Unexpectedly, the more racial socialization messages participants received, the more self-stigmatized they were. The importance of religiosity and racial socialization in the lives of African-American adolescents are discussed.

  5. Romantic Relationship Dynamics of Urban African American Adolescents: Patterns of Monogamy, Commitment, and Trust

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also focused on the differences in these dynamics between and within gender. The way that such dynamics interplay in romantic relationships has the potential to influence STI/HIV acquisition risk. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 African American adolescents aged 14 to 21 living in San Francisco. Our results discuss data related to monogamous behaviors, expectations, and values; trust and respect in romantic relationships; commitment to romantic relationships; and outcomes of mismatched relationship expectations. Incorporating gender-specific romantic relationships dynamics can enhance the effectiveness of prevention programs. PMID:26691404

  6. Perceived racial discrimination and racial identity profiles among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being across racial identity profiles. A sample of 322 African American adolescents completed measures of racial identity, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Cluster analyses were conducted to create previously identified racial identity profiles and 3 were evident: Buffering/Defensive, Alienated, and Idealized. The racial identity profiles moderated the relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being such that perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms for Alienated youth but not for Buffering/Defensive or Idealized youth. The implications for the racial discrimination literature among African American adolescents are discussed.

  7. An examination of eating behaviors, physical activity, and obesity in african american adolescents: gender, socioeconomic status, and residential status differences.

    PubMed

    Tate, Nutrena H; Dillaway, Heather E; Yarandi, Hossein N; Jones, Lenette M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    African American adolescents experience higher rates of obesity and have an increased risk of obesity-related diseases than do White American adolescents. Despite culturally sensitive obesity preventive interventions, obesity rates are increasing within the African American adolescent population. Current obesity interventions do not usually address the heterogeneity (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], gender, and residential status differences) within the African American adolescent community that can affect the efficacy of these interventions. To examine the gender, SES, and residential status differences related to obesity and weight behaviors in African American adolescents. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with 15- to 17-year-old African American adolescents (n = 145) from community clinics, youth organizations, churches, and social networks in metropolitan and inner-city Detroit. Data were collected through use of survey methods and analyzed with use of descriptive statistics, independent sample t tests, and multiple regression equations. Female adolescents consumed foods higher in fat and calories (t = -2.36, p = .019) and had more body fat (t = -9.37, p = .000) than did males. Adolescents of lower SES consumed food higher in fat and calories (t = -2.23, p = .027) and had higher body mass (t = -2.57, p = .011) than did adolescents of higher SES. Inner-city African American adolescents had higher levels of physical activity (t = -2.39, p = .018) and higher body mass (t = 2.24, p = .027) than did suburban African American adolescent counterparts. Gender, SES, and residential status were statistically significant predictors of eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index, and body fat. The initial findings from the study will assist in better understanding the obesity epidemic that affects African American adolescents in disparate proportions. Further examination of the study variables is essential to serve as a basis for

  8. The Relationships Between Religiosity and Youth Internalizing Symptoms in African American Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    PubMed

    Faro, Alyssa L; McKee, Laura G; Garcia, Randi L; Jones, Deborah J

    2017-06-05

    African American (AA) adolescents face a greater risk of internalizing symptoms, including symptoms of both depression and anxiety, compared with other racial groups; yet, relatively less is known about the variables that contribute to internalizing symptoms. With the aim of advancing this work, this study examined factors that may buffer against such symptoms (maternal warmth, religiosity), as well as those that may confer additional risk (maternal psychopathology). One hundred ninety-three AA single mothers and their adolescent youth reported on religiosity, maternal warmth and depressive symptoms, and youth internalizing symptoms. Dyadic structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of mother and adolescent religiosity, maternal warmth, maternal depressive symptoms, and adolescent age on youth internalizing symptoms as reported by both the mother and the adolescent. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal depressive symptoms were significantly associated with youth internalizing symptoms (as reported by the adolescent). Further, the impact of maternal religiosity on self-reported youth internalizing symptoms and its subscales was moderated by adolescent age. Specifically, maternal religiosity was associated with fewer self-reported internalizing symptoms in young adolescents, whereas the effect waned in older youth. Possible predictive coprocesses such as maternal influence on adolescent religious choices and identity formation are explored in the context of adolescent internalizing symptomatology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment among African-American and European-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the…

  10. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment among African-American and European-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the…

  11. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A.; Lambert, Sharon F.; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in grades 7 – 10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: (1) increasing, (2) decreasing, and (3) stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and were more likely to be in the increasing group. Results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years. PMID:24955844

  12. Longitudinal Associations Between Experienced Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article examines longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 504) from Grade 7 to Grade 10, while controlling for multiple alternative causal pathways. Sex was tested as a moderator of the link between experienced racial discrimination and later depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms 1 year later across all waves of measurement. The link between experienced racial discrimination at Grade 7 and depressive symptoms at Grade 8 was stronger for females than males. Findings highlight the role of experienced racial discrimination in the etiology of depressive symptoms for African Americans across early adolescence. PMID:24188037

  13. Longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-04-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article examines longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 504) from Grade 7 to Grade 10, while controlling for multiple alternative causal pathways. Sex was tested as a moderator of the link between experienced racial discrimination and later depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms 1 year later across all waves of measurement. The link between experienced racial discrimination at Grade 7 and depressive symptoms at Grade 8 was stronger for females than males. Findings highlight the role of experienced racial discrimination in the etiology of depressive symptoms for African Americans across early adolescence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.

  15. Understanding prosocial behavior: the impact of empathy and gender among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Susan D; Wernsman, Jamie; Parnes, Anna L

    2006-07-01

    Although prosocial behavior in adolescence is associated with many positive outcomes, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to the development of prosocial behaviors. This study examines empathy and gender as predictors of prosocial behavior among African American early adolescents. Results revealed a significant main effect for empathy, as well as an interaction between empathy and gender in predicting prosocial behavior. In general, youth with more empathy reported more prosocial behavior, and this effect was more pronounced for males than females. These findings suggest that the ability to understand another's perspective may be important in the development and expression of prosocial behaviors, particularly among males.

  16. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Problematic situations associated with dating experiences and relationships among urban African American adolescents: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Terri N; Erwin, Elizabeth H; Helms, Sarah W; Masho, Saba W; Farrell, Albert D

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system. Qualitative analysis identified 18 individual themes representing six categories of problem situations: (a) approach and initiation; (b) conflict, conflict resolution, and break-ups; (c) communication, connection, and emotion; (d) aggression and victimization; (e) the role of others; and (f) media and technology. Identification of these problem situation themes has important implications for developing and evaluating prevention efforts designed to foster healthy adolescent dating relationships.

  18. Racial Barrier Socialization and the Well-being of African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Shauna M; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2011-12-01

    Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between adolescent adjustment and another dimension of racial socialization-racial barrier socialization-have yielded inconsistent findings. Using a sample of 190 African American adolescents, the present study focuses attention on the quality of mother-adolescent relations as an indicator of affective context, and examines its moderating influence on the association between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment. Regression analyses indicated that the link between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment is moderated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. However, these associations varied by gender.

  19. Promotive peer contexts of academic and social adjustment among rural African American early adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jill V; Lambert, Kerrylin; Agger, Charlotte A; Farmer, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the social network system of African American early adolescents (N = 237) in rural, low-wealth schools, specifically in terms of networks with norms strongly favoring effort and achievement. Networks with norms favoring effort and achievement were more likely to be central to the social system at the end of the school year. Subsequent analyses focused on boys (n = 103) and the effects of affiliation in networks with norms that strongly favored effort and achievement. Twenty-four percent of boys sustained membership in these networks and experienced greater school valuing and likeability, but reduced admiration among peers, net of scores at the beginning of the school year. The results of the study stand to inform both an understanding of positive peer group affiliations of minority boys and intervention work with this population by clarifying developmental mechanisms that contribute to positive school adaptation among rural African American boys. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  20. Racial Barrier Socialization and the Well-Being of African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Shauna M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2011-01-01

    Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between…

  1. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  2. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  3. Unemployment and work interruption among African American single mothers: effects on parenting and adolescent socioemotional functioning.

    PubMed

    McLoyd, V C; Jayaratne, T E; Ceballo, R; Borquez, J

    1994-04-01

    Using interview data from a sample of 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tests a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influence adolescent socioemotional functioning. In general, these economic stressors affected adolescent socioemotional functioning indirectly, rather than directly, through their impact on mothers' psychological functioning and, in turn, parenting behavior and mother-child relations. Current unemployment, but not past work interruption, had a direct effect on depressive symptomatology in mothers. As expected, depressive symptomatology in mothers predicted more frequent maternal punishment of adolescents, and this relation was fully mediated by mothers' negative perceptions of the maternal role. More frequent maternal punishment was associated with increased cognitive distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents, and consistent with predictions, these relations were partially mediated by adolescents' perceptions of the quality of relations with their mothers. Increased availability of instrumental support, as perceived by mothers, predicted fewer depressive symptoms in mothers, less punishment of adolescents, and less negativity about the maternal role. Both economic stressors were associated with higher levels of perceived financial strain in mothers, which in turn predicted adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship. Adolescents who perceived their families as experiencing more severe economic hardship reported higher anxiety, more cognitive distress, and lower self-esteem.

  4. Food choices of young African-American and Latino adolescents: where do parents fit in?

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie

    2006-11-01

    To gain insight into parents' perceptions of the food preferences of their young adolescents, and their negotiating and decision-making strategies around food purchasing and meals, four focus groups were held with 32 African-American parents and three focus groups with 14 Spanish-dominant, first-generation immigrant Latina mothers. Most participants were of low socioeconomic status and were single parents. Many African-American parents emphasized children's growing appetites and preferences for fast food. Many reported making weekday dinner decisions jointly with the child or allowing the child to eat a lunch-like alternative, and allowing serve-yourself meals on weekends. A few prepared traditional ethnic foods. Latina parents reported that their children liked ethnic foods and fast/junk foods. They emphasized buying foods their children wanted, making no eating restrictions, and preparing traditional ethnic dinners without alternatives. African-American and Latina parents displayed concern over whether to place restrictions on young adolescents' eating. Further research is needed on the ways in which socioeconomic inequalities compound barriers to healthful eating, with particular attention to low income and immigrant populations.

  5. Religiosity, refusal efficacy, and substance use among African-American adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Aashir; Utsey, Shawn O; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrade, Faye Z

    2006-01-01

    Research points toward multiple pathways (i.e., psychosocial domains) through which religiosity influences substance use behaviors. This study examined whether refusal efficacy mediated the relationship between religiosity and substance use in African-American adolescents and young adults. Four hundred thirty-five urban and rural African-Americans, aged between 12 and 25, completed measures of private and public religiosity, refusal efficacy, and substance use (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use). Tests for mediation were computed with private and public religiosity as independent variables, drug refusal efficacy as mediator, and substance use as the criterion. Results show that drug refusal efficacy mediated the relationship between private religiosity and tobacco, marijuana, and other illicit drug use, but not for alcohol use. Refusal efficacy also mediated the relationship between public religiosity and alcohol use, but not for other licit and illicit substances. The findings provide support for the unique impact of public religiosity when considering its role in preventive intervention. Future research should consider examining other psychosocial domains which may mediate the effect of religiosity on substance use behaviors among African-American adolescents.

  6. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Pocock, Alexandra M; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    African American male adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men's experience with racial discrimination.

  7. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in African American Children and Adolescents: Risks, Resiliency, and Barriers to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Jahn, Matthew E

    2016-05-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious condition that remains understudied in ethnoracial minority populations. The presence of OCD and the individual, familial, and cultural factors that influence this condition can interfere with healthy development and cause lifelong disability. To date, there has not been a single published research article focused on OCD in African American youth. Ethnic and racial minorities with OCD are underrepresented or altogether absent from treatment centers and research studies, although evidence suggests that OCD may be particularly persistent in these populations. This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also discussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious communities. Implications of findings are discussed. There is an urgent need for research to understand the needs of African American children and adolescents with OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors.

  9. Empirical development of brief smoking prevention videotapes which target African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D

    1995-07-01

    Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers.

  10. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom: A Critical Guide. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian, Ed.; Napoli, Mary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in this collection discuss multicultural issues in children's and adolescent literature, focusing particularly on African and African American cultures. They challenge everyone's understanding of what, in an age of globalization, multicultural texts really are. Cumulatively, these essays illustrate multicultural literature's power to…

  11. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom: A Critical Guide. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian, Ed.; Napoli, Mary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in this collection discuss multicultural issues in children's and adolescent literature, focusing particularly on African and African American cultures. They challenge everyone's understanding of what, in an age of globalization, multicultural texts really are. Cumulatively, these essays illustrate multicultural literature's power to…

  12. Rape Victimization and High Risk Sexual Behaviors: Longitudinal Study of African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Delia L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Salazar, Laura F.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV) among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period. Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15–21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV. Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At 6- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008), higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005), more inconsistent condom use (p=.008), less condom use at last sex (p=.017), and more sex partners (p=.0001) than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame. Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for policies and

  13. Skills-Based, Interactive Computer Interventions to Prevent HIV Infection Among African-American and Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Orlandi, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    The spread of the acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is increasingly evident. Despite the attention that HIV infection has received, few effective prevention strategies have been developed. The present paper reviews the epidemiology of AIDS among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. From epidemiological data, the authors argue for preventive approaches to reduce the risks of HIV transmission among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Emphasizing culturally sensitive prevention strategies, the authors describe an intervention for these adolescents that combines skills-based and interactive computer approaches. PMID:20589223

  14. Skills-Based, Interactive Computer Interventions to Prevent HIV Infection Among African-American and Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schinke, Steven P; Orlandi, Mario A

    1990-01-01

    The spread of the acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is increasingly evident. Despite the attention that HIV infection has received, few effective prevention strategies have been developed. The present paper reviews the epidemiology of AIDS among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. From epidemiological data, the authors argue for preventive approaches to reduce the risks of HIV transmission among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Emphasizing culturally sensitive prevention strategies, the authors describe an intervention for these adolescents that combines skills-based and interactive computer approaches.

  15. The Effects of Mother's Marital Status on Adolescent and Young Adult Health and Economic Well-Being among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVeist, Thomas A.; Zeno, Tia L.; Fesahazion, Ruth G.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the effects of being raised by married parents during childhood on health and well-being in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample of African Americans. This study aims to address the following three questions: Does childhood with married parents lead to better health and well-being during adolescence? Does…

  16. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  17. Mothers' Stressful Events and the Adjustment of African-American Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Organization. Publication Series No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.

    This study explored the possibility that family organization may moderate the impact of stressful events experienced in the home on adolescents' functioning. Participants were 80 African-American adolescents and their mothers in a large northeastern city. (47 one-parent and 33 two-parent families). A factor analysis was used to measure…

  18. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  19. Who Is Likely to Help and Hurt? Profiles of African American Adolescents with Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Johnson, Jessica L.; Hood, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Prosocial behavior and aggression among children and adolescents are important indicators of social and interpersonal competence. The goal of this study was to investigate whether there are different prototypes among African American adolescents that can help explain prosocial and aggressive (relational and overt) behaviors. Also of interest was…

  20. Understanding the Dimensions of Parental Influence on Alcohol Use and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Tademy, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that parental factors may be important protective factors for adolescents. Less is known about the dimensions of parental influence on alcohol use among African American adolescents. The purpose of this investigation was to examine parental influence and its relationship to alcohol refusal efficacy and use among…

  1. Assessing the Impact of Family Process on Rural African American Adolescents' Competence and Behavior Using Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toldson, Ivory A.

    2006-01-01

    A study examines the long-term effects of a family process program on social and cognitive competence and aggressive and deviant behavior among rural African American adolescents. Results suggest that family processes influence the status and changes in adolescent competence and behavior, while analysis of covariant structures suggest that…

  2. African American Adolescents' Discrimination Experiences and Academic Achievement: Racial Socialization as a Cultural Compensatory and Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Philip, Cheri L.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination experiences, parent race socialization practices, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 548 African American adolescents. Adolescents' racial discrimination experiences were associated with a decrease in academic curiosity, persistence, and student self-reported…

  3. African-American Parents' Racial and Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Academic Grades: Teasing out the Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial…

  4. Longitudinal Development of Family Decision Making: Defining Healthy Behavioral Autonomy for Middle-Class African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Daddis, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The development of decision-making autonomy was examined in 76 middle-class African American early adolescents (M=13 years) and their mothers, who were followed longitudinally for 5 years. Adolescent decision-making autonomy over conventional, prudential, multifaceted, and personal issues increased over time but at different rates. Mothers viewed…

  5. The Effects of Mother's Marital Status on Adolescent and Young Adult Health and Economic Well-Being among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVeist, Thomas A.; Zeno, Tia L.; Fesahazion, Ruth G.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the effects of being raised by married parents during childhood on health and well-being in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample of African Americans. This study aims to address the following three questions: Does childhood with married parents lead to better health and well-being during adolescence? Does…

  6. Assessing the Impact of Family Process on Rural African American Adolescents' Competence and Behavior Using Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toldson, Ivory A.

    2006-01-01

    A study examines the long-term effects of a family process program on social and cognitive competence and aggressive and deviant behavior among rural African American adolescents. Results suggest that family processes influence the status and changes in adolescent competence and behavior, while analysis of covariant structures suggest that…

  7. Who Is Likely to Help and Hurt? Profiles of African American Adolescents with Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Johnson, Jessica L.; Hood, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Prosocial behavior and aggression among children and adolescents are important indicators of social and interpersonal competence. The goal of this study was to investigate whether there are different prototypes among African American adolescents that can help explain prosocial and aggressive (relational and overt) behaviors. Also of interest was…

  8. African American Adolescents' Discrimination Experiences and Academic Achievement: Racial Socialization as a Cultural Compensatory and Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Philip, Cheri L.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination experiences, parent race socialization practices, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 548 African American adolescents. Adolescents' racial discrimination experiences were associated with a decrease in academic curiosity, persistence, and student self-reported…

  9. Understanding the Dimensions of Parental Influence on Alcohol Use and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Tademy, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that parental factors may be important protective factors for adolescents. Less is known about the dimensions of parental influence on alcohol use among African American adolescents. The purpose of this investigation was to examine parental influence and its relationship to alcohol refusal efficacy and use among…

  10. Higher Serum Insulin Concentrations Positively Influence the Bone Mineral Density in African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ambika P; Alvarez, Jessica; Huisingh, Carrie; Casazza, Krista; Gower, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Puberty is a developmental stage of increased insulin resistance that also is a critical period for bone mass accrual. Historically, African Americans (AA) have lesser risk for osteoporotic fractures compared to European Americans (EA). AA also have higher incidence of insulin resistance. The possibility that bone health and insulin secretion or concentrations are linked has not been investigated. We aimed to examine the associations of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) with insulin sensitivity and secretion in healthy adolescent girls and healthy female adults and to evaluate ethnic differences in these associations. Observational cohort design. University of Alabama at Birmingham, between January 2010 and September 2011. Healthy, female, non-smoking adolescents and young adults (14-55 years) were enrolled in this observational cohort study. Adolescents had significantly higher fasting insulin (P=0.0002), insulin area under the curve [AUC] (P= 0.0004) and lower insulin sensitivity (P=0.0005) compared to adults. Among adolescents, AA race was significantly associated with BMD (β=0.086, P=0.01) and BMAD (β=0.0075, P=0.002); however, adjusting for insulin AUC explained this difference. Insulin AUC (β=0.0006, P=0.029) and fasting insulin (β=0.0005, P=0.01) were positively associated with BMAD only in AA adolescents. Insulin AUC and fasting insulin were not significant predictors of BMD for adults. The higher insulin concentration among AA adolescents is associated with increased BMD and higher BMAD.

  11. Dance for health: improving fitness in African American and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, R

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease begins early in life but might be prevented or delayed by primary prevention programs designed for children and adolescents. Regular physical activity is an important part of primary prevention programs, and school physical education programs have potential for the promotion of regular physical activity. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death among Hispanics and African Americans in the United States. Low levels of fitness and increased body mass index are common in African American and Hispanic adolescents. Increased physical activity and the adoption of healthy eating habits would increase fitness and reduce body mass index among these adolescents. The purpose of the study was to undertake a small-scale controlled trial to determine if Dance for Health, an intervention program designed to provide an enjoyable aerobic program for African American and Hispanic adolescents, has a significant effect on improving aerobic capacity, helping students maintain or decrease weight, and on improving attitudes toward physical activity and physical fitness. In the first year of the program (1990-91), approximately 110 boys and girls ages 10-13 years participated in an aerobic dance pilot program three times per week for 12 weeks. Dance for Health was revised and continued in the 1992-93 school year with seventh grade students and an added culturally sensitive health curriculum. Forty-three students were randomized to Dance for Health and 38 to usual physical activity. Those in the intervention class received a health education curriculum twice a week and a dance oriented physical education class three times a week. The usual physical activity consisted mostly of playground activities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7630998

  12. Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of ≥5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participants completed measures of stages and processes of change, and were ranked according to intake level based on their reported stage. Spearman correlations and independent samples t tests were used in cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between processes of change and FV consumption. Consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, helping relationships and stimulus control processes were significantly associated with FV consumption (ρ≥.12; p<.01), and were practiced more often by youths who consumed ≥5 daily servings of FVs relative to those who did not (p<.05). Findings highlight the potential of these processes for increasing FV consumption in this population.

  13. Relationship Between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors Among African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The results of multiple and logistic regression analyses found that hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Religious coping style was significantly related to suicidal behaviors: Self-directed coping was related to increased hopelessness, depression, and suicide attempts, and collaborative coping was related to increased reasons for living. Gender differences were found in symptoms of depression, religious coping style and religious participation. Results provide additional support for suicide interventions to target hopelessness and depressive symptoms and highlight the importance of examining the role of culturally salient variables, such as religious participation and religious coping style, when developing intervention programs for suicide.

  14. Relationship Between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The results of multiple and logistic regression analyses found that hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Religious coping style was significantly related to suicidal behaviors: Self-directed coping was related to increased hopelessness, depression, and suicide attempts, and collaborative coping was related to increased reasons for living. Gender differences were found in symptoms of depression, religious coping style and religious participation. Results provide additional support for suicide interventions to target hopelessness and depressive symptoms and highlight the importance of examining the role of culturally salient variables, such as religious participation and religious coping style, when developing intervention programs for suicide. PMID:17080183

  15. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  16. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  17. Adolescent Male Responsibility in African-American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.

    Young black males account for almost half of all unwed fathers. The average black adolescent unwed father is 17 years old at the birth of his first child, comes from an unusually large family, began having sex at an earlier age than other black men, and has had slightly positive educational and employment experiences. Most also exhibit a high…

  18. Dietary intake patterns of low-income urban african-american adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Jahns, Lisa; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Xie, Bin; Rockett, Helaine; Liang, Huifang; Johnson, Luann

    2010-09-01

    Unhealthy eating increases risks for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African-American adolescents. This study aimed to describe dietary patterns including energy, nutrients, food groups, and diet quality and to identify areas to guide future interventions. Baseline data for a school-based obesity prevention study were collected from 382 African-American adolescents (10- to 14-year-olds) from four Chicago, IL, public schools in 2003. Diet was assessed using a 152-item food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was measured using a modified version of the US Department of Agriculture Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and compared to published estimates for a nationwide sample. Participants reported high energy intakes and several unhealthy eating patterns: 58.6% consumed one or more servings of sweetened beverages per day and 15.7% consumed three or more servings per day; average fried food consumption was high (1.4 servings/day), 58.4% consumed one or more serving per day; and 75% consumed three or more three snacks per day. Only 49% of participants met the recommended three servings of dairy foods per day. Compared to a national, mostly white sample, participants had lower HEI scores (P<0.05); mean score was 66.0+/-12.8 (100=maximum HEI score) vs 70.3+/-13.0 in boys vs girls, one third had scores <60 ("needs improvement") and only 15% scored >80 ("good"). This study reveals key areas of problematic dietary patterns for future interventions targeting low-income African-American adolescents, including frequent intakes of calorie-dense, low nutrient-rich foods, such as fried foods, snacks, and sweetened beverages. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation and motives for eating palatable foods in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Catheryn A; Mrug, Sylvie; Boggiano, Mary M

    2017-10-01

    This study examines possible bidirectional relationships between emotion regulation and motives related to consuming palatable foods during adolescence. Participants included 79 adolescents (96% African American) who took part in Waves 2 and 3 of the Coping with Violence Study. The youth were recruited from four public middle schools serving low income, urban communities in Birmingham, AL. Participants completed self-report measures of emotion regulation and indicated different motives for consuming tasty foods and drinks at both waves. Results demonstrate that poorer emotion regulation at Wave 2 predicted more frequent endorsement of eating motives related to coping and conforming at Wave 3. Eating motives at Wave 2 were not associated with changes in emotion regulation at Wave 3. The results suggest that emotion regulation problems in adolescence may contribute to obesity and related negative outcomes through greater consumption of unhealthy food for coping and social conformity reasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. African American adolescent mothers' early caregiving involvement and childrens' behavior and academic performance at age 7.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Black, Maureen M

    2011-01-01

    The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included 120 primiparous, urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of home intervention. Group-based trajectories were used to examine the pattern of caregiving involvement over time. Two distinct, consistent trajectories of caregiving involvement were found: maternal and shared. Maternal caregiving involvement over the first 24 months postpartum predicted positive child behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. In keeping with both transactional and life span theories, findings suggest that adoption of the parent role may lead to positive long-term outcomes for children of adolescent mothers.

  1. School diversity and racial discrimination among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Douglass, Sara

    2014-04-01

    The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority.

  2. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  3. Prevalence and consequences of asthma and wheezing in African-American and White adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeatts, K B; Shy, C M

    2001-11-01

    To describe the functional consequences of health care utilization for wheezing symptoms and diagnosed asthma in a multiracial school-based population. Wheezing symptoms and physician-diagnosed asthma were measured in 2059 eighth graders with the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children video questionnaire. The sample site population was 40% African-American, 53% White, and 49% girls. Thirty-two percent of the children were on the free school lunch program. Adolescents self-reported their wheezing symptoms and physician diagnosis in response to the video wheezing scenes. They also answered questions on activity limitations, school attendance, and sleep disturbances owing to their wheezing symptoms. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and adjust for potential confounders. Nine percent of the adolescents reported physician-diagnosed asthma with current symptoms and 27% reported current wheezing with no diagnosis of asthma. Physician-diagnosed asthmatics and wheezers were 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9, 3.6) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.4, 2.2) times more likely, respectively, to miss school days because of wheezing symptoms than asymptomatic adolescents. Diagnosed asthmatics were 7.8 (95% CI 5.5, 11.2) times and wheezers 4.7 (95% CI 3.5, 6.1) times more likely to have sleep disturbances than asymptomatic adolescents. Diagnosed asthmatics were 49 (95% CI 30.0, 79.8) times and wheezers 4.8 (95% CI 3.0, 7.5) times as likely to report a clinic visit for wheezing than asymptomatic adolescents. African-Americans had similar prevalence of wheezing, compared with Whites, although African-Americans were 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.9) times as likely to have physician-diagnosed asthma. Girls were twice as likely to report physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing symptoms as were boys. Adolescents with wheezing experienced functional consequences comparable to those of adolescents with physician-diagnosed asthma. Although wheezers may have less

  4. Increasing prosocial behavior and academic achievement among adolescent African American males.

    PubMed

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Gibson, Suzanne Semivan; Wilkins, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA) were used to assess the adolescents' improvement in their skills in reading and mathematics. After the end of the two-year program, initial results showed that the adolescents had increased their daily attendance, decreased discipline referrals, and had no suspensions or expulsions. These results also indicated that although the students entered the program at different skill levels, they were assessed to have the ability to function at their appropriate grade level. Their average improvement in basic skills was at least two grade levels. Implications drawn from the findings include: (a) there is a need to emphasize appropriate assessment prior to beginning a skill improvement program; (b) a need to emphasize the use of individualized learning plans and tutors; and (c) a need to further investigate the role of assessment and intervention in after-school programming in order to close the achievement gap.

  5. School- and community-based associations to hypermasculine attitudes in African American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Hayes, Demarquis M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of hypermasculinity as a form of reactive coping among urban African American adolescent males (ages 12-17) and assessed the extent to which hypermasculinity is influenced by youth appraisals of how adults in their school and community perceive them. Two research questions were addressed: (a) Do adolescent males who report negative community and school experiences use hypermasculine attitudes as a coping response? (b) Do the effects of perceived negative school and community experiences persist, if they are present at all? Participants in the study were 241 African American adolescent males who attended public schools in a large southeastern city. Associating youth-reported questionnaires on perceived teacher expectations and perceptions of community challenges from one wave of data on hypermasculine attitudes within the same year and 2 years later, the results indicate that hypermasculinity attitudes stem from negative perceptions in the community and school contexts. Also, hypermasculinity attitudes were associated with these negatively perceived experiences across time. When examined longitudinally, negative experiences in the community had a stronger relation to hypermasculinity than similar experiences at school.

  6. An exploratory investigation of adolescent intimate partner violence among African American youth: a gendered analysis.

    PubMed

    Love, Sharon RedHawk; Richards, Tara N

    2013-11-01

    Extant research demonstrates that while adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) is an ever-growing concern in the United States, most research on IPV has focused on adult victims and offenders. To fill this gap in the literature, the present research examines youth IPV by conducting focus groups with 25 male and female youth between the ages of 15 and 19 years whose race was primarily African American. Drawing on open-ended responses by adolescent participants, the present study aimed to shed light on African American youths' perceptions of IPV, their perceptions regarding such violence among their peers, the dynamics of help-seeking behaviors, and what services youth perceive as most helpful in the prevention and intervention of adolescent IPV. Findings reveal that most participants only recognize physical aggression as IPV; express hesitation in disclosing violence to adults, especially nonfamily adults; and report being unaware of and/or unwilling to utilize existing prevention and intervention services traditionally targeted at adult populations. Implications for future research and policy are also presented and discussed.

  7. Drug trafficking and drug use among urban African-American adolescents: a causal analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Feigelman, S; Stanton, B; Galbraith, J; Huang, W

    1998-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that involvement in drug trafficking leads to illicit drug use among urban African-American adolescents. Self-reports of substance use, illicit drug use, and drug trafficking were obtained at baseline and every 6 months for 24 months from 383 African-American early adolescents. Transitions between involvement in drug trafficking and illicit drug use over time were examined. Path analysis was conducted to examine the causal relation between drug trafficking and drug use. Among the 35 youth who were initially involved only in drug trafficking, 22 (67%) subsequently used illicit drugs. Of the 53 youth who were initially involved only in illicit drug use, only 19 (42%) continued using drugs at later waves (p < 0.05). Path analysis revealed that baseline drug trafficking had a strong effect on subsequent drug trafficking and drug use, whereas baseline drug use did not have an effect on subsequent drug use or drug trafficking. Initiation of drug trafficking by adolescents appears to lead to sustained involvement in drug-related activities, including continued drug trafficking and drug use. By contrast, initiation of drug use does not necessarily lead to continued involvement in drug-related behaviors.

  8. Social and cultural environment factors influencing physical activity among african-american adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Monica L; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Thind, Herpreet; Godsey, Emily

    2015-05-01

    African-American youth are at high risk for physical inactivity. This study explored social and cultural environment facilitators of physical activity among 12- to 14-year-old African-American adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Southeast. Youth (n = 51; 45% male) participated in brainstorming focus groups responding to the prompt, "What about your family, friends, and community, encourages you to be physically active?" In a second meeting, participants (n = 56; 37.5% male) sorted statements (n = 84) based on similarity in meaning and rated statements on relative importance. Statement groups and ratings were entered into Concept Systems software where multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to create graphical representation of ideas. Finally, researchers named clusters according to the gestalt of grouped statements. The total sample included 28.9% of youth with household incomes ≤$30,000 (area median income = $30,701), 29% who perceived themselves as overweight, and 14.5% who reported being active for 60+ minutes everyday. Nine clusters, in rank order, emerged as follows: access/availability of physical activity resources; family and friend support; physical activity with friends; physical activity with family members; inspiration to/from others; parental reinforcement; opportunities in daily routine; pressure from social networks; and seeing consequences of activity/inactivity. Themes analyzed by gender were very similar (r = .90); however, "pressure from social networks" was more important for girls than boys (r = .10). Clear patterns of social and cultural facilitators of physical activity are perceived by African-American adolescents. Interventions targeting this group may benefit by incorporating these themes. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenge!: A Mentorship Model of Health Promotion and Obesity Prevention Among Urban, African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Hager, Erin; Le, Katherine; Anliker, Jean; Arteaga, S. Sonia; DiClemente, Carlo; Gittelsohn, Joel; Levy, Lauren; Magder, Laurence; Papas, Mia; Shebl, Fatma; Snitker, Soren; Treuth, Margarita S.; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a 12-session home and community-based health promotion/obesity prevention program (Challenge!) on changes in BMI, body composition, physical activity (PA), and diet. Methods 235 African-American adolescents (11–16 yrs, 38% overweight/obese) were recruited from low-income urban communities. Baseline measures included weight, height, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance), physical activity (PA) (accelerometry), and diet (food frequency). PA was measured by time in play-equivalent physical activity (PEPA≥1800 activity counts/min). Participants were randomized into a home- and community-based health promotion/obesity prevention controlled trial, anchored in social cognitive theory and involving motivational interviewing techniques, and delivered by college-enrolled, African-American mentors. Control adolescents did not receive the intervention or a mentor. Post-intervention (10 mos) and delayed follow-up (24 mos) evaluations were conducted. Longitudinal analyses using random mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations (GEE) examined direct and moderated effects of time, gender, and baseline BMI category on changes at both follow-ups. Results Retention was 76% (178/235) over 2 years; overweight/obese status declined 5.3% among intervention adolescents and increased 11.3% among control adolescents (χ2=5.8, p=0.02, GEE). Among males, but not females, fat free mass was significantly higher among intervention members at both follow-up evaluations. PA effects were moderated by baseline BMI category; among adolescents ≥ 85th percentile, control adolescents averaged 25.5 min less daily activity than intervention adolescents (p=0.018) at the 10-mo, but not the 24-mo follow-up. Intervention adolescents declined significantly more in snack and dessert consumption than control adolescents (p=0.045). Conclusion A 12-session, home-and community-based intervention, based on social cognitive

  10. Risk and Protective Effects of Sibling Relationships among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soli, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations between sibling relationships and adjustment among 179 African American adolescent siblings (controlling for family factors), and tested moderating effects of familism values and birth order. Two-level random intercept models revealed that familism values moderated sibling relationship-adjustment linkages, suggesting that youth who reported both strong familism values and harmonious sibling relationships showed the most positive outcomes. These effects were more consistent for older than for younger siblings. Findings highlight the role of cultural values and birth order in shaping sibling influence processes. PMID:21743763

  11. Parental racial socialization as a moderator of the effects of racial discrimination on educational success among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Huguley, James P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether parental racial socialization practices moderated the relation between racial discrimination in school and adolescents' educational outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of 630 African American adolescents (mean age=14.5) from a major East Coast metropolis, the results revealed that cultural socialization attenuated the effect of teacher discrimination on grade point average (GPA) and educational aspirations, as well as the effect of peer discrimination on GPA. Also, preparation for bias and cultural socialization interacted to make unique contributions to African American adolescents' educational outcomes. Finally, there was some evidence that teacher discrimination was more detrimental to the academic engagement of African American males than females. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. Environmental factors that impact the eating behaviors of low-income African American adolescents in Baltimore City.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Karina M H; Qureshi, Farah; Schaible, Alex; Park, Sohyun; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    To understand environmental factors influencing the food-related habits of low-income urban African American adolescents. Qualitative research was conducted between February and April, 2010, using in-depth interviews, focus groups, and direct observation. The study was conducted in low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods of Baltimore City. A total of 20 adolescents were interviewed in 18 in-depth interviews (n = 13) and 2 focus groups (n = 7). Participants were recruited from Baltimore City recreation centers and were eligible if they were African American and aged 10-16 years. The food-related habits of low-income, African American, urban adolescents and reported perceptions of their food environments. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes. Six thematic categories emerged and were organized into 4 environmental contexts: the neighborhood context (accessibility of food and safety of neighborhood), the school context (school food environment), the family context (family health history, role modeling, and monitoring) and the peer context (peer behaviors). Future efforts to reduce the obesity epidemic among low-income African American adolescents should address the social environment of the family; however, positive behavior change may not be sustainable without neighborhood or school food environment modifications. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  14. Efficacy of the Young Women's CoOp: An HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention for Substance-Using African-American Female Adolescents in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Browne, Felicia A.; Zule, William A.; Novak, Scott P.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Carry, Monique G.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction interventions are needed to address the complex risk behaviors among African-American female adolescents in disadvantaged communities in North Carolina. In a two-group randomized trial, we reached 237 sexually active, substance-using African-American female adolescents, to test a…

  15. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  16. Brief report: sexual sensation seeking and its relationship to risky sexual behaviour among African-American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N

    2007-02-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.

  17. Is ideal body image related to obesity and lifestyle behaviours in African American adolescents?

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wang, Y

    2012-03-01

    Childhood obesity epidemic has become a public health issue in the USA, especially among African American youths. Research on the association between ideal body image (IBI) and obesity and related lifestyle factors among African American children and adolescents is limited. Data collected from 402 low-income African American adolescents aged 10-14 years in four Chicago public schools were used. Questionnaires were used to assess IBI, weight perception, weight control practices, and self-efficacy towards food and physical activity. Body mass index was calculated using measured weight and height. Associations between IBI and weight perception, overweight/obesity and lifestyle behaviours were assessed using linear and logistic regression models. The most frequently chosen ideal body size was the fourth of eight silhouettes (from thinnest to heaviest) for boys (55%) and girls (49%). Overweight and obese girls selected larger ideal body figures than the others (trend test: P < 0.001). Compared with those with middle ideal body figures, girls who selected smaller ones were twice as likely to have an unhealthy diet as indicated by less fruit and milk consumption; the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were 2.40 (1.15-5.02) for fruits intake (African American adolescents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Condom Failure: Examining the Objective and Cultural Meanings Expressed in Interviews With African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Horner, Jennifer; Salazar, Laura F.; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning and context of self-reported “condom failure” among sexually active African American adolescents. Semistructured interviews regarding methods of protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) with 124 youth (ages 14–19 years) were content analyzed. The findings suggested three meanings of condom failure. First, condom failure represents a legitimate and important risk related to sexual activity. Second, it can serve as an excuse repertoire for adolescents who engaged in unprotected sex and later experienced either pregnancy or a STD. Third, it may serve as an explanation for males who deceive their partners into having unprotected sex. The findings are discussed with regard to their implications for HIV or STD prevention and research. PMID:19148828

  19. Pathways and Predictors of Antisocial Behaviors in African American Adolescents from Poor Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nan S.; Lee, Beom S.; Sun, Fei; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Bolland, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Antisocial behavior among youth remains a serious personal and social problem in the United States. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the shape and number of developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in a sample of poor, inner-city African American youth, and (2) test predictors of group membership and the developmental course of antisocial behaviors. Using growth mixture modeling, we examined predictors of antisocial behavior pathways and the likelihood of arrest in a sample of 566 poor, urban African American adolescents (ages 11 to 16). Three distinct trajectory classes of antisocial behavior were identified over a period of six years: one low-risk group (low steady) and two high-risk groups (incremental and high starter). The conditional probabilities for being arrested during ages 14-16 were 0.18 for the low steady class, 0.68 for the incremental class, and 0.31 for high starter class. Prevention strategies for adolescents at high risk are discussed. PMID:20161497

  20. Qualitative study of suicidality and help-seeking behaviors in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Barksdale, Crystal; Matlin, Samantha; Puri, Rupa; Cammack, Nicole; Spann, Marisa

    2007-09-01

    This qualitative study explores adolescents' perceptions of help-seeking behaviors in the context of a hypothetical suicide crisis. Cauce and colleague's (2002, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 44-55) model was used to examine help-seeking behaviors in 3 domains: problem recognition, decision to seek help, and selection of helpers. Forty-two church-going African American adolescents participated in 1 of 6 focus groups that discussed ways to help a hypothetically suicidal student in a vignette. Findings suggest that although the majority of youth had been exposed to a suicidal peer (76%), they were unsure of the seriousness of suicide as a problem in the African American community. The findings suggest that youth were less comfortable with formal interventions in school, religious institutions or traditional mental health settings. However, youth were open to community-based programs that could be located in school, church or community settings if helpers were: young adults, empathic listeners, non-judgmental, maintained confidentiality, and viewed as "natural helpers". Implications for developing church-based suicide interventions are discussed.

  1. The effects of calcium supplementation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, I. J.; Grim, C.; Dwyer, K.; Nicholson, L.; Dwyer, J.

    1996-01-01

    This longitudinal trial investigated the effects of calcium supplementation on the mean 24-hour blood pressure in African-American adolescents. Subjects were self-identified African-American adolescents from a high school in a suburb of Los Angeles, California. The subjects were randomly placed in a placebo or treatment group (placebo versus 1.5 g of calcium/day x 4 weeks). Follow-up mean 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) for both the treatment and control groups was lower than the baseline mean 24-hour ABP. In the treatment group, there was a decrease of 2.2 mm Hg in the mean systolic blood pressure and 0.7 mm Hg in the diastolic blood pressure. Relative to the placebo group, the net change in ABP was -1.7 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and -0.5 mm Hg for the diastolic blood pressure. There was no statistically significant effect of calcium supplementation on the 24-hour mean ABP. The net effect of supplementation on ABP during waking and sleeping hours also was not significant. PMID:8990802

  2. The relationship of character strengths to sexual behaviors and related risks among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mindy; Kibler, Jeffrey L; Dollar, Katherine M; Sly, Kaye; Samuels, Deanne; Benford, Melissa White; Coleman, Melissa; Lott, LaTonya; Patterson, Kevin; Wiley, Floyd

    2008-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined positive character traits that are associated with lower HIV/STD risks. In the present study, the relationships of character strengths with sexual behaviors and attitudes were assessed among 383 African-American adolescents. Character strengths were measured using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Because the strengths were highly inter-correlated, stepwise discriminant function analyses were utilized to assess their independent associations with sexual behaviors and attitudes. Greater Love of Learning was related to self-reported abstinence from sexual intercourse for boys and self-reported abstinence from drug use for boys and girls. Greater Love of Learning and Curiosity were related to the belief in no premarital sex for boys, whereas only Curiosity was significant for girls. Prudence was related to reported abstinence from sexual intimacy (e.g., touching or kissing). Judgment was related to sexual initiation efficacy for girls and boys, whereas Leadership was only significant for girls. The findings suggest that character strengths may be associated with lower levels of sexual behaviors and sex-related beliefs among a sample of African-American adolescents.

  3. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6% female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23277294

  4. Psychological symptoms linking exposure to community violence and academic functioning in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-02-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6 % female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Abuse during childhood and adolescence and risk of adult-onset asthma in African American women.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Patricia F; Wise, Lauren A; O'Connor, George T; Brown, Timothy A; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    Experiences of violence contribute to the occurrence of childhood asthma, but there is little information on the effect of early-life abuse on adult-onset asthma. We prospectively assessed the relation between physical and sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence and the incidence of adult-onset asthma in the Black Women's Health Study. We followed 28,456 women from 1995 through 2011 with biennial mailed questionnaires. Experiences of physical and sexual abuse that occurred during childhood and adolescence were obtained in 2005. Cox regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs. During 417,931 person-years of follow-up, 1,160 participants reported physician-diagnosed asthma and concurrent use of asthma medication. Compared with women who experienced no abuse during childhood or adolescence, the multivariable IRR for any childhood abuse was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.06-1.45), and for any adolescent abuse, it was 1.10 (95% CI, 0.88-1.36). The IRR was higher for childhood physical abuse (IRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07-1.49) than for childhood sexual abuse (IRR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88-1.49). IRRs for physical and sexual abuse during adolescence were compatible with 1.0. The association between childhood abuse and asthma incidence was stronger in older compared with younger women. In this large cohort of African American women, there was a positive association between adult-onset asthma and childhood physical abuse and weaker associations for childhood sexual abuse and any abuse during adolescence. Given the high prevalence of asthma and childhood abuse, this association is of public health importance. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dimensionality and Genetic Correlates of Problem Behavior in Low-income African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Latendresse, Shawn J.; Henry, David B.; Aggen, Steven H.; Byck, Gayle R.; Ashbeck, Alan W.; Bolland, John M.; Sun, Cuie; Riley, Brien P.; Mustanski, Brian; Dick, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Researchers have long observed that problem behaviors tend to cluster together, particularly among adolescents. Epidemiological studies have suggested that this covariation is due, in part, to common genetic influences, and a number of plausible candidates have emerged as targets for investigation. To date, however, genetic association studies of these behaviors have mostly focused on unidimensional models of individual phenotypes within European American samples. Method Herein, we compared a series of confirmatory factor models to best characterize the structure of problem behavior (alcohol and marijuana use, sexual behavior, and disruptive behavior) within a representative community-based sample of 592 low-income African American adolescents (50.3% female), aged 13 to 18. We further explored the extent to which three genes previously implicated for their role in similar behavioral dimensions (CHRM2, GABRA2, and OPRM1) independently accounted for variance within factors specified in the best fitting model. Supplementary analyses were conducted to derive comparative estimates for the predictive utility of these genes in more traditional unidimensional models. Results Findings provide initial evidence for a bifactor structure of problem behavior among African American adolescents, and highlight novel genetic correlates of specific behavioral dimensions otherwise undetected in an orthogonal syndromal factor. Conclusions Implications of this approach include increased precision in the assessment of problem behavior, with corresponding increases in the reliability and validity of identified genetic associations. As a corollary, the comparison of primary and supplementary association analyses illustrates the potential for overlooking and/or overinterpreting meaningful genetic effects when failing to adequately account for phenotypic complexity. PMID:26514393

  7. The impact of depressive symptomatology on risky sexual behavior and sexual communication among African American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve S

    2011-05-01

    Adolescents, particularly African American adolescents, are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, and STIs longitudinally among African American female adolescents between the ages 15 and 21. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of depressive symptoms at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STIs over six- and 12-months follow-up. Age, intervention group, and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that high levels of depressive symptoms predicted no condom use during last sexual encounter and multiple sexual partners over six-months follow-up. Depressive symptoms also predicted having a main partner with concurrent partners, high fear of communication about condoms, and sex while high on alcohol or drugs over six- and 12-months follow-up. These findings could be used to inform HIV/STI prevention intervention programs and clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  8. The Impact of Depressive Symptomatology on Risky Sexual Behavior and Sexual Communication among African American Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve S.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), particularly African American adolescents. The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, and STIs longitudinally among African American female adolescents between the ages of 15-21. Binary generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were conducted assessing the impact of depressive symptoms at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STIs over 6- and 12-months follow-up. Age, intervention group, and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that high levels of depressive symptoms predicted no condom use during last sexual encounter and multiple sexual partners over 6-months follow-up. Depressive symptoms also predicted having a main partner with concurrent partners, high fear of communication about condoms, and sex while high on alcohol or drugs over 6- and 12-months follow-up. These findings could be used to inform HIV/STI prevention intervention programs and clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior. PMID:21491342

  9. Do Gender Differences in Help Avoidance Vary by Ethnicity? An Examination of African American and European American Students during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena; Lampkins-uThando, Shawn A.; Kiefer, Sarah M.; Thompson, Geneene N.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined whether the nature of gender differences varies by race for two types of academic engagement in the classroom (help avoidance and voice with the teacher) in a sample of early adolescents (N = 456; 55% female, 60% African American and 40% European American) making the transition to middle school. Growth curve analyses…

  10. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions Regarding Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13 to 17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination attributions, depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Approximately half the youth attributed discrimination to race/ethnicity (43%), followed by age (17%), physical appearance (16.5%) and gender (7.5%) and there were no ethnic, gender or age differences regarding discrimination attributions. Key findings suggest that the association between perceived discrimination and psychological did not vary according to discrimination attribution, which implies that discrimination is harmful for Black youth regardless of the attribution.

  11. Saving our children: strategies to empower African-American adolescents to reduce their risk for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Jemmott, L S

    2000-01-01

    Adolescence is normally a healthy period of life. For some young people it is a period of experimentation with risky behavior. For others, it marks the development of habitual risk behaviors that persist into adulthood. Of special concern is adolescent involvement with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Nurses who work with adolescents are seeing an increase in STDs, including HIV infection occurring disproportionately among African-American adolescents. Although the use of condoms can reduce the risk of these sexually transmitted diseases, most sexually active adolescents do not consistently use condoms. This paper will discuss the scope of the problem of STDs, especially HIV infection among African-American adolescents. It will describe the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework for designing interventions to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and other STDs. Finally, it will provide strategies for nurses to intervene by empowering African-American adolescents to reduce their risk for sexually transmitted HIV infection.

  12. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.

  13. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  14. Overweight adolescent African-American mothers gain weight in spite of intentions to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Papas, Mia A; Bentley, Margaret E; Cureton, Pamela; Saunders, Alicia; Le, Katherine; Anliker, Jean; Robinson, Noni

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine how dietary patterns, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and intention to lose weight were associated with body size among adolescent African-American mothers 1 year after delivery and with changes in body size over the next year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal self-reported measures were collected 1 year after delivery. Weight and height were collected 1 and 2 years after delivery. The subjects were 118 low-income, African-American adolescent mothers recruited after the birth of their first child. Multivariate analysis of covariance and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to examine predictors of body size 1 year after delivery and changes in body size over the next year. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, education, breastfeeding history, and intervention. One year after delivery, 33.0% of mothers were overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or =95th percentile) and 23.7% were at risk for overweight (BMI > or =85th and <95th percentile). Mothers consumed a daily average of 2,527 kcal and 4.1 high-fat snacks. A total of 11% of normal-weight mothers, 22% of mothers at risk for overweight, and 44% of overweight mothers reported intention to lose weight, chi(2)=10.8, P<.01. Average maternal BMI z score increased 0.13 (3.9 kg) between 1 and 2 years after delivery, P<.01. Dietary patterns, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and intention to lose weight were not related to body size or increase in body size. One year after delivery, overweight among adolescent mothers was common and increased over time. Although nearly half of overweight mothers reported an intention to lose weight, their weight gain did not differ from that of other mothers, suggesting that they lack effective weight-loss behaviors, and may be good candidates for intervention. African-American adolescent mothers have high rates of overweight and snack consumption and may benefit from strategies to identify nutritious, palatable, affordable, and accessible

  15. Entry risk into the juvenile justice system: African American, American Indian, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Chen, Pan

    2010-06-01

    Findings on disproportionate minority contact remain mixed. Few empirical studies have examined to what extent entry risk into juvenile justice varies across ethnic/racial groups, and to what extent childhood aggressive behaviors foretell later deviance and entry risk. In the current study, we sought to address these shortcomings by implementing a survival analysis on a representative sample of youth followed from age 8 to 18. The sample included N = 2,754 lower to lower-middle SES youth from five different ethnic/racial groups (African American, American Indian, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic youth), part of a large-scale violence prevention effort. Aggressive behaviors were rated by teachers during elementary school, entry risk into juvenile justice was measured by official data, while SES was based on census data. Developmental entry risk into the juvenile justice system peaked at age 14 and subsequently declined. No differences were found across the four racial groups; however, Hispanic youth were at elevated risk (by 73%). Only childhood physical aggressive behavior increased entry risk (by 87%); this was above and beyond a 'simple' maturational liability we found and net any effects by sex, race/ethnicity, and SES. Some evidence suggested disproportionate minority contact, but only for Hispanic youth. Entry risk was invariant by race, but differed for males versus females and for youth from relatively higher socioeconomic status (SES) strata compared to youth from lower ones. Intervention efforts should target physically aggressive children during the elementary school years; however, some of the evidence also suggests that there exists a 'maturational liability' developmentally over time, between the ages of 8 and 18, independent of any of the focal predictors tested.

  16. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  17. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment Among African-American and European-American Youth.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, Jennifer A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2010-06-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the dependent variable measured 3 years earlier, breadth was positively associated with indicators of academic adjustment at 11th grade and at 1 year after high school. In addition, for the three academic outcomes (i.e., grades, educational expectations, and educational status) the nonlinear function was significant; at high levels of involvement the well-being of youth leveled off or declined slightly. In addition, breadth of participation at 11th grade predicted lower internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, alcohol use, and marijuana use at 11th grade. Finally, the total number of extracurricular activities at 11th grade was associated with civic engagement 2 years later.

  18. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment Among African-American and European-American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the dependent variable measured 3 years earlier, breadth was positively associated with indicators of academic adjustment at 11th grade and at 1 year after high school. In addition, for the three academic outcomes (i.e., grades, educational expectations, and educational status) the nonlinear function was significant; at high levels of involvement the well-being of youth leveled off or declined slightly. In addition, breadth of participation at 11th grade predicted lower internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, alcohol use, and marijuana use at 11th grade. Finally, the total number of extracurricular activities at 11th grade was associated with civic engagement 2 years later. PMID:22837637

  19. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Ellen M; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L

    2009-12-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the maintenance of these positive self-views. In this paper, we evaluate these arguments using data drawn from a panel study of socio-economically diverse African American adolescent girls living in Iowa and Georgia. We analyze the relationship between body size and social self-image over three waves of data, starting when the girls were 10 years of age and concluding when they were approximately 14. We find that heavier respondents hold less positive social self-images but also find that being raised in a family that practices racial socialization moderates this relationship.

  20. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    PubMed Central

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the maintenance of these positive self-views. In this paper, we evaluate these arguments using data drawn from a panel study of socio-economically diverse African American adolescent girls living in Iowa and Georgia. We analyze the relationship between body size and social self-image over three waves of data, starting when the girls were 10 years of age and concluding when they were approximately 14. We find that heavier respondents hold less positive social self-images but also find that being raised in a family that practices racial socialization moderates this relationship. PMID:20161575

  1. Recruitment of African American and Latino Adolescent Couples in Romantic Relationships: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Angelic; Watnick, Dana; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, but literature on recruiting adolescent couples is new and minimal. Purpose This paper describes the recruitment strategies used for Teen Connections, a longitudinal study that recruited 139 mainly African American and Latino adolescent couples in romantic relationships living in New York City. Method We collected data in Microsoft Access and documented the date each recruitment strategy was implemented, date each partner was enrolled, and amount of effort required to enroll participants. We identified individual and relationship characteristics from each partner's baseline survey. Results We found that relationship type and characteristics, language used in printed materials, parental consent, implementing a screener questionnaire, and gender of partner had implications for enrollment in TC. Discussion Couples studies are highly demanding but achievable with dedicated staff and access to a large number of youth. Translation to Health Education Practice Research on sexual health and risk often relies on individual reports of dyadic events. Adolescent couples' studies may not be pursued because of recruitment limitations, but they can provide invaluable insight into relationship dynamics, characteristics etc. that may help design better health education interventions, and should be pursued nonetheless. PMID:23326814

  2. Prevalence of mental health disorders among low-income African American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Byck, Gayle R.; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle; Ashbeck, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on the prevalence of mental health disorders for low-income, urban African American adolescents are scarce. This study presents data about the burden of mental disorders for this understudied population. Methods Mental disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC), Youth Self-Report (YSR), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) among a sample of adolescents and their caregivers from very impoverished neighborhoods in a Southern city. Results Based on the C-DISC, 3.8, 5.1 and 7.7 % of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and conduct disorder, respectively. There were significant differences among some of the mental health disorders based on adolescent and caregiver characteristics such as sex, school status, caregiver work status, and income level. We found a low prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and substance abuse and dependence disorders. Conclusions Information about the prevalence of mental health disorders in specific communities and populations can assist in addressing unmet needs, planning for services and treatment, and reducing health disparities. PMID:23385803

  3. Recruitment of African American and Latino Adolescent Couples in Romantic Relationships: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Angelic; Watnick, Dana; Bauman, Laurie J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, but literature on recruiting adolescent couples is new and minimal. PURPOSE: This paper describes the recruitment strategies used for Teen Connections, a longitudinal study that recruited 139 mainly African American and Latino adolescent couples in romantic relationships living in New York City. METHOD: We collected data in Microsoft Access and documented the date each recruitment strategy was implemented, date each partner was enrolled, and amount of effort required to enroll participants. We identified individual and relationship characteristics from each partner's baseline survey. RESULTS: We found that relationship type and characteristics, language used in printed materials, parental consent, implementing a screener questionnaire, and gender of partner had implications for enrollment in TC. DISCUSSION: Couples studies are highly demanding but achievable with dedicated staff and access to a large number of youth. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Research on sexual health and risk often relies on individual reports of dyadic events. Adolescent couples' studies may not be pursued because of recruitment limitations, but they can provide invaluable insight into relationship dynamics, characteristics etc. that may help design better health education interventions, and should be pursued nonetheless.

  4. Prevalence of mental health disorders among low-income African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Byck, Gayle R; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle; Ashbeck, Alan W; Mustanski, Brian S

    2013-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of mental health disorders for low-income, urban African American adolescents are scarce. This study presents data about the burden of mental disorders for this understudied population. Mental disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC), Youth Self-Report (YSR), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) among a sample of adolescents and their caregivers from very impoverished neighborhoods in a Southern city. Based on the C-DISC, 3.8, 5.1 and 7.7% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and conduct disorder, respectively. There were significant differences among some of the mental health disorders based on adolescent and caregiver characteristics such as sex, school status, caregiver work status, and income level. We found a low prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and substance abuse and dependence disorders. Information about the prevalence of mental health disorders in specific communities and populations can assist in addressing unmet needs, planning for services and treatment, and reducing health disparities.

  5. Resilience among African American adolescent mothers: predictors of positive parenting in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Hess, Christine Reiner; Papas, Mia A; Black, Maureen M

    2002-01-01

    To use Nath et al.'s (1991) conceptual model of adolescent parenting to examine the relationship between resiliency factors measured shortly after delivery and maternal parenting behavior at 6 months. We recruited 181 first-time, adolescent African American mothers at delivery. Data on resiliency factors (maturity, self-esteem, and mother-grandmother relationships) were collected when infants were 1-4 weeks of age. Data on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction were examined through observations and self-report at 6 months. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the longitudinal impact of resiliency factors on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction. Maternal maturity, positive self-esteem, and positive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships (characterized by autonomy and mutuality) were associated with better parenting outcomes. Maternal parenting satisfaction was lowest when infants were temperamentally difficult and mothers and grandmothers had a confrontational relationship. Longitudinal associations between mother-grandmother relationships at delivery and parental behavior and satisfaction 6 months later may suggest an intergenerational transmission of parenting style. Recommendations are provided for intervention programs to enhance mother-grandmother relationships in contexts where adolescents are required to live with a guardian to receive government assistance.

  6. Exposure to drug trafficking among urban, low-income African American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Stanton, B; Feigelman, S

    1999-02-01

    To examine the association between exposure to drug trafficking (selling or delivering drugs) and exposure to other forms of community violence and risk behaviors among urban, low-income African American children and adolescents. Community-based, cross-sectional survey. Ten public housing developments in a large eastern city in the United States. Three hundred forty-nine urban, low-income African American children and adolescents (198 boys and 151 girls), aged 9 to 15 years. Exposure to drug trafficking and other forms of community violence (as either a victim or a witness), risk behaviors/perceptions including risk-taking/delinquency, drug use, perpetration of violence or other crimes, threats to school achievement, and perceived peer involvement. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine whether exposure to drug trafficking is a risk factor that is distinct from other exposure to violence. Multivariate analysis of variance and chi2 tests were performed to assess the relationship between exposure to drug trafficking and other forms of community violence and risk behaviors/perceptions. Of 349 participants, 63 (18%) had been asked to traffic drugs and 134 (38%) had seen someone else being asked to traffic drugs. Factor analysis indicates that exposure to drug trafficking appears to be different from other forms of community violence. However, having been asked and having seen other people being asked to traffic drugs were both strongly associated with exposure to other forms of community violence. Compared with children and adolescents who had not been exposed to drug trafficking, those who were exposed to drug trafficking reported more risk-taking and delinquent behaviors, drug use, threats to achievement, and a perception of more peer involvement in these risk behaviors. Exposure to drug trafficking is a unique risk factor that is strongly associated with exposure to other forms of community violence and involvement in other risk behaviors.

  7. Coping Patterns of African American Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis of the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Gipson, Polly; Mance, GiShawn; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of coping strategies in a sample of 497 low-income urban African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years). Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 4-factor structure of the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist (T. S. Ayers, I. N. Sandler, S. G. West, & M. W. Roosa, 1996) was not…

  8. Self-Esteem and Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex among African American Female Adolescents: Implications for Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…

  9. "Doing Hair" and Literacy in an Afterschool Reading and Writing Workshop for African-American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Daneell

    2005-01-01

    The term "doing hair" is utterly familiar. However, while the term can refer to simple acts of combing, brushing, washing, and styling hair, in the culture of adolescent African-American girls, doing hair is a social practice that represents power, creativity, and sometimes popularity. This article describes a three-month afterschool…

  10. Guilt Trips and Love Withdrawal: Does Mothers' Use of Psychological Control Predict Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Pikes, Crysta L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maternal psychological control on the depressive symptoms of 152 lower socioeconomic status African American adolescents. After controlling for the effects of other parenting practices, psychological control had a strong positive relationship with girls' depressive symptoms, but none for boys, even though the 2…

  11. Ethnic Identity, Neighborhood Risk, and Adolescent Drug and Sex Attitudes and Refusal Efficacy: The Urban African American Girls' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…

  12. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in an African American Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among a community sample of 118 African American students (58 females; ages 14-19 years; mean age = 15.79) in an urban, parochial high school. Adolescents completed the MASC and several other self-report measures of…

  13. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in an African American Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among a community sample of 118 African American students (58 females; ages 14-19 years; mean age = 15.79) in an urban, parochial high school. Adolescents completed the MASC and several other self-report measures of…

  14. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  15. Developmental Trajectories of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict: Differences in Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…

  16. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  17. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  18. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  19. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

  20. The Effects of Changes in Racial Identity and Self-Esteem on Changes in African American Adolescents' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Richards, Maryse H.; Ragsdale, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the unique effects of racial identity and self-esteem on 259 African American adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms as they transitioned from the 7th to 8th grades (ages 12-14). Racial identity and self-esteem were strongly correlated with each other for males but not for females. For both males and females, an increase…

  1. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  2. Texas Public School Counselors' Perceptions of Family Strengths in African American Hurricane Katrina Evacuee Children and Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine Texas Public School counselors' perceptions of family strengths in Hurricane Katrina African American evacuee children and adolescents and in their families. An additional purpose of this study was to determine how these counselors may have called upon these perceived strengths to intervene in…

  3. Racism, Parent Support, and Math-Based Career Interests, Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliman-Brissett, Annette E.; Turner, Sherri L.

    2010-01-01

    Using an extended model of social cognitive career theory, this study investigated ways in which African American middle school adolescents perceive racism and the associations among various aspects of perceptions of racism, other background factors, and math-based career interests, efficacy, and outcome expectations. Results indicated that…

  4. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  5. Rite of Passage Programs as Effective Tools for Fostering Resilience among Low-Income African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Shure, Lauren; Garrett, Michael T.; Conwill, William; Rivera, Edil Torres

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss effective rite of passage (ROP) programs as strength-based, culturally relevant interventions for African American male adolescents. They also highlight the ethnocultural strengths of this population from a resilience perspective and articulate academic and dispositional outcomes of ROP programs. Recommendations for practice…

  6. Factors that Adversely Affect the Health and Well-Being of African-American Adolescent Mothers and Their Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Alva P.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the negative impact of the following factors on African-American adolescent pregnancy and motherhood: (1) age; (2) nutrition; (2) family income; and (3) availability and accessibility of health care services. Briefly discusses socio-culturally relevant intervention strategies. (FMW)

  7. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  8. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  9. Guilt Trips and Love Withdrawal: Does Mothers' Use of Psychological Control Predict Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Pikes, Crysta L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maternal psychological control on the depressive symptoms of 152 lower socioeconomic status African American adolescents. After controlling for the effects of other parenting practices, psychological control had a strong positive relationship with girls' depressive symptoms, but none for boys, even though the 2…

  10. Ethnic Identity, Neighborhood Risk, and Adolescent Drug and Sex Attitudes and Refusal Efficacy: The Urban African American Girls' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…

  11. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  12. Middle-Class African American Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    2000-01-01

    Examined longitudinally conceptions of parental authority and ratings of parental rules and decision-making among middle- class African American adolescents and their parents. Found that nearly all subjects affirmed parents' legitimate authority to regulate and children's obligation to comply regarding oral, conventional, prudential, friendship,…

  13. Texas Public School Counselors' Perceptions of Family Strengths in African American Hurricane Katrina Evacuee Children and Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine Texas Public School counselors' perceptions of family strengths in Hurricane Katrina African American evacuee children and adolescents and in their families. An additional purpose of this study was to determine how these counselors may have called upon these perceived strengths to intervene in…

  14. African American Male Adolescents' Preferences in Responding to Racial Discrimination: Effects of Ethnic Identity and Situational Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, William D.; Hudley, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated male African American adolescents' thinking about responses to racial discrimination. Participants (N = 67) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their ethnic identity status and their preferred responses to racial discrimination.…

  15. Developmental Trajectories of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict: Differences in Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…

  16. Violence and Minority Youth: The Effects of Risk and Asset Factors on Fighting among African American Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Darlene R.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined risk and asset factors thought to be associated with fighting among a sample of 1,642 African American children and adolescents in a central Alabama school district. Results show that poor grades, parental abuse, and gang affiliation were significant risk factors associated with higher frequency of fighting.…

  17. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  18. Individual Factors Influencing Effective Nonviolent Behavior and Fighting in Peer Situations: A Qualitative Study with Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Vulin-Reynolds, Monique; Sullivan, Terri; Allison, Kevin W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Meyer, Aleta

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined individual-level factors that influence adolescents' responses to problem situations involving peers. Interviews were conducted with 106 middle school students (97% African American) from an urban school system. Participants described factors that would make it easier and those that would make it more difficult for…

  19. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

  20. African American Adolescents' Future Education Orientation: Associations with Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Parental Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Eryigit, Suna; Stephens, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7-12 attending a rural, southern county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with "future education orientation." Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with…

  1. Racial Identity Attitudes, Perceived Barriers, Career Self-Efficacy, and Career Outcome Expectations among African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsel, Norman L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) holds that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are primary predictors of career choice goals and actions, with contextual influences moderating those choices and actions. Racial identity research indicates that African American adolescents perceive more barriers than their White counterparts. The current…

  2. The Effects of Changes in Racial Identity and Self-Esteem on Changes in African American Adolescents' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Richards, Maryse H.; Ragsdale, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the unique effects of racial identity and self-esteem on 259 African American adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms as they transitioned from the 7th to 8th grades (ages 12-14). Racial identity and self-esteem were strongly correlated with each other for males but not for females. For both males and females, an increase…

  3. Uric Acid Excretion Predicts Increased Blood Pressure Among American Adolescents of African Descent.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal; Morris, Anjana Madan; Reynolds, Nina; Patel, Anita; Hill, Danielle C; Feig, Daniel I

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia predicts the incidence of hypertension in adults and its treatment has blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in adolescents. To date, no studies have examined the predictive usage of hyperuricemia or urinary uric acid excretion on BP changes in adolescents. Mechanistic models suggest that uric acid impairs both endothelial function and vascular compliance, which would potentially exacerbate a myriad of hypertensive mechanisms, yet little is known about interaction of uric acid and other hypertension risk factors. The primary study was aimed at the effects of stress on BP in adolescents. A community sample of 84 low-income, urban adolescents (50% male, 95% African American, mean age = 13.36 ± 1 years) was recruited from public schools. Youth completed a 12-hour (overnight) urine collection at home and their BP was measured during rest and in response to acute psychosocial stress. Seventy-six of the adolescents participated in a follow-up visit at 1.5 years when their resting BP was reassessed. In this substudy, we assessed the relationship of renal urate excretion and BP reactivity. After adjusting for resting BP levels at baseline and other covariates, higher levels of uric acid excretion predicted greater BP reactivity to acute psychosocial stress and higher resting BP at 18 months. Urinary excretion of uric acid can serve as an alternative, noninvasive measure of serum uric acid levels that are predictive of BP changes. As hyperuricemia-associated hypertension is treatable, urban adolescents may benefit from routine screening for hyperuricemia or high uric acid excretion. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Asthma Self-Management Goals, Beliefs and Behaviors of Urban African American Adolescents Prior to Transitioning to Adult Health Care.

    PubMed

    Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Gourdin, Dustin; Krouse, Helene J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a unique time of development incorporating a transition from child centered to adult centered health care. This transition period can be particularly challenging for individuals with a chronic disease such as asthma. Inadequate transition planning during adolescence may place an already vulnerable population such as African American adolescents with known health disparities in asthma prevalence, morbidity and mortality at risk for a continuation of poor health outcomes across the lifespan. Central to transition planning for these youth is the core element of developing and prioritizing goals. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the asthma self-management goals, beliefs and behaviors of urban African American adolescents prior to transitioning from pediatric to adult health care. A focus group composed of 13 African American adolescents with asthma ages 14-18 years from an urban population was conducted. Responses from transcripts and field notes were reviewed using an iterative process to best characterize asthma self-management goals and beliefs that emerged. Four core themes were identified: 1) medication self-management, 2) social support, 3) independence vs. interdependence, and 4) self-advocacy. Medication self-management included subthemes of rescue medications, controller medications and medication avoidance. The social support theme included three subthemes: peer support, caregiver support and healthcare provider support. Findings suggest that adolescents with asthma form both short term and long term goals. Their goals indicated a need for guided support to facilitate a successful health care transition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimentally Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based African-Centered Emancipatory Intervention on the Ethnic Identity of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African…

  6. Experimentally Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based African-Centered Emancipatory Intervention on the Ethnic Identity of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African…

  7. Middle-class African American adolescents' and parents' conceptions of parental authority and parenting practices: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Smetana, J G

    2000-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of parental rules and decision making were examined longitudinally among 82 middle-class African American adolescents and their parents (82 mothers and 52 fathers), who were divided into two groups according to family income. Adolescents were, on average, 13.14 years of age at Time 1 and 15.05 years of age at Time 2. Nearly all adolescents and parents affirmed parents' legitimate authority to regulate (and children's obligation to comply with) rules regarding moral, conventional, prudential, friendship, and multifaceted issues, but they were more equivocal in their judgments regarding personal issues. With age, adolescents increasingly judged personal issues to be beyond the bounds of legitimate parental authority, but judgments differed by family income. Adolescents from upper income families rejected parents' legitimate authority to regulate personal issues more at Time 1 than did adolescents from middle income families, but no differences were found at Time 2. Authority to regulate adolescents' behavior did not extend to other adults or to schools, churches, and the law. With adolescents' increasing age, African American families became less restrictive in regulating prudential, friendship, multifaceted, and personal issues. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' judgments demonstrated significant continuity over time, but few cross- or within-generation associations in judgments were found. Conceptions of legitimate parental authority at Time 1 were found to predict family rules at Time 2.

  8. Age Differences in STDs, Sexual Behaviors, and Correlates of Risky Sex Among Sexually Experienced Adolescent African-American Females

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Davis, Teaniese L.; Kottke, Melissa J.; Rose, Eve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore age differences in factors associated with positive sexually transmitted diseases (STD) status among a sample of African-American adolescent females. Methods Data were collected via ACASI from 701 African-American adolescent females (14–20 years) seeking services at reproductive health clinics. Adolescents provided self-collected vaginal swabs assayed using NAAT to assess the prevalence of three STDs. Results Younger adolescents (14–17 years) had significantly higher rates of STDs than older adolescents (18–20 years), but older adolescents had significantly higher levels of STD-associated risk behavior. In controlled analysis, having a casual sex partner was the only variable significantly associated with a positive STD test for younger adolescents, and prior history of STD and higher impulsivity were significantly associated with testing STD positive among older adolescents. Conclusions These findings suggest that developmentally tailored STD/HIV prevention interventions are needed for younger and older subgroups of adolescent females to help reduce their risk of infection. PMID:21933811

  9. Cancer knowledge and attitudes of African-American and white adolescents: a comparison of two secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Rana, S R; Knasel, A L; Haddy, T B

    1992-01-01

    A cancer knowledge and attitude survey was administered to 385 students 12 to 18 years of age. Half attended a predominantly African-American academic high school and the other half, a predominantly white college preparatory school. Both schools were in Washington, DC. Responses were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test. African-American students more often than white students understood the words leukemia and malignancy to mean cancer; identified breast self-examination as a method for early cancer detection; and recognized chemotherapy as effective cancer treatment. White students more often than African-American students responded correctly that cancer is less common in children than in adults; cancer is often curable; and research has benefited cancer outcome. Although both groups of students had good knowledge, the African-American adolescents appeared to have a pessimistic attitude, which may contribute to "delay behavior," suboptimal compliance, and poor survival. Cancer education should help to counteract this attitude, however. It is also encouraging that the African-American adolescents were more interested than the white students in further cancer education.

  10. Perceived parental security profiles in African American adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Ramirez, Aaron M; Barnes, Michael E; Odom, Terri; Roberson-Adams, Shelia; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2015-12-01

    Many researchers have shown the importance of parent attachment in childhood and adolescence. The present study extends the attachment literature to African Americans involved in the juvenile justice system (N = 213), and provides an initial inquiry using person-oriented methods. The average age was 16.17 years (SD = 1.44), and the sample was predominantly male (71%). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Short Form (IPPA-S) scores supported a 3-factor model: (a) Communication, (b) Trust, and (c) Alienation. Model-based clustering was applied to IPPA-S scores, and results pointed to 4 perceived parental security profiles: high security, moderately high security, moderately low security, and low security. In keeping with our hypotheses, IPPA-S profiles were associated with prosocial behaviors, depression, anxiety, and oppositional defiance. Contrary to hypotheses, IPPA-S profiles were not associated with perspective taking, emotional concern, or behaviors characteristic of a conduct disorder. Results also showed that gender, age, family member with whom the participant resides, charge severity, and offense history did not have an effect on IPPA-S clustering. Implications for therapeutic jurisprudence in African Americans involved with the juvenile justice system are provided.

  11. Fat practices and consumption among African-American adolescent Boy Scouts: the impact of meal source.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Bishop, Reyna G; de Moor, Carl

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the fat consumption and dietary fat practices of 183 African-American Boy Scouts, members of urban (low socioeconomic status [SES]) and church-affiliated (middle SES) troops by meal source. The scouts completed 2 24-hour dietary recalls. Total kilocalories (kcal), % kcal from fat and saturated fat, and high and low fat practices were calculated by meal location (home, school, restaurant). About 50% of all meals were eaten at home, 35% at school, and 15% in restaurants. Scouts consumed greater than the recommended amounts of total kcal from fat and saturated fat at all meal locations. Low SES scouts reported more school meals, and fewer home and restaurant meals compared with middle SES scouts. For all scouts, restaurant meals were associated with less healthy dietary fat behaviors and higher kcal consumption. Scouts consuming 2 school meals reported more low fat practices compared to those eating one school meal. Interventions targeting African-American adolescents should focus on building skills for choosing low-fat foods at all meal locations, particularly restaurants.

  12. Racial group regard, barrier socialization, and African American adolescents' engagement: patterns and processes by gender.

    PubMed

    Smalls, Ciara; Cooper, Shauna M

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined gendered processes via 1) profiles of racial barrier socialization, regard for one's racial group (private regard), and behavioral engagement and grades and, 2) gender and private regard as a moderator in the link between barrier messages and academic engagement outcomes. One-hundred and twenty-five African American adolescents (ages 10-14, M = 12.39, SD = 1.07) completed measures of socialization, private regard, grades and behavioral engagement. Latent Profile Analysis revealed a 2-cluster solution fit the data best - 1) High Engagement-Race Salient (HERS) cluster and 2) Low Engagement-Non-Salient cluster (LENS). Girls had higher representation in the HERS cluster. When private regard was examined as a moderator, girls' grades were unrelated to barrier socialization and private regard. In contrast, barrier socialization was associated with lower grades for low private regard boys. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered racial school contexts that African American youth must navigate to be academically successful.

  13. Discrimination, racial identity, and cytokine levels among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African-American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (1) reported racial discrimination from ages 17-19 years forecasts heightened cytokine levels at the age of 22 years and (2) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African-Americans who were aged 17 years at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307; p < .01), racial identity (β = -.179; p < .05), and their interaction (β = -.180; p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Game Based Learning in the Health Literacy of African American Adolescent Males

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.

  15. A qualitative exploration of the role of social networks in educating urban African American adolescents about sex.

    PubMed

    George, Anne E; Abatemarco, Diane J; Terry, Martha Ann; Yonas, Michael; Butler, James; Akers, Aletha Y

    2013-01-01

    To explore social network members' role in educating African American adolescents about sexual health issues. We conducted 21 focus groups with urban African American mothers (n=51), fathers (n=18), sons (n=20), and daughters (n=36) from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA, between December 2007 and March 2008. At least one biological parent (or legal guardian) and one adolescent aged 15-17 years from each family participated. Group conversations were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using directive content analysis and the constant comparison method. Two coders independently read each transcript to identify emergent themes. A broad range of people were reportedly involved in the education process. Older siblings, extended family, and peers were most commonly cited. However, unrelated adults were also described as playing important roles. Unrelated adults included the friends of an adolescent's parents and the parents of an adolescent's friends or romantic partners. Social network members were said to address three main issues: the facts about sex and sexuality, the social aspects of sexuality (e.g., appropriate dating behaviors, choosing dating partners), and promotion of family values. When educating adolescents about sex, social network members were described as playing eight functional roles, including that of a teacher, guide, challenger, confidant, shelterer, supervisor-chaperone, role model, and provider of access to reproductive health services. These roles were not mutually exclusive, meaning that social network members often assumed different roles depending on the situation. The influence of individuals who were not an adolescent's parent was highly dependent on adolescents' relationship with their parents or on their parents' comfort dealing with sexual issues. African American adolescents' social networks were described by parents and adolescents as dense, complex, and routinely involved in educating adolescents about sex.

  16. Personal and Social Influences Regarding Oral Sex Among African American Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Head, Sara; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Sales, Jessica McDermott; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify personal and social factors associated with performing oral sex among female adolescents. Methods Sexually active African American female adolescents (n = 715) recruited from sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics were assessed for self-esteem, sexual sensation seeking, unprotected vaginal sex (UVS), self-efficacy to communicate about sex and to refuse sex, fear of negotiating condoms, relationship power, peer norms surrounding risky sexual behavior, ever having performed oral sex, and three vaginally acquired STIs. Results Prevalence for at least one STI was 29%. More than half reported performing oral sex. Controlling for age, performing oral sex was associated with relatively higher sexual sensation seeking, any UVS in past 60 days, relatively lower self-efficacy to refuse sex, and having peer norms supportive of risky sexual behaviors. Conclusions Given the potential for epidemic spread of orally acquired STIs to populations of female adolescents residing in communities with high rates of STI prevalence, this initial research provides guidance for intervention development and expanded research efforts. PMID:21247269

  17. Drug trafficking among African-American early adolescents: prevalence, consequences, and associated behaviors and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Stanton, B; Galbraith, J

    1994-06-01

    Drug trafficking by minority youths in low-income, urban areas has received considerable publicity from the mass media in the past half-decade. However, there has been corresponding little exposition of this problem in the medical literature. This review was undertaken to provide an overview of the epidemiology and consequences of drug trafficking among urban youths and to describe factors associated with drug trafficking. Existing data indicate that approximately 10% of male, urban, African-American early adolescents report having engaged in drug trafficking, with a higher percent of youths reporting having been asked to sell drugs and/or indicating that they expect to become involved in drug trafficking. Rates increase with advancing age. Reported rates of drug trafficking are comparable with rates of tobacco and alcohol use among early adolescents and are substantially higher than use rates of illegal drugs. Drug trafficking is associated with increased mortality, accounting for one third to one half of homicide-related deaths in some studies. The practice is also associated with other health-risk behaviors, including nonfatal violence, substance use, and incarceration. Perceived social pressures by family members and/or peers to engage in drug trafficking and the belief that a youth's wage-earning potential is limited to drug trafficking are highly correlated with involvement in this activity. Drug trafficking is a prevalent risk behavior among adolescents that has several negative health consequences.

  18. African-American and Latina adolescent mothers' infant feeding decisions and breastfeeding practices: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hannon, P R; Willis, S K; Bishop-Townsend, V; Martinez, I M; Scrimshaw, S C

    2000-06-01

    To explore minority teen mothers' perceptions of breastfeeding and the influences on infant feeding choices. A qualitative study using semistructured ethnographic interviews and focus groups involving 35 Latina and African-American girls in Chicago between the ages of 12 and 19 years who were primiparous and were currently pregnant or had delivered within the past 3 months. Adolescents identified three main influences on infant feeding decisions and practices: (a) their perceptions of the benefits of breastfeeding, (b) their perceptions of the problems with breastfeeding, and (c) influential people. In this study, teens reported no single influence which determined infant feeding choices. The decision to breastfeed was a dynamic process. Teens recognized that breastfeeding offered many benefits including facilitating maternal-child bonding and promoting the baby's health, but concern was raised regarding a potential for excessive attachment between teen mother and baby. Fear of pain, embarrassment with public exposure, and unease with the act of breastfeeding acted as barriers for teenagers who were considering breastfeeding. Teenagers discussed the breast pump as a strategy in dealing with these barriers. The adolescents' mothers continued to be an important influence. The ranges of perceptions and influences that minority adolescent mothers have identified as affecting their infant feeding choices, illustrated and explained in the teens' own words, are helpful to health care providers as they counsel teen mothers about infant feeding options.

  19. Gender, academic achievement, and preferences for cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C; Engelhard, G

    1992-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships among gender, academic achievement, and student preferences for cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning in a sample of 136 African-American adolescents enrolled in sixth and seventh grades in a school in Georgia. We used the Learning Preference Scale for Students (LPSS; Barnes, Owens, & Straton, 1978) to measure cooperative, competitive, and individualistic preferences. Three two-way ANOVAs (Gender x Academic Achievement) were conducted, in which the three learning preferences were the dependent variables. Gender had a significant effect on the preference for cooperative learning, with girls reporting a higher preference for this method than boys did. For the other two learning preferences, no significant gender differences were found. Academic achievement did not correlate significantly with any of the three learning preferences. A two-way interaction between gender and academic achievement was observed for competitive learning preferences. Girls' preferences for competition increased as academic achievement increased; boys' preferences for competition decreased as academic achievement increased.

  20. Racial socialization and racial identity: can they promote resiliency for African American adolescents?

    PubMed

    Miller, D B

    1999-01-01

    Although there is a rich body of research on resiliency, much of the literature fails to include minority youths or does not take into consideration their distinctive racial and environmental circumstances. Additionally, limited attention has been given to protective factors that are unique to nonmajority populations. This article posits that racial socialization and racial identity protect urban African American adolescents against some of the harmful effects of a discriminatory environment. These factors are hypothesized to influence academic achievement-an indicator of resiliency that has been used in many studies. A theoretical framework is provided that combines character development in a hostile environment, bicultural identity, and urban stress models. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  1. Perceived Discrimination among African American Adolescents and Allostatic Load: A Longitudinal Analysis with Buffering Effects

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Chae, David H.; Yu, Tianyi; Kogan, Steven M.; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the prospective relations of perceived racial discrimination with allostatic load (AL), along with a possible buffer of the association. A sample of 331 African Americans in the rural South provided assessments of perceived discrimination from ages 16 to 18 years. When youths were 18, caregivers reported parental emotional support, and youths assessed peer emotional support. AL and potential confounder variables were assessed when youths were 20. Latent Growth Mixture Modeling identified two perceived discrimination classes: high and stable and low and increasing. Adolescents in the high and stable class evinced heightened AL even with confounder variables controlled. The racial discrimination to AL link was not significant for young adults who received high emotional support. PMID:24673162

  2. Low-income African American adolescents who avoid pregnancy: tough girls who rewrite negative scripts.

    PubMed

    Martyn, K K; Hutchinson, S A

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to generate a grounded theory that explains the social-psychological processes of low-income African American adolescents who avoided pregnancy. Data collection included focus groups and in-depth interviews with 17 women aged 19 to 26. Data analysis using the grounded theory method revealed that these girls were the recipients of negative social-psychological scripts, putting them at risk for poverty and early childbearing. The "tough girls" struggled to rewrite these scripts by recognizing their negativity, being disenchanted with the scripts, determining to be different, and creating better lives. These aware, introspective young women believed in self-responsibility, self-protection, education, and financial independence. Practice implications and considerations for programmatic interventions can be based on this analysis.

  3. Norms governing urban African American adolescents' sexual and substance-using behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolcini, M Margaret; Catania, Joseph A; Harper, Gary W; Watson, Susan E; Ellen, Jonathan M; Towner, Senna L

    2013-02-01

    Using a probability-based neighborhood sample of urban African American youth and a sample of their close friends (N = 202), we conducted a one-year longitudinal study to examine key questions regarding sexual and drug using norms. The results provide validation of social norms governing sexual behavior, condom use, and substance use among friendship groups. These norms had strong to moderate homogeneity; and both normative strength and homogeneity were relatively stable over a one-year period independent of changes in group membership. The data further suggest that sex and substance using norms may operate as a normative set. Similar to studies of adults, we identified three distinct "norm-based" social strata in our sample. Together, our findings suggest that the norms investigated are valid targets for health promotion efforts, and such efforts may benefit from tailoring programs to the normative sets that make up the different social strata in a given adolescent community.

  4. Fear of Neighborhood Violence During Adolescence Predicts Development of Obesity a Decade Later: Gender Differences Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    Background African American youth are more likely than other racial and ethnic groups to be obese. African American youth are also more likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods which increase their victimization, observation, and fear of violence. Objectives This study tested if victimization, observation, and fear of violence in the neighborhood during adolescence predict trajectory of body mass index (BMI) in the 3rd decade of life in African Americans. Patients and Methods Data came from an 18-year community-based cohort. We used multi-group latent growth curve modeling for data analysis, considering neighborhood violence at age 15 (i.e. victimization, observation, and fear) as predictors, and the linear slope for the average change in BMI from age 21 to 32 as the outcome, with age and socioeconomic status (i.e. intact family and parental employment) as covariates. Results Fear of neighborhood violence at age 15 was predictive of an increase in BMI from age 21 to 32 among female but not male African Americans. Victimization and observation of violence at age 15 did not predict BMI change from age 21 to 32 among female or male African Americans. Conclusions Fear of neighborhood violence is a contributing factor to increased risk of obesity for female African American youth who live in disadvantaged areas. This finding has implications for prevention of obesity among African American women who are at highest risk for obesity in the United States. Initiatives that enhance neighborhood safety are critical strategies for obesity prevention among African American women. PMID:27679791

  5. Teacher and Friend Social Support: Association with Body Weight in African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Jevetta; Webb, Fern J.; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12–17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha=0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B=0.421, p<0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B=0.227, p<0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study’s findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels. PMID:26863465

  6. HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behavior Among African American Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Methods: Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14–20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Results: Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the “higher risk” group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the “lower risk” group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Conclusions: Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services. PMID

  7. HIV-related sexual risk behavior among African American adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14-20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the "higher risk" group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the "lower risk" group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services.

  8. Stability of maternal depressive symptoms among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-04-01

    Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Teacher and Friend Social Support: Association with Body Weight in African-American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels.

  10. African-American Adolescents in the Urban Community: Social Services Policy and Practice Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on the realities confronting African American youth living in urban areas and offers successful strategies and practical implications for mentors, community organizers, and educators. The papers are: "African American Youth in the New Millennium: An Overview" (Judith L. Rozie-Battle); "Youth…

  11. The African American Adolescent Respect Scale: A Measure of a Prosocial Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Joy D.; Brennan, Eileen M.; Briggs, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The respect that African American youth feel promotes psychological wellness and social identity; conversely, a lack of respect compromises their identities and is viewed as a threat to safety. This article describes the development, psychometric analysis, and validation of the African American Respect Scale, a 20-item instrument…

  12. The theory of planned behavior as a model of intentions for fighting among African American and Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jemmott, J B; Jemmott, L S; Hines, P M; Fong, G T

    2001-12-01

    To test the theory of planned behavior as a model for predicting and understanding behavioral intentions for fighting among inner-city adolescents and to determine whether its predictive power differs as a function of ethnicity (African American versus Latino). Participants were 956 (511 females, 445 males) African American (n = 702) and Latino (n = 254) adolescents (mean age = 12.72 years; SD = 1.12) recruited from sixth, seventh, and eighth grade classes in public middle schools serving two inner-city communities in New Jersey who completed self-administered, confidential questionnaires. Consistent with the theory of planned behavior, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control predicted intentions for fighting. Although the theory of planned behavior accounted for substantial variance in intentions to fight in both ethnic groups, it accounted for greater variance among Latinos than among African Americans. The strength of the relations of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control to intentions was similar in the two groups. but the relation of attitudes to intentions to fight was significantly stronger among Latinos. The findings strongly suggest that the theory of planned behavior provides a potentially useful conceptual framework for guiding the creation of interventions for African American and Latino adolescents that are designed to reduce violent behavior and the tragedies that such behavior leaves in its wake.

  13. Longitudinal examination of alcohol use: a predictor of risky sexual behavior and Trichomonas vaginalis among African-American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve; Patel, Shilpa N

    2011-02-01

    Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted on African-American female adolescents. This study examined high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among African-American female adolescents, a high-risk population for STDs. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females, 15 to 21 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. High quantity of alcohol use was defined as ≥ 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group, and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that high quantity of alcohol use predicted positive TV test results, inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex over a 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that HIV/STD-related behavioral interventions for African-American adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and HIV/STD-risk behavior. A deeper understanding is paramount to the development of efficacious prevention programs at individual and community levels.

  14. Do depression, self-esteem, body-esteem, and eating attitudes vary by BMI among African American adolescents?

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, Dawn; Latta, Laura; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2013-11-01

    To examine how psychosocial factors vary by body weight and gender among African-American adolescents. A community sample of 235 low-income, predominantly African-American adolescents completed measures of depression, self-esteem, body-esteem, and eating attitudes. Measured weight and height were converted to body mass index (kg/m(2)) age and gender-adjusted z-scores. Data were analyzed using 2-factor multivariate analysis of variance. Obese youths had significantly worse scores on all psychosocial domains than normal weight youths, with no differences between overweight and normal weight youths. Obese youths had significantly worse scores than overweight youths on body-esteem and self-esteem. Female adolescents had significantly worse scores than males on depressed mood, body-esteem, and eating attitudes. Among a community sample of predominantly African-American adolescents, obesity, not overweight, was associated with poor psychosocial health. Findings suggest that overweight may be perceived as normative, and that weight-related programs consider adolescents' psychosocial functioning.

  15. Mechanisms linking violence exposure and school engagement among african american adolescents: examining the roles of psychological problem behaviors and gender.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13-19 years) completed questionnaires that assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth.

  16. Correlates of age at onset of sexual intercourse in African American adolescents living in urban public housing.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von Eugene; Lombe, Margaret; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Stokes, Charu

    2010-11-01

    Research has found the early onset of sexual activity (having sexual intercourse before age 13) among adolescents to be related to teen pregnancy and a range of health-risk behaviors and higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. These findings are most prevalent in urban African American adolescents. Using a sample of 299 sexually active African American adolescents living in public housing developments in a large Northeast and a large Mid-Atlantic city, this study assesses the influence of family, peers, and the individual on the age of onset of sexual intercourse. All participants completed surveys in their housing developments. Results indicate an average age of onset of 14. Males reported a significantly younger age of onset and more sexual partners than females. Exposure to delinquent peers and self-efficacy were significant predictors of age of onset. Implications for practice are discussed.

  17. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure and School Engagement Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Roles of Psychological Problem Behaviors and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13 to 19 years) completed questionnaires which assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., PTSD symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. PMID:21219276

  18. Unfair treatment and trait anger in relation to nighttime ambulatory blood pressure in African American and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Danielle L; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-10-01

    To determine if ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) at night relative to day ABP among adolescents is influenced by unfair treatment and trait anger, and whether these associations are stronger in African Americans and adolescents from lower socioeconomic status (SES) families and neighborhoods. A total of 189 healthy white and African American adolescents (ages = 14-16 years, standard deviation = 0.62, 50% female) completed 2 days and 1 night of ABP monitoring and unfair treatment and trait anger questionnaires. SES was measured using 1) parental education and 2) a composite neighborhood SES score based on U.S. Census tract data for neighborhood poverty and education. The night/day ABP ratio was calculated by dividing the night ABP mean (readings from the self-reported bedtime of each participant through 5 AM) by the day ABP mean (8:30 AM until self-reported bedtime). Higher trait anger was associated with a higher night/day diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ratio in the full sample, B = 0.003, SE = 0.001, t = 2.20, p = .03. A significant interaction effect for Race x Unfair Treatment on the night/day DBP ratio, B = 0.01, SE = 0.003, t = 3.17, p = .002, followed by post hoc tests indicated that greater unfair treatment was associated with a higher night/day DBP ratio among African Americans, B = 0.006, SE = 0.002, t = 2.56, p = .01. Further, among African American adolescents living in lower SES neighborhoods, greater unfair treatment predicted a higher night/day DBP ratio, B = 0.008, SE = 0.003, t = 3.15, p = .002, and higher trait anger scores predicted a higher night/day DBP ratio, B = 0.008, SE = 0.002, t = 3.19, p = .002. Trait anger may be a factor leading to elevated nighttime DBP in both African Americans and whites. Unfair treatment and trait anger are important predictors of elevated night/day ABP ratios among African American adolescents living in lower SES neighborhoods. These factors may contribute to the onset of hypertension in African Americans at a

  19. The Effects of Economic and Social Stressors on Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment of African-American Families. CEIC Research Brief, No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald

    This study examines economic and social stressors and their effects on the parenting styles and adolescent adjustment of African American families. It systematically characterizes and explains the nature of some of the chronic economic and social stressors experienced by poor African American families as they affect parenting and adolescent…

  20. Does Geographic Setting Alter the Roles of Academically Supportive Factors? African American Adolescents' Friendships, Math Self-Concept, and Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Kibe, Grace W.

    2012-01-01

    The study is one of few to examine how living in rural, suburban, or urban settings may alter factors supporting African Americans adolescents' math performance. The study examines the relationship of math self-concept and perceptions of friends' academic behaviors to African American students' math performance. Participants (N = 1,049) are…

  1. "Niggaz Dyin' Don't Make No News": Exploring the Intellectual Work of an African American Urban Adolescent Boy in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, and from the standpoint of an African American woman teacher/researcher, the author explores what happened when one African American adolescent boy known inside of school as a "severely disengaged" student cultivated literacy practices and events of his own volition in an after-school program. The author asks, how does race and…

  2. "Niggaz Dyin' Don't Make No News": Exploring the Intellectual Work of an African American Urban Adolescent Boy in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, and from the standpoint of an African American woman teacher/researcher, the author explores what happened when one African American adolescent boy known inside of school as a "severely disengaged" student cultivated literacy practices and events of his own volition in an after-school program. The author asks, how does race and…

  3. Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy among African-American Adolescent Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mignon R.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    This study used data from a random sample of African American families living in poor urban communities to examine: how well socialization, supervision, and marital transition hypotheses explained the relationship between family structure and the probability of sexual debut and pregnancy for African American adolescents in disadvantaged…

  4. Does Geographic Setting Alter the Roles of Academically Supportive Factors? African American Adolescents' Friendships, Math Self-Concept, and Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Kibe, Grace W.

    2012-01-01

    The study is one of few to examine how living in rural, suburban, or urban settings may alter factors supporting African Americans adolescents' math performance. The study examines the relationship of math self-concept and perceptions of friends' academic behaviors to African American students' math performance. Participants (N = 1,049) are…

  5. How African American, Middle Class Parents Learn and Enact a Racism Resistant Critical Race Achievement Ideology in Their Adolescents in Gifted and AP Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Tracey Simmons

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine African American, middle class parents' facilitation of an academic achievement ideology that is racism-resistant in their adolescent offspring in AP and Gifted Education classrooms. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how do African American, middle class parents come to acquire or…

  6. Parent-daughter communication about abortion among nonpregnant African-American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Sisco, Katherine M; Martins, Summer L; Kavanagh, Erin K; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2014-12-01

    To identify correlates of parent-daughter communication about abortion among nonpregnant adolescents. Nonpregnant African-American females aged 14-17 years attending one of three charter schools on Chicago's South Side were recruited and surveyed regarding parental relationship quality, attitudes toward sexual health, and communication about sexual health. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for ever discussing abortion using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 265 adolescents, 43.0% had ever discussed abortion with a parent. While 72.3% would voluntarily tell a parent about an abortion plan, 19.2% feared a parent would physically hurt her, punish her, or evict her. Ever communicating about abortion was significantly associated with having a mother who had a teen pregnancy (OR, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.78); having a prochoice abortion attitude (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.29-8.25); having discussed sexually transmitted infections (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.13-7.77) or birth control (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.35-6.47) with a parent; and perceived parental approval of adolescent sexual activity (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.20-7.88). Ever communicating about abortion was inversely related to being sexually experienced (OR, .48; 95% CI, .23-.99) or anticipating supportive parental reactions to an abortion decision (OR, .31; 95% CI, .13-.75). Although almost half of our sample was sexually active, the majority had never talked to their parents about abortion. Some reported fears of harm should the situation arise. Public policy should focus on promoting parent-daughter communication before an unwanted pregnancy rather than forcing communication after it occurs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Testing Jessor's problem behavior theory and syndrome: a nationally representative comparative sample of Latino and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Michael; Chun, Heejung

    2013-04-01

    Based on Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT; R. Jessor, 1987, Problem-behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking, British Journal of Addiction, Vol. 82, pp. 331-342), the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement were examined among racial/ethnic adolescents. Within a span of nearly 25 years, this study represents the first nationally representative sample of Latino and African American adolescents utilized in testing Jessor's PBT and problem behavior syndrome (PBS). Using a sample of 5,831 Latino, African American, and European American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a series of invariance tests evidenced support for Jessor's PBT and PBS. Latent mean difference test results evidenced significant differences in problem behaviors (e.g., academic failure [AF], aggression [AG], substance use [SU], and risky sexual activity[RSA]) across racial/ethnic adolescent groups, which could be explained partially by PBS. A discussion of findings, limitations, and recommendations for future research is presented.

  8. Perceptions of racism and depressive symptoms in African American adolescents: the role of perceived academic and social control.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Herman, Keith C; Bynum, Mia Smith; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2009-04-01

    Experiences with racism are a common occurrence for African American youth and may result in negative self perceptions relevant for the experience of depressive symptoms. This study examined the longitudinal association between perceptions of racism and depressive symptoms, and whether perceived academic or social control mediated this association, in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling revealed that experiences with racism were associated with low perceived academic control, which in turn was associated with increased depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that experiences with racism can have long lasting effects for African American youth's depressive symptoms, and highlight the detrimental effects of experiences with racism for perceptions of control in the academic domain. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  9. Long-term effects of adolescent smoking on depression and socioeconomic status in adulthood in an urban African American cohort.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of adolescent regular smoking on adult depression and socioeconomic status. Our longitudinal study is from the Woodlawn Study that followed 1,242 African Americans in Chicago from 1966-1967 (at age 6-7) through 2002-2003 (at age 42-43). We used a propensity score matching method to find a regular and a non-regular adolescent smoking group with similar childhood socioeconomic and family background and first grade academic and behavioral performance. We compared the matched samples to assess the longitudinal effects of adolescent smoking on adult outcomes. Comparing the matched 199 adolescent regular smokers and 199 non-regular smokers, we found statistical support for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later educational attainment (OR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.34, 3.39) and long-term unemployment (OR, 1.74; 95 % CI, 1.11, 2.75), but did not find support for the effects on adulthood major depressive disorders. With a community population of urban African Americans followed for 40 years, our study contributes to the understanding of the relationships between adolescent smoking and later educational attainment and employment.

  10. The Impact of Parenting on Risk Cognitions and Risk Behavior: A Study of Mediation and Moderation in a Panel of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Brody, Gene H.

    2005-01-01

    Hypotheses concerning the extent to which adolescents' cognitions mediate the relation between parenting behaviors and adolescent substance use were examined in a panel of African American adolescents (N=714, M age at Time 1=10.51 years) and their primary caregivers. A nested-model approach indicated that effective parenting (i.e., monitoring of…

  11. Influences of Family Environment and Meditation Efficacy on Hemodynamic Function among African American Adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM) compared to health education (HE) and lifeskills training (LS) upon resting systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) within the context of potential moderating factors of family environment and expectancy of benefit. 186 African American adolescents (mean age: 15.1±0.7 yrs) were randomly assigned by school to three-month BAM, LS, or HE interventions. Laboratory resting blood pressure (BP), Family Relations Index (FRI) and expectancy of benefit evaluations were conducted at pre- and post-intervention. Higher expectancy of benefit from any of the three interventions resulted in greater reductions in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM group subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater decreases in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM and LS subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater DBP decreases. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited a greater HR decrease (all p<.05). Expectancy of intervention benefits beneficially impacted success of behavioral interventions aimed at reducing SBP. Positive family environments in combination with either BAM or LS appear to have a beneficial impact upon hemodynamic function in AA adolescents. PMID:22328869

  12. Physiological correlates of peer victimization and aggression in African American urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Dibble, Ashley E; Goodman, Kimberly L; Sullivan, Terri N

    2012-05-01

    This study examined physiological correlates (cortisol and α-amylase [AA]) of peer victimization and aggression in a sample of 228 adolescents (45% male, 55% female; 90% African American; M age = 14 years, SD = 1.6 years) who participated in a longitudinal study of stress, physiology, and adjustment. Adolescents were classified into victimization/aggression groups based on patterns with three waves of data. At Wave 3, youth completed the Social Competence Interview (SCI), and four saliva samples were collected prior to, during, and following the SCI. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with victimization/aggression group as the predictor, and physiological measures as outcomes, controlling for time of day, pubertal status, and medication use revealed significant Group × SCI Phase interactions for salivary AA (sAA), but not for cortisol. The results did not differ by sex. For analyses with physical victimization/aggression, aggressive and nonaggressive victims showed increases in sAA during the SCI, nonvictimized aggressors showed a decrease, and the normative contrast group did not show any change. For analyses with relational victimization/aggression, nonaggressive victims were the only group who demonstrated sAA reactivity. Incorporating physiological measures into peer victimization studies may give researchers and clinicians insight into youth's behavior regulation, and help shape prevention or intervention efforts.

  13. African-American Adolescents' Knowledge, Health-Related Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Contraceptive Decisions: Implications for the Prevention of Adolescent HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.

    1993-01-01

    African-American adolescents (n=195) completed measures on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, condoms, health locus of control, vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus, peer sexual norms, sexual behavior, and contraceptive preferences. Girls were more knowledgeable about AIDS, reported fewer sexual partners, held more…

  14. Racial/ethnic socialization mediates perceived racism and the racial identity of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Howard C; Arrington, Edith G

    2009-04-01

    Racism and racial/ethnic socialization are proposed as interactive risk and resilience factors that promote the development of multiple dimensions of racial identity among African American youth are the focus of this study. One-hundred and eight African American students responded to questions about their racial identity and socialization. Controlling for demographic characteristics of ecological support (from family, friends, and neighbors), neighborhood racial composition, and gender, findings revealed that racism exposure significantly explained the variance of several racial identity components and ideologies but that racial/ethnic socialization mediated that influence. We discuss the implications for future study of racism experience on the racial identity development of African American youth.

  15. Suicidality and depression among african american adolescents: the role of family and peer support and community connectedness.

    PubMed

    Matlin, Samantha L; Molock, Sherry Davis; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2011-01-01

    Rates of suicide are increasing among African American adolescents and pose a significant public health concern. One area that has received little attention is the relationship between various types of social support and suicide, and the extent to which support moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidality. A total of 212 African American adolescents completed in-school surveys on three types of social support: family support, peer support, and community connectedness. The survey also addressed depressive symptoms and suicidality, as measured by reasons for living, a cognitive measure of suicide risk. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine direct and moderating relationships between types of social support and suicidality. The results indicated that increased family support and peer support are associated with decreased suicidality, and peer support and community connectedness moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidality. Over a third of the variability in reasons for living was predicted by family support, peer support, and community connectedness. Implications for research and preventative interventions for African American adolescents are discussed. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  16. The role of socially prescribed perfectionism in the link between perceived racial discrimination and African American adolescents' depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Robinson, W LaVome; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-05-01

    Research examining the social origins of perfectionism has focused on negative evaluative experiences in the family, with less attention to negative social evaluations in other contexts and situations relevant for African American adolescents. The experience of racial discrimination is common for African American youth, and may trigger maladaptive perfectionistic beliefs if the youth perceive that they do not meet others' standards (socially prescribed perfectionism) or internalize discriminatory messages. Thus, the present study examined longitudinal associations among racial discrimination, socially prescribed perfectionism, and depressive symptoms among a community sample of urban and predominantly low income African American adolescents (n = 492; 46.7 % female). In each of grades 7, 8 and 9, participants reported their experiences with racial discrimination, perfectionistic beliefs, and depressive symptoms. Analyses revealed that experiences with racial discrimination in grade 7 were associated with socially prescribed perfectionism in grade 8 which, in turn, was linked with depressive symptoms in grade 9. Results suggest that prospective associations between the experience of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms are due, in part, to increased socially prescribed perfectionism. Implications for interventions targeting depression in African American are discussed.

  17. Nobody's perfect: a qualitative examination of African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' perceptions of body image.

    PubMed

    Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-06-01

    Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Socioeconomic-related Risk and STI Infection among African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L.; Brody, Gene; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Virtually no studies have examined the potential role that chronic stress, particularly the stress associated with socioeconomic (SES) strain, may play on STI risk. This study examined the association between SES-related risk at baseline to STI acquisition and reinfection over 36 months of follow-up. Methods 627 African-American female adolescents, ages 14–20 years, recruited from sexual health clinics in Atlanta, GA participated in a randomized controlled HIV prevention trial, and returned for at least 1 follow-up assessment. Following baseline assessment, 6 waves of data collection occurred prospectively over 36 months. Chronic SES-related risk was assessed as a sum of yes-no exposure to seven risk indicators. Laboratory confirmed tests for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrheoea were performed at each follow-up. Results In multivariable regression analysis, SES-related risk significantly predicted STI acquisition over 36 months (AOR = 1.22) and STI reinfection (AOR = 1.16) above and beyond other known correlates of STI. Discussion Findings demonstrate that SES-related risk was predictive of both STI acquisition and reinfection among young African-American females. They are consistent with propositions that some health disparities observed in adulthood may be linked to earlier chronically stress-inducing life experiences, particularly experiences associated with low SES conditions. Although various explanations exist for the observed connection between SES-related risk and subsequent STI acquisition and/or reinfection across 36 months of follow-up, these findings highlight the need for further research to elucidate the exact pathway(s) by which SES-related risk influences later STI acquisition in order to refine STI prevention interventions for this population. PMID:24974317

  19. Long-term consequences of adolescent parenthood among African American urban youth: A propensity matching approach

    PubMed Central

    Assini-Meytin, Luciana C.; Green, Kerry M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve understanding of long-term socioeconomic consequences of teen parenting for men and women. Methods Analysis is based on the Woodlawn Study, a longitudinal study of an African American cohort from a socially disadvantaged community in Chicago; data were collected at childhood (N=1,242), adolescence (N=705), young adulthood (age 32, N=952), and midlife (age 42, N=833). This analysis focused on the 1050 individuals with data on teen parenting. We used propensity score matching to account for differences in background characteristics between teenage parents and their peers and multiple imputation to account for differential attrition. Results The regression models on matched samples showed that at age 32, in comparison to non-teen mothers, teenage mothers were more likely to be unemployed, live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have earned a GED or completed high school compared to finishing college. At age 32, teen fathers were more likely to be without a job compared to non-teen fathers. At age 42, the effect of teen parenting for women remained statistically significant for education and income. There were no significant associations between teen parenting and outcomes for men at age 42. Conclusions Socioeconomic consequences of teenage parenting among African Americans from disadvantaged background seem to be primarily concentrated in women and persist throughout adulthood. In addition to promoting the delay of parenting after the teenage years, it is critical to provide programs at early stages in the life course to mitigate the negative socioeconomic consequences of teenage motherhood as effects for women are broad. PMID:25769478

  20. Observed Racial Socialization and Maternal Positive Emotions in African American Mother-Adolescent Discussions About Racial Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Anderson, Riana E; Davis, BreAnna L; Franco, Marisa G; English, Devin

    2016-11-01

    This study examined patterns of (a) observed racial socialization messages in dyadic discussions between 111 African American mothers and adolescents (Mage  = 15.50) and (b) mothers' positive emotions displayed during the discussion. Mothers displayed more advocacy on behalf of their adolescents in response to discrimination by a White teacher than to discrimination by a White salesperson. Mothers displayed consistent emotional support of adolescents' problem solving across both dilemmas but lower warmth in response to the salesperson dilemma. Findings illustrate evidence of the transactional nature of racial socialization when presented with adolescents' racial dilemmas. The role of adolescent gender in mothers' observed racial socialization responses is also discussed. A framework for a process-oriented approach to racial socialization is presented.

  1. Associations Between a Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Behaviors among Female Adolescent African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brown, Jennifer L.; Brody, Gene H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent African-American females are disproportionately impacted by HIV, thus there is a clear need to understand factors associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors among this vulnerable population. We sought to explore the association between a dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), a genetic marker associated with natural variations in rewarding behaviors, and self-reported alcohol-use and sexual risk-behaviors, while controlling for other known correlates of risk-taking such as impulsivity, sensation seeking, and peer norms among a group of high-risk African American female adolescents to evaluate whether this biological factor enhances our understanding of patterns of risk in this vulnerable group. PMID:27087792

  2. African American male adolescents' preferences in responding to racial discrimination: effects of ethnic identity and situational influences.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, William D; Hudley, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated male African American adolescents' thinking about responses to racial discrimination. Participants (N=67) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their ethnic identity status and their preferred responses to racial discrimination. African American male adolescents whose scores fell into the unexamined ethnic identity or exploration ethnic identity range more strongly endorsed passive responses than individuals whose scores fell into the achieved ethnic identity range. However, a variety of situational factors moderated participants' responses, including the status of the perpetrator of discrimination and the circumstances in which the discrimination occurred. Results were discussed in terms of the social cognitive variables of self-presentation and perceptions of discrimination.

  3. The effects of changes in racial identity and self-esteem on changes in african american adolescents' mental health.

    PubMed

    Mandara, Jelani; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Richards, Maryse H; Ragsdale, Brian L

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the unique effects of racial identity and self-esteem on 259 African American adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms as they transitioned from the 7th to 8th grades (ages 12-14). Racial identity and self-esteem were strongly correlated with each other for males but not for females. For both males and females, an increase in racial identity over the 1 year was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of depressive symptoms over the same period, even with self-esteem controlled. It was concluded that racial identity may be as important as self-esteem to the mental health of African American adolescents, and it explains variance in their mental health not associated with feelings of oneself as an individual.

  4. Prenatal drug exposure, behavioral problems and drug experimentation among African American urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Nair, Prasanna; Zhu, Shijun; Magder, Larry; Black, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine how prenatal heroin/cocaine exposure (PDE) and behavioral problems relate to adolescent drug experimentation. Methods The sample included African American adolescents (mean age=14.2 yr, SD=1.2) with PDE (n=73) and a non-exposed community comparison (n=61). PDE status was determined at delivery through toxicology analysis and maternal-report. Internalizing/externalizing problems were assessed during adolescence with the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition. Drug experimentation was assessed by adolescent-report and urine analysis. Logistic regression evaluated the likelihood of drug experimentation related to PDE and behavioral problems, adjusting for age, gender, prenatal tobacco/alcohol exposure, perceived peer drug use and caregiver drug use. Interaction terms examined gender modification. Results 67 (50%) used drugs. 25 (19%) used tobacco/alcohol only and 42 (31%) used marijuana/illegal drugs. 94 (70%) perceived peer drug use. PDE significantly increased the risk of tobacco/alcohol experimentation (OR=3.07, 95% CI: 1.09–8.66, p=0.034), but not after covariate adjustment (aOR=1.31, 95% CI: 0.39–4.36, p>0.05). PDE was not related to overall or marijuana/illegal drug experimentation. The likelihood of overall drug experimentation was doubled per Standard Deviation (SD) increase in externalizing problems (aOR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.33–3.91, p=0.003) and, among girls, 2.82 times greater (aOR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.34–5.94, p=0.006) per SD increase in internalizing problems. Age and perceived peer drug use were significant covariates. Conclusions Drug experimentation was relatively common (50%), especially in the context of externalizing problems, internalizing problems (girls only), age, and perceived peer drug use. Findings support Problem Behavior Theory and suggest that adolescent drug prevention address behavioral problems and promote prosocial peer groups. PMID:24768161

  5. Suicidality and Depression Among African American Adolescents: The Role of Family and Peer Support and Community Connectedness

    PubMed Central

    Matlin, Samantha L.; Molock, Sherry Davis; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2010-01-01

    Rates of suicide are increasing among African American adolescents and pose a significant public health concern. One area that has received little attention is the relationship between various types of social support and suicide, and the extent to which support moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidality. A total of 212 African American adolescents completed in-school surveys on three types of social support: family support, peer support, and community connectedness. The survey also addressed depressive symptoms and suicidality, as measured by reasons for living, a cognitive measure of suicide risk. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine direct and moderating relationships between types of social support and suicidality. The results indicated that increased family support and peer support are associated with decreased suicidality, and peer support and community connectedness moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidality. Over a third of the variability in reasons for living was predicted by family support, peer support, and community connectedness. Implications for research and preventative interventions for African American adolescents are discussed. PMID:21219282

  6. Factors related to risky sexual behaviors and effective STI/HIV and pregnancy intervention programs for African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Me; Cintron, Adanisse; Kocher, Surinder

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review study was to investigate factors related to risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescents, to evaluate which of the factors are common across successful and effective STI/HIV and pregnancy intervention programs, and finally, to propose suggestions for future intervention programs for African American adolescents in West Englewood, Chicago. An integrative literature review was conducted. Using CINAHL, PubMed, and ProQuest database, the following terms were searched: African American, Black, adolescents, teenagers, sexual behavior, cultural factors, pregnancy, STIs/HIV/AIDS, and intervention programs. A total of 18 articles were reviewed, findings indicated there were five major contributing factors related to risky sexual behaviors: substance use, gender roles, peer influences, parental involvement, and level of knowledge and information on sex and STIs. Six successful STI/HIV and pregnancy programs that incorporated those factors to effectively reduce risky sexual behaviors were identified. After analyzing six national intervention programs proven to be effective, the findings suggest that future prevention programs should be designed with more emphasis on avoidance or limited substance use, increased parental involvement, integration of cultural teaching components such as storytelling and history as suggested from the Aban Aya Youth Project. This study also concluded that future prevention programs should consider the length of programs be longer than 1 year, as it has been shown to be more effective than shorter programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prospective Relations among Low-Income African American Adolescents' Maternal Attachment Security, Self-Worth, and Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Ginger; Phillips, Samantha; Bolland, Anneliese; Delgado, Melissa; Tietjen, Juliet; Bolland, John

    2017-01-01

    This study examined prospective mediating relations among mother-adolescent attachment security, self-worth, and risk behaviors, including substance use and violence, across ages 13-17 in a sample of 901 low-income African American adolescents. Path analyses revealed that self-worth was a significant mediator between attachment security and risk behaviors, such that earlier attachment security predicted self-worth 1 year later, which in turn, predicted substance use, weapon carrying, and fighting in the 3rd year. Implications for the role of the secure base concept within the context of urban poverty are discussed.

  8. What's culture got to do with it? Prevention programs for African American adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Corneille, Maya A; Ashcroft, Amie M; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines prevention programming for African American girls by placing the prevention process within the larger African and African American cultural context. We provide an overview of the theories and issues we consider most relevant to African American culture, including Africentric theory, ethnic identity, gender identity and relational theory, developmental issues, the community context, and historical considerations. Drawing from our own drug prevention work, we provide examples of how to incorporate culture into prevention programs to make them most relevant for the target population. We also summarize our own efforts to create culturally appropriate prevention interventions and their impact on the girls in our programs. We conclude with suggested directions for future research into culture-specific prevention programs.

  9. Examining perceptions about mental health care and help-seeking among rural African American families of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murry, Velma McBride; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Suiter, Sarah V; Brody, Gene H

    2011-09-01

    Rural African American children living in poverty have a higher prevalence rate of mental health disorders than their urban counterparts. While access to mental health services is lacking in resource scarce rural communities, African American rural residents may also be the most likely to confront significant barriers to care and help-seeking. Studies of mental health help-seeking behavior among rural families are rare, even rarer are studies of African Americans living in these areas. To address this gap, the current study examined perceptions about help-seeking for adolescents with mental health problems among rural African American families. Data were obtained from African American mothers in rural Georgia to assess their perceptions of the mental health service system, help-seeking processes, and service experiences. A mixed-method approach was implemented, integrating a quantitative survey (n = 163) with qualitative interviews (subsample n = 21). Most of the mothers expressed confidence in mental health care providers' to help. Preferred sources of support, however, were family, church, and schools. Community stigma towards children with mental health problems and their families was a frequently endorsed perceived barrier to help-seeking. Although cultural mistrust was one of the two most frequently endorsed barriers in the survey, it did not emerge as a universal barrier to help-seeking for the mothers in this sample. Implications for research, policy, and practice include addressing family concerns about stigma, preferences for informal support and non-specialty services in addressing adolescents' mental health problems, and building community resources to enable all youth to participate in community life.

  10. Exploring ambivalence in motivational interviewing with obese African American adolescents and their caregivers: A mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Barton, Ellen; Eggly, Susan; Brogan Hartlieb, Kathryn E.; Thominet, Luke; Naar, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted an exploratory mixed methods study to describe the ambivalence African-American adolescents and their caregivers expressed during motivational interviewing sessions targeting weight loss. Methods We extracted ambivalence statements from 37 previously coded counseling sessions. We used directed content analysis to categorize ambivalence related to the target behaviors of nutrition, activity, or weight. We compared adolescent-caregiver dyads’ ambivalence using the paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We then used conventional content analysis to compare the specific content of adolescents’ and caregivers’ ambivalence statements. Results Adolescents and caregivers expressed the same number of ambivalence statements overall, related to activity and weight, but caregivers expressed more statements about nutrition. Content analysis revealed convergences and divergences in caregivers’ and adolescents’ ambivalence about weight loss. Conclusion Understanding divergences in adolescent-caregiver ambivalence about the specific behaviors to target may partially explain the limited success of family-based weight loss interventions targeting African American families and provides a unique opportunity for providers to enhance family communication, foster teamwork, and build self-efficacy to promote behavior change. Practice implications Clinicians working in family contexts should explore how adolescents and caregivers converge and diverge in their ambivalence in order to recommend weight loss strategies that best meet families’ needs. PMID:26916012

  11. Deficits in diagnosis, treatment and continuity of care in African-American children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed Central

    Hervey-Jumper, Heather; Douyon, Karl; Franco, Kathleen N.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the evidence that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not just a diagnosis of whites, it often goes undiagnosed and is underresearched in the African-American population. There are higher rates of delinquency, incarceration, teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases associated with inadequate or delayed treatment of ADHD. Afrcan Americans generally respond well to treatments, but access to evaluation, medication and psychotherapy is limited or absent for many, The purpose of this research is to compare descriptive characteristics of African-American children with ADHD to age-matched Caucasian children with the same diagnosis. Age at diagnosis, treatment offered, perception of outcome, adherence, comorbid symptoms and frequency of follow-up were collected retrospectively from charts of children treated in the sections of child and adolescent psychiatry and pediatric neurology. PMID:16708509

  12. Exploration of Social, Environmental, and Familial Influences on the Sexual Health Practices of Urban African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michelle L; Baiardi, Janet M; Tate, Nutrena H; Rouen, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Despite efforts to examine social influences and provide interventions that lead to safer sexual practices for African American (AA) adolescent girls, statistics have demonstrated this population continues to have the highest rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV when compared with adolescent girls of other races. Guided by the principles of Black Feminist Thought and Photovoice and focus group methodology, this descriptive study aimed to discover the social realities influencing a group of eight AA adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years. Data from individual interviews and a focus group session were collected from November 11, 2012, to February 1, 2013. Analysis of selected photographs, interviews, and focus group conversations through a feminist lens suggests AA adolescents of low socioeconomic status continue to foster racial and mental inferiority stereotypes by using their sexuality as a bargaining tool for acceptance, value, and even love. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Efficacy of an HIV Prevention Program Among African American Female Adolescents Reporting High Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Delia L.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives We examined the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention among African American adolescent females reporting at or above threshold depressive symptomatology. Methods In this analysis, a subgroup of participants (n = 245) reporting at or above threshold depressive symptoms involved in a randomized controlled trial were assessed at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups on condom use and psychosocial mediators associated with HIV prevention behaviors. The intervention emphasized HIV knowledge, condom attitudes, communication self-efficacy, and condom use skills. Results Relative to the comparison condition, participants randomized to the intervention reported using condoms more consistently, engaged in a greater proportion of condom protected intercourse acts, had fewer episodes of unprotected vaginal sex, were more likely to use a condom at last sex, and had higher HIV knowledge, favorable attitudes toward condoms, condom use self-efficacy, and condom use skills. Conclusions Overall, the pattern of effects found strengthen our confidence in the efficacy of the HIV intervention assessed for a broad range of young women, including those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Although young women with high depressive symptoms benefited from this HIV intervention, future studies employing interventions that specifically address the affective needs of this population might be even more effective in terms of sexual risk reduction and amelioration of depressive symptoms. PMID:20109119

  14. Trajectories of Multiple Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors in a Low-Income African American Population

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Byck, Gayle R.; Dymnicki, Allison; Sterrett, Emma; Henry, David; Bolland, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined interdependent trajectories of sexual risk, substance use, and conduct problems among 12–18 year-old African American youth who were followed annually as part of the Mobile Youth Study (MYS). We used growth-mixture modeling (GMM) to model the development of these three outcomes in the 1406 participants who met the inclusion criteria. Results indicate that there were four distinct classes: normative low risk (74.3% of sample); increasing high risk takers (11.9%); adolescent-limited conduct problems and drug risk with high risky sex (8.0%); and early experimenters (5.8%) The higher risk classes had higher rates of pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) diagnoses than the normative sample at each of the ages we examined. Differing somewhat from our hypothesis, all of the non-normative classes exhibited high sexual risk behavior. While prevention efforts should be focused on addressing all three risk behaviors, the high rate of risky sexual behavior in the 25% of the sample that fall into the three non-normative classes, underscores an urgent need for improved sex education, including teen pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention, in this community. PMID:24229555

  15. Gender ideologies, socioeconomic opportunities, and HIV/STI-related vulnerability among female, African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Chung, Shang-en; Glass, Barbara; Ellen, Jonathan

    2008-09-01

    The importance of gender within HIV/STI prevention has become widely recognized. However, gender ideologies associated with vulnerability to HIV/STI are often examined and addressed without sufficient attention to the larger socioeconomic context within which they arise and evolve. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 155 female, African-American adolescents recruited from two health clinics in Baltimore, Maryland. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to assess the relationships between HIV/STI vulnerability resulting from male partner concurrency, adherence to traditional female gender norms, using a measure of hyperfemininity, and perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures. The likelihood of reported partner concurrency increased significantly among participants reporting higher levels of hyperfemininity (OR = 2.08; 95%CI = 1.01-4.30). Hyperfeminine thinking and behavior was significantly lower in the context of higher perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures (OR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.79-0.95). Interventions seeking to promote gender equity and reduce HIV/STI may be more effective when the socioeconomic context of gender ideologies is assessed and addressed. Programs and policies to increase educational and professional opportunity structures, particularly among marginalized communities, should be actively integrated into HIV/STI prevention planning.

  16. No sweat: African American adolescent girls' opinions of hairstyle choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Woolford, Susan J; Woolford-Hunt, Carole J; Sami, Areej; Blake, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2016-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is higher among African American adolescent (AAA) girls than among non-black girls. Lower levels of physical activity (PA) likely contribute to this disparity; this may be impacted by hairstyle concerns. In 2011, focus groups were conducted with AAA girls 14-17 years old (n = 36) in Michigan (n = 9), California (n = 11), and Georgia (n = 16). Groups addressed perceptions of hairstyles, exercise, and relationships between the two. Groups were recorded, transcripts reviewed, and themes identified. Adolescents completed a standardized ethnic identity (EI) measure and a survey addressing demographics and PA. Linear regression was used to examine associations between self-reported activity and participants' characteristics. Four themes emerged: 1) between ages 8 and 15, when concerns about hairstyles began, participants changed from "juvenile" (natural) styles to "adult" (straightened) styles; 2) participants avoided getting wet or sweating during exercise because their straightened hair became "nappy;" 3) braids with extensions and natural styles were viewed as better for exercise but not very attractive; 4) participants almost universally selected long, straight hairstyles as most attractive. In Michigan and California, EI was positively associated with levels of PA (p < 0.05) and overall having extensions was also positively associated with levels of PA. A preference for straight hair may contribute to AAA girls avoiding certain activities due to concerns about sweat affecting their hair. Furthermore, EI and hairstyle choice appear to be associated with levels of PA for some participants. Efforts to increase AAA girls' PA may benefit from approaches that address hairstyle choices and EI.

  17. Do gender differences in help avoidance vary by ethnicity? An examination of African American and European American students during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Allison M; Shim, S Serena; Lampkins-Uthando, Shawn A; Thompson, Geneene N; Kiefer, Sarah M

    2009-07-01

    The present research examined whether the nature of gender differences varies by race for two types of academic engagement in the classroom (help avoidance and voice with the teacher) in a sample of early adolescents (N = 456; 55% female, 60% African American and 40% European American) making the transition to middle school. Growth curve analyses indicated that help avoidance increased over time, voice remained stable, and achievement declined. In line with hypotheses based on cultural variations in the female role, there were no gender differences in help avoidance for African American students, whereas for European American students, girls were lower in help avoidance than were boys. For African American students, there were no gender differences in voice with the teacher, whereas for European American students, girls were higher than were boys. These group differences were present at all 3 waves. For all students, increases in help avoidance negatively predicted changes in achievement, whereas increases in voice positively predicted achievement. Results underscore the importance of examining gender and ethnicity together to understand academic adjustment during early adolescence.

  18. Social Support and Psychosocial Well-Being among Low-Income, Adolescent, African American, First-Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Diane Brage; Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Brown, Sara E; Yates, Bernice; Hanna, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Aims of this study were to describe for single, low-income, adolescent, African American new mothers how (1) primary sources of social support changed over time; (2) the level of social support (emotional, informational, tangible, and problematic) from these primary sources changed over time; and (3) social support from the primary supporter was associated with mothers' psychosocial well-being (self-esteem and loneliness) over time. Design A secondary analysis was conducted of data from a previous social support intervention study. Sample The sample consisted of 35 single, low-income, adolescent (M age = 18.3 years; SD = 1.7), African American new mothers. Methods Mothers completed social support, self-esteem, and loneliness instruments at 1 and 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months postpartum. Results Most mothers (64.7%) had changes in their primary social support provider during the first 6 months postpartum. The combination of the adolescent's mother and boyfriend provided the highest level of support, no matter the type, relative to any other source of support. At every time point, positive correlations were found between emotional support and self-esteem and between problematic support and loneliness. Conclusion Single, low-income, African American, adolescent new mothers are at risk for not having a consistent source of support which may lead to lower self-esteem and greater loneliness. Implications Clinical nurse specialists could facilitate care guidelines for these new mothers to identify their sources of support at each home visit and advocate for the adolescent's mother and boyfriend to work together to provide support. Bolstering the mothers' natural sources of support can potentially improve self-esteem and reduce loneliness. Improvement in these sources of support could prevent a decline in the mothers' psychosocial well-being. Development and testing support interventions are advocated; findings could guide clinical nurse specialists in addressing these

  19. Social Support and Psychosocial Well-being Among Low-Income, Adolescent, African American, First-Time Mothers.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Diane Brage; Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Brown, Sara E; Yates, Bernice C; Hanna, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to describe for single, low-income, adolescent, African American new mothers how (1) primary sources of social support changed over time, (2) the level of social support (emotional, informational, tangible, and problematic) from these primary sources changed over time, and (3) social support from the primary supporter was associated with mothers' psychosocial well-being (self-esteem and loneliness) over time. A secondary analysis was conducted of data from a previous social support intervention study. The sample consisted of 35 single, low-income, adolescent (mean [SD] age, 18.3 [1.7] years), African American new mothers. Mothers completed social support, self-esteem, and loneliness instruments at 1 and 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months postpartum. Most mothers (64.7%) had changes in their primary social support provider during the first 6 months postpartum. The combination of the adolescent's mother and boyfriend provided the highest level of support, no matter the type, relative to any other source of support. At every time point, positive correlations were found between emotional support and self-esteem and between problematic support and loneliness. Single, low-income, African American, adolescent new mothers are at risk for not having a consistent source of support, which may lead to lower self-esteem and greater loneliness. Clinical nurse specialists could facilitate care guidelines for these new mothers to identify their sources of support at each home visit and advocate for the adolescent's mother and boyfriend to work together to provide support. Bolstering the mothers' natural sources of support can potentially improve self-esteem and reduce loneliness. Improvement in these sources of support could prevent a decline in the mothers' psychosocial well-being. Development and testing support interventions are advocated; findings could guide clinical nurse specialists in addressing these new mothers' needs.

  20. Breathing retraining for African-American adolescents with asthma: a pilot study of a school-based randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bignall, Whitney Janee Raglin; Luberto, Christina Marie; Cornette, Adrianne Falkenberg; Haj-Hamed, Monzer; Cotton, Sian

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects approximately seven million children/adolescents in the USA, with African-American children disproportionately affected. Breathing retraining techniques have been shown to improve asthma outcomes in adults, though research in youth is limited. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a school-based randomized controlled trial of breathing retraining for asthma outcomes and anxiety symptoms in a sample of urban, African-American adolescents. Adolescents were randomized into either the intervention group (20-min breathing retraining plus education) or control group (20-min standard education). Participants completed two study visits, one month apart. Asthma control, asthma quality of life and lung functioning (FEV1 and peak flow) were the primary outcomes, and state anxiety (pre-post the intervention) and trait anxiety (over the one-month period) were the secondary outcomes. Thirty-three African-American adolescents participated in the study, with a 90% retention rate between visit 1 and visit 2. Asthma control and asthma quality of life, significantly improved over time (p ≤ 0.01) with no differences between intervention and control groups. State anxiety significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.01) immediately post intervention at both time points with no differences between groups. There were no significant differences found in lung functioning or trait anxiety over the one-month time period. These preliminary results suggest that breathing retraining is a feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious intervention (although no significant differences between groups were found) for improving asthma symptoms in urban adolescents with asthma in a school-based setting.